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1

Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

2014-06-01

2

Biomechanics of Plaque Rupture: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaque rupture has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet ruptured. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as

Peter D. Richardson

2002-01-01

3

Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a silent chronic vascular pathology that is the cause of the majority of cardiovascular ischaemic events. The evolution of vascular disease involves a combination of endothelial dysfunction, extensive lipid deposition in the intima, exacerbated innate and adaptive immune responses, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and remodelling of the extracellular matrix, resulting in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. High-risk plaques have a large acellular lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap infiltrated by inflammatory cells and diffuse calcification. The formation of new fragile and leaky vessels that invade the expanding intima contributes to enlarge the necrotic core increasing the vulnerability of the plaque. In addition, biomechanical, haemodynamic and physical factors contribute to plaque destabilization. Upon erosion or rupture, these high-risk lipid-rich vulnerable plaques expose vascular structures or necrotic core components to the circulation, which causes the activation of tissue factor and the subsequent formation of a fibrin monolayer (coagulation cascade) and, concomitantly, the recruitment of circulating platelets and inflammatory cells. The interaction between exposed atherosclerotic plaque components, platelet receptors and coagulation factors eventually leads to platelet activation, aggregation and the subsequent formation of a superimposed thrombus (i.e. atherothrombosis) which may compromise the arterial lumen leading to the presentation of acute ischaemic syndromes. In this review, we will describe the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the main morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque rupture, and discuss the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation. Finally, we will consider the current scientific challenges and future research directions. PMID:25156650

Badimon, L; Vilahur, G

2014-12-01

4

Plaque Rupture Complications in Murine Atherosclerotic Vein Grafts Can Be Prevented by TIMP-1 Overexpression  

PubMed Central

The current study describes the incidence and phenotype of plaque rupture complications in murine vein grafts. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are highly involved in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and plaque rupture, we hypothesized that this model can be validated by overexpression of the MMP inhibitor TIMP-1. First we studied 47 vein grafts in hypercholesterolemic ApoE3*Leiden mice for the incidence of plaque complications. In 79% of these grafts, extensive lesions with plaque rupture complications like dissections, intraplaque hemorrhages or erosions with intramural thrombi were found. Next, in vivo Near-InfraRed-Fluorescence imaging demonstrated that electroporation mediated TIMP-1-overexpression reduced local MMP activity in vein grafts by 73% (p<0.01). This led to a 40% reduction in lesion-size after 28d (p?=?0.01) and a more stable lesion phenotype with significant more smooth muscle cells (135%), collagen (47%) and significant less macrophages (44%) and fibrin (55%) than controls. More importantly, lesions in the TIMP-1 group showed a 90% reduction of plaque complications (10/18 of control mice showed plaque complications versus 1/18 in TIMP-1 treated mice). Murine vein grafts are a relevant spontaneous model to study plaque stability and subsequent hemorrhagic complications, resulting in plaque instability. Moreover, inhibition of MMPs by TIMP-1-overexpression resulted in decreased plaque progression, increased stabilization and decreased plaque rupture complications in murine vein grafts. PMID:23071737

de Vries, Margreet R.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Quax, Paul H. A.

2012-01-01

5

Biomechanics and Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Erosion and Plaque Rupture: Implications for Cardiovascular Events in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Although plaque erosion causes approximately 40% of all coronary thrombi and disproportionally affects women more than men, its mechanism is not well understood. The role of tissue mechanics in plaque rupture and regulation of mechanosensitive inflammatory proteins is well established, but their role in plaque erosion is unknown. Given obvious differences in morphology between plaque erosion and rupture, we hypothesized that inflammation in general as well as the association between local mechanical strain and inflammation known to exist in plaque rupture may not occur in plaque erosion. Therefore, our objective was to determine if similar mechanisms underlie plaque rupture and plaque erosion. Methods and Results We studied a total of 74 human coronary plaque specimens obtained at autopsy. Using lesion-specific computer modeling of solid mechanics, we calculated the stress and strain distribution for each plaque and determined if there were any relationships with markers of inflammation. Consistent with previous studies, inflammatory markers were positively associated with increasing strain in specimens with rupture and thin-cap fibroatheromas. Conversely, overall staining for inflammatory markers and apoptosis were significantly lower in erosion, and there was no relationship with mechanical strain. Samples with plaque erosion most closely resembled those with the stable phenotype of thick-cap fibroatheromas. Conclusions In contrast to classic plaque rupture, plaque erosion was not associated with markers of inflammation and mechanical strain. These data suggest that plaque erosion is a distinct pathophysiological process with a different etiology and therefore raises the possibility that a different therapeutic approach may be required to prevent plaque erosion. PMID:25365517

Campbell, Ian C.; Suever, Jonathan D.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P.; Virmani, Renu; Oshinski, John N.; Taylor, W. Robert

2014-01-01

6

Plaque rupture with severe pre-existing stenosis precipitating coronary thrombosis. Characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlying fatal occlusive thrombi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruptured atheromatous plaques were identified by step-sectioning technique as responsible for 40 of 51 recent coronary artery thrombi and 63 larger intimal haemorrhages. The degree of pre-existing luminal narrowing at the site of rupture was decisive for whether plaque rupture caused occlusive thrombosis or just intimal haemorrhage. If the pre-existing stenosis was greater than 90% (histologically determined) then plaque rupture

E Falk

1983-01-01

7

Characteristics of intact and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in brachiocephalic arteries of apolipoprotein E knockout mice.  

PubMed

The brachiocephalic arteries of fat-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice develop plaques that frequently rupture and form luminal thromboses. The morphological characteristics of plaques without evidence of instability or with healed previous ruptures (intact) and vessels with acutely ruptured plaques (ruptured) have now been defined, to understand the process of plaque destabilization in more detail. Ninety-eight apolipoprotein E knockout mice were fed a diet supplemented with 21% lard and 0.15% cholesterol, for 5 to 59 weeks. Of these 98 mice, 51 had an acutely ruptured plaque in the brachiocephalic artery. Ruptured and intact plaques differed in terms of plaque cross-sectional area (intact, 0.109+/-0.016 mm2; ruptured, 0.192+/-0.009 mm2; P=0.0005), luminal occlusion (intact, 35.3+/-3.3%; ruptured, 57.7+/-1.9%; P<0.0001), the number of buried caps within the lesion (intact, 1.06+/-0.12; ruptured, 2.66+/-0.16; P<0.0001), fibrous cap thickness (intact, 4.7+/-0.6 microm; ruptured, 2.0+/-0.3 microm; P=0.0004), and lipid fractional volume (intact, 35.9+/-3.0%; ruptured, 50.7+/-2.2%; P=0.0019). This study confirms that plaque rupture is a frequent occurrence in the brachiocephalic arteries of apolipoprotein E knockout mice on a high-fat diet. The data also show that ruptured plaques in these mice show many of the characteristics of vulnerable plaques in humans. This supports the use of this model in studies of the mechanisms and therapy of plaque rupture. PMID:12006391

Williams, Helen; Johnson, Jason Lee; Carson, Kevin George Stephen; Jackson, Christopher Langdale

2002-05-01

8

Changing views of the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture: a review.  

PubMed

This review examines changing perspectives on the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture over the past 25 years from the first finite element analyses (FEA) showing that the presence of a lipid pool significantly increases the local tissue stress in the atheroma cap to the latest imaging and 3D FEA studies revealing numerous microcalcifications in the cap proper and a new paradigm for cap rupture. The first part of the review summarizes studies describing the role of the fibrous cap thickness, tissue properties, and lesion geometry as main determinants of the risk of rupture. Advantages and limitations of current imaging technologies for assessment of vulnerable plaques are also discussed. However, the basic paradoxes as to why ruptures frequently did not coincide with location of PCS and why caps >65 ?m thickness could rupture at tissue stresses significantly below the 300 kPa critical threshold still remained unresolved. The second part of the review describes recent studies in the role of microcalcifications, their origin, shape, and clustering in explaining these unresolved issues including the actual mechanism of rupture due to the explosive growth of tiny voids (cavitation) in local regions of high stress concentration between closely spaced microinclusions oriented along their tensile axis. PMID:23842694

Cardoso, Luis; Weinbaum, Sheldon

2014-02-01

9

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of the association between spatial orientation of ruptured coronary plaques and remodeling morphology of culprit plaques in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the association between the spatial location of plaque rupture and remodeling pattern of culprit lesions in acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Positive remodeling suggests a potential surrogate marker of plaque vulnerability, whereas plaque rupture causes thrombus formation followed by coronary occlusion and MI. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can determine the precise spatial orientation of coronary plaque formation. We studied 52 consecutive patients with acute anterior MI caused by plaque rupture of the culprit lesion as assessed by preintervention IVUS. The plaques were divided into those with and without positive remodeling. We divided the plaques into three categories according to the spatial orientation of plaque rupture site: myocardial (inner curve), epicardial (outer curve), and lateral quadrants (2 intermediate quadrants). Among 52 plaque ruptures in 52 lesions, 27 ruptures were oriented toward the epicardial side (52%), 18 toward the myocardial side (35%), and 7 in the 2 lateral quadrants (13%). Among 35 plaques with positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 21 (52%) on the epicardial side, 12 (34%) on the myocardial side, and 2 (6%) on the lateral side. However, among 17 plaques without positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 6 (35%), 6 (35%), and 5 (30%), respectively (p = 0.047). Atherosclerotic plaques with positive remodeling showed more frequent plaque rupture on the epicardial side of the coronary vessel wall in anterior MI than those without positive remodeling. PMID:21892739

Kusama, Ikuyoshi; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Kosuge, Masami; Sumita, Shinnichi; Tsukahara, Kengo; Okuda, Jun; Ebina, Toshiaki; Umemura, Satoshi; Kimura, Kazuo

2012-11-01

10

Contemporary invasive imaging modalities that identify and risk-stratify coronary plaques at risk of rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is responsible for the majority of myocardial infarctions, with ruptured plaques exhibiting specific morphological features, including large lipid cores, thinner overlying fibrous caps and micro-calcifications. Contemporary imaging modalities are increasingly able to characterize plaques, potentially leading to the identification of precursor lesions that are at high risk of rupture. Observational studies using invasive imaging consistently find that plaques responsible for an acute coronary event display these high-risk morphological features, and recent prospective imaging studies have now established links between baseline plaque characteristics and future cardiovascular events. Despite these promising advances, subsequent overall event rates remain too low for clinical utility. Novel technologies are now required to refine and improve our ability to identify and risk-stratify lesions at risk of rupture, if plaque-based risk evaluation is ever to become reality. PMID:25470576

Brown, Adam J; Costopoulos, Charis; West, Nick Ej; Bennett, Martin R

2015-01-01

11

Optical measurement of arterial mechanical properties: from atherosclerotic plaque initiation to rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis, from lesion initiation to rupture, arterial mechanical properties are altered by a number of cellular, molecular, and hemodynamic processes. There is growing recognition that mechanical factors may actively drive vascular cell signaling and regulate atherosclerosis disease progression. In advanced plaques, the mechanical properties of the atheroma influence stress distributions in the fibrous cap and mediate plaque rupture resulting in acute coronary events. This review paper explores current optical technologies that provide information on the mechanical properties of arterial tissue to advance our understanding of the mechanical factors involved in atherosclerosis development leading to plaque rupture. The optical approaches discussed include optical microrheology and traction force microscopy that probe the mechanical behavior of single cell and extracellular matrix components, and intravascular imaging modalities including laser speckle rheology, optical coherence elastography, and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to measure the mechanical properties of advanced coronary lesions. Given the wealth of information that these techniques can provide, optical imaging modalities are poised to play an increasingly significant role in elucidating the mechanical aspects of coronary atherosclerosis in the future.

Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

2013-12-01

12

Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and leptin in resident macrophages characterises atherosclerotic plaque rupture  

PubMed Central

Objective Resident macrophages play an important role in atheromatous plaque rupture. The macrophage gene expression signature associated with plaque rupture is incompletely defined due to the complex cellular heterogeneity in the plaque. We aimed to characterise differential gene expression in resident plaque macrophages from ruptured and stable human atheromatous lesions. Methods and results We performed genome-wide expression analyses of isolated macrophage-rich regions of stable and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. Plaques present in carotid endarterectomy specimens were designated as stable or ruptured using clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Macrophage-rich regions were excised from 5 ruptured and 6 stable plaques by laser micro-dissection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The profiles were characteristic of activated macrophages. At a false discovery rate of 10%, 914 genes were differentially expressed between stable and ruptured plaques. The findings were confirmed in fourteen further stable and ruptured samples for a subset of eleven genes with the highest expression differences (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis revealed that components of the PPAR/Adipocytokine signaling pathway were the most significantly upregulated in ruptured compared to stable plaques (p = 5.4 × 10?7). Two key components of the pathway, fatty-acid binding-protein 4 (FABP4) and leptin, showed nine-fold (p = 0.0086) and five-fold (p = 0.0012) greater expression respectively in macrophages from ruptured plaques. Conclusions We found differences in gene expression signatures between macrophages isolated from stable and ruptured human atheromatous plaques. Our findings indicate the involvement of FABP4 and leptin in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, and suggest that down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling within plaques may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23122912

Lee, K.; Santibanez-Koref, M.; Polvikoski, T.; Birchall, D.; Mendelow, A.D.; Keavney, B.

2013-01-01

13

Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

2014-01-01

14

Biomechanical modeling and morphology analysis indicates plaque rupture due to mechanical failure unlikely in atherosclerosis-prone mice.  

PubMed

Spontaneous plaque rupture in mouse models of atherosclerosis is controversial, although numerous studies have discussed so-called "vulnerable plaque" phenotypes in mice. We compared the morphology and biomechanics of two acute and one chronic murine model of atherosclerosis to human coronaries of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) phenotype. Our acute models were apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice, both fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk with simultaneous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), and our chronic mouse model was the apolipoprotein E-deficient strain fed a regular chow diet for 1 yr. We found that the mouse plaques from all three models exhibited significant morphological differences from human TCFA plaques, including the plaque burden, plaque thickness, eccentricity, and amount of the vessel wall covered by lesion as well as significant differences in the relative composition of plaques. These morphological differences suggested that the distribution of solid mechanical stresses in the walls may differ as well. Using a finite-element analysis computational solid mechanics model, we computed the relative distribution of stresses in the walls of murine and human plaques and found that although human TCFA plaques have the highest stresses in the thin fibrous cap, murine lesions do not have such stress distributions. Instead, local maxima of stresses were on the media and adventitia, away from the plaque. Our results suggest that if plaque rupture is possible in mice, it may be driven by a different mechanism than mechanics. PMID:23203971

Campbell, Ian C; Weiss, Daiana; Suever, Jonathan D; Virmani, Renu; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P; Oshinski, John N; Taylor, W Robert

2013-02-01

15

Biomechanical modeling and morphology analysis indicates plaque rupture due to mechanical failure unlikely in atherosclerosis-prone mice  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous plaque rupture in mouse models of atherosclerosis is controversial, although numerous studies have discussed so-called “vulnerable plaque” phenotypes in mice. We compared the morphology and biomechanics of two acute and one chronic murine model of atherosclerosis to human coronaries of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) phenotype. Our acute models were apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE?/?) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr?/?) mice, both fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk with simultaneous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), and our chronic mouse model was the apolipoprotein E-deficient strain fed a regular chow diet for 1 yr. We found that the mouse plaques from all three models exhibited significant morphological differences from human TCFA plaques, including the plaque burden, plaque thickness, eccentricity, and amount of the vessel wall covered by lesion as well as significant differences in the relative composition of plaques. These morphological differences suggested that the distribution of solid mechanical stresses in the walls may differ as well. Using a finite-element analysis computational solid mechanics model, we computed the relative distribution of stresses in the walls of murine and human plaques and found that although human TCFA plaques have the highest stresses in the thin fibrous cap, murine lesions do not have such stress distributions. Instead, local maxima of stresses were on the media and adventitia, away from the plaque. Our results suggest that if plaque rupture is possible in mice, it may be driven by a different mechanism than mechanics. PMID:23203971

Campbell, Ian C.; Weiss, Daiana; Suever, Jonathan D.; Virmani, Renu; Veneziani, Alessandro; Vito, Raymond P.; Oshinski, John N.

2013-01-01

16

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of ulcerated ruptured plaques: a comparison of culprit and nonculprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndromes and lesions in patients without acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—It is not clear why some plaque ruptures lead to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) but others do not. Methods and Results—We analyzed 80 plaque ruptures in 74 patients and compared culprit lesions of ACS patients with nonculprit lesions of ACS patients and lesions of non-ACS patients; both culprit and nonculprit plaque ruptures were studied in 6 of 54 ACS patients.

Kenichi Fujii; Yoshio Kobayashi; Gary S. Mintz

2004-01-01

17

Pravastatin inhibits plaque rupture and subsequent thrombus formation in atherosclerotic rabbits with hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that statin can reduce the risk of acute coronary syndrome. In order to explore the mechanism, we observed the effects of pravastatin on plaque stability in atherosclerotic rabbits. Sixteen male rabbits were fed with a high fat diet following their damaged abdominal aortic endothelium by using catheter. Eight of them were administered with pravastatin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. Then the rabbit atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis were triggered by injection of viper venom and histamine. Compared with model group, the thrombus area on aorta in pravastatin-treated group was reduced. Fibre cap on plaque was more thick and integrant, and inflammatory cell infiltration was also decreased. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and contents of cholesterol in abdominal aorta were decreased. 6-Keto-prostaglandin F(1?) (6-keto-PGF(1?)) level and ratio of 6-keto-PGF(1?)/thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) in aorta were significantly increased. These results suggested that pravastatin could increase plaque stability and inhibit thrombosis through both lipid-dependent and lipid-independent way. PMID:23207681

Wu, Gang; Xie, Qiang; Xu, Lin; Jiang, Hong; Huang, Zhengrong; Huang, Congxin

2013-01-01

18

In Vivo Detection of Activated Platelets Allows Characterizing Rupture of Atherosclerotic Plaques with Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early and non-invasive detection of platelets on micro atherothrombosis provides a means to identify unstable plaque and thereby allowing prophylactic treatment towards prevention of stroke or myocardial infarction. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) of activated platelets as early markers of plaque rupture using targeted contrast agents is a promising strategy. In this study, we aim to specifically image activated platelets in murine atherothrombosis by in vivo mMRI, using a dedicated animal model of plaque rupture. Methods An antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-receptor of activated platelets was conjugated to microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) to form the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent causing a signal-extinction in T2*-weighted MRI. ApoE?/? mice (60 weeks-old) were fed a high fat diet for 5 weeks. Using a small needle, the surface of their carotid plaques was scratched under blood flow to induce atherothrombosis. In vivo 9.4 Tesla MRI was performed before and repetitively after intravenous injection of either LIBS-MPIO versus non-targeted-MPIO. Results LIBS-MPIO injected animals showed a significant signal extinction (p<0.05) in MRI, corresponding to the site of plaque rupture and atherothrombosis in histology. The signal attenuation was effective for atherothrombosis occupying ?2% of the vascular lumen. Histology further confirmed significant binding of LIBS-MPIO compared to control-MPIO on the thrombus developing on the surface of ruptured plaques (p<0.01). Conclusion in vivo mMRI detected activated platelets on mechanically ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE?/? mice with a high sensititvity. This imaging technology represents a unique opportunity for noninvasive detection of atherothrombosis and the identification of unstable atherosclerotic plaques with the ultimate promise to prevent strokes and myocardial infarctions. PMID:23028736

Wiens, Kristina; Neudorfer, Irene; Zirlik, Andreas; Meissner, Mirko; Tilly, Peg; Charles, Anne-Laure; Bode, Christoph; Peter, Karlheinz; Fabre, Jean-Etienne

2012-01-01

19

A mechanistic analysis of the role of microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaque stability: potential implications for plaque rupture  

PubMed Central

The role of microcalcifications (?Calcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that ?Calcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries containing 62 fibroatheroma were examined using high-resolution microcomputed tomography at 6.7-?m resolution and undecalcified histology with special emphasis on calcified particles <50 ?m in diameter. Our results reveal the presence of thousands of ?Calcs, the vast majority in lipid pools where they are not dangerous. However, 81 ?Calcs were also observed in the fibrous caps of nine of the fibroatheroma. All 81 of these ?Calcs were analyzed using three-dimensional finite-element analysis, and the results were used to develop important new clinical criteria for cap stability. These criteria include variation of the Young's modulus of the ?Calc and surrounding tissue, ?Calc size, and clustering. We found that local tissue stress could be increased fivefold when ?Calcs were closely spaced, and the peak circumferential stress in the thinnest nonruptured cap (66 ?m) if no ?Calcs were present was only 107 kPa, far less than the proposed minimum rupture threshold of 300 kPa. These results and histology suggest that there are numerous ?Calcs < 15 ?m in the caps, not visible at 6.7-?m resolution, and that our failure to find any nonruptured caps between 30 and 66 ?m is a strong indication that many of these caps contained ?Calcs. PMID:22777419

Maldonado, Natalia; Kelly-Arnold, Adreanne; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Laudier, Damien; Fallon, John T.; Virmani, Renu; Cardoso, Luis

2012-01-01

20

Emergent surgical embolectomy for middle cerebral artery occlusion due to carotid plaque rupture followed by elective carotid endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Embolic intracranial large artery occlusion with severe neurological deficit is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. The safest and most effective treatment strategy has not yet been determined when such emboli are associated with unstable proximal carotid plaque. The authors performed emergent surgical embolectomy for left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, and the patient experienced marked neurological recovery without focal deficit and regained premorbid activity. Postoperative investigation revealed "vulnerable plaque" of the left internal carotid artery without apparent evidence of cardiac embolism, such as would be seen with atrial fibrillation. Specimens from subsequent elective carotid endarterectomy (CEA) showed ruptured vulnerable plaque that was histologically consistent as a source of the intracranial embolic specimen. Surgical embolectomy for MCA occlusion due to carotid plaque rupture followed by CEA could be a safer and more effective alternative to endovascular treatment from the standpoint of obviating the risk of secondary embolism that could otherwise occur as a result of the manipulation of devices through an extremely unstable portion of plaque. Further, this strategy is associated with a high probability of complete recanalization with direct removal of hard and large, though fragile, emboli. PMID:24905562

Kiyofuji, Satoshi; Inoue, Tomohiro; Hasegawa, Hirotaka; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu

2014-09-01

21

Plaque regression and plaque stabilisation in cardiovascular diseases  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is characterized by formation of plaques on the inner walls of arteries that threatens to become the leading cause of death worldwide via its sequelae of myocardial infarction and stroke. Endothelial dysfunction leads to cholesterol uptake and accumulation of inflammatory markers within the plaque. The stability of a plaque eventually depends on the balance between vascular smooth muscle cells that stabilize it and the inflammatory cells like macrophages and T lymphocytes that make it prone to rupture. The current approach to manage atherosclerosis focuses on the treatment of a ruptured plaque and efforts have been made to reduce the risk of plaque rupture by identifying vulnerable plaques and treating them before they precipitate into clinical events. New diagnostic approaches such as IVUS and CIMT ultrasound are now being preferred over traditional coronary angiography because of their better accuracy in measuring plaque volume rather than the level of stenosis caused. The present review highlights the literature available on two prevalent approaches to manage a vulnerable plaque, namely, plaque stabilization and plaque regression, and their validation through various treatment modalities in recent plaque management studies. Plaque stabilization focuses on stabilizing the content of plaque and strengthening the overlying endothelium, while plaque regression focuses on the overall reduction in plaque volume and to reverse the arterial endothelium to its normal functional state. Although earlier studies contemplated the practicality of plaque regression and focused greatly on stabilization of a vulnerable plaque, our review indicated that, aided by the use of superior diagnostics tools, more intensive lipid modifying therapies have resulted in actual plaque regression. PMID:24381872

Dave, Tarun; Ezhilan, J.; Vasnawala, Hardik; Somani, Vinod

2013-01-01

22

Longitudinal necrotic shafts near TCFAs-A potential novel mechanism for plaque rupture to trigger ACS?  

PubMed

It has been questioned for over 15 years why only less than 20% of TCFAs trigger ACS.  We illustrate TCFA rupture into adjacent longitudinal necrotic shafts of massive amounts of  thrombogenic material into the blood, leading to catastrophic clot formation.  This is the potential mechanism for TCFAs triggering ACS.  One case presented also illustrates the dangers of stent edges rupturing TCFAs. PMID:25449500

Brezinski, Mark E; Harjai, Kishore J

2014-10-16

23

Imaging of high-risk carotid artery plaques: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors review the definition of high-risk plaque as developed by experienced researchers in atherosclerosis, including pathologists, clinicians, molecular biologists, and imaging scientists. Current concepts of vulnerable plaque are based on histological studies of coronary and carotid artery plaque as well as natural history studies and include the presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap, plaque inflammation, fissured plaque, and intraplaque hemorrhage. The extension of these histologically identified high-risk carotid plaque features to human in vivo MRI is reviewed as well. The authors also assess the ability of in vivo MRI to depict these vulnerable carotid plaque features. Next, the ability of these MRI-demonstrated high-risk carotid plaque features to predict the risk of ipsilateral carotid thromboembolic events is reviewed and compared with the risk assessment provided by simple carotid artery stenosis measurements. Lastly, future directions of high-risk carotid plaque MRI are discussed, including the potential for increased clinical availability and more automated analysis of carotid plaque MRI. The ultimate goal of high-risk plaque imaging is to design and run future multicenter trials using carotid plaque MRI to guide individual patient selection and decisions about optimal atherosclerotic treatment strategies. PMID:24380475

DeMarco, J Kevin; Huston, John

2014-01-01

24

Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a very complex neurodegenerative disorder, the exact cause of which is still not known. The major\\u000a histopathological features, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, already described by Alois Alzheimer, have been the\\u000a focus in research for decades. Despite a probable whole cascade of events in the brain leading to impairment of cognition,\\u000a amyloid is still the target

Agneta Nordberg

2008-01-01

25

[Coronary artery embolism from ruptured plaque in the left main trunks with difficulty in detection of culprit lesion: a case report].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man complained of severe chest pain and was emergently admitted to our hospital with a dignosis of anterior acute myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis in segment 7 and filling defect in segment 11 without flow delay. Haziness was observed in segment 5. Coronary thromboembolism was suspected, but the embolic source or culprit lesion was hard to detect. Intravascular ultrasonography detected ruptured plaque with lipid pooling in segment 5. Stent implantation for segment 5 was performed successfully and the patient had an excellent clinical course. Coronary thromboembolism is rare and intravascular ultrasonography may be useful to detect the culprit lesion. PMID:15801276

Fujimoto, Takatomi; Takase, Eiji; Fukuhara, Shinya; Takami, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Soeda, Tsunenari; Nishida, Taku; Morimoto, Atsushi

2005-03-01

26

17 me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Troyes, septembre 2005 Modle thermomcanique et rupture pour les plaques multicouches  

E-print Network

of cardboard-plaster-cardboard (CPC). The develo- ped model is adapted to a range of temperature for which the cardboard and the plaster can be destroyed. This model is also developed for a level of stress corresponding to the rupture of the cardboard and the plaster. The mathematical-mechanical model and numerical simulations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

2012-01-01

28

The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy. PMID:21673834

Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

2011-01-01

29

Impaired gait pattern as a sensitive tool to assess hypoxic brain damage in a novel mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with a heterozygous mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene (Fbn1(C1039G+/-)) show spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, disturbances in cerebral flow and sudden death when fed a Western-type diet (WD). The present study focused on motor coordination and spatial learning of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD for 20weeks (n=21). ApoE(-/-) mice on WD (n=24) and ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on normal diet (ND, n=21) served as controls. Starting from 10weeks of diet, coordination was assessed every two weeks by the following tests: gait analysis, stationary beam, wire suspension and accelerating rotarod. The Morris water maze test was performed after 13weeks of diet to study spatial learning. At the end of the experiment (20weeks of WD), the mice were sacrificed and the brachiocephalic artery and brain were isolated. From 12weeks onward, gait analysis of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD revealed a progressive increase in track width as compared to ApoE(-/-) mice on WD and ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on ND (at 20weeks: 29.8±0.6mm vs. 25.8±0.4mm and 26.0±0.5mm). Moreover, the stationary beam test showed a decrease in motor coordination of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD at 18 and 20weeks. The wire suspension test and accelerating rotarod could not detect signs of motor impairment. Spatial learning was also not affected. Histological analysis of the brachiocephalic artery showed larger and more stenotic plaques in ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD. Furthermore, the parietal cortex of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD showed pyknotic nuclei as a sign of hypoxia and the percentage of pyknosis correlated with track width. In conclusion, gait analysis may be an efficient method for analyzing hypoxic brain damage in the ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mouse model. This test could be of value to assess the effect of potential anti-atherosclerotic therapies in mice. PMID:25449385

Roth, Lynn; Van Dam, Debby; Van der Donckt, Carole; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Lemmens, Katrien; Van Brussel, Ilse; De Deyn, Peter P; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y

2015-02-01

30

Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI

Fuxing Yang; Gerhard Holzapfel; Christian Schulze-Bauer; Rudolf Stollberger; Daniel Thedens; Lizann Bolinger; Alan Stolpen; Milan Sonka

2003-01-01

31

Shear stress in atherosclerotic plaque determination.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis initiates at predictable focal sites near arterial branches and curves, where blood flow is disturbed and shear stress is complex. Endothelial shear stress is the tangential stress derived from the friction of the flowing blood on the endothelial surface of the arterial wall. It is a key factor in modulating endothelial cell gene expression and vascular development and remodeling. Increasing evidences suggest that shear stress patterns have a strong relationship with atherosclerotic features. Moreover, variations in the local artery geometry during atherogenesis further modify flow shear stress characteristics, which contribute to the rupture site at the plaque upstream. In this study, we summarize the mechanistic evidences that associate shear stress patterns with determined atherosclerotic plaque features. An enhanced understanding of the relationship and pathophysiological function of shear stress patterns in atherosclerotic plaque features is essential, which may provide early prediction of clinical risk and guide individualized treatment strategies. In the current review, we analyzed the function of shear stress on the determination of atherosclerotic lesion and provided an update on the mechanotransduction of shear stress, gene expression regulation, and atherosclerotic plaque development and rupture. PMID:25165867

Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Qin; Wang, Zuo; Wei, Dangheng

2014-12-01

32

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

E-print Network

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

Scepanovic, Obrad R.

33

Vulnerable Plaque  

MedlinePLUS

... plaque is formed in the following way. Fat droplets are absorbed by the artery, which causes the ... called macrophages and begin to soak up fat droplets. The fat-filled cells form a plaque with ...

34

Plaque Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Cycle Team NPF DIY Medical Professionals Donate Donate Psoriasis About Psoriasis Symptoms and Diagnosis Types of Psoriasis ... Kit Find Us Online YouTube Twitter Facebook Plaque Psoriasis Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of ...

35

Radiotracer imaging of atherosclerotic plaque biology.  

PubMed

Traditional imaging modalities used in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque have focused on anatomic characteristics of size, location and luminal encroachment. The ability to identify plaques that are at risk for rupture, and thus may go on to cause clinical events, remains limited, however. By labeling tracer compounds capable of identifying important cellular or molecular processes involved in plaque vulnerability with radioactive isotopes, there is now potential for the noninvasive identification of vulnerable plaques. This article discusses several radiotracers that can report on high-risk plaque pathophysiology. PMID:19306774

Elkhawad, Maysoon; Rudd, James H F

2009-05-01

36

[Detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with near-infrared spectroscopy: a systematic review].  

PubMed

The term vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is used to describe an atherosclerotic lesion with a high probability of rupture and thrombosis causing an acute coronary event or stroke. Pathogenesis of the vulnerable plaque has been well described pathologically and on experimental models. Detection of vulnerable plaques in vivo has been limited so far. There has been lack of methods able to predict future event from certain lesion characteristics that were rigorously validated on prospective clinical trials. Intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy is a novel technique that has been intentionally developed for the identification of a lipid core within a plaque. Results from recent clinical trials seem promising. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge in the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:24986001

St?chovský, Cyril; Horváth, Martin; Hájek, Petr; Veselka, Josef

2014-04-01

37

Material-specific imaging of atherosclerotic plaque using coherently scattered x rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and development of plaques in the arterial wall is a direct consequence of atherosclerosis. The composition of a plaque is of particular interest as it is thought to be an important indicator of vulnerability, or risk of rupture and thrombosis. Current diagnostic methods do not yet have the ability to fully characterize plaque composition. Coherent-scatter imaging, a technique being developed in our laboratory, produces images based on the low-angle scattering properties of tissue. As these properties depend on molecular structure, material-specific maps of the different components in a tissue can be created. Material-specific images were produced for an atherosclerotic carotid artery. The image distributions of fatty and calcified deposits agreed with visual examination of the specimen. Preliminary results indicate that fat and calcifications, two typical plaque constituents, can be identified and distinguished from the undiseased vessel wall using coherently scattered x rays.

Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Batchelar, Deidre L.; Cunningham, Ian A.

2002-05-01

38

Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions. PMID:18582628

Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

2008-01-01

39

Effects of bacteriophage traits on plaque formation  

PubMed Central

Background The appearance of plaques on a bacterial lawn is one of the enduring imageries in modern day biology. The seeming simplicity of a plaque has invited many hypotheses and models in trying to describe and explain the details of its formation. However, until now, there has been no systematic experimental exploration on how different bacteriophage (phage) traits may influence the formation of a plaque. In this study, we constructed a series of isogenic ? phages that differ in their adsorption rate, lysis timing, or morphology so that we can determine the effects if these changes on three plaque properties: size, progeny productivity, and phage concentration within plaques. Results We found that the adsorption rate has a diminishing, but negative impact on all three plaque measurements. Interestingly, there exists a concave relationship between the lysis time and plaque size, resulting in an apparent optimal lysis time that maximizes the plaque size. Although suggestive in appearance, we did not detect a significant effect of lysis time on plaque productivity. Nonetheless, the combined effects of plaque size and productivity resulted in an apparent convex relationship between the lysis time and phage concentration within plaques. Lastly, we found that virion morphology also affected plaque size. We compared our results to the available models on plaque size and productivity. For the models in their current forms, a few of them can capture the qualitative aspects of our results, but not consistently in both plaque properties. Conclusions By using a collection of isogenic phage strains, we were able to investigate the effects of individual phage traits on plaque size, plaque productivity, and average phage concentration in a plaque while holding all other traits constant. The controlled nature of our study allowed us to test several model predictions on plaque size and plaque productivity. It seems that a more realistic theoretical approach to plaque formation is needed in order to capture the complex interaction between phage and its bacterium host in a spatially restricted environment. PMID:21827665

2011-01-01

40

Role of inflammation and metalloproteinases in plaque disruption and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Numerous pathological, clinical, angiographic and angioscopic studies have demonstrated that acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction and ischemic sudden death) are most frequently the consequence of plaque disruption (plaque rupture or superficial plaque erosion) and consequent coronary thrombosis. Several serial angiographic studies have demonstrated that nearly 60-70% of acute coronary syndromes evolve from mildly to moderately obstructive atherosclerotic plaques. Coronary plaque disruption appears to be a function of both the composition of the plaque (plaque vulnerability ) as well as extrinsic triggers that may precipitate plaque disruption in a vulnerable plaque. Vulnerability for plaque disruption appears to be largely determined by the size of the lipid-rich atheromatous core, the thickness of the fibrous cap covering the core, and the presence of ongoing inflammation within and underneath the cap. Inflammatory cells may play a critical role in plaque disruption through the elaboration of matrix degrading metalloproteinases or MMPs (collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins and matrilysin) and by inhibition of function and survival of matrix-synthesizing smooth muscle cells. Inflammatory cells may also play a critical role in triggering thrombosis following plaque disruption through the tissue factor pathway. In addition, stresses resulting from hemodynamic and mechanical forces may precipitate plaque disruption, particularly at points where the fibrous cap is weakest, such as at its shoulders. The degree of thrombosis following plaque disruption is determined by the thrombogenicity of the disrupted plaque, disturbed local rheology and systemic thrombotic-thrombolytic milieu. Surges in sympathetic activity provoked by sudden vigorous exercise, emotional stress -- including anger, or cold weather, may also trigger plaque disruption. These observations have led to the concept of plaque stabilization as a new clinical strategy for the prevention of acute coronary syndromes. Plaque stabilization can be achieved through pharmacologic and lifestyle-modifying interventions that reduce vulnerability to plaque disruption by altering plaque composition and/or inflammatory activity within the plaque. PMID:9892512

Shah, P K

1998-01-01

41

An initial evaluation of analyser-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging of carotid plaque microstructure  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT. Carotid artery plaque instability can result in rupture and lead to ischaemic stroke. Stability of plaques appears to be a function of composition. Current non-invasive imaging techniques are limited in their ability to classify distinct histological regions within plaques. Phase-contrast (PC) X-ray imaging methods are an emerging class of techniques that have shown promise for identifying soft-tissue features without use of exogenous contrast agents. This is the first study to apply analyser-based X-ray PC imaging in CT mode to provide three-dimensional (3D) images of excised atherosclerotic plaques. The results provide proof of principle for this technique as a promising method for analysis of carotid plaque microstructure. Multiple image radiography CT (MIR-CT), a tomographic implementation of X-ray PC imaging that employs crystal optics, was employed to image excised carotid plaques. MIR-CT imaging yields three complementary images of the plaque's 3D X-ray absorption, refraction and scatter properties. These images were compared with histological sections of the tissue. X-ray PC images were able to identify the interface between the plaque and the medial wall. In addition, lipid-rich and highly vascularized regions were visible in the images as well as features depicting inflammation. This preliminary research shows MIR-CT imaging can reveal details about plaque structure not provided by traditional absorption-based X-ray imaging and appears to identify specific histological regions within plaques. This is the first study to apply analyser-based X-ray PC imaging to human carotid artery plaques to identify distinct soft-tissue regions. PMID:23239697

Appel, A A; Chou, C-Y; Larson, J C; Zhong, Z; Schoen, F J; Johnston, C M; Brey, E M; Anastasio, M A

2013-01-01

42

Biomechanical factors and macrophages in plaque stability.  

PubMed

Thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques are considered a high-risk phenotype for acute cardiovascular events. TCFAs are identified by a thin rupture-prone fibrous cap, a large necrotic core, and a high content of leucocytes. Atherogenesis is dependent upon complex patterns of blood flow. Slow-flowing blood imposing low shear stress on the arterial wall up-regulates inflammatory signalling in endothelial cells and leucocytes, and modulates microRNAs to promote inflammation and monocyte recruitment. Hence, low shear stress is believed to promote conditions conducive to vulnerable plaque development. In this review, we explore how biomechanical factors modulate macrophage phenotype and plaque stability. PMID:23687352

Seneviratne, Anusha; Hulsmans, Maarten; Holvoet, Paul; Monaco, Claudia

2013-07-15

43

Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

Assemat, P; Siu, K K; Armitage, J A; Hokke, S N; Dart, A; Chin-Dusting, J; Hourigan, K

2014-07-01

44

Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques: Preliminary study of plaque progression  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaques develop at particular sites in the arterial tree, and this regional localisation depends largely on haemodynamic parameters (such as wall shear stress; WSS) as described in the literature. Plaque rupture can result in heart attack or stroke and hence understanding the development and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques is critically important. The purpose of this study is to characterise the haemodynamics of blood flow in the mouse aortic arch using numerical modelling. The geometries are digitalised from synchrotron imaging and realistic pulsatile blood flow is considered under rigid wall assumptions. Two cases are considered; arteries with and without plaque. Mice that are fed under fat diet present plaques in the aortic arch whose size is dependent on the number of weeks under the diet. The plaque distribution in the region is however relatively constant through the different samples. This result underlines the influence of the geometry and consequently of the wall shear stresses for plaque formation with plaques growing in region of relative low shear stresses. A discussion of the flow field in real geometry in the presence and absence of plaques is conducted. The presence of plaques was shown to alter the blood flow and hence WSS distribution, with regions of localised high WSS, mainly on the wall of the brachiocephalic artery where luminal narrowing is most pronounced. In addition, arch plaques are shown to induce recirculation in the blood flow, a phenomenon with potential influence on the progression of the plaques. The oscillatory shear index and the relative residence time have been calculated on the geometry with plaques to show the presence of this recirculation in the arch, an approach that may be useful for future studies on plaque progression. PMID:25349678

Assemat, P.; Siu, K.K.; Armitage, J.A.; Hokke, S.N.; Dart, A.; Chin-Dusting, J.; Hourigan, K.

2014-01-01

45

The Impact of Calcification on the Biomechanical Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Increased biomechanical stresses in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques contribute to plaque rupture and, consequently, to thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Thin fibrous caps and large lipid pools are important determinants of increased plaque stresses. Although coronary calcification is associated with worse cardiovascular prognosis, the relationship between atheroma calcification and stresses is incompletely described. Methods and Results—To test the hypothesis

Hayden Huang; Renu Virmani; Hesham Younis; Allen P. Burke; Roger D. Kamm; Richard T. Lee

2001-01-01

46

Artery buckling affects the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Background Tortuous arteries are often seen in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. While the mechanical stress in atherosclerotic plaque under lumen pressure has been studied extensively, the mechanical stability of atherosclerotic arteries and subsequent effect on the plaque stress remain unknown. To this end, we investigated the buckling and post-buckling behavior of model stenotic coronary arteries with symmetric and asymmetric plaque. Methods Buckling analysis for a model coronary artery with symmetric and asymmetric plaque was conducted using finite element analysis based on the dimensions and nonlinear anisotropic materials properties reported in the literature. Results Artery with asymmetric plaque had lower critical buckling pressure compared to the artery with symmetric plaque and control artery. Buckling increased the peak stress in the plaque and led to the development of a high stress concentration in artery with asymmetric plaque. Stiffer calcified tissue and severe stenosis increased the critical buckling pressure of the artery with asymmetric plaque. Conclusions Arteries with atherosclerotic plaques are prone to mechanical buckling which leads to a high stress concentration in the plaques that can possibly make the plaques prone to rupture. PMID:25603490

2015-01-01

47

Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

2003-05-01

48

Nature or The Natural Evolution of Plaque: What Matters?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Progression to major acute cardiovascular events often is triggered by an atherosclerotic plaque complicated by rupture or erosion, namely the vulnerable plaque. Early and secure identification of these plaques would allow the development of individualized therapeutic and pharmacological strategies, applied in a timely manner. Imaging methods have a huge potential in detecting and monitoring the evolution of vulnerable plaque. Even though there are multiple invasive and noninvasive techniques, clinical application is for now a matter of choosing the relevant imaging feature for the prognosis, the methodo­logy of study and the target population. PMID:24790659

AURSULESEI, Viviana

2013-01-01

49

Evaluation of collagen in atherosclerotic plaques: the use of two coherent laser-based imaging methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute coronary events such as myocardial infarction are frequently caused by the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque.\\u000a Collagen plays a key role in determining plaque stability. Methods to measure plaque collagen content are invaluable in detecting\\u000a unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, novel coherent laser-based imaging techniques, such as polarization-sensitive\\u000a optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) have been investigated,

Seemantini K. Nadkarni; Brett E. Bouma; Johannes de Boer; Guillermo J. Tearney

2009-01-01

50

Comprehensive overview of definitions for optical coherence tomography-based plaque and stent analyses.  

PubMed

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the current state-of-the-art intracoronary imaging modality that allows visualization of detailed morphological characteristics of both atherosclerotic plaque and stent. So far, three expert review documents have been released for standardization of OCT image analysis. In the real world, a variety of definitions are being used by different groups and by different core laboratories to analyze OCT findings because of different clinical/procedural contexts in which OCT research has been carried out. This comprehensive overview is aimed to summarize different applicable definitions used by different research groups in plaque and stent analysis using OCT. In addition, it presents readers with a panoramic view to select the best definition of OCT measurement for one's own study purpose. We divided this review article into two parts: Part I - Plaque analysis, and Part II - Stent analysis. The plaque analysis section summarizes the definitions of plaque composition, rupture, erosion, protruding calcific nodules, macrophages, microvessels, and cholesterol crystal. The stent analysis section includes the classification of stent struts, features of neointimal hyperplasia, and other stent-related findings such as tissue protrusion, thrombus, intrastent, and stent edge dissections. In each case of controversy, an explanation for the specific context is provided. PMID:24356250

Di Vito, Luca; Yoon, Joo Heung; Kato, Koji; Yonetsu, Taishi; Vergallo, Rocco; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G; Arbustini, Eloisa; Narula, Jagat; Crea, Filippo; Prati, Francesco; Jang, Ik-Kyung

2014-03-01

51

Local anisotropic mechanical properties of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques - Characterisation by micro-indentation and inverse finite element analysis.  

PubMed

Biomechanical models have the potential to predict failure of atherosclerotic plaques and to improve the risk assessment of plaque rupture. The applicability of these models depends strongly on the used material models. Current biomechanical models employ isotropic material models, although it is generally accepted that plaque tissue behaves highly anisotropic. The aim of the present study is to determine the local anisotropic mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque tissue by means of micro-indentation tests. The indentation was performed on top of an inverted confocal microscope allowing the visualisation and quantification of the collagen fibre deformations perpendicular to the indentation direction of the plaque. Based on this, the anisotropic properties of plaque tissue perpendicular to the indentation direction (middle of the fibrous cap, shoulder of the cap, remaining intima tissue) were derived. There were no significant differences between the different indentation locations for the fibre stiffness (total median 80.6kPa, 25th-75th percentile 17.7-157.0kPa), and fibre dispersion. PMID:25553556

Chai, Chen-Ket; Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H; Oomens, Cees W J; van Sambeek, Marc R H M; Lugt, Aad van der; Baaijens, Frank P T

2015-03-01

52

Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

Fok, Pak-Wing

2011-03-01

53

Carotid Plaque Age Is a Feature of Plaque Stability Inversely Related to Levels of Plasma Insulin  

PubMed Central

Background The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric 14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s) to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. Methodology/Principal Finding The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time) was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5–15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p?=?0.0014). Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1–5). However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed) were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p?=?0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively), less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05), and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05) than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of 14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age. PMID:21490968

Hägg, Sara; Salehpour, Mehran; Noori, Peri; Lundström, Jesper; Possnert, Göran; Takolander, Rabbe; Konrad, Peter; Rosfors, Stefan; Ruusalepp, Arno; Skogsberg, Josefin; Tegnér, Jesper; Björkegren, Johan

2011-01-01

54

Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaque macrophage in a rabbit model with F-18 FDG PET: a histopathological correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are the major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the industrialized world. Thrombosis on disrupted atherosclerotic plaques plays a key role in the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Macrophages density is one of the most critical compositions of plaque in both plaque vulnerability and thrombogenicity upon rupture. It has been shown that macrophages

Zhuangyu Zhang; Josef Machac; Gerard Helft; Stephen G Worthley; Cheuk Tang; Azfar G Zaman; Oswaldo J Rodriguez; Monte S Buchsbaum; Valentin Fuster; Juan J Badimon

2006-01-01

55

Imaging of the carotid artery vulnerable plaque.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis involving the carotid arteries has a high prevalence in the population worldwide. This condition is significant because accidents of the carotid artery plaque are associated with the development of cerebrovascular events. For this reason, carotid atherosclerotic disease needs to be diagnosed and those determinants that are associated to an increased risk of stroke need to be identified. The degree of stenosis typically has been considered the parameter of choice to determine the therapeutical approach, but several recently published investigations have demonstrated that the degree of luminal stenosis is only an indirect indicator of the atherosclerotic process and that direct assessment of the plaque structure and composition may be key to predict the development of future cerebrovascular ischemic events. The concept of "vulnerable plaque" was born, referring to those plaque's parameters that concur to the instability of the plaque making it more prone to the rupture and distal embolization. The purpose of this review is to describe the imaging characteristics of "vulnerable carotid plaques." PMID:23912494

Saba, Luca; Anzidei, Michele; Marincola, Beatrice Cavallo; Piga, Mario; Raz, Eytan; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Napoli, Alessandro; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Catalano, Carlo; Wintermark, Max

2014-06-01

56

Small entities with large impact: microcalcifications and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent acute events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, contribute to the majority of cardiovascular-related deaths. Calcification has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, challenging previously held notions that calcifications stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we address this discrepancy through recent findings that not all calcifications are equivalent in determining plaque stability. Recent findings The risk associated with calcification is inversely associated with calcification density. As opposed to large calcifications that potentially stabilize the plaque, biomechanical modeling indicates that small microcalcifications within the plaque fibrous cap can lead to sufficient stress accumulation to cause plaque rupture. Microcalcifications appear to derive from matrix vesicles enriched in calcium-binding proteins that are released by cells within the plaque. Clinical detection of microcalcifications has been hampered by the lack of imaging resolution required for in-vivo visualization; however, recent studies have demonstrated promising new techniques to predict the presence of microcalcifications. Summary Microcalcifications play a major role in destabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. The identification of critical characteristics that lead to instability along with new imaging modalities to detect their presence in vivo may allow early identification and prevention of acute cardiovascular events. PMID:25188916

Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Maldonado, Natalia; Aikawa, Elena

2014-01-01

57

In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque  

E-print Network

The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque accounts for the majority of clinically significant acute cardiovascular events. Because stability of these culprit lesions is directly related to chemical and morphological ...

Motz, Jason T.

58

Polymeric Nanoparticle PET/MR Imaging Allows Macrophage Detection in Atherosclerotic Plaques  

E-print Network

Rationale: Myeloid cell content in atherosclerotic plaques associates with rupture and thrombosis. Thus, imaging of lesional monocytes and macrophages could serve as a biomarker of disease progression and therapeutic ...

Majmudar, M. D.

59

3D MRI-based multicomponent FSI models for atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional (3D) MRI-based computational model with multicomponent plaque structure and fluid-structure interactions (FSI) is introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human atherosclerotic plaques and identify critical flow and stress/strain conditions which may be related to plaque rupture. Three-dimensional geometry of a human carotid plaque was reconstructed from 3D MR images and computational mesh was generated using Visualization Toolkit. Both the artery wall and the plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible, and homogeneous. The flow was assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved by ADINA, a well-tested finite element package. Results from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D models, based on ex vivo MRI and histological images (HI), with different component sizes and plaque cap thickness, under different pressure and axial stretch conditions, were obtained and compared. Our results indicate that large lipid pools and thin plaque caps are associated with both extreme maximum (stretch) and minimum (compression when negative) stress/strain levels. Large cyclic stress/strain variations in the plaque under pulsating pressure were observed which may lead to artery fatigue and possible plaque rupture. Large-scale patient studies are needed to validate the computational findings for possible plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture predictions. PMID:15298432

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Sicard, Gregorio A; Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Yuan, Chun

2004-07-01

60

Positron emission tomography of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in man – a contemporary review  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is the primary underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world today and is set to become the prevailing disease and major cause of death worldwide by 2020. In the 1950s surgical intervention was introduced to treat symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis – a procedure known as carotid endarterectomy (CEA). By removing the atherosclerotic plaque from the affected carotid artery of these patients, CEA is beneficial by preventing subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke. However, it is known that patients with low to intermediate artery stenosis may still experience ischemic events, leading clinicians to consider plaque composition as an important feature of atherosclerosis. Today molecular imaging can be used for characterization, visualization and quantification of cellular and subcellular physiological processes as they take place in vivo; using this technology we can obtain valuable information on atherosclerostic plaque composition. Applying molecular imaging clinically to atherosclerotic disease therefore has the potential to identify atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable to rupture. This could prove to be an important tool for the selection of patients for CEA surgery in a health system increasingly focused on individualized treatment. This review focuses on current advances and future developments of in vivo atherosclerosis PET imaging in man. PMID:24289282

Pedersen, Sune F; Hag, Anne Mette F; Klausen, Thomas L; Ripa, Rasmus S; Bodholdt, Rasmus P; Kjær, Andreas

2014-01-01

61

Non-invasive in Vivo Characterization of Human Carotid Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Ultrasound: Comparison with Histology after Endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Ischemic stroke from thromboembolic sources is linked to carotid artery atherosclerotic disease with a trend toward medical management in asymptomatic patients. Extent of disease is currently diagnosed by non-invasive imaging techniques that measure luminal stenosis, but it has been suggested that a better biomarker for determining risk of future thromboembolic events is plaque morphology and composition. Specifically, plaques that are composed of mechanically soft lipid/necrotic regions covered by thin fibrous caps are the most vulnerable to rupture. An ultrasound technique that non-invasively interrogates the mechanical properties of soft tissue, called acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, has been developed as a new modality for atherosclerotic plaque characterization using phantoms and atherosclerotic pigs, but the technique has yet to be validated in vivo in humans. In this preliminary study, in vivo ARFI imaging is presented in a case study format for four patients undergoing clinically indicated carotid endarterectomy and compared with histology. In two type Va plaques, characterized by lipid/necrotic cores covered by fibrous caps, mean ARFI displacements in focal regions were high relative to the surrounding plaque material, suggesting soft features were covered by stiffer layers within the plaques. In two type Vb plaques, characterized by heavy calcification, mean ARFI peak displacements were low relative to the surrounding plaque and arterial wall, suggesting stiff tissue. This pilot study illustrates the feasibility and challenges of transcutaneous ARFI for characterizing the material and structural composition of carotid atherosclerotic plaques via mechanical properties, in humans, in vivo. PMID:25619778

Czernuszewicz, Tomasz J; Homeister, Jonathon W; Caughey, Melissa C; Farber, Mark A; Fulton, Joseph J; Ford, Peter F; Marston, William A; Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer; Nichols, Timothy C; Gallippi, Caterina M

2015-03-01

62

Surgical management of a mobile floating carotid plaque.  

PubMed

A mobile floating carotid plaque (MFCP) is an infrequent pathological lesion with an unknown natural history caused by thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap of the atheromatous plaque; it may result in repeated ischaemic strokes. Duplex carotid ultrasound is a non-invasive technique useful in defining the plaque morphology with high sensitivity and specificity. Due to the lack of evidence, treatment remains controversial. We present a patient with an asymptomatic MFCP diagnosed by ultrasound and treated with carotid endarterectomy without neurological complications due to the procedure and without restenosis nor residual flaps during the follow-up. PMID:25476457

Moncayo, Karla Elizabeth; Vidal, Juan Jose; García, Raúl; Pereira, David

2014-12-01

63

Macrophage expression of active MMP-9 induces acute plaque disruption in apoE-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

The majority of acute clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis are due to the physical rupture of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. It has been hypothesized that macrophages play a key role in inducing plaque rupture by secreting proteases that destroy the extracellular matrix that provides physical strength to the fibrous cap. Despite reports detailing the expression of multiple proteases by macrophages in rupture-prone regions, there is no direct proof that macrophage-mediated matrix degradation can induce plaque rupture. We aimed to test this hypothesis by retrovirally overexpressing the candidate enzyme MMP-9 in macrophages of advanced atherosclerotic lesions of apoE–/– mice. Despite a greater than 10-fold increase in the expression of MMP-9 by macrophages, there was only a minor increase in the incidence of plaque fissuring. Subsequent analysis revealed that macrophages secrete MMP-9 predominantly as a proform, and this form is unable to degrade the matrix component elastin. Expression of an autoactivating form of MMP-9 in macrophages in vitro greatly enhances elastin degradation and induces significant plaque disruption when overexpressed by macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of apoE–/– mice in vivo. These data show that enhanced macrophage proteolytic activity can induce acute plaque disruption and highlight MMP-9 as a potential therapeutic target for stabilizing rupture-prone plaques. PMID:16374516

Gough, Peter J.; Gomez, Ivan G.; Wille, Paul T.; Raines, Elaine W.

2006-01-01

64

Carotid Atheroma Rupture Observed In Vivo and FSI-Predicted Stress Distribution Based on Pre-rupture Imaging  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation is a major risk factor for stroke. As mechanical forces may impact lesion stability, finite element studies have been conducted on models of diseased vessels to elucidate the effects of lesion characteristics on the stresses within plaque materials. It is hoped that patient-specific biomechanical analyses may serve clinically to assess the rupture potential for any particular lesion, allowing better stratification of patients into the most appropriate treatments. Due to a sparsity of in vivo plaque rupture data, the relationship between various mechanical descriptors such as stresses or strains and rupture vulnerability is incompletely known, and the patient-specific utility of biomechanical analyses is unclear. In this article, we present a comparison between carotid atheroma rupture observed in vivo and the plaque stress distribution from fluid–structure interaction analysis based on pre-rupture medical imaging. The effects of image resolution are explored and the calculated stress fields are shown to vary by as much as 50% with sub-pixel geometric uncertainty. Within these bounds, we find a region of pronounced elevation in stress within the fibrous plaque layer of the lesion with a location and extent corresponding to that of the observed site of plaque rupture. PMID:20232151

Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Soares, Bruno; Wintermark, Max; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Saloner, David

2010-01-01

65

Segmentation of wall and plaque in in vitro vascular MR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis leads to heart attack and stroke, which are major killers in the western world. These cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability would dramatically change the way in which atherosclerotic disease is diagnosed, monitored, and treated. In this paper, we report a computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers

Fuxing Yang; Gerhard Holzapfel; Christian Schulze-Bauer; Rudolf Stollberger; Daniel Thedens; Lizann Bolinger; Alan Stolpen; Milan Sonka

2003-01-01

66

Segmentation of wall and plaque in in vitro vascular MR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis leads to heart attack and stroke, which are major killers in the western world. These cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non- invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability would dramatically change the way in which atherosclerotic disease is diagnosed, monitored, and treated. In this paper, we report a computerized method for seg- mentation of arterial

Fuxing Yang; Gerhard Holzapfel; Christian Schulze-Bauer; Rudolf Stollberger; Daniel Thedens; Lizann Bolinger; Alan Stolpen; Milan Sonka

2003-01-01

67

Matrix-Metalloproteinases as Imaging Targets for Inflammatory Activity in Atherosclerotic Plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke resulting from atherosclerosis still account for the majority of deaths worldwide. New imaging approaches focusing on the vi- sualization of inflammation in the vessel wall may emerge as toolsforindividualizedriskassessmentandpreventionofevents. Enzymes such as matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are in- volved in several steps in plaque progression driving plaques into vulnerable, rupture-prone states. Targeting of MMPs

Michael Schafers; Otmar Schober; Sven Hermann

2010-01-01

68

Oxysterols and symptomatic versus asymptomatic human atherosclerotic plaque.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of mortality in the Western world, contributing to about 50% of all deaths. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposition of lipids onto the coronary or carotid arterial wall and formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic plaques are categorized into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic. The symptomatic plaques tend to be unstable and prone to rupture, and are associated with an increase in ischemic events. Oxysterols, products of cholesterol oxidation, are cytotoxic materials. Their level and type may be associated with plaque formation, development and stability. Oxysterols stimulate the formation of foam cells, advance atherosclerotic plaque progression, and contribute to plaque vulnerability and instability due to their cytotoxicity and their ability to induce cell apoptosis. Studies indicate that plasma 7?-OH CH level can be used as a biomarker for detecting carotid and coronary artery disease. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the potential of oxysterols for use as biomarkers for plaque vulnerability and instability. The identification of biomarkers in the blood that can distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques remains an unresolved issue. PMID:24393847

Khatib, Soliman; Vaya, Jacob

2014-04-11

69

RBMK pressure tube rupture assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Russian RBMK reactor core design consists of multiple parallel pressure tube channels that contain Zr clad, UO{sub 2} fuel pin bundles. These parallel channels are contained within graphite moderator blocks which are, in turn, contained within a sealed core cavity. Current safety evaluation efforts of the RBMK reactors have been concentrating in the area of tube ruptures within the core cavity and, in particular, multiple tube ruptures that could threaten the reactor core integrity. Tube rupture events result in a pressurization of the reactor core cavity. The original design overpressure for the cavity region was based on a single tube rupture, resulting in considerable margin to the top plate lift pressure. The top plate lift pressure is 3.1 bar, and a single tube rupture would result in approximately 1.4 bar. RBMK plant specific cavity pressure relief designs provide for between three and in simultaneous tube ruptures before exceeding the top plate lift pressure. Thus, current safety evaluations have begun to examine the potential for multiple tube ruptures that could exceed the current cavity pressure relief designs. One such scenario being examined is a partial rupture in a group distribution header that results in stagnated (low) flow to up to 40 pressure tubes. The subsequent fuel heatup in these reduced flow tubes could result in multiple tube ruptures beyond the design relief capacity of the core cavity. This paper examines several key issues in evaluating this transient, including: (1) the effects of low flow, (2) the effects of axial peaking, and (3) the effects of radial peaking, all relative to the time to tube rupture. These issues each play a significant role in attempting to evaluate the likelihood and severity of multiple tube ruptures for a partial group distribution header break.

Schmitt, B.E.; Tsiklauri, G.V.

1994-08-01

70

Achilles Tendon Rupture  

PubMed Central

Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

2013-01-01

71

Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results  

PubMed Central

Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large discrepancies, future studies should seek to employ vessel-appropriate material models to simulate the response of diseased femoral tissue in order to obtain the most accurate numerical results. PMID:25602515

2015-01-01

72

Atherosclerotic plaque uptake of a novel integrin tracer 18F-Flotegatide in a mouse model of atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the primary event leading to stroke and myocardial infarction. Plaque vulnerability may be induced by macrophage infiltration, neovessel formation and intraplaque instability. A tracer that selectively binds to macrophages and neovascular endothelium may identify rupture prone plaque. The 18F-labeled “R-G-D” containing tripeptide (Flotegatide) is a click chemistry derived radiotracer that binds to integrin ?v?3, a protein present in vulnerable plaque. We now demonstrate that Flotegatide preferentially binds to aortic plaque in an ApoE knock out mouse model of atherosclerosis. The tracer's uptake is strongly associated with presence of histologic markers for macrophage infiltration and integrin expression. There is a weaker but detectable association between Flotegatide uptake and presence of an immunohistochemical marker for neovascularization. We hypothesize that Flotegatide may be a useful tracer for visualization of inflamed plaque in clinical subjects. PMID:24627345

Su, Helen; Gorodny, Natalia; Gomez, Luis Felipe; Gangadharmath, Umesh B.; Mu, Fanrong; Chen, Gang; Walsh, Joseph C.; Szardenings, Katrin; Berman, Daniel S; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Tamarappoo, Balaji K.

2015-01-01

73

In Vivo/Ex Vivo MRI-Based 3D Non-Newtonian FSI Models for Human Atherosclerotic Plaques Compared with Fluid/Wall-Only Models.  

PubMed

It has been recognized that fluid-structure interactions (FSI) play an important role in cardiovascular disease initiation and development. However, in vivo MRI multi-component FSI models for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with bifurcation and quantitative comparisons of FSI models with fluid-only or structure-only models are currently lacking in the literature. A 3D non-Newtonian multi-component FSI model based on in vivo/ex vivo MRI images for human atherosclerotic plaques was introduced to investigate flow and plaque stress/strain behaviors which may be related to plaque progression and rupture. Both artery wall and plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible and homogeneous. Blood flow was assumed to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. In vivo/ex vivo MRI images were acquired using histologically-validated multi-spectral MRI protocols. The 3D FSI models were solved and results were compared with those from a Newtonian FSI model and wall-only/fluid-only models. A 145% difference in maximum principal stresses (Stress-P(1)) between the FSI and wall-only models and 40% difference in flow maximum shear stress (MSS) between the FSI and fluid-only models were found at the throat of the plaque using a severe plaque sample (70% severity by diameter). Flow maximum shear stress (MSS) from the rigid wall model is much higher (20-40% in maximum MSS values, 100-150% in stagnation region) than those from FSI models. PMID:19784387

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K

2007-01-01

74

A computational fluid-structure interaction model for plaque vulnerability assessment in atherosclerotic human coronary arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary artery disease is responsible for a third of global deaths worldwide. Computational simulations of blood flow can be used to understand the interactions of artery/plaque and blood in coronary artery disease and to better predict the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. So far, the mechanical properties of animals' coronary artery have been mostly used for hemodynamic simulation of atherosclerotic arteries. The mechanical properties of animals' coronary arteries are often not accurate enough and can be only used for an approximate estimation and comparative assessment of the cognate parameters in human. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid-structure interactions model with three different plaque types is presented to perform a more accurate plaque vulnerability assessment for human atherosclerotic plaques. The coronary arteries of twenty-two male individuals were removed during autopsy and subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The hyperelastic material coefficients of coronary arteries were calculated and implemented to the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The normal and shear stresses induced within the plaques were significantly affected by different plaque types. The highest von Mises (153 KPa) and shear (57 KPa) stresses were observed for hypocellular plaques, while the lowest von Mises (70 KPa) and shear (39 KPa) stresses were observed on the stiffer calcified plaques. The results suggest that the risk of plaque rupture due to blood flow is lower for cellular and hypocellular plaques, while higher for calcified plaques with low fracture stresses.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza; Haghpanahi, Mohammad

2014-04-01

75

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque composition has been associated with plaque instability and rupture. This study investigates the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for mapping plaque composition and assessing features of vulnerability. Measurements were conducted in atherosclerotic human aortic samples using an endoscopic FLIM system (spatial resolution of 35 ?m; temporal resolution 200 ps) developed in our lab which allows mapping in one measurement the composition within a volume of 4 mm diameter × 250 ?m depth. Each pixel in the image represents a corresponding fluorescence lifetime value; images are formed through a flexible 0.6 mm side-viewing imaging bundle which allows for further intravascular applications. Based on previously recorded spectra of human atherosclerotic plaque, fluorescence emission was collected through two filters: f1: 377/50 and f2: 460/60 (center wavelength/bandwidth), which together provides the greatest discrimination between intrinsic fluorophores related to plaque vulnerability. We have imaged nine aortas and lifetime images were retrieved using a Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique and correlated with histopathology. Early results demonstrate discrimination using fluorescence lifetime between early, lipid-rich, and collagen-rich lesions which are consistent with previously reported time-resolved atherosclerotic plaque measurements. PMID:19606277

Phipps, Jennifer; Sun, Yinghua; Saroufeem, Ramez; Hatami, Nisa; Marcu, Laura

2009-01-01

76

Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities  

PubMed Central

Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (?X-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, ?X-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study demonstrates the need to fully characterise the calcification structure of the plaque tissue and that a combination of FTIR and ?X-CT provides the necessary information to fully understand the mechanical behaviour of the plaque tissue. PMID:25602176

2015-01-01

77

Bi-modal imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: Automated method for co-registration between fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk of atherosclerosis plaque rupture cannot be assessed by the current imaging systems and thus new multi-modal technologies are under investigation. This includes combining a new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) technique, which is sensitive to plaque biochemical features, with conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which provides information on plaque morphology. In this study we present an automated method allowing for the co-registration of imaging data acquired based on these two techniques. Intraluminal studies were conducted in ex-vivo segments of human coronaries with a multimodal catheter integrating a commercial IVUS (40 MHz) and a rotational side-viewing fiber based multispectral FLIm system (355 nm excitation, 390+/-20, 452+/-22 and 542+/-25 nm acquisition wavelengths). The proposed method relies on the lumen/intima boundary extraction from the IVUS polar images. Image restoration is applied for the noise reduction and edge enhancement, while gray-scale peak tracing over the A-lines of the IVUS polar images is applied for the lumen boundary extraction. The detection of the guide-wire artifact is used for the angular registration between FLIm and IVUS data, after which the lifetime values can be mapped onto the segmented lumen/intima interface. The segmentation accuracy has been assessed against manual tracings, providing 0.120+/-0.054 mm mean Hausdorff distance. This method makes the bi-modal FLIm and IVUS approach feasible for comprehensive intravascular diagnostic by providing co-registered biochemical and morphological information about atherosclerotic plaques.

Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Bec, Julien; Ma, Dinglong; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Bishop, John W.; Qi, Jinyi; Marcu, Laura

2014-03-01

78

Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard in human carotid artery plaques. It is shown in this capstone experiment that lipid filled regions in MRI correspond to areas of increased displacement in ARFI imaging while calcium and loose matrix components in MRI correspond to uniformly low displacements in ARFI imaging. This dissertation provides evidence to support that ARFI imaging may provide important prognostic and diagnostic information regarding stroke risk via measurements of plaque stiffness. More generally, the results have important implications for all acoustic radiation force based imaging methods used clinically.

Doherty, Joshua Ryan

79

A Voxel-Map Quantitative Analysis Approach for Atherosclerotic Noncalcified Plaques of the Coronary Artery Tree  

PubMed Central

Noncalcified plaques (NCPs) are associated with the presence of lipid-core plaques that are prone to rupture. Thus, it is important to detect and monitor the development of NCPs. Contrast-enhanced coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is a potential imaging technique to identify atherosclerotic plaques in the whole coronary tree, but it fails to provide information about vessel walls. In order to overcome the limitations of coronary CTA and provide more meaningful quantitative information for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we proposed a Voxel-Map based on mathematical morphology to quantitatively analyze the noncalcified plaques on a three-dimensional coronary artery wall model (3D-CAWM). This approach is a combination of Voxel-Map analysis techniques, plaque locating, and anatomical location related labeling, which show more detailed and comprehensive coronary tree wall visualization. PMID:24348749

Li, Ying; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yonglin; Chu, Chun; Fang, Bingji; Tan, Liwen

2013-01-01

80

Vasa vasorum in plaque angiogenesis, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: a malignant transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Vascularization is an exciting and complex mechanism involving angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. The metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities, which result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to an elevated tension of oxidative-redox stress and an accelerated atherosclerosis termed atheroscleropathy. Results This atheroscleropathy is associated with accelerated angiogenesis within the vulnerable, thin-cap fibro-atheroma, prone to rupture resulting in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The resulting intimopathy with its neovascularization due to angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (Vv) is prone to intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). These IPH are associated with destabilization of the vulnerable plaques resulting in plaque erosion and plaque rupture resulting in ACS. In atheroscleropathy the adventitial Vv invades the plaque in a malignant-like fashion and concurrently is associated with chronic inflammation, as macrophages are being deposited within the shoulder regions of these vulnerable plaques. These angiogenic Vv provide a custom delivery vascular network for multiple detrimental substrates, which further accelerates the growth of these vulnerable plaques and atheroscleropathy. There exists a vascularization paradox in MS and T2DM, in that, angiogenesis within the plaque is induced and arteriogenesis is impaired. Conclusion This review will attempt to provide a database of knowledge regarding the vascularization process (angiogenesis and arteriogenesis) and its mechanisms to better understand the increased cardiovascular risk and the increased morbidity and mortality associated with MS and T2DM. PMID:14761253

Hayden, Melvin R; Tyagi, Suresh C

2004-01-01

81

Molecular imaging of plaques in coronary arteries with PET and SPECT  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery disease remains a major cause of mortality. Presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary artery is responsible for lumen stenosis which is often used as an indicator for determining the severity of coronary artery disease. However, the degree of coronary lumen stenosis is not often related to compromising myocardial blood flow, as most of the cardiac events that are caused by atherosclerotic plaques are the result of vulnerable plaques which are prone to rupture. Thus, identification of vulnerable plaques in coronary arteries has become increasingly important to assist identify patients with high cardiovascular risks. Molecular imaging with use of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has fulfilled this goal by providing functional information about plaque activity which enables accurate assessment of plaque stability. This review article provides an overview of diagnostic applications of molecular imaging techniques in the detection of plaques in coronary arteries with PET and SPECT. New radiopharmaceuticals used in the molecular imaging of coronary plaques and diagnostic applications of integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI in coronary plaques are also discussed. PMID:25278976

Sun, Zhong-Hua; Rashmizal, Hairil; Xu, Lei

2014-01-01

82

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Š?epanovi?, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

83

A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

2014-07-01

84

Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques  

DOEpatents

A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01

85

Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular spectrofluorimetry. It may also be possible to use macrophage-targeted PDT to therapeutically modify inflammatory cell-laden VPs leading to plaque stabilization and reduction of sudden cardiovascular death.

Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

2003-06-01

86

Quantification of new structural features of coronary plaques by computational post-hoc analysis of virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound images.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease and complications are often mediated by the development and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Plaque composition is a major factor that determines plaque vulnerability. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and spectral analysis of the radio frequency signal provide an in vivo tissue characterisation of atherosclerotic plaques, known as virtual histology (VH-IVUS). In VH-IVUS analysis, four histological tissue components are classified: fibrous, fibro/fatty, necrotic core and calcium. Existing technology determines only the area of each component within the plaque. Quantitative, objective characterisation of other plaque components' patterns within the plaque is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine new compositional and structural indices which indicate spatial distribution, heterogeneity and dispersity of each VH-IVUS-derived component within the plaque area and also with respect to the plaque-lumen border. We developed an automated computational system in Java for the analysis of both single cross-sectional segments and the whole length of the examined plaque (volumetric analysis). The following parameters were computed: the number of different solid segments and the area of the largest solid segment of each component within the plaque, the per cent of the lumen border that is surrounded by each component, the number of different solid segments and the largest area of a solid segment of each component that adjoins the lumen border. Especially components' localisation in relation to the lumen border may significantly influence plaque vulnerability and plaque-stent interaction, which should be investigated in future clinical studies. PMID:22974224

Papaioannou, Theodore G; Schizas, Dimitrios; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Katsarou, Ourania; Soulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2014-01-01

87

Thin-cap fibroatheroma rupture is associated with a fine interplay of shear and wall stress.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarized the effect of mechanical factors (shear and wall stress) on thin-cap fibroatheroma formation and rupture. To make this review understandable for a biology-oriented audience, we start with detailed definitions of relevant mechanical metrics. We then describe how biomechanics has supported histopathologic efforts to understand the basis of plaque rupture. In addition to plaque rupture, biomechanics also contributes toward the progression of thin-cap fibroatheroma through a multitude of reported mechanobiological mechanisms. We thus propose a new mechanism whereby both shear stress and wall stress interact to create thin-cap fibroatheromas. Specifically, when regions of certain blood flow and wall mechanical stimuli coincide, they synergistically create inflammation within the cellular environment that can lead to thin-cap fibroatheroma rupture. A consequence of this postulate is that local shear stress is not sufficient to cause rupture, but it must coincide with regions of local tissue stiffening and stress concentrations that can occur during plaque progression. Because such changes to the wall mechanics occur over a micrometer scale, high spatial resolution imaging techniques will be necessary to evaluate this hypothesis and ultimately predict plaque rupture in a clinical environment. PMID:25060797

Pedrigi, Ryan M; de Silva, Ranil; Bovens, Sandra M; Mehta, Vikram V; Petretto, Enrico; Krams, Rob

2014-10-01

88

The Immune Response Is Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Could the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Be a Marker of Plaque Instability?  

PubMed Central

Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)?B ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)?B (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart. PMID:18320012

Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Mach, François

2007-01-01

89

Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

2011-01-01

90

Dental plaque biofilm in oral health and disease.  

PubMed

Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response. In the healthy state, both plaque biofilm and adjacent tissues maintain a delicate balance, establishing a harmonious relationship between the two. However, changes occur during the disease process that transform this 'healthy' dental plaque into a 'pathogenic' biofilm. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have improved the understanding of dental plaque biofilm and produced numerous clinical benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians keep abreast with these new developments in the field of dentistry. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind dental diseases will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to establish a 'healthy dental plaque biofilm' by modulating both host and microbial factors. In this review, the present authors aim to summarise the current knowledge on dental plaque as a microbial biofilm and its properties in oral health and disease. PMID:22319749

Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

2011-01-01

91

Glass rupture disk  

DOEpatents

A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

92

Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque  

SciTech Connect

In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.i [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology (Italy); Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mallarini, Giorgio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2010-08-15

93

Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot  

PubMed Central

The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. PMID:23236189

Kastrup, Christian J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T.; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D.; Vegas, Arturo J.; Siegel, Cory D.; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R.; Coury, Arthur J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

94

Identification of Amyloid Plaques in Retinas from Alzheimer’s Patients and Noninvasive In Vivo Optical Imaging of Retinal Plaques in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive monitoring of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques, the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is critical for AD diagnosis and prognosis. Current visualization of A? plaques in brains of live patients and animal models is limited in specificity and resolution. The retina as an extension of the brain portrays an appealing target for a live, noninvasive optical imaging of AD if disease pathology is manifested there. We identified retinal A? plaques in postmortem eyes from AD patients (n=8) and in suspected early stage cases (n=5), consistent with brain pathology and clinical reports; plaques were undetectable in age-matched non-AD individuals (n=5). In APPSWE/PS1?E9 transgenic mice (AD-Tg; n=18) and not in non-Tg wt mice (n=10), retinal A? plaques were detected following systemic administration of curcumin, a safe plaque-labeling fluorochrome. Moreover, retinal plaques were detectable earlier than in the brain and accumulated with disease progression. An immune-based therapy effective in reducing brain plaques, significantly reduced retinal A? plaque burden in immunized versus non-immunized AD mice (n=4 mice per group). In live AD-Tg mice (n=24), systemic administration of curcumin allowed noninvasive optical imaging of retinal A? plaques in vivo with high resolution and specificity; plaques were undetectable in non-Tg wt mice (n=11). Our discovery of A? specific plaques in retinas from AD patients, and the ability to noninvasively detect individual retinal plaques in live AD mice establish the basis for developing high resolution optical imaging for early AD diagnosis, prognosis assessment and response to therapies. PMID:20550967

Koronyo-Hamaoui, Maya; Koronyo, Yosef; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Miller, Carol A.; Ko, MinHee K.; Black, Keith L.; Schwartz, Michal; Farkas, Daniel L.

2010-01-01

95

Coronary plaque imaging by coronary computed tomography angiography  

PubMed Central

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the useful noninvasive imaging modality alternative to the invasive coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). With the development of technical aspects of coronary CTA, clinical practice and research are increasingly shifting toward defining the clinical implication of plaque morphology and patients outcomes by coronary CTA. In this review we discuss the coronary plaque morphology estimated by CTA beyond coronary angiography including the comparison to the currently available other imaging modalities used to examine morphological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. Furthermore, this review underlies the value of a combined assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion in patients with CAD, and adds to an increasing body of evidence suggesting an added diagnostic value when combining both modalities. We hope that an integrated, multi-modality imaging approach will become the gold standard for noninvasive evaluation of coronary plaque morphology and outcome data in clinical practice. PMID:24876919

Sato, Akira

2014-01-01

96

Computational approaches for analyzing the mechanics of atherosclerotic plaques: a review.  

PubMed

Vulnerable and stable atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous living materials with peculiar mechanical behaviors depending on geometry, composition, loading and boundary conditions. Computational approaches have the potential to characterize the three-dimensional stress/strain distributions in patient-specific diseased arteries of different types and sclerotic morphologies and to estimate the risk of plaque rupture which is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events. This review article attempts to summarize a few finite element (FE) studies for different vessel types, and how these studies were performed focusing on the used stress measure, inclusion of residual stress, used imaging modality and material model. In addition to histology the most used imaging modalities are described, the most common nonlinear material models and the limited number of models for plaque rupture used for such studies are provided in more detail. A critical discussion on stress measures and threshold stress values for plaque rupture used within the FE studies emphasizes the need to develop a more location and tissue-specific threshold value, and a more appropriate failure criterion. With this addition future FE studies should also consider more advanced strain-energy functions which then fit better to location and tissue-specific experimental data. PMID:24491496

Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

2014-03-01

97

Distal biceps and triceps ruptures.  

PubMed

Biceps and triceps tendon ruptures are rather uncommon injuries and are most commonly diagnosed clinically. Magnetic resonance imaging can help the clinician to differentiate an incomplete tear and define any degeneration of the tendon. Surgical anatomical repair is typically performed in acute complete ruptures whereas nonoperative treatment can be used for partial ruptures, as well as for patients unfit for surgery. Single incision techniques are associated with a higher rate of nerve injuries, while double incision repairs have a higher prevalence of heterotopic ossification. Although various fixation methods have been applied including bone tunnels, interference screws, suture anchors, cortical button fixation, the current evidence does not support the superiority of one method over the other. A well-planned postoperative rehabilitation programme is essential for a good final outcome. As better fixation devices are being used, more aggressive rehabilitation programmes have been applied. Epidemiology, clinical evaluation, diagnosis, surgical and conservative management of these injuries are presented in this review along with the authors' preferred technique for the anatomical repair of acute complete ruptures. PMID:23352149

Kokkalis, Zinon T; Ballas, Efstathios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Soucacos, Panayotis N

2013-03-01

98

Supersonic Rupture of Rubber  

E-print Network

The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

M Marder

2005-04-24

99

Effect of Sucralose in Coffee on Plaque pH in Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our earlier work demonstrated that the sweetener sucralose, C12H19CI3O8, mixed with water had no effect on intraoral plaque pH. The current study compared the effect on resting plaque pH of sucralose to sucrose when these sweeteners were used in hot coffee at equivalent sweetness levels. Twelve subjects with an identified acidogenic plaque were tested at dicrete sessions, using coffee as

Louis M. Steinberg; Folarin Odusola; Irwin D. Mandel

1996-01-01

100

Automatic plaque assay for the pharmaceutical industry using machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial step in the manufacture of vaccines is the verification of their potency. An assay of the potency must be carried out on every batch produced to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Currently, human inspectors count the number of plaques (holes) in a cell layer in a petri dish to estimate the potency.They must determine whether nearby plaques that have overgrown each other's borders are single or multiple plaques and distinguish between plaques and small tears in the cell layer resulting from the processing operations (the edges of tears differ in appearance from the edges of plaques). Because of the judgments required to make these subtle distinctions, human inspectors are inconsistent. In cooperation with Merck & Co., Inc., the Rutgers University Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving consistent automatic counting of plaques by a prototype intelligent machine vision system. The David Sarnoff Research Center developed materials handling equipment and factory information system interfaces to enable this prototype system to be installed in a quality control facility at Merck. This paper describes the overall operation of the machine vision aspects of the system, including optics, illumination, sensing, preprocessing, feature extraction and shape recognition. Results of initial tests of the system are also reported.

Wilder, Joseph; Tsai, Augustine; Festa, J. M.

1995-10-01

101

Pioneer F Plaque Symbology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

1972-01-01

102

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

103

Contribution of neovascularization and intraplaque haemorrhage to atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a continuous pathological process that starts early in life and progresses frequently to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke and atherothrombosis. The vulnerable lesion has several structural and functional hallmarks that distinguish it from the stable plaque. The unstable plaque has large necrotic core (over 40% plaque volume) composed of cholesterol crystals, cholesterol esters, oxidized lipids, fibrin, erythrocytes and their remnants (haeme, iron, haemoglobin), and dying macrophages. The fibrous cap is thin, depleted of smooth muscle cells and collagen, and is infiltrated with proinflammatory cells. In unstable lesion, formation of neomicrovessels is increased. These neovessels have weak integrity and leak thereby leading to recurrent haemorrhages. Haemorrhages deliver erythrocytes to the necrotic core where they degrade promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammatory cells mostly presented by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells extravagate from bleeding neovessels and infiltrate adventitia where they support chronic inflammation. Plaque destabilization is an evolutionary process that could start at early atherosclerotic stages and whose progression is influenced by many factors including neovascularization, intraplaque haemorrhages, formation of cholesterol crystals, inflammation, oxidative stress and intraplaque protease activity. PMID:25515699

Chistiakov, D A; Orekhov, A N; Bobryshev, Y V

2015-03-01

104

Identification of carotid plaque tissue properties using an experimental-numerical approach.  

PubMed

A biomechanical stress analysis could help to identify carotid plaques that are vulnerable to rupture, and hence reduce the risk of thrombotic strokes. Mechanical stress predictions critically depend on the plaque's constitutive properties, and the present study introduces a concept to derive viscoelastic parameters through an experimental-numerical approach. Carotid plaques were harvested from two patients during carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and, in total, nine test specimens were investigated. A novel in-vitro mechanical testing protocol, which allows for dynamic testing, keeping the carotid plaque components together, was introduced. Macroscopic pictures overlaid by histological stains allowed for the segmentation of plaque tissues, in order to develop high-fidelity and low-fidelity Finite Element Method (FEM) models of the test specimens. The FEM models together with load-displacement data from the mechanical testing were used to extract constitutive parameters through inverse parameter estimation. The applied inverse parameter estimation runs in stages, first addressing the hyperelastic parameters then the viscoelastic ones. Load-displacement curves from the mechanical testing showed strain stiffening and viscoelasticity, as is expected for both normal and diseased carotid tissue. The estimated constitutive properties of plaque tissue were comparable to previously reported studies. Due to the highly non-linear elasticity of vascular tissue, the applied parameter estimation approach is, as with many similar approaches, sensitive to the initial guess of the parameters. PMID:23790614

Heiland, Vincent M; Forsell, Caroline; Roy, Joy; Hedin, Ulf; Gasser, T Christian

2013-11-01

105

Comparison of the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by tissue characterization using serial virtual histology intravascular ultrasound.  

PubMed

Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is the most common type of vulnerable plaque and is the precursor of plaque rupture. However, rupture of a TCFA is not the only mechanism underlying thrombus formation or acute coronary syndrome. Although statin therapy changes the composition of coronary artery plaques, the effects of statins, particularly different types of statins, on plaque phenotype have not been fully examined. This study compared the effects of pitavastatin versus pravastatin on coronary artery plaque phenotype assessed by virtual histology (VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with angina pectoris (AP). Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions was evaluated using VH-IVUS at baseline and 8 months after statin therapy; analyzable IVUS data were obtained from 83 patients with stable AP (39 patients treated with pitavastatin and 44 with pravastatin) and 36 patients with unstable AP (19 patients treated with pitavastatin and 17 with pravastatin). Pitavastatin had a strong effect on reducing pathologic intimal thickening (PIT), especially in patients with unstable AP, but had no impact on VH-TCFA or fibroatheroma (FA). By contrast, pravastatin had weak effects on reducing PIT, VH-TCFA, or FA. Increases in the number of calcified plaques were observed for both statins. In conclusion, pitavastatin and pravastatin changed coronary artery plaque phenotype as assessed by VH-IVUS in patients with AP. However, the effects of these statins on coronary artery plaque phenotype were different. PMID:24337500

Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Tohyama, Shinichi; Fukui, Kazuki; Umezawa, Shigeo; Onishi, Yuko; Kunishima, Tomoyuki; Sato, Akira; Nozato, Toshihiro; Miyake, Shogo; Takeyama, Youichi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Takao; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Michishita, Ichiro

2015-01-01

106

Rupture Velocities of Small Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the rupture process of small earthquakes differs from those of large earthquakes has been a long- standing question in seismology. Recent proposals as to whether and how the physics of rupture may change with earthquake size have sparked interest in the energy budget, which depends strongly on the rupture velocity (Vr). Small earthquake rupture velocities have proved difficult to determine due to the strong attenuation of high-frequency waves. We analyze P and S waves of small earthquakes to detect rupture directivity and constrain Vr. We apply the projected Landweber deconvolution (PLD) method to a data set of 30 earthquakes 3.6currently no consensus that such a change in this ratio truly occurs. The increase in the energy-to- moment ratio is controlled by the relation between moment and corner frequency, which has moment inversely proportional to corner frequency raised to the power (3 + ?). Data compiled in Kanamori and Rivera suggests ? of 0.5. Then Vr of 0.4 to 0.9? for M3 events require that ?? of M3 events range from 1 to 0.1 respectively, of that of M7 events. More constraints on rupture velocities of small earthquakes will help to resolve possible changes in the energy budget, and thus earthquake physics, with earthquake size.

Tomic, J.; Houston, H.

2006-12-01

107

Raised Soluble P-Selectin Moderately Accelerates Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression  

PubMed Central

Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe?/? mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe?/? or SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe?/? HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22?-hDTR Apoe?/? HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. PMID:24846287

Andrews, Karen L.; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C.; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P. F.

2014-01-01

108

Human coronary plaque wall thickness correlated positively with flow shear stress and negatively with plaque wall stress: an IVUS-based fluid-structure interaction multi-patient study  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture are believed to be associated with mechanical stress conditions. In this paper, patient-specific in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) coronary plaque image data were used to construct computational models with fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and cyclic bending to investigate correlations between plaque wall thickness and both flow shear stress and plaque wall stress conditions. Methods IVUS data were acquired from 10 patients after voluntary informed consent. The X-ray angiogram was obtained prior to the pullback of the IVUS catheter to determine the location of the coronary artery stenosis, vessel curvature and cardiac motion. Cyclic bending was specified in the model representing the effect by heart contraction. 3D anisotropic FSI models were constructed and solved to obtain flow shear stress (FSS) and plaque wall stress (PWS) values. FSS and PWS values were obtained for statistical analysis. Correlations with p?plaque wall stress. The mean Pearson correlation r-value was -0.530?±?0.210. Conclusion Our results showed that plaque vessel wall thickness correlated positively with FSS and negatively with PWS. The patient-specific IVUS-based modeling approach has the potential to be used to investigate and identify possible mechanisms governing plaque progression and rupture and assist in diagnosis and intervention procedures. This represents a new direction of research. Further investigations using more patient follow-up data are warranted. PMID:24669780

2014-01-01

109

Real-time plaque characterization and visualization with spectral analysis of intravascular ultrasound data.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease is the number one cause of death in the United States and the Western world, and approximately 250,000 affected people die per year without ever being admitted to a hospital. One of the main reasons of such a high death-rate without any diagnosis is that more than 50 or heart-attacks) occur in patients with no prior history of known heart disease or symptoms. Coronary artery disease leads to the occlusion of arteries that are vital in providing nutrients to the heart muscles. The disease develops by progressive accumulation or formation of "plaque" within an artery. Certain types of plaques could occlude blood flow and yet might be "stable". These plaques usually have a high fibrous content, and are known as hard plaques. On the other hand, "unstable" or "soft" plaques might not cause much occlusion but could be vulnerable to rupture. Rupture of such plaques could lead to total or partial occlusion in arteries resulting in sudden cardiac death or heart-attack. In fact, 68 coronary arteries are less than 50.Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a minimally invasive imaging modality that provides cross-section images of arteries in real-time, allowing visualization of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. In standard IVUS gray-scale images, calcified regions of plaque and dense fibrous components generally reflect ultrasound energy well and thus appear bright and homogeneous on IVUS images. Conversely, regions of low echo reflectance in IVUS images are usually labeled "soft" or "mixed" plaque. However, this visual interpretation has been demonstrated to be very inconsistent in accurately determining plaque composition and does not allow real-time assessment of quantitative plaque constituents.Spectral analysis of the backscattered radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals allows detailed assessment of plaque composition. Advanced mathematical techniques can be employed to extract spectral information from these RF data to determine composition. The spectral content or signature of RF data reflected from tissue depends on density, compressibility, concentration, size, etc. A combination of spectral parameters were used to develop statistical classification schemes for analysis of in vivo IVUS data in real-time. The clinical data acquisition system is ECG gated and the analysis software developed by our group reconstructs IVUS gray-scale images from the acquired RF data. A combination of spectral parameters and active contour models is used for real-time 3D plaque segmentation followed by computation of color-coded tissue maps for each image cross-section and longitudinal views of the entire vessel. The "fly-through" mode allows one to visualize the complete length of the artery internally with the histology components at the lumen surface. In addition, vessel and plaque metrics such as areas and volumes of individual plaque components (collagen, fibro-lipid, calcium, lipid-core) are also available. PMID:15923746

Nair, Anuja; Klingensmith, Jon D; Vince, D Geoffrey

2005-01-01

110

Nanorose and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaque using dual-wavelength photothermal wave imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atherosclerosis and specifically rupture of vulnerable plaques account for 23% of all deaths worldwide, far surpassing both infectious diseases and cancer. In atherosclerosis, macrophages can infiltrate plaques which are often associated with lipid deposits. Photothermal wave imaging is based on the periodic thermal modulation of a sample using intensity modulated light. Intensity modulated light enters the sample and is absorbed by targeted chromophores and generates a periodic thermal modulation. We report use of photothermal wave imaging to visualize nanoroses (taken up by macrophages via endocytosis) and lipids in atherosclerotic plaques. Two excitation wavelengths were selected to image nanoroses (800 nm) and lipids (1210 nm). Atherosclerotic plaque in a rabbit abdominal artery was irradiated (800 nm and 1210 nm separately) at a frequency of 4 Hz to generate photothermal waves. The radiometric temperature at the tissue surface was recorded by an infrared (IR) camera over a 10 second time period at the frame rate of 25.6 Hz. Extraction of images (256 × 256 pixels) at various frequencies was performed by Fourier transform at each pixel. Frequency amplitude images were obtained corresponding to 800 nm and 1210 nm laser irradiation. Computed images suggest that the distributions of both nanorose and lipid can be identified in amplitude images at a frequency of 4 Hz. Nanoroses taken up by macrophages are distributed at the edges of lipid deposits. Observation of high concentration of nanoroses in atherosclerotic plaque confirms that nanoroses are present at locations associated with lipid deposits.

Wang, Tianyi; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li Leo; Li, Xiankai; Sun, Jingjing; Ryoo, Seungyup; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

2010-02-01

111

Ophthalmic zoster: mucous plaque keratitis.  

PubMed Central

Data taken from 1221 patients attending the Zoster Clinic of Moorfields Eye Hospital over the past 15 years were used to characterise the clinical appearance and behaviour of zoster mucous plaque keratitis (MPK). The typical greyish branching plaques are usually accompanied by a limbitis, stromal keratitis, or decrease in corneal sensation and are commonly associated with cataract, raised intraocular pressure, or corneal ulceration. MPK may begin at any time within two years of onset of the rash, but when it appears after three months there are more complications. Usually MPK settles within one month if appropriate treatment with topical steroids and acetylcysteine drops is given, but surgical intervention is sometimes required to control glaucoma or neuroparalytic keratitis or to remove cataracts. The results of surgery are surprisingly good. Images PMID:3499932

Marsh, R. J.; Cooper, M.

1987-01-01

112

Stickland reactions of dental plaque.  

PubMed Central

Dental plaque samples from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were shown to contain proline reduction activity in coupled Stickland reactions with other amino acids and also with certain end products of bacterial glucose metabolism. The unusually high concentration of bound and free proline in the oral environment may be of importance in both the production of base and in the removal of acid from the tooth surface after dietary carbohydrate ingestion. PMID:6618673

Curtis, M A; Kemp, C W; Robrish, S A; Bowen, W H

1983-01-01

113

The influence of inaccuracies in carotid MRI segmentation on atherosclerotic plaque stress computations.  

PubMed

Biomechanical finite element analysis (FEA) based on in vivo carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to assess carotid plaque vulnerability noninvasively by computing peak cap stress. However, the accuracy of MRI plaque segmentation and the influence this has on FEA has remained unreported due to the lack of a reliable submillimeter ground truth. In this study, we quantify this influence using novel numerical simulations of carotid MRI. Histological sections from carotid plaques from 12 patients were used to create 33 ground truth plaque models. These models were subjected to numerical computer simulations of a currently used clinically applied 3.0?T T1-weighted black-blood carotid MRI protocol (in-plane acquisition voxel size of 0.62?×?0.62 mm2) to generate simulated in vivo MR images from a known underlying ground truth. The simulated images were manually segmented by three MRI readers. FEA models based on the MRI segmentations were compared with the FEA models based on the ground truth. MRI-based FEA model peak cap stress was consistently underestimated, but still correlated (R) moderately with the ground truth stress: R?=?0.71, R?=?0.47, and R?=?0.76 for the three MRI readers respectively (p?plaque stretch was underestimated as well. The peak cap stress in thick-cap, low stress plaques was substantially more accurately and precisely predicted (error of -12?±?44?kPa) than the peak cap stress in plaques with caps thinner than the acquisition voxel size (error of -177?±?168?kPa). For reliable MRI-based FEA to compute the peak cap stress of carotid plaques with thin caps, the current clinically used in-plane acquisition voxel size (?0.6?mm) is inadequate. FEA plaque stress computations would be considerably more reliable if they would be used to identify thick-cap carotid plaques with low stresses instead. PMID:24317274

Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Speelman, Lambert; Breeuwer, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Steen, Anton F W; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank J H

2014-02-01

114

Partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon.  

PubMed

Partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively rare event, and various degrees of partial tendon tears have been reported. In the current study four patients with partial atraumatic distal biceps tendon tears (mean age, 59 years; range, 40-82 years) are reported. In all four patients, a common clinical pattern emerged. Pain at the insertion of the distal biceps tendon in the radius unrelated to any traumatic event was the main symptom. In all patients the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography imaging. In three of four patients the partial rupture of the tendon caused a significant bursalike lesion. The typical appearance was a partially ruptured biceps tendon, with contrast enhancement signaling the degree of degeneration, tenosynovitis, and soft tissue swelling extending along the tendon semicircular to the proximal radius. In three patients, conservative treatment was successful. Only one patient needed surgery, with reinsertion of the tendon resulting in total functional recovery. PMID:10818980

Dürr, H R; Stäbler, A; Pfahler, M; Matzko, M; Refior, H J

2000-05-01

115

Towards coronary plaque imaging using simultaneous PET-MR: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and the leading killer in the US. Inflammation is a known bio-marker of plaque vulnerability and can be assessed non-invasively using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET). However, cardiac and respiratory motion of the heart makes PET detection of coronary plaque very challenging. Fat surrounding coronary arteries allows the use of MRI to track plaque motion during simultaneous PET-MR examination. In this study, we proposed and assessed the performance of a fat-MR based coronary motion correction technique for improved FDG-PET coronary plaque imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. The proposed methods were evaluated in a realistic four-dimensional PET-MR simulation study obtained by combining patient water-fat separated MRI and XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Five small lesions were digitally inserted inside the patients coronary vessels to mimic coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The heart of the XCAT phantom was digitally replaced with the patient's heart. Motion-dependent activity distributions, attenuation maps, and fat-MR volumes of the heart, were generated using the XCAT cardiac and respiratory motion fields. A full Monte Carlo simulation using Siemens mMR's geometry was performed for each motion phase. Cardiac/respiratory motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of the transformed fat-MR volumes and incorporated directly into the system matrix of PET reconstruction along with motion-dependent attenuation maps. The proposed motion correction method was compared to conventional PET reconstruction techniques such as no motion correction, cardiac gating, and dual cardiac-respiratory gating. Compared to uncorrected reconstructions, fat-MR based motion compensation yielded an average improvement of plaque-to-background contrast of 29.6%, 43.7%, 57.2%, and 70.6% for true plaque-to-blood ratios of 10, 15, 20 and 25:1, respectively. Channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was used to quantify plaque detectability. CHO-SNR improvement ranged from 105% to 128% for fat-MR-based motion correction as compared to no motion correction. Likewise, CHO-SNR improvement ranged from 348% to 396% as compared to both cardiac and dual cardiac-respiratory gating approaches. Based on this study, our approach, a fat-MR based motion correction for coronary plaque PET imaging using simultaneous PET-MR, offers great potential for clinical practice. The ultimate performance and limitation of our approach, however, must be fully evaluated in patient studies. PMID:24556608

Petibon, Y; El Fakhri, G; Nezafat, R; Johnson, N; Brady, T; Ouyang, J

2014-03-01

116

Secreted proteins from carotid endarterectomy: an untargeted approach to disclose molecular clues of plaque progression  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerosis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and carotid plaque rupture is associated to acute events and responsible of 15-20% of all ischemic strokes. Several proteomics approaches have been up to now used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in plaque formation as well as to identify markers of pathology severity for early diagnosis or target of therapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the plaque secretome. The advantage of this approach is that secretome mimics the in vivo condition and implies a reduced complexity compared to the whole tissue proteomics allowing the detection of under-represented potential biomarkers. Methods Secretomes from carotid endarterectomy specimens of 14 patients were analyzed by a liquid chromatography approach coupled with label free mass spectrometry. Differential expression of proteins released from plaques and from their downstream distal side segments were evaluated in each specimen. Results were validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA assays. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize plaques and to localise the molecular factors highlighted by proteomics. Results A total of 463 proteins were identified and 31 proteins resulted differentially secreted from plaques and corresponding downstream segments. A clear-cut distinction in the distribution of cellular- and extracellular-derived proteins, evidently related to the higher cellularity of distal side segments, was observed along the longitudinal axis of carotid endarterectomy samples. The expressions of thrombospondin-1, vitamin D binding protein, and vinculin, as examples of extracellular and intracellular proteins, were immunohistologically compared between adjacent segments and validated by antibody assays. ELISA assays of plasma samples from 34 patients and 10 healthy volunteers confirmed a significantly higher concentration of thrombospondin-1 and vitamin D binding protein in atherosclerotic subjects. Conclusions Taking advantage of the optimized workflow, a detailed protein profile related to carotid plaque secretome has been produced which may assist and improve biomarker discovery of molecular factors in blood. Distinctive signatures of proteins secreted by adjacent segments of carotid plaques were evidenced and they may help discriminating markers of plaque complication from those of plaque growth. PMID:24131807

2013-01-01

117

Towards coronary plaque imaging using simultaneous PET-MR: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and the leading killer in the US. Inflammation is a known bio-marker of plaque vulnerability and can be assessed non-invasively using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET). However, cardiac and respiratory motion of the heart makes PET detection of coronary plaque very challenging. Fat surrounding coronary arteries allows the use of MRI to track plaque motion during simultaneous PET-MR examination. In this study, we proposed and assessed the performance of a fat-MR based coronary motion correction technique for improved FDG-PET coronary plaque imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. The proposed methods were evaluated in a realistic four-dimensional PET-MR simulation study obtained by combining patient water-fat separated MRI and XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Five small lesions were digitally inserted inside the patients coronary vessels to mimic coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The heart of the XCAT phantom was digitally replaced with the patient's heart. Motion-dependent activity distributions, attenuation maps, and fat-MR volumes of the heart, were generated using the XCAT cardiac and respiratory motion fields. A full Monte Carlo simulation using Siemens mMR's geometry was performed for each motion phase. Cardiac/respiratory motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of the transformed fat-MR volumes and incorporated directly into the system matrix of PET reconstruction along with motion-dependent attenuation maps. The proposed motion correction method was compared to conventional PET reconstruction techniques such as no motion correction, cardiac gating, and dual cardiac-respiratory gating. Compared to uncorrected reconstructions, fat-MR based motion compensation yielded an average improvement of plaque-to-background contrast of 29.6%, 43.7%, 57.2%, and 70.6% for true plaque-to-blood ratios of 10, 15, 20 and 25:1, respectively. Channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was used to quantify plaque detectability. CHO-SNR improvement ranged from 105% to 128% for fat-MR-based motion correction as compared to no motion correction. Likewise, CHO-SNR improvement ranged from 348% to 396% as compared to both cardiac and dual cardiac-respiratory gating approaches. Based on this study, our approach, a fat-MR based motion correction for coronary plaque PET imaging using simultaneous PET-MR, offers great potential for clinical practice. The ultimate performance and limitation of our approach, however, must be fully evaluated in patient studies.

Petibon, Y.; El Fakhri, G.; Nezafat, R.; Johnson, N.; Brady, T.; Ouyang, J.

2014-03-01

118

Assessment of vulnerable atherosclerotic and fibrotic plaques in coronary arteries using 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT  

PubMed Central

Activated macrophages which express somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR-2) play a vital role in rupture of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which result in death. 68Ga-DOTATATE binds to somatostatin receptors 2, and therefore, can serve as potential radiotracer to detect atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of this study was to generate preliminary data with this agent in vulnerable or fibrotic atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries. We evaluated a total of 44 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) who underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. In each subject, 7 segments in the coronary arteries were assessed, maximum SUV values and target-to-background ratios (TBRs) were calculated. The lesions detected by CT (a total of 308) were divided into 3 groups based on the Hounsfield unites (HU), and of which, 131 with HU less than 70 were classified as being normal (Control Group), 129 with HU 71-188 as fibrotic plaques (Group 2), and. 48 lesions with HU more than 188 as atherosclerotic plaques (Group 3). The mean TBR value in the normal group was 1.345 ± 0.58 while the mean TBR value in the fibrotic plaque group was 1.752 ± 1.50 (p 0.0043) and in atherosclerotic plaques group was (2.043 ± 1.76, p<0.0001). There was a significant correlation (p=0.0026) between 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake and the progression to formation of atherosclerotic plaques, based on HU. In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT showed significantly increased uptake in the fibrotic and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques compared to normal coronary arteries suggesting a potential role of this tracer for molecular assessment of coronary artery disease in this population.

Mojtahedi, Alireza; Alavi, Abass; Thamake, Sanjay; Amerinia, Reza; Ranganathan, David; Tworowska, Izabela; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

2015-01-01

119

Ceramides and sphingomyelinases in senile plaques.  

PubMed

The senile plaque is a hallmark lesion of Alzheimer disease (AD). We compared, without a priori, the lipidome of the senile plaques and of the adjacent plaque-free neuropil. The analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that laser microdissected senile plaques were enriched in saturated ceramides Cer(d18:1/18:0) and Cer(d18:1/20:0) by 33 and 78% respectively with respect to the surrounding neuropil. This accumulation of ceramides was not explained by their affinity for A? deposits: no interaction between ceramide-liposomes and A? fibrils was observed in vitro by surface plasmon resonance and fluorescent ceramide-liposomes showed no affinity for the senile plaques in AD brain tissue. Accumulation of ceramides could be, at least partially, the result of a local production by acid and neutral sphingomyelinases that we found to be present in the corona of the senile plaques. PMID:24486621

Panchal, Maï; Gaudin, Mathieu; Lazar, Adina N; Salvati, Elisa; Rivals, Isabelle; Ayciriex, Sophie; Dauphinot, Luce; Dargère, Delphine; Auzeil, Nicolas; Masserini, Massimo; Laprévote, Olivier; Duyckaerts, Charles

2014-05-01

120

Patient-Specific Carotid Plaque Progression Simulation Using 3D Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Models with Fluid-Structure Interactions Based on Serial In Vivo MRI Data.  

PubMed

Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression simulation adds time dimension to plaque vulnerability assessment and will improve prediction accuracy for potential plaque rupture risk. PMID:21927582

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya

2011-01-01

121

The relevance of Randall's plaques  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is not fully understood. The pioneering work of Alexander Randall in the 1940s sought to clarify our understanding of stone formation. This review traces the inception of the theory of Randall's plaques and the refinement of the hypothesis in the early days of kidney stone research. It then reviews the contemporary findings utilizing sophisticated investigative techniques that shed additional light on the pathophysiology and redefine the seminal findings of Dr. Randall that were made 70 years ago. PMID:24497683

Strakosha, Ruth; Monga, Manoj; Wong, Michael Y. C.

2014-01-01

122

Plaque and arterial vulnerability investigation in a three-layer atherosclerotic human coronary artery using computational fluid-structure interaction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

2014-08-01

123

CD105 positive neovessels are prevalent in early stage carotid lesions, and correlate with the grade in more advanced carotid and coronary plaques  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that expression of CD105 is a sensitive marker and indicator of endothelial cell/microvessel activation and proliferation in aggressive solid tumour growth and atherosclerotic plaque lesions. Since intimal neovascularization contributes significantly to subsequent plaque instability, haemorrhage and rupture. Methods We have used immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of CD105-positive vessels in both large (carotid) and medium calibre (coronary and middle cerebral artery, MCAs) diseased vessels in an attempt to identify any correlation with plaque growth, stage and complication/type. Results Here we show, that carotid arteries expressed intimal neovascularization associated with CD105-positive endothelial cells, concomitant with increased inflammation in early stage lesions, preatheroma (I-III) whilst they were not present in coronary plaques of the same grade. Some of these CD105-positive neovessels were immature, thin walled and without smooth muscle cell coverage making them more prone to haemorrhage and rupture. In high-grade lesions, neovessel proliferation was similar in both arterial types and significantly higher numbers of CD105-positive vasa vasorum were associated with plaque regions in coronary arteries. In contrast, although the MCAs exhibited expanded intimas and established plaques, there were very few CD105 positive neovessels. Conclusion Our results show that CD105 is a useful marker of angiogenesis within adventitial and intimal vessels and suggest the existence of significant differences in the pathological development of atherosclerosis in separate vascular beds which may have important consequences when considering management and treatment of this disease. PMID:19946414

Luque, Ana; Slevin, Mark; Turu, Marta M; Juan-Babot, Oriol; Badimon, Lina; Krupinski, Jerzy

2009-01-01

124

Macrophage heterogeneity in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The varied behaviour of macrophages and foam cells during atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae prompt the question whether all these activities can be the property of a single cell population. Recent findings Subsets of monocytes with distinct patterns of surface markers and behaviours during inflammation have recently been characterized and shown to have complementary roles during progression of atherosclerosis. A variety of macrophage phenotypes derived from these monocyte subsets in response to mediators of innate and acquired immunity have also been found in plaques. Based on functional properties and genomic signatures, they may have different impacts on facets of plaque development, including fibrous cap and lipid core formation. Summary Monocyte and macrophage phenotypic diversity is important in atherogenesis. More work is needed to define consistent marker sets for the different foam cell phenotypes in experimental animals and humans. Cell tracking studies are needed to establish their relationship with monocyte subtypes. In addition, genetic and pharmacological manipulation of phenotypes will be useful to define their functions and exploit the resulting therapeutic potential. PMID:19741337

Johnson, Jason L.; Newby, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

125

Blunt traumatic pericardial rupture.  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old man presented with left chest, head and limb injuries following a road traffic accident (RTA). Increasing haemodynamic instability necessitated an emergency left thoracotomy at which a complete rupture of the pericardium and herniation of the heart was found. After repair, the patient made an uneventful post-operative recovery. The aetiology, investigation and management of this rare injury is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7640832

Levine, A J; Collins, F J

1995-01-01

126

Rupture of Renal Transplant  

PubMed Central

Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A.

2015-01-01

127

Receptor-targeted Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Molecular MR Imaging of Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

In a number of literature reports iron oxide nanoparticles have been investigated for use in imaging atherosclerotic plaques and found to accumulate in plaques via uptake by macrophages, which are critical in the process of atheroma initiation, propagation, and rupture. However, the uptake of these agents is nonspecific, thus the labeling efficiency for plaques in vivo is not ideal. We have developed targeted agents to improve the efficiency for labeling macrophage-laden plaques. These probes are based on iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran sulfate, a ligand of macrophage scavenger receptor type A (SR-A). We have sulfated dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIO) with sulfur trioxide, thereby targeting our nanoparticle imaging agents to SR-A. The sulfated DIO (SDIO) remained mono-dispersed and had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 62 nm, an r1 relaxivity of 18.1 mM?1s?1, and an r2 relaxivity of 95.8 mM?1s?1 (37 °C, 1.4 T). Cell studies confirmed that these nanoparticles were nontoxic and specifically targeted to macrophages. In vivo MRI after intravenous injection of the contrast agent into an atherosclerotic mouse injury model showed substantial signal loss on the injured carotid at 4 and 24 hours post-injection of SDIO. No discernable signal decrease was seen at the control carotid and only mild signal loss was observed for the injured carotid post-injection of non-sulfated DIO, indicating preferential uptake of the SDIO particles at the site of atherosclerotic plaque. These results indicate that SDIO can facilitate MRI detection and diagnosis of vulnerable plaques in atherosclerosis. PMID:21742374

Tu, Chuqiao; Ng, Thomas S.C.; Sohi, Hargun; Palko, Heather; House, Adrian; Jacobs, Russell E.; Louie, Angelique Y.

2011-01-01

128

Fibrin Deposition in Peyronie's Disease Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePeyronie's disease is a pathological fibrosis characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the plaque. Although the etiology of Peyronie's disease is unknown, trauma has been hypothesized as the inciting event. In an effort to obtain more insight into the pathogenesis of Peyronie's disease plaque tissue was examined for collagen, elastic fiber, and fibrin content and distribution.

Kenneth D. Somers; Dawn M. Dawson

1997-01-01

129

Iron plaque formation on seagrasses: Why not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) plaque formation is a well known phenomenon in wetland, freshwater and salt marsh species; however there are no reports about Fe plaque occurrence in seagrasses. Here we review the main factors regulating Fe deposition on the roots and rhizomes of plants from reduced sediments\\/soils, and discuss these factors in relation to marine environment. Moreover, we present some early

K atrina Povidisa; Marianne Holmer

2008-01-01

130

The clinical value of histological femoral artery plaque analysis.  

E-print Network

??This thesis shows that the dissected femoral atherosclerotic plaque contains a predictive value for clinical outcome after femoral endarterectomy. Plaque histology analysis should be incorporated… (more)

Derksen, W.J.M.

2011-01-01

131

Update on the Pathophysiological Role of Intracellular Signaling Pathways in Atherosclerotic Plaques and Ischemic Myocardium  

PubMed Central

Acute atherosclerotic complications, such as myocardial infarction, are often provoked by the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque and the subsequent thrombotic occlusion of the arterial lumen, which interrupts the blood flow and renders ischemic the downstream peripheral tissue. Several inflammatory mediators (including cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteases) have been shown to orchestrate common pathophysiological mechanisms regulating both plaque vulnerability and myocardial injury. In particular, the selective activation of certain protective intracellular signaling pathways might represent a promising target to reduce the dramatic consequences of an ischemic cardiac event. In the present review we will update evidence on the active role of intracellular kinase cascades (such as mitogen-activated protein kinases [MAPKs], Akt, Janus kinase [JAK]-signal transducer and activator of transcription [STAT]) to reduce the global patient vulnerability for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22754427

Montecucco, Fabrizio; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Viviani, Giorgio Luciano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Mach, François

2012-01-01

132

Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

Hunt, James B.

1990-01-01

133

Ruptured Spleen as a Differential Diagnosis in Ruptured Tubal Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Two cases of traumatic biphasic or secondary splenic rupture are presented to demonstrate the clinical picture of an entity the obstetrician-gynecologist will be encountering more commonly in the future. The signs and symptoms of this condition figured prominently in the differential diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy. PMID:6737489

Weekes, Leroy R.

1984-01-01

134

Effect of Time-dependent Rupture on Tsunami Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential GPS data from the recent Chile 2009 and Japan 2011 seismic events have unveiled complex time-dependent ground motion dynamics during seismic rupture. Current tsunami modeling techniques usually ignore this time-dependent behavior in tsunami sources by assuming an instantaneous initial deformation field. Initial attempts to include time-dependent rupture behavior have motivated scientists to simulate this phenomenon as a series of instantaneous changes in the sea-floor. The present study investigates the effect of dynamic ground motion rupture on tsunami generation by including the time-dependent initial conditions in the derivation of the linear shallow-water wave equations. We then study the sensitivity of initial water surface deformation to time-dependent seafloor rupture by performing a parametric study of varying speed and rupture direction, while assuming a monotonic deformation from an initial pre-rupture state to a post-rupture final state. Numerical results for some selected scenarios are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of the non-homogeneous linear shallow-water equations.

Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.

2013-12-01

135

Identification of Noncalcified Plaque in Young Persons with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a valuable tool for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD). Although statin use is widely recommended for persons with diabetes older than age 40, little is known about the presence and severity of CAD in younger patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary CTA in young persons with both DM1 and DM2 in an attempt to detect the earliest objective evidence of arteriosclerosis eligible for primary prevention. Methods and Materials We prospectively enrolled 40 persons with DM (25 type 1 and 15 type 2) between the ages of 19 and 35 presenting with diabetes for 5 years or longer. All patients underwent coronary CTA and CAC scans to evaluate for early atherosclerotic disease. Each plaque in the coronary artery was classified as noncalcified or calcified-mixed. We also evaluated all segments with stenosis, dividing them into mild (<50%), moderate (50–70%), and severe (>70%). Results The average age of the DM1 subjects were 26 ± 4 (SD) years and 30 ± 4 years for DM2 patients (P < .01), with duration of diabetes of 8 ± 5 years and average HbA1c% of 8.7 ± 1.6 (norm = 4.6–6.2). Abnormal scans were present in 57.5%, noncalcified in 35% and calcified-mixed plaque in 22.5%. Persons with DM2 had a higher prevalence of positive coronary CTA scans than DM1: 80% versus 44% (P < .03) and more positive CAC scores 53% versus 4%, (P < .01). The total segment score of 2.1 ± 3.4 (P < .01) and total plaque score 1.9 ± 2.8 (P < .01) were highly correlated to each other. Plaque was almost uniformly absent below age 25, and became increasingly common in individuals over the age of 25 years for both groups. The average radiation exposure was 2.5 ± 1.3 mSv. Conclusion Our study verifies that early CAD can be diagnosed with coronary CTA and minimal radiation exposure in young adults with DM. A negative CAC score was not sufficient to exclude early CAD as we observed a preponderance of noncalcified plaque in this cohort. Coronary CTA in young DM patients older than age 25 may provide earlier identification of disease than does a CAC because only non-calcified plaque is frequently present. Coronary CTA provides an opportunity to consider initiation of earlier primary CAD prevention rather than waiting for the age of 40 as currently recommended by the American Diabetes Association guidelines. PMID:22542200

Madaj, Paul M.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Li, Dong; Tayek, John A.; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Karpman, Harold L.

2014-01-01

136

Antibody-Labeled Liposomes for CT Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the specific binding of anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes, or ILs) to activated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with the purpose of designing a computed tomographic imaging agent for early detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Covalent attachment of anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies to pre-formed liposomes stabilized with polyethylene glycol yielded ILs, with a coupling efficiency of the ICAM-1 to the liposomes of 10% to 24%. The anti-ICAM-1–labeled ILs had an average diameter of 136 nm as determined by dynamic light-scattering and cryogenic electron microscopy. The ILs' encapsulation of 5-[N-acetyl-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-amino)-N, N?-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2,4,6-triiodo-benzene-1,3-dicarboxamide (iohexol) was determined to be 18% to 19% by a dialysis technique coupled with ultraviolet detection of free iohexol. This encapsulation corresponded to 30 to 38 mg iodine per mL IL solution, and the ILs exhibited 91% to 98.5% iohexol retention at room temperature and under physiologic conditions. The specific binding of the ILs to cultured, activated HCAEC was measured using flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and fluorescence microscopy. The immunosorbent assays demonstrated the specificity of binding of anti-ICAM-1 to ICAM-1 compared with control studies using nonspecific immunoglobulin G-labeled ILs. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrated the expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of activated HCAEC. Therefore, our iohexol-filled ILs demonstrated potential for implementation in computed tomographic angiography to noninvasively detect atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture. PMID:19876414

Danila, Delia; Partha, Ranga; Elrod, Don B.; Lackey, Melinda; Casscells, S. Ward; Conyers, Jodie L.

2009-01-01

137

Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

2002-01-01

138

CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

139

Modeling rupture of growing aneurysms.  

PubMed

Growth and rupture of aneurysms are driven by micro-structural alterations of the arterial wall yet precise mechanisms underlying the process remain to be uncovered. In the present work we examine a scenario when the aneurysm evolution is dominated by turnover of collagen fibers. In the latter case it is natural to hypothesize that rupture of individual fibers (or their bonds) causes the overall aneurysm rupture. We examine this hypothesis in computer simulations of growing aneurysms in which constitutive equations describe both collagen evolution and failure. Failure is enforced in constitutive equations by limiting strain energy that can be accumulated in a fiber. Within the proposed theoretical framework we find a range of parameters that lead to the aneurysm rupture. We conclude in a qualitative agreement with clinical observations that some aneurysms will rupture while others will not. PMID:24359675

Balakhovsky, K; Jabareen, M; Volokh, K Y

2014-02-01

140

Ground Motion Levels From Deeper Versus Shallower Fault Rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Somerville (2000) found a systematic difference in the level of earthquake ground motions for three M 7.2-7.6 earthquakes with large surface ruptures, and three M 6.7-7.0 earthquakes on buried faults. He found that the acceleration spectra of the smaller events are much larger than the 1994 UCB code spectrum for soil site conditions in the intermediate period range of 0.5-2.5 seconds, but similar to the UCB code spectrum at longer periods. He pointed out that this is contrary to all current earthquake source models and ground motion spectral scaling with magnitude. We have tested the results by Somerville using dynamic rupture modeling. We compare a 45o-dipping, 5 km buried thrust fault to a 30o-dipping thrust fault that breaks the surface in a halfspace model with uniform dynamic rupture parameters on the faults. The seismic moments of the two dynamic ruptures amount to 3.4 ? 1019 Nm (M 7.0) in the first, and 5.3 ? 1019 Nm (M 7.1) in the latter case. The increased seismic moment for the surface rupture is due to the time-dependent normal-stress interaction of the wavefield with the free surface. We find that, compared to those for the buried rupture, the surface rupture shows larger spectral accelerations for periods between 0.33 and 5 seconds. Thus, our dynamic simulations can not confirm the observations from Somerville (2000), and we conclude that his results are not a first-order dynamic effect related to the depth of burial of the fault. Finally, we test whether dynamic rupture modeling can explain the differences by in ground motion levels from a combination of smaller fault areas and larger slip velocities for buried faults relative to those for scenarios with surface rupture (Somerville et al., 2002).

Gottschaemmer, E.; Olsen, K. B.

2002-12-01

141

Toward the Rapid Imaging of Large Earthquake Rupture Zones with Teleseismic P-waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current bottleneck in the prompt estimation of ground shaking associated with large earthquakes is the determination of the rupture length and geometry, rupture propagation direction, and spatial distribution of seismic moment release. The relative locations of the first-motion hypocenter, the early aftershocks, and the Harvard centroid moment tensor are currently the most rapidly obtained data that are used for

K. Walker; P. Shearer; M. Ishii; P. Earle

2005-01-01

142

Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-04-01

143

The Dental Plaque Microbiome in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU’s reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression. PMID:23520516

Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Liu, Jia; Ong, Ana C.; Kilian, Mogens; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter

2013-01-01

144

Carotid Plaque Assessment using Fast 3D Isotropic-Resolution Black-Blood MRI  

PubMed Central

Black-blood MRI is a promising tool for carotid atherosclerotic plaque burden assessment and compositional analysis. However, current sequences are limited by large slice thickness. Accuracy of measurement can be improved by moving to isotropic imaging but can be challenging for patient compliance due to long scan times. We present a fast isotropic high spatial resolution (0.7×0.7×0.7mm) 3D black-blood sequence (3D-MERGE) covering the entire cervical carotid arteries within 2 minutes thus ensuring patient compliance and diagnostic image quality. The sequence is optimized for vessel wall imaging of the carotid bifurcation based on its signal properties. The optimized sequence is validated on patients with significant carotid plaque. Quantitative plaque morphology measurements and SNR measures show that 3D MERGE provides good blood suppression and comparable plaque burden measurements to existing MRI protocols. 3D-MERGE is a promising new tool for fast and accurate plaque burden assessment in patients with atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:20941742

Balu, Niranjan; Yarnykh, Vasily L.; Chu, Baocheng; Wang, Jinnan; Hatsukami, Thomas; Yuan, Chun

2010-01-01

145

In Vitro Shear Stress Measurements Using Particle Image Velocimetry in a Family of Carotid Artery Models: Effect of Stenosis Severity, Plaque Eccentricity, and Ulceration  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry) and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases) were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features – i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration). The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged) shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2–16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS) and approximately double (4–36 Pa) for wall shear stress (WSS). Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (?20 ms) through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent) shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses. PMID:25007248

Kefayati, Sarah; Milner, Jaques S.; Holdsworth, David W.; Poepping, Tamie L.

2014-01-01

146

Creep Ruptures in Heterogeneous Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to rupture. We discover that the rupture time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of rupture prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths.

Nechad, H.; Helmstetter, A.; El Guerjouma, R.; Sornette, D.

2005-01-01

147

Amyloid Plaques in PSAPP Mice Bind Less Metal than Plaques in Human Alzheimer's Disease  

SciTech Connect

Amyloid beta (A{Beta}) is the primary component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high degree of neurodegeneration observed in humans. In this study, we imaged the Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ca ion distribution in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model representing end-stage AD (N = 6) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe. In order to account for differences in density in the plaques, the relative protein content was imaged with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same samples. FTIRM results revealed a 61% increase in protein content in the plaques compared to the surrounding tissue. After normalizing to protein density, we found that the PSAPP plaques contained only a 29% increase in Zn and there was actually less Cu, Fe, and Ca in the plaque compared to the surrounding tissue. Since metal binding to A{beta} is thought to induce redox chemistry that is toxic to neurons, the reduced metal binding in PSAPP mice is consistent with the lack of neurodegeneration in these animals. These findings were in stark contrast to the high metal ion content observed in human AD plaques, further implicating the role of metal ions in human AD pathology.

Leskovjan, A.; Lanzirotti, A; Miller, L

2009-01-01

148

Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial ante- rior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and to allow dis- tinction of partial from complete ACL ruptures. Materials and methods. Eighty-eight patients were stud- ied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL ruptures, and 31 with complete ACL ruptures). MR

Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Leonard Petrus; Joong K. Lee

1995-01-01

149

Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 2012, 190(2): 1152-1168. [2]Yao H, Gerstoft P, Shearer P M, et al. Compressive sensing of the Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake: Frequency-dependent rupture modes. Geophysical Research Letters, 2011, 38(20).

Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

2013-12-01

150

Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.  

PubMed

Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota. PMID:25177549

Peterson, Scott N; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

2014-01-01

151

EARTHQUAKE RUPTURES ON ROUGH FAULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Natural fault surfaces exhibit roughness at all scales, with root-mean-square height fluctuations of order 10??3 to 10??2 times the profile length. We study earthquake rupture propagation on such faults, using strongly rate-weakening fault friction\\u000a and off-fault plasticity. Inelastic deformation bounds stresses to reasonable values and prevents fault opening. Stress perturbations\\u000a induced by slip on rough faults cause irregular rupture propagation

Eric M. Dunham; Jeremy E. Kozdon; David Belanger; Lin Cong

152

Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

2007-01-01

153

The Role of Geometric and Biomechanical Factors in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

The current clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is based to a great extent on measuring the aneurysm maximum diameter to decide when timely intervention is required. Decades of clinical evidence show that aneurysm diameter is positively associated with the risk of rupture, but other parameters may also play a role in causing or predisposing the AAA to rupture. Geometric factors such as vessel tortuosity, intraluminal thrombus volume, and wall surface area are implicated in the differentiation of ruptured and unruptured AAAs. Biomechanical factors identified by means of computational modeling techniques, such as peak wall stress, have been positively correlated with rupture risk with a higher accuracy and sensitivity than maximum diameter alone. The objective of this review is to examine these factors, which are found to influence AAA disease progression, clinical management and rupture potential, as well as to highlight on-going research by our group in aneurysm modeling and rupture risk assessment. PMID:23508633

Raut, Samarth S.; Chandra, Santanu; Shum, Judy; Finol, Ender A.

2013-01-01

154

Ruptured left ventricular false aneurysm following acute myocardial infarction: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

False aneurysms of the left ventricle complicating acute myocardial infarction are rare. Given they are only contained by pericardial adhesions, they are prone to rupture and hence surgical repair is mandatory. We report a successful repair of a ruptured false aneurysm and then briefly review the current literature. PMID:25150648

Villanueva, Claudia; Milder, David; Manganas, Con

2014-12-01

155

Numerical Simulations of Large Earthquakes: Dynamic Rupture Propagation on Heterogeneous Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our current conceptions of earthquake rupture dynamics, especially for large earthquakes, require knowledge of the geometry of the faults involved in the rupture, the material properties of the rocks surrounding the faults, the initial state of stress on the faults, and a constitutive formulation that determines when the faults can slip. In numerical simulations each of these factors appears to

Ruth A. Harris

2004-01-01

156

Numerical Simulations of Large Earthquakes: Dynamic Rupture Propagation on Heterogeneous Faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

— Our current conceptions of earthquake rupture dynamics, especially for large earthquakes, require knowledge of the geometry of the faults involved in the rupture, the material properties of the rocks surrounding the faults, the initial state of stress on the faults, and a constitutive formulation that determines when the faults can slip. In numerical simulations each of these factors appears

Ruth A. Harris

2004-01-01

157

18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 (original drawing in possession of City Engineer's Office Grand Rapids, Michigan) DEDICATION PLAQUE. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, Kent County, MI

158

Estimation of nonlinear mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques  

E-print Network

A numerical method has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques by combining genetic algorithm with finite element methods. Plaque images derived from optical coherence tomography ...

Zhu, Ting F. (Ting Fredrick)

2005-01-01

159

Treating cardiovascular atherosclerotic plaques with Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaques can cause serious syndromes and mortality. Cholesterol accumulation in the plaques can disrupt the arterial flow, with lumen narrowing and stenosis, which contributes to heart attack and sudden cardiac death. The pharmacological treatment to atherosclerotic plaques can be anti-hypertensives, anti-cholesterol, and cleaning of the existed plaques. This work examined the effects of pharmacological Tongmaijiangzhi (TMJZ) capsule on atherosclerotic plaques. The radiological findings of the atherosclerotic plaques of 107 patients receiving TMJZ treatment were analyzed. We found that the TMJZ administration decreases plaque volume and alters the composition in a relatively short period, showing highly promising effects. TMJZ treatment is able to remove the existed atherosclerotic plaques with no side effects observed. PMID:24311866

Ren, Hong-Qiang; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhong Shuang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Li; Duan, Jun Cang; Li, Li; Zhai, Zhi Hong; Qu, De Tao; Huang, Hui

2013-01-01

160

Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques  

PubMed Central

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010

2014-01-01

161

Assessment of plaque composition by intravascular ultrasound and near-infrared spectroscopy: from PROSPECT I to PROSPECT II.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is today the leading cause of death worldwide and will continue to be the first in the world in 2030. Vulnerable coronary plaques are usually characterized by a high content of necrotic core, a thin inflamed fibrous cap (intense accumulation of macrophages) and scarce presence of smooth muscle cells. None of these characteristics can be estimated by coronary angiography, which on the contrary underestimates the magnitude of atherosclerotic burden, particularly in earlier stage disease when positive vascular remodeling may allow "normal" lumen caliber despite substantial vascular wall plaque. The recognition of the ubiquity of substantial but non-flow limiting lesions that may be at high risk for subsequent plaque rupture has resulted in a paradigm shift in thinking about the pathophysiology of CAD, with the focus no longer solely on the degree of arterial luminal narrowing. This growing need for more information about coronary atherosclerosis in order to identify patients and lesions at risk for complications during PCI and for future adverse cardiac events has been the primary impetus for the development of novel intracoronary imaging methods able to detect plaque composition, in particular presence of a necrotic core/lipid pool, such as intravascular ultrasound virtual histology and near-infrared spectroscopy. These imaging technologies and their clinical and clinical/research applications are discussed in detail. PMID:24931516

Brugaletta, Salvatore; Sabaté, Manel

2014-01-01

162

Requirements for imaging vulnerable plaque in the coronary artery using a coded aperture imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coded aperture1 plate was employed on a conventional gamma camera for 3D single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging on small animal models. The coded aperture design was selected to improve the spatial resolution and decrease the minimum detectable activity (MDA) required to image plaque formation in the APoE (apolipoprotein E) gene deficient mouse model when compared to conventional SPECT techniques. The pattern that was tested was a no-two-holes-touching (NTHT) modified uniformly redundant array (MURA) having 1,920 pinholes. The number of pinholes combined with the thin sintered tungsten plate was designed to increase the efficiency of the imaging modality over conventional gamma camera imaging methods while improving spatial resolution and reducing noise in the image reconstruction. The MDA required to image the vulnerable plaque in a human cardiac-torso mathematical phantom was simulated with a Monte Carlo code and evaluated to determine the optimum plate thickness by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) yielding the lowest possible MDA and highest area under the curve (AUC). A partial 3D expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction was developed to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, and spatial resolution over the linear correlation method of reconstruction. This improvement was evaluated by imaging a mini hot rod phantom, simulating the dynamic range, and by performing a bone scan of the C-57 control mouse. Results of the experimental and simulated data as well as other plate designs were analyzed for use as a small animal and potentially human cardiac imaging modality for a radiopharmaceutical developed at Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging Company, North Billerica, MA, for diagnosing vulnerable plaques. If left untreated, these plaques may rupture causing sudden, unexpected coronary occlusion and death. The results of this research indicated that imaging and reconstructing with this new partial 3D algorithm improved the SNR, spatial resolution, dynamic range of 4:1 to 6:1, and decreased the MDA required at the site of a plaque by twofold in comparison with other nuclear medicine imaging methods. Recommendations to increase the field of view (FOV) along with a better imaging geometry would enable placement of larger objects (human heart included) within the fully encoded FOV while improving spatial resolution, magnification factors, and efficiency. Further improvements to the algorithm and imaging system may enable novel vulnerable plaque imaging and early detection of coronary artery disease. 1See definitions beginning on page xvii.

Tozian, Cynthia

163

Red plaque on a high school wrestler.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old freshman on a nationally ranked high school wrestling team had a 1-week history of a pruritic plaque on his left arm. He had no history of atopic dermatitis or a similar lesion. He had been treating the lesion with over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream for 7 days without resolution. PMID:20086564

Adams, B B

2001-02-01

164

Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

2007-01-01

165

Microanalysis of Alzheimer disease NFT and plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron probe energy dispersive microanalysis of isolated andin situ neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic (senile) plaque cores have been done to investigate the levels of Al, Si, Ca and Fe in the leading lesions of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Varying levels of Si and Al, and to a lesser extent Ca, have been co-localized in about one half of the NFT

R. C. Moretz; K. Iqbal; H. M. Wisniewski

1990-01-01

166

Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

2014-01-01

167

Linear milia en plaque on the forearm.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on his right forearm and the dorsum of the hand present for 2 weeks. There was no history of trauma, prolonged sun exposure, or application of or contact with any substance prior to the development of lesions. He was a known hypertensive and diabetic and was taking treatment for these conditions. The rest of his history was noncontributory. On examination, multiple grouped tiny white papules were found on both normal skin and on the erythematous plaque. These papules were of almost uniform size (2-4 mm) and were notable for absence of umbilication. The erythematous plaque was roughly 15 cm in length and was extending along the ulnar border of forearm and dorsum of hand in a linear pattern (Figure 1). The surface temperature of the plaque appeared similar to the surrounding area, and the surface was studded with multiple tiny white papules. There were no lesions suggestive of chronic actinic damage in the surrounding area. The papules revealed solid whitish material on expression with a needle. The rest of the mucocutaneous examination was noncontributory. Based on clinical presentation, a diagnosis of linear milia en plaque was made. PMID:25335356

Kumar, Piyush; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

2014-01-01

168

Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.  

PubMed

The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

2014-01-01

169

Plaque assay and replication of Tipula iridescent virus in Spodoptera frugiperda ovarian cells.  

PubMed

A plaque assay was developed for the study of Tipula iridescent virus (TIV) replication using a cell line derived from the fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9). Infection and plaque formation were monitored with time by phase contrast microscopy, video and fluorescent light microscopy. Structure of virions, viroplasmic centres and organelles of infected cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 4 h postinfection, plaques were visibly detected within the cell monolayer by the presence of localized cell damage and production of numerous vesicular-like cytoplasmic structures. Quantitation of virions present per A260 unit of TIV preparation was determined by TEM. The number of visible plaques corresponded to virus concentration and 1 A260 produced approximately 10(5) plaques. DNA hybridization analysis revealed no gross differences in genomic DNA from TIV propagated in either Sf9 cells or wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae. These findings indicate that Sf9 is permissive for replication of TIV and superior by some parameters to other cell lines currently in use for the study of host cell/TIV interactions. PMID:7839010

Czuba, M; Tajbakhsh, S; Walker, T; Dove, M J; Johnson, B F; Seligy, V L

1994-01-01

170

IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution  

E-print Network

IVUS-based Histology of Atherosclerotic plaques: Improving Longitudinal Resolution Arash Takia ABSTRACT Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque is the Virtual Histology (VH).3 VH provides a colored coded plaque characterization image by analyzing

Yanikoglu, Berrin

171

In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques  

PubMed Central

A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

2014-01-01

172

Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with the current hypothesized biological triggers of pathological remodeling of the artery walls. Having a good natural ratio of statuses in our IA cohort (55 unruptured vs. 19 ruptured), we were able to test the statistical significance of our predictor to fortify our findings. We also performed a distribution analysis of our cohort with respect to the number of WKV to strengthen the encouraging statistical analysis result; both analyses provided a clear good separation of the status of the aneurysms based on our predictor. Lastly, we constructed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the power different thresholds of WKV had in splitting the data in a binary way (unruptured/ruptured). The number of WKV was efficaciously able to stratify the rupture status, identifying 84.21 % of the ruptured aneurysms (with 25.45 % of false positives, i.e. unruptured IAs tagged as ruptured) when using a threshold value of 2. Our novel work undertaken to study the vortex structures in IAs brought to light interesting characteristics of the flow in the aneurysmal sac. We found that there are several distinct categories in which the aneurysm vortex topologies can be put in without relationship to the aneurysm rupture status. This first finding was in contradiction with available already-published results. Nonetheless, ruptured IAs had a statistically significant larger amount of WKV as opposed to unruptured aneurysms. This new predictor we propose to the community could very well clear a new path among the currently controversial WSS-based parameters. Although it needs to be improved to be more resilient, the first results obtained by the WKV-based parameter are promising when applied to a large dataset of 74 IAs patient-specific transient CFD simulations.

Trylesinski, Gabriel

173

In Vivo MRI Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Using Magnetic Susceptibility Distinguishes Symptom-Producing Plaques  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated iron's role in atherosclerosis and plaque instability with a novel approach to in vivo atherosclerotic plaque characterization using noninvasive, noncontrast magnetic resonance-based T2* measurement. We validated this approach using ex vivo plaque analyses to establish that T2* reflects intraplaque iron composition. Background Iron catalyzes free radical production, a key step for lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis development. The parameter T2* measures tissue magnetic susceptibility, historically has been used to quantify hepatic and myocardial iron. To date, T2* measurement has not been previously developed for in vivo plaque characterization in patients with atherosclerosis. Methods Thirty-nine patients referred for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively enrolled to undergo preoperative carotid MRI and postoperative analysis of the explanted plaque. Clinical history of any symptoms attributable to each carotid lesion was recorded. Results MRI could not be completed in 4 subjects due to claustrophobia, and three patients scanned prior to the use of a neck stabilizer had motion artifact precluding quantification. In the remaining subjects, symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients had significantly lower plaque T2* values (20.0±1.8 vs. 34.4±2.7 ms, respectively, p<0.001). Analytical methods demonstrated similar total iron (138.6±36.5 vs. 165.8±48.3 mg/kg, p=NS) but less low-molecular weight Fe(III) (7.3±3.8 vs. 17.7±4.0 nmol/mg, p<0.05) in the explanted plaques of symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients, respectively, consistent with a shift in iron from Fe(III) to higher amounts of T2*-shortening forms of iron. Mass spectroscopy also showed significantly lower calcium (37.5±10.8 vs. 123.6±19.3 g/kg, p<0.01) and higher copper (3.2±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.1 mg/kg, p<0.01) in plaques from symptomatic patients. Conclusions In vivo measurement of intraplaque T2* using MRI is feasible and reproducible, and distinguishes symptom-producing from non-symptom producing plaques in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis. Symptom-producing plaques demonstrated characteristic changes in iron forms by ex vivo analysis, supporting the dynamic presence of iron in the microenvironment of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:19356405

Raman, Subha V.; Winner, Marshall W.; Tran, Tam; Velayutham, Murugesan; Simonetti, Orlando P.; Baker, Peter B.; Olesik, John; McCarthy, Beth; Ferketich, Amy K.; Zweier, Jay L.

2009-01-01

174

Differentiating atherosclerotic plaque burden in arterial tissues using femtosecond CARS-based multimodal nonlinear optical imaging  

PubMed Central

A femtosecond CARS-based nonlinear optical microscope was used to simultaneously image extracellular structural proteins and lipid-rich structures within intact aortic tissue obtained from myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits (WHHLMI). Clear differences in the NLO microscopic images were observed between healthy arterial tissue and regions dominated by atherosclerotic lesions. In the current ex-vivo study, we present a single parameter based on intensity changes derived from multi-channel NLO image to classify plaque burden within the vessel. Using this parameter we were able to differentiate between healthy regions of the vessel and regions with plaque, as well as distinguish plaques relative to the age of the WHHLMI rabbit. PMID:21258446

Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Sowa, Michael G.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Smith, Michael S. D.; Hewko, Mark D.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Ko, Alex C.-T.

2010-01-01

175

Non-popliteal synovial rupture.  

PubMed

The ruptured popliteal synovial cyst is a common complication of chronic knee arthritis. In contrast, non-popliteal synovial rupture is less well recognized and may present a diagnostic dilemma. We report an 81-year-old woman who presented with chest wall pain and ecchymosis. Ultrasonography of the shoulder region readily diagnosed a dissecting parasynovial cyst. She developed the unusual complication of contralateral recurrence. Literature review revealed a small but important set of non-popliteal synovial ruptures in the regions of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, spine, hip, knee, and ankle. Local swelling, inflammation, ecchymosis, and nerve impingement may mimic other conditions. Awareness of the clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to avoid diagnostic confusion. Management data are limited to case reports of arthrocentesis, injection, and very rarely, surgery. PMID:19390451

Sit, Michelle; Higgs, Jay B

2009-06-01

176

Predictive biomechanical analysis of ascending aortic aneurysm rupture potential  

PubMed Central

Aortic aneurysm is a leading cause of death in adults, often taking lives without any premonitory signs or symptoms. Adverse clinical outcomes of aortic aneurysm are preventable by elective surgical repair; however, identifying at-risk individuals is difficult. The objective of this study was to perform a predictive biomechanical analysis of ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA) tissue to assess rupture risk on a patient-specific level. AsAA tissues, obtained intra-operatively from 50 patients, were subjected to biaxial mechanical and uniaxial failure tests to obtain their passive elastic mechanical properties. A novel analytical method was developed to predict the AsAA pressure-diameter response as well as the aortic wall yield and failure responses. Our results indicated that the mean predicted AsAA diameter at rupture was 5.6 ± 0.7 cm, and the associated blood pressure to induce rupture was 579.4 ± 214.8 mmHg. Statistical analysis showed significant positive correlation between aneurysm tissue compliance and predicted risk of rupture, where patients with a pressure-strain modulus ?100 kPa may be nearly twice as likely to experience rupture than patients with more compliant aortic tissue. The mechanical analysis of pre-dissection patient tissue properties established in this study could predict the “future” onset of yielding and rupture in AsAA patients. The analysis results implicate decreased tissue compliance as a risk factor for AsAA rupture. The presented methods may serve as a basis for the development of a pre-operative planning tool for AsAA evaluation, a tool currently unavailable. PMID:23948500

Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Pham, Thuy; Elefteriades, John

2013-01-01

177

Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

Zoutendyk, John A.

1993-01-01

178

Magnitude scaling of the near fault rupture directivity pulse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ground motion models all assume monotonically increasing spectral amplitude at all periods with increasing magnitude. However, near fault recordings from recent earthquakes confirm that the near fault fault-normal forward rupture directivity velocity pulse is a narrow band pulse whose period increases with magnitude. This magnitude dependence of the period of the near fault pulse is expected from theory, because

Paul G. Somerville

2003-01-01

179

Ruptures of the rotator cuff.  

PubMed Central

Through the use of improved diagnostic techniques, including arthrography and arthroscopy, ruptures of the rotator cuff that previously might not have been recognized are now being identified more frequently. In most cases the symptoms are relatively mild and respond satisfactorily to rest and therapy. Occasionally, however, there is severe, persistent disability despite treatment. These ruptures require surgical repair. In such cases the data obtained from special investigations help the surgeon select the appropriate surgical approach and repair technique. An imaginative program of physiotherapy before and after the operation contributes greatly to a satisfactory result. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7437980

Ha'eri, G B

1980-01-01

180

Spontaneous Forniceal Rupture in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Forniceal rupture is a rare event in pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old primigravid woman who experienced a forniceal rupture at 23 weeks of gestation with no inciting cause except for pregnancy. Pregnancy is associated with ureteral compression due to increase in pelvic vasculature with the right ureter more dilated due to anatomic reasons. Hormones such as prostaglandins and progesterone render the ureter more distensible to allow for pressure build-up and an obstructive picture at the collecting system. We will discuss physiologic changes in pregnancies that predispose to this uncommon phenomenon and the most up-to-date management strategies. PMID:25648411

Upputalla, Roshni; Moore, Robert M.; Jim, Belinda

2015-01-01

181

Impact of enucleation versus plaque radiotherapy in the management of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma on patient survival.  

PubMed Central

The records of 265 consecutive patients with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma were reviewed and a statistical non-randomised retrospective study was performed to evaluate the risk for metastasis and compare the survival rate of patients treated with plaque radiotherapy or enucleation. To obtain sufficient overlap between the enucleation and plaque radiotherapy, the statistical analysis was limited to an adjusted subgroup of 127 patients who met eligibility criteria for plaque radiotherapy and who had a minimum of 3 years of follow up after treatment. In the adjusted subgroup of 127 patients, 92 patients (72%) were initially treated with enucleation and 35 (28%) with plaque radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate logistic analysis models, the age of the patient (> 50 years), tumour thickness (> 3 mm), and treatment by age interaction were found to be significant factors for development of distant metastasis. In patients younger than 50 years, the method of treatment (enucleation versus plaque radiotherapy) did not significantly affect the risk of metastasis. For those older than 50 years, there was a non-significant trend for patients in the enucleation group to be at a higher risk for metastasis than those in the plaque group. In the enucleation group, patients older than 50 years had a significantly higher incidence of distant metastasis than those younger than 50 years. In the plaque radiotherapy group, there was no significant higher incidence of metastasis in patients younger than 50 years than in those older than 50 years. When a Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the survival rate, there was the same statistically significant effect of treatment by age interaction as was found in the multivariate logistic model on survival time. Moreover, there was a significant effect of treatment by tumour thickness interaction on survival time. Patients in the enucleation group had a better survival rate when the thickness of the tumour was less than 3 mm compared with a tumour of more than 3 mm. There were no apparent effects of tumour thickness on survival for patients treated with plaque radiotherapy. From these results, the authors currently recommend plaque radiotherapy as a viable option to enucleation in patients with juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. PMID:8123617

De Potter, P; Shields, C L; Shields, J A; Cater, J R; Tardio, D J

1994-01-01

182

Therapeutic strategies to deplete macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Macrophages can be found in all stages of atherosclerosis and are major contributors of atherosclerotic plaque development, progression and destabilization. Continuous recruitment of monocytes drives this chronic inflammatory disease, which can be intervened by several strategies: reducing the inflammatory stimulus by lowering circulating lipids and promoting cholesterol efflux from plaque, direct and indirect targeting of adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in monocyte adhesion and transmigration and inducing macrophage death in atherosclerotic plaques in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs. This review discusses the outlined strategies to deplete macrophages from atherosclerotic plaques to promote plaque stabilization. PMID:22309283

De Meyer, Inge; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.

2012-01-01

183

Properties of Rupture Pulses Induced by Damaged Fault Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) are found in most mature faults. They are usually 100-400 m wide and have ~20%-60% wave velocity reductions relative to the country rock. To study the effect of LVFZs on earthquake rupture and the radiated wavefield, we conduct 2D spectral element simulations of dynamic rupture on faults that bisect a LVFZ, considering a range of velocity reductions and widths. Most earthquakes apparently have slip rise times much shorter than their overall rupture duration. A number of dynamic mechanisms for such pulse-like ruptures have been proposed, including frictional self-healing, fault strength heterogeneities and bimaterial effects. We find that ruptures in LVFZs with strong enough wave velocity contrast behave as pulses. These pulses are generated by fault locking induced by waves reflected from the boundaries of the LVFZ. Their rise time is proportional to the wave travel time across the LVFZ. Pure pulse-like rupture is favored by high velocity reduction and narrow width of the LVFZ. This mechanism of pulse generation is robust to variations of initial stress, smoothness of the LVFZ structure, rupture mode and exclusion of frictional healing. Moreover, we find that LVFZs can generate complex rupture patterns. LVFZs with low velocity reduction induce multiple rupture fronts involving co-existing pulses and cracks. LVFZs with certain widths can accelerate the transition to supershear rupture speed. The LVFZ can also induce repeated nucleation of pulses in front of a crack. These additional effects of LVFZs on dynamic rupture can have characteristic signatures on the radiated wavefield and contribute especially to high frequency ground motions. Given the natural existence of LVFZ and the generality of the pulse generation mechanism presented, it seems unlikely for earthquakes to propagate as pure cracks. However, a mixed crack-pulse rupture might not be distinguishable from a pure crack rupture at the low resolution of current seismological source observations. To further analyze the relation between wavefield and rupture healing fronts, we are analyzing the dynamic fault stresses generated by elementary kinematic sources inside a LVFZ. Our goal is to identify which wave phase (such as S or SS) plays the dominant role in the process of pulse generation and. By studying the amplitude and timing of this phase as a function of velocity reduction and width of the LVFZ we can rationalize the effect of fault zone properties on the induced pulses, including their conditions of existence, their rise time and their supershear transition. We will also report on numerical simulations including rate-and-state dependent friction with severe velocity-weakening. Our aims are to assess how frictional self-healing and the LVFZ effect compete to control the properties of pulses, and to identify possible observables that can discriminate between these two mechanisms of pulse generation. We will also investigate if the LVFZ mechanism persists across multiple earthquake cycles, using a recent extension of the spectral element method to longer time scale processes.

Huang, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.

2011-12-01

184

Facts and artefacts in research on human dental plaque fluid.  

PubMed

In 1966, Jenkins suggested that the plaque fluid environment was likely to have higher concentrations of extracellular solutes than was apparent from analyses of total plaque concentrations. Early work on plaque fluid confirmed this contention, but some artefact was also generated by the prolonged centrifugation used for separation. The solute concentrations in plaque fluid mostly exceed those in saliva or crevicular fluid. Thus, the environmental conditions are distinctly different from those based on the assumption that saliva readily permeates films of dental plaque. In contrast, the presence of serum proteins suggests a crevicular input to plaque fluid. These data suggest that exchange between dental plaque and its environment is apparently restricted. Diffusion rates measured in dental plaque by different methods do not agree on how restricted it is. However, measuring diffusion in plaque introduces artefacts in packing density, a major determinant of the diffusion rate. The conditions used for collection and analysis have been reported to produce artefactual changes in plaque fluid potassium, a predominantly intracellular ion. Measurements of predominantly extracellular ions, such as calcium, are no less prone to artefact, whether based on ion-selective electrodes or on total calcium. We have much to learn about the fluid environment of the teeth and about dynamic changes in plaque fluid composition and properties during perturbations. Such information can give insights into pathological processes such as tooth demineralization and dental caries, calculus formation, and gingival inflammation. PMID:2191981

Tatevossian, A

1990-06-01

185

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

2014-01-01

186

Heterogeneous rupture on homogenous faults: Three-dimensional spontaneous rupture simulations with thermal pressurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand role of fluid on earthquake rupture processes, we investigated effects of thermal pressurization on spatial variation of dynamic rupture by computing spontaneous rupture propagation on a rectangular fault. We found thermal pressurization can cause heterogeneity of rupture even on a fault of uniform properties. On drained faults, tractions drop linearly with increasing slip in the same way everywhere.

Yumi Urata; Keiko Kuge; Yuko Kase

2008-01-01

187

A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

2014-01-01

188

Centrally-Rupturing Squib-Closure Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of rupture disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of rupture disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.

Richter, R.

1986-01-01

189

Variable land-level changes at a non-persistent megathrust rupture boundary, Sitkinak Island, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault-rupture segmentation models require paleoseismic data to validate inferred rupture boundaries. We examined the southwestern end of the 1964 Mw 9.2 rupture along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust to test the prehistoric persistence of this historical rupture boundary. On Sitkinak Island in the Trinity Islands, 20 hand-collected cores and tidal outcrops beneath tidal and freshwater marshes reveal five abrupt lithologic contacts that record a mixed record of coseismic uplift (3 events) and subsidence (2 events) in the last ~1000 years. Diatom and foraminiferal assemblages in modern and core material obtained from the southwestern Sitkinak lagoon indicate rapid uplift ca. AD 1788 and just prior to 575 × 65 cal yr and 735 × 65 cal yr; and rapid subsidence in AD 1964 and soon after ~735 cal yr as constrained by 14C ages and tephra correlation. Because the northern coast of Sitkinak was reportedly uplifted in AD 1964 and the island is currently subsiding interseismically above a locked patch of the megathrust, we interpret coseismic subsidence as representing the along-strike transition from elastic uplift to subsidence at the rupture boundary; this implies that the AD 1964 zero uplift isobase crosses the island. Similar behavior has been observed during large megathrust ruptures in Indonesia and the Solomon Islands and is predicted by elastic dislocation models. A sand bed traced inland 1.5 km and bracketed with 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb ages was most likely deposited by a tsunami associated with megathrust rupture in 1788. Historical records suggest that the AD 1788 rupture extended from the southwest at least 100 km northeast to the Russian settlement at Three Saints Bay near Old Harbor, Kodiak Island. The complicated uplift and subsidence record we observe on Sitkinak Island, interpreted in the context of historical reports of the AD 1788 rupture, is consistent with at least three rupture segmentation models. In Model A, Sitkinak is located at a boundary for 1964- and 1788-type ruptures. A complication with Model A is that it requires 1788-type ruptures to extend at least 100 km into the AD 1964 rupture area. Model B assumes coseismic uplift for large megathrust events on Sitkinak, with subsidence accompanying only updip ruptures or upper-plate deformation. Model B is inconsistent with the observation of coseismic subsidence of the southwestern lagoon in AD 1964. At present we prefer Model C, where megathrust ruptures end or continue near Sitkinak in a complex, and as yet undetermined, pattern. An implication of our field evidence is that seismic hazard models should relax the assumption that the AD 1964 rupture endpoint is persistent.

Briggs, R. W.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nelson, A. R.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dura, T.

2013-12-01

190

Lymphocyte migration into atherosclerotic plaque.  

PubMed

Adaptive immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to atherosclerotic lesions is not as well studied as that of monocytes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and discuss chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in lymphocyte homing to atherosclerotic lesions. We review evidence for involvement of the chemokines CCL5, CCL19, CCL21, CXCL10, and CXCL16 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in lymphocyte homing in atherosclerosis. Also, we review the role of their receptors CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR6, and CXCR2/CXCR4 and the role of the L-selectin in mouse models of atherosclerosis. PMID:25301842

Li, Jie; Ley, Klaus

2015-01-01

191

Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma.  

PubMed

In this paper we report an 18 year old woman with an intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en plaque meningioma located in the thoracic region. The patient was operated via thoracic laminoplasty and tumor was totally resected. On the follow-up examination the magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the total excision of the tumor. Here we describe a case of intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord as a complication of tuberculosis meningitis in a previously healthy young female. PMID:19439860

Ozek, Erdinc; Iplkcioglu, A Celal; Erdal, Mustafa

2009-01-01

192

Earliest Known Roman London Plaque Discovered  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier today, archaeologists working on a massive dig on the southern banks of the River Thames uncovered the oldest known plaque inscribed with the city's Roman name, Londinium. While the exact date of the plaque is unknown, it is believed to date from between 50 and 150 AD, and would most likely have been placed on some type of building or in a shrine. Equally important, the plaque offers some initial concrete evidence that there was an emerging merchant class in London during this period. The actual location of the plaque's discovery is near the junction of what were three key roads in Roman Britain, and the finding represents only a small portion of what may be unearthed in this 40-week archaeology project.The first link is to a recent news story about the recent find in London. The second site leads to the Council for British Archaeology, which features numerous links to ongoing research projects within Britain and frequent updates about new findings from the field. The third site offers some perspective on the historical notion of Roman Britain, and particularly how scholars understand that epoch. The fourth site is a link to the complete work "Roman Roads in Britain," a historical study that seeks to describe and delineate the exact location of these very important Roman pathways. Information about the Museum of London, which is working jointly on this project, is provided by the fifth link. The last link, Britannia, is a nice omnibus listing of sites dealing with various aspects of Roman Britain history and archaeology, provided by the Dalton School in New York.

Grinnell, Max

2002-01-01

193

Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.  

PubMed Central

Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

Finger, P. T.

1992-01-01

194

Vulnerable plaque detection by temperature heterogeneity measured with a guidewire system: clinical, intravascular ultrasound and histopathologic correlates.  

PubMed

Diagnosing plaque vulnerability may have therapeutic and prognostic implications. We used a heat sensor-tipped thermography guidewire to identify temperature variations in atherosclerotic coronary arteries in patients undergoing stent placement. This study is the first human experience with the ThermoCoil Guidewire (TG). TG consists of a 0.014 inch wire which rotates as it is retracted so as to interrogate the arterial lumen in a helical path. The wire has a temperature sensor in the distal tip with a sensitivity of 0.03 degrees Celcius. In 13 patients presenting with either acute or chronic coronary syndromes as indications for percutaneous coronary intervention, the following parameters were assessed: thermography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), angiography and serum markers for inflammation (C-reactive protein) and ischemia (troponin). Directional atherectomy was performed in 2 patients and tissue was analyzed histopathologically. Two patients had unstable angina, 2 had myocardial infarction, and 9 had stable angina as indications for coronary intervention. There were no device-related adverse events or system failures. Thermography was performed on all patients prior to any other intervention. Intra-arterial temperature rises between 0.1 degrees Celcius and 0.3 degrees Celcius were noted in 4 subjects. Intravascular ultrasound findings and atherectomy tissue histology showed correlates of plaque vulnerability in plaques with elevated temperature. In conclusion, thermography using a guidewire-based system can be performed safely, and detected lesions whose IVUS and/or atherectomy findings suggested plaques at high risk for rupture. Further studies will determine the predictive value of thermography or other techniques for assessing plaque composition and risk through noninvasive or invasive means. PMID:17268036

Wainstein, Marco; Costa, Marco; Ribeiro, Jorge; Zago, Alcides; Rogers, Campbell

2007-02-01

195

Selective Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway Regulates Autophagy of Macrophage and Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

Macrophage infiltration contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we investigated whether selective inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can enhance the stability of atherosclerotic plaques by activation of macrophage autophagy. In vitro study, selective inhibitors or siRNA of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways were used to treat the rabbit's peritoneal primary macrophage cells. Inflammation related cytokines secreted by macrophages were measured. Ultrastructure changes of macrophages were examined by transmission electron microscope. mRNA or protein expression levels of autophagy related gene Beclin 1, protein 1 light chain 3 II dots (LC3-II) or Atg5-Atg12 conjugation were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. In vivo study, vulnerable plaque models were established in 40 New Zealand White rabbits and then drugs or siRNA were given for 8 weeks to inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed to observe the plaque imaging. The ultrastructure of the abdominal aortic atherosclerosis lesions were analyzed with histopathology. RT-PCR or Western blot methods were used to measure the expression levels of corresponding autophagy related molecules. We found that macrophage autophagy was induced in the presence of Akt inhibitor, mTOR inhibitor and mTOR-siRNA in vitro study, while PI3K inhibitor had the opposite role. In vivo study, we found that macrophage autophagy increased significantly and the rabbits had lower plaque rupture incidence, lower plaque burden and decreased vulnerability index in the inhibitors or siRNA treated groups. We made a conclusion that selective inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signal pathway can reduce macrophages and stabilize the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques by promoting macrophage autophagy. PMID:24599185

Zhai, Chungang; Cheng, Jing; Mujahid, Haroon; Wang, Hefeng; Kong, Jing; Yin, Yue; Li, Jifu; Zhang, Yun; Ji, Xiaoping; Chen, Wenqiang

2014-01-01

196

Ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic plaque instability and vascular inflammation.  

PubMed

Ghrelin has been found to be associated with anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque formation, and plaque stability in the cardiovascular system. We investigated whether ghrelin affected atherosclerotic plaque and inflammation found in atherosclerosis. We crossed ghrelin receptor knock out mice (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-/-) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-/-) mice. In this model, atherosclerotic lesions were promoted by administering a high-fat, high-cholesterol, Western-type diet for 18 weeks. Serum lipid levels, atherosclerotic plaque on the aortic arches, and expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaque were observed. Although serum lipid levels and atherosclerotic plaque in aortic arches were not significantly different between GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- and GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic plaques were increased in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice compared with GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. T cells and macrophages were increased, while smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic plaques were less in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice than that in GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. In conclusion, ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic plaque instability and vascular inflammation but not the surface area of atherosclerotic plaque. This information will provide novel avenues for the treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  PMID:25553467

Zhang, Min; Qu, Xinkai; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Yiqing; Xu, Lei; Dai, Jinjie; Wang, Weigang; Fei, Jian; Hou, Xumin; Fang, Weiyi

2015-01-01

197

Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival Plaque  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in the human subgingival plaque by using culture-independent molecular methods as part of an ongoing effort to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of human oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque was analyzed from healthy subjects and subjects with refractory periodontitis, adult periodontitis, human immunodeficiency virus periodontitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial genes from DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples were PCR amplified with all-bacterial or selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. The sequences of cloned 16S rDNA inserts were used to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species. A total of 2,522 clones were analyzed. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for putative new species. About 60% of the clones fell into 132 known species, 70 of which were identified from multiple subjects. About 40% of the clones were novel phylotypes. Of the 215 novel phylotypes, 75 were identified from multiple subjects. Known putative periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were identified from multiple subjects, but typically as a minor component of the plaque as seen in cultivable studies. Several phylotypes fell into two recently described phyla previously associated with extreme natural environments, for which there are no cultivable species. A number of species or phylotypes were found only in subjects with disease, and a few were found only in healthy subjects. The organisms identified only from diseased sites deserve further study as potential pathogens. Based on the sequence data in this study, the predominant subgingival microbial community consisted of 347 species or phylotypes that fall into 9 bacterial phyla. Based on the 347 species seen in our sample of 2,522 clones, we estimate that there are 68 additional unseen species, for a total estimate of 415 species in the subgingival plaque. When organisms found on other oral surfaces such as the cheek, tongue, and teeth are added to this number, the best estimate of the total species diversity in the oral cavity is approximately 500 species, as previously proposed. PMID:11371542

Paster, Bruce J.; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Ericson, Rebecca E.; Lau, Carol N.; Levanos, Valerie A.; Sahasrabudhe, Ashish; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

2001-01-01

198

Simulations of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: implications for aortic root rupture.  

PubMed

Aortic root rupture is one of the most severe complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The mechanism of this adverse event remains mostly unknown. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the biomechanical interaction between the tissue and stent for patients with a high risk of aortic rupture. We simulated the stent deployment process of three TAVI patients with high aortic rupture risk using finite element method. The first case was a retrospective analysis of an aortic rupture case, while the other two cases were prospective studies, which ended with one canceled procedure and one successful TAVI. Simulation results were evaluated for the risk of aortic root rupture, as well as coronary artery occlusion, and paravalvular leak. For Case 1, the simulated aortic rupture location was the same as clinical observations. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the large calcified spot on the interior of the left coronary sinus between coronary ostium and the aortic annulus was pushed by the stent, causing the aortic rupture. For Case 2 and Case 3, predicated results from the simulations were presented to the clinicians at multidisciplinary pre-procedure meetings; and they were in agreement with clinician's observations and decisions. Our results indicated that the engineering analysis could provide additional information to help clinicians evaluate complicated, high-risk aortic rupture cases. Since a systematic study of a large patient cohort of aortic rupture is currently not available (due to the low occurrence rate) to clearly understand underlying rupture mechanisms, case-by-case engineering analysis is recommended for evaluating patient-specific aortic rupture risk. PMID:24736808

Wang, Qian; Kodali, Susheel; Primiano, Charles; Sun, Wei

2015-01-01

199

Predicting the endpoints of earthquake ruptures.  

PubMed

The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop rupture propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake rupture. Here I examine the mapped surface rupture traces of 22 historical strike-slip earthquakes with rupture lengths ranging between 10 and 420 km. I show that about two-thirds of the endpoints of strike-slip earthquake ruptures are associated with fault steps or the termini of active fault traces, and that there exists a limiting dimension of fault step (3-4 km) above which earthquake ruptures do not propagate and below which rupture propagation ceases only about 40 per cent of the time. The results are of practical importance to seismic hazard analysis where effort is spent attempting to place limits on the probable length of future earthquakes on mapped active faults. Physical insight to the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process is further gained with the observation that the limiting dimension appears to be largely independent of the earthquake rupture length. It follows that the magnitude of stress changes and the volume affected by those stress changes at the driving edge of laterally propagating ruptures are largely similar and invariable during the rupture process regardless of the distance an event has propagated or will propagate. PMID:17108963

Wesnousky, Steven G

2006-11-16

200

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. We test this model with 450 small earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation effects. Our approach avoids directly modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest directivity <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity model but suggest that directivity is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7063031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Micro-analysis of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid from single-site fasted <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A. (American Dental Association Health Foundation, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23443599"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> debulking for femoro-popliteal occlusions: techniques and results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although <span class="hlt">currently</span> there is a trend of using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting for the treatment of long occlusions of superficial femoral artery, many studies reported comparable results in terms of mid- and long-term patency between PTA and stenting and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> debulking techniques such as remote endarterectomy, directional atherectomy catheter atherectomy and laser guided atherectomy. A successful debulking procedure is strongly associated with patients comorbidities, length of lesions and clinical presentation. In the last decade many new devices have been proposed to improve debulking results. Despite encouraging data about technical feasibility and limb salvage rate, debulking is still associated with a low rate of long-term primary and secondary patency. However, randomized clinical trials are expected and can hopefully provide conclusions on the effective durability of these procedures. PMID:23443599</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lenti, M; Marucchini, A; Isernia, G; Simonte, G; Ciucci, A; Cao, P; Verzini, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following endoscopic polypectomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 70-year-old man presented with two medium-sized colon polyps at the office of a gastroenterologist. After endoscopic polypectomy in a hospital, the patient was admitted to another hospital because of collapse and increasing abdominal pain. CT scan revealed hematoperitoneum and splenic subcapsular hematoma. Laparotomy with splenectomy was performed because of extended splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The postoperative course was unremarkable except late wound dehiscence. PMID:20352593</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedmann, M W; Kater, F; Böhm, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3015800"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Spleen Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally a safe and well-accepted procedure. However, in a small percentage of patients, it is associated with complications, such as bleeding and injury to the bile duct and other viscera. Splenic injury as a result of laparoscopic surgery has been reported only in the context of direct trauma, for example due to retraction in hand-assisted urologic surgery. To date, there have been no reported cases of patients requiring splenectomy following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We report an unusual case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen presenting less than 28 days following “uncomplicated” laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: A 52-year-old female presented to our Accident and Emergency department 3 weeks following “uncomplicated” laparoscopic cholecystectomy, complaining of severe left upper quadrant pain radiating to the left shoulder tip. Clinical examination revealed a patient in hypovolemic shock, with localized left upper quadrant peritonism. Abdominal computed tomography supported a diagnosis of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the patient required an emergency splenectomy. Discussion: Splenic injury rarely complicates laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We postulate that either congenital or posttraumatic adhesions of the parietal peritoneum to the spleen may have caused the capsule to tear away from the spleen when the pneumoperitoneum was established, resulting in subcapsular hematoma and subsequent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in this patient. Videoscopic assessment of the spleen at the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy might be a worthwhile exercise to aid early recognition and management in such cases. PMID:17651581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leff, Daniel; Nortley, Mei; Melly, Lucy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22149692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation <span class="hlt">plaques</span> between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and for EP917 <span class="hlt">plaques</span> using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, the EP917 <span class="hlt">plaques</span> used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 <span class="hlt">plaques</span> vs the COMS <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Conclusion: EP917 <span class="hlt">plaques</span> deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment <span class="hlt">plaques</span> while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multimodality imaging of carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: Going beyond stenosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apart from the degree of stenosis, the morphology of carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and presence of neovascularization are important factors that may help to evaluate the risk and ‘vulnerability’ of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and may also influence the choice of treatment. In this article, we aim to describe the techniques and imaging findings on CTA, high resolution MRI and contrast enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. We also discuss a few representative cases from our institute with the related clinical implications. PMID:23986615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hingwala, Divyata; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Sylaja, Padmavathy N; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30304915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Palladium103 versus iodine-125 for ophthalmic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dosimetry study compared the use of I-125 vs. Pd-103 radioactive seeds for ophthalmic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy. Pd-103 seeds in ophthalmic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were used to treat 15 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma. Computer-aided simulations were performed to evaluate the intraocular dose distribution of I-125 versus Pd-103 ophthalmic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (delivering equivalent apex doses). Seven target points were selected. Starting at the outer</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul T. Finger; Dongfeng Lu; Alfonso Buffa; Daniels Deblasio; Jay L. Bosworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground motion hazard from supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An idealized <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, propagating smoothly near a terminal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, radiates energy that is focused into a beam. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity less than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in a beam of intense fault-normal velocity near the projection of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> trace. Although confined to a narrow range of azimuths, this beam diverges and attenuates. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity greater than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in Mach waves forming a pair of beams propagating obliquely away from the fault. These beams do not attenuate until diffraction becomes effective at large distance. Events with supershear and sub-Rayleigh <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity are compared in 2D plane-strain calculations with equal stress drop, fracture energy, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length; only static friction is changed to determine the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. Peak velocity in the sub-Rayleigh case near the termination of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is larger than peak velocity in the Mach wave in the supershear case. The occurrence of supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation reduces the most intense peak ground velocity near the fault, but it increases peak velocity within a beam at greater distances. ?? 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/dc0594.photos.030187p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">DETAIL OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DETAIL OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3158870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-invasive detection of vulnerable coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Non-invasive imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography holds the potential to differentiate between low- and high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. There have been significant technological advances in non-invasive imaging modalities, and the aim is to achieve a diagnostic sensitivity for these technologies similar to that of the invasive modalities. Molecular imaging with the use of novel targeted nanoparticles may help in detecting high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> that will ultimately cause acute myocardial infarction. Moreover, nanoparticle-based imaging may even provide non-invasive treatments for these <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> nor have they been shown to definitively predict outcome. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non-flow-limiting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to establish patient specific targeted therapy and to refine <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stabilizing strategies in the future. PMID:21860703</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharif, Faisal; Lohan, Derek G; Wijns, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57205295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Methods for Monitoring Changes in the pH of Human Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pH can be used to obtain estimates of the acidogenic potential of ingested foods. The presence of acid in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is influenced by a large number of host, microbial, and substrate factors. Several useful methods have been developed for monitoring changes in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pH. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> sampling involves repeated removal of small samples of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. F. Schachtele; M. E. Jensen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1019469"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased brain iron coincides with early <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elevated brain iron content, which has been observed in late-stage human Alzheimer's disease, is a potential target for early diagnosis. However, the time course for iron accumulation is <span class="hlt">currently</span> unclear. Using the PSAPP mouse model of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation, we conducted a time course study of metal ion content and distribution [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)] in the cortex and hippocampus using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). We found that iron in the cortex was 34% higher than age-matched controls at an early stage, corresponding to the commencement of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation. The elevated iron was not associated with the amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Interestingly, none of the metal ions were elevated in the amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> until the latest time point (56 weeks), where only the Zn content was significantly elevated by 38%. Since neuropathological changes in human Alzheimer's disease are presumed to occur years before the first cognitive symptoms appear, quantification of brain iron content could be a powerful marker for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leskovjan, A.C.; Miller, L.; Kretlow, A.; Lanzirotti, A.; Barrea,R.; Vogt, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PMB....54.6201R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal parameters for near infrared fluorescence imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer's disease mouse models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyloid-? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are an Alzheimer's disease biomarker which present unique challenges for near-infrared fluorescence tomography because of size (<50 µm diameter) and distribution. We used high-resolution simulations of fluorescence in a digital Alzheimer's disease mouse model to investigate the optimal fluorophore and imaging parameters for near-infrared fluorescence tomography of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Fluorescence was simulated for amyloid-targeted probes with emission at 630 and 800 nm, <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-to-background ratios from 1-1000, amyloid burden from 0-10%, and for transmission and reflection measurement geometries. Fluorophores with high <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-to-background contrast ratios and 800 nm emission performed significantly better than <span class="hlt">current</span> amyloid imaging probes. We tested idealized fluorophores in transmission and full-angle tomographic measurement schemes (900 source-detector pairs), with and without anatomical priors. Transmission reconstructions demonstrated strong linear correlation with increasing amyloid burden, but underestimated fluorescence yield and suffered from localization artifacts. Full-angle measurements did not improve upon the transmission reconstruction qualitatively or in semi-quantitative measures of accuracy; anatomical and initial-value priors did improve reconstruction localization and accuracy for both transmission and full-angle schemes. Region-based reconstructions, in which the unknowns were reduced to a few distinct anatomical regions, produced highly accurate yield estimates for cortex, hippocampus and brain regions, even with a reduced number of measurements (144 source-detector pairs).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond, S. B.; Kumar, A. T. N.; Boas, D. A.; Bacskai, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4318039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Congenital Milia En <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> on Scalp</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Milia en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21119945"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma mimicking en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 24-year-old man with tuberculosis meningitis developed acute paraplegia and sensory disturbances 5 weeks after receiving conventional antituberculous therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary long segmental mass mimicking en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma at the T2-T6 vertebrae levels. Prompt surgical decompression was performed. A histology examination of the mass revealed a tuberculoma. After surgery, the patient showed improved motor power and a normal bladder function. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord is rare complication of tuberculosis meningitis, which can occur as a response to conventional antituberculous therapy. PMID:21119945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shim, Dae Moo; Oh, Sung Kyun; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chae, Soo Uk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2981785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intradural Extramedullary Tuberculoma Mimicking En <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Meningioma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 24-year-old man with tuberculosis meningitis developed acute paraplegia and sensory disturbances 5 weeks after receiving conventional antituberculous therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary long segmental mass mimicking en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma at the T2-T6 vertebrae levels. Prompt surgical decompression was performed. A histology examination of the mass revealed a tuberculoma. After surgery, the patient showed improved motor power and a normal bladder function. Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord is rare complication of tuberculosis meningitis, which can occur as a response to conventional antituberculous therapy. PMID:21119945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shim, Dae Moo; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chae, Soo Uk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25657433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Congenital milia en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on scalp.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Milia en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4051904"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endoluminal stent reconstruction of low-grade, symptomatic carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: a treatment alternative—report of two cases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Medical treatment of low-grade (<50% luminal narrowing) symptomatic carotid stenosis has been the treatment of choice because trial data showed no evident benefit to carotid endarterectomy for these patients. Such patients may have recurrent neurological symptoms despite adequate medical therapy owing to recurrent <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In such cases, carotid stenting may represent an option for treatment but has not been tested in trials because of previous failure of carotid endarterectomy to demonstrate any benefit for patients with low-grade carotid stenosis. The cases presented here illustrate the perioperative safety and potential benefit of carotid stenting for such patients with persistent neurological symptoms despite adequate medical therapy. Case material Two patients with low-grade stenosis and recurrent transient ischemic attack or stroke despite antiplatelet therapy were treated with carotid stenting. Both patients were treated after recent ipsilateral neurological events in the absence of an evident cardioembolic source. Carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> ulceration thought to be related to the ischemic events was present in both cases. No perioperative complications were noted. On followup, the patients showed resolution of symptoms and had no new neurological events. Conclusion Carotid stenting of low-grade but symptomatic carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> refractory to medical management represents a surgical option for treatment. Further studies may be warranted to evaluate stenting as a suitable treatment option. PMID:24920988</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shallwani, Hussain; Dumont, Travis M.; Wach, Michael M.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1523371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic peliosis with spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: report of two cases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Peliosis is a rare condition characterised by multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities within the parenchyma of solid organs. Most commonly affecting the liver, isolated splenic peliosis is an even more unique phenomenon. Patients with the condition are often asymptomatic. However, this potentially lethal condition can present with spontaneous organ <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We present two such cases, discuss their management and review what is <span class="hlt">currently</span> known in the existing literature. Case presentation A previously well twenty-six year old woman presented with abdominal pain following a trivial episode of coughing. A diagnosis of spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was made following clinical and radiological examination. She underwent emergency splenectomy and made a full, uneventful recovery. Histopathological examination confirmed splenic peliosis. The second case describes an eighty six year old lady who sustained a trivial fall and developed pain in her left side. A CT confirmed splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. She became haemodynamically unstable during her admission and underwent emergency splenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed splenic peliosis. She went on to make an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Splenic peliosis is very rare. It has a number of associations including immunosuppression, drug therapy and infection. Although patients are often asymptomatic, life-threatening spontaneous organ <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may occur. If the diagnosis of peliosis is confirmed, additional investigations should be considered to detect its presence in other organs. Furthermore, the presence of the condition may be relevant if further medical or surgical intervention is planned. PMID:16800889</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lashbrook, Daniel J; James, Roger W; Phillips, Andrea J; Holbrook, Anthony G; Agombar, Andrew C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early second trimester uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> uterus. PMID:24326433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23157060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic hemangioma in puerperium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare clinical entity and in the absence of trauma, the diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. In this article the authors discuss a case of a 45-year-old woman, gravida 5, para 4, with spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on her second postpartum day. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was related to a splenic hemangioma that is a vascular malformation and the most common neoplasm of the spleen. Despite the fact that hemangiomas are the most common primary neoplasms of the spleen, only few cases of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been described in pregnancy or puerperium. However, spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare event and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be suspected in woman with unexplained abdominal pain or with clear signs of haemorrhage. PMID:23157060</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carta, G; D'Alfonso, A; Nallbani, A; Palermo, P; Franchi, V; Patacchiola, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4205863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following perforating trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The immediate death rate for aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by pointed and sharp-edged instruments is very high; however, delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following the trauma is rarely reported. A patient who had an upper abdominal stab wound was sent to our hospital, and an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. No traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was found at that time. However, on the fifth day after surgery, aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma was formed. The patient eventually died. Aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was confirmed by a second emergency exploratory laparotomy and the autopsy. The information from exploratory laparotomies, post-operative observations and treatments, medical imaging reports, and reasons for delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as well as the underlying pathophysiological processes, are discussed in this case report. PMID:25405156</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25575280"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of vesicles adsorbed on glass by pore formation at the surface-bilayer interface.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are often formed by spontaneous vesicle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fusion on a solid surface. A well-characterized <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism for isolated vesicles is pore nucleation and expansion in the solution-exposed nonadsorbed area. In contrast, pore formation in the adsorbed bilayer region has not been investigated to date. In this work, we studied the detailed mechanisms of asymmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) adsorbed on glass using fluorescence microscopy. Asymmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is the pathway where a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pore forms in a GUV near the edge of the glass-bilayer interface with high curvature and then expansion of the pore yields a planar bilayer patch. We show that asymmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occasionally resulted in SLB patches bearing a defect pore. The defect formation probability depended on lipid composition, salt concentration, and pH. Approximately 40% of negatively charged GUVs under physiological conditions formed pore-containing SLB patches, while negatively charged GUVs at low salt concentration or pH 4.0 and positively charged GUVs exhibited a low probability of defect inclusion. The edge of the defect pore was either in contact with (on-edge) or away from (off-edge) the edge of the planar bilayer. On-edge pores were predominantly formed over off-edge defects. Pores initially formed in the glass-adsorbed region before <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, most frequently in close contact with the edge of the adsorbed region. When a pore formed near the edge of the adsorbed area or when the edge of a pore reached that of the adsorbed area by pore expansion, asymmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was induced from the defect site. These induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanisms yielded SLB patches with an on-edge pore. In contrast, off-edge pores were produced when defect pore generation and subsequent vesicle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were uncoupled. The <span class="hlt">current</span> results demonstrate that pore formation in the surface-adsorbed region of GUVs is not a negligible event. PMID:25575280</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kataoka-Hamai, Chiho; Yamazaki, Tomohiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730014827&hterms=sigma+nickel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%257Bsigma%257D5%2Bnickel"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of cryogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55514236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying uncertainty in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using dynamic and kinematic models, we analyze the ability of GPS and strong-motion data to recover the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of earthquakes. By analyzing the near-source ground-motion generated by earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> through barriers and asperities, we determine that both the prestress and yield stress of a frictional inhomogeneity can be recovered. In addition, we find that models with constraints on <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan T. Page</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neck curve polynomials in neck <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25199188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of uterine leiomyoma during labour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The incidence of AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has increased in recent decades. AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://labs.seas.wustl.edu/bme/Wang/epub/2009/HuS_2009_Opt_Lett_34_p3899.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intravital imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in a transgenic mouse model using optical-resolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intravital imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in a transgenic mouse model using optical imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Validation using conventional-dimensional morphology of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and the surrounding microvasculature are imaged simultaneously through</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Lihong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8833138"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of sucralose in coffee on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pH in human subjects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our earlier work demonstrated that the sweetener sucralose, C12 H19 CI3 O8, mixed with water had no effect on intraoral <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pH. The <span class="hlt">current</span> study compared the effect on resting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pH of sucralose to sucrose when these sweeteners were used in hot coffee at equivalent sweetness levels. Twelve subjects with an identified acidogenic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were tested at dicrete sessions, using coffee as vehicle with: (1) sucrose; (2) sucralose; (3) sucralose plus maltodextrin (SM); (4) sucralose plus dextrose and maltodextrin (SMD), and (5) no additional sweetener. Each subject rinsed for 1 min with the test rinse, expectorated, and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pH was measured at six dental sites for 60 min using an antimony touch electrode method. Data were summarized for baseline pH, delta pH (baseline pH minus lowest pH attained), minimum pH, and area under the pH curve (AUC). Baseline pH was not different throughout all tests. Quantification of AUC in the various groups showed that sucralose with coffee had no statistically significant impact on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> acidogenesis. AUC, minimum pH and delta pH were least changed by coffee and sucralose, while the SM and SMD combinations generally led to intermediate changes as compared with coffee sweetened with sucrose or sucralose. Because of its acidic nature, unsweetened coffee led to a modest pH depression, the effect of which appears to be blunted by sucralose. This study confirms that sucralose is non-acidogenic and indicates that sucralose may reduce the acidogenic potential of coffee. PMID:8833138</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steinberg, L M; Odusola, F; Mandel, I D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/98/24/2666.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of Atherosclerotic Carotid <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Size In Vivo Using High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background—<span class="hlt">Current</span> imaging modalities, such as contrast angiography, accurately determine the degree of luminal narrowing but provide no direct information on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> size. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, has potential for noninvasively determining arterial wall area (WA). This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of in vivo MRI for measuring the cross-sectional maximum wall area (MaxWA) of atherosclerotic carotid arteries</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chun Yuan; Kirk W. Beach; Llewellyn Hillyer Smith; Thomas S. Hatsukami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35851307"> <span id="translatedtitle">RTN\\/Nogo in forming Alzheimer's neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the pathological hallmarks in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, in which amyloid deposits are surrounded by reactive gliosis and dystrophic neurites. Within neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, reticulon 3 (RTN3), a homolog of Nogo protein, appears to regulate the formation of both amyloid deposition via negative modulation of BACE1 activity and dystrophic neurites</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marguerite Prior; Qi Shi; Xiangyou Hu; Wanxia He; Allan Levey; Riqiang Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/id0438.photos.195739p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">24. View of one of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from Clark Fork ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">24. View of one of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Hemodynamics in <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Erosion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose We investigated whether local hemodynamics were associated with sites of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion and hypothesized that patients with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion have locally elevated WSS magnitude in regions where erosion has occurred. Methods We generated 3D, patient-specific models of coronary arteries from biplane angiographic images in 3 human patients with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion diagnosed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using computational fluid dynamics, we simulated pulsatile blood flow and calculated both wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI). We also investigated anatomic features of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion sites by examining branching and local curvature in x-ray angiograms of barium-perfused autopsy hearts. Results Neither high nor low magnitudes of mean WSS were associated with sites of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion. OSI and local curvature were also not associated with erosion. Anatomically, 8 of 13 hearts had a nearby bifurcation upstream of the site of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that neither hemodynamics nor anatomy are predictors of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion, based upon a very unique dataset. Our sample sizes are small, but this dataset suggests that high magnitudes of wall shear stress, one potential mechanism for inducing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion, are not necessary for erosion to occur. PMID:24223678</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, Ian C.; Timmins, Lucas H.; Giddens, Don P.; Virmani, Renu; Veneziani, Alessandro; Rab, S. Tanveer; Samady, Habib; McDaniel, Michael C.; Finn, Aloke V.; Taylor, W. Robert; Oshinski, John N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33127022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Formation of Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few investigations on the development of dental have considered the first changes which can occur on a cleaned tooth surface during the first 4 h of exposure to the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> oral environment. The present study has investigated, using the scanning electron microscope, the colonization of enamel surfaces in vivo, and some of the factors influencing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation during the initial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. A. Saxton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-specific. There was a significant proportion of viral homologues shared between <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and salivary viromes within each subject, suggesting that some oral viruses were present in both sites. We also characterized Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) in oral streptococci, as their profiles provide clues to the viruses that oral bacteria may be able to counteract. While there were some CRISPR spacers specific to each sample type, many more were shared across sites and were highly subject specific. Many CRISPR spacers matched viruses present in <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, suggesting that the evolution of CRISPR loci may have been specific to <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-derived viruses. Conclusions Our findings of subject specificity to both <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-derived viruses and CRISPR profiles suggest that human viral ecology may be highly personalized. PMID:24981669</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25122098"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous bilateral biceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: a case report with practical sonographic diagnosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simultaneous bilateral complete tear of the biceps tendons is a rare clinical entity with challenging treatment approaches. <span class="hlt">Current</span> diagnostic imaging of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the biceps tendon has reverted to magnetic resonance imaging; however, in the recent years, sonography has been widely used in musculoskeletal practice. The authors present a case of simultaneous bilateral biceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> diagnosed on the basis of fundamental sonographic findings of the torn biceps tendons. PMID:25122098</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Eftekhar-Sadat, Bina; Ghabili, Kamyar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55240854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuum mechanics characterization of plastic deformation-induced oxide film <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The film <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behaviour of dynamically strained metastable Ti-15 wt% Mo-3 wt% Nb-3 wt% Al in the solution-treated and aged (STA) (beta + alpha) condition that is prone to coplanar slip was examined. Film <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was detected by rapid data acquisition (10 000 Hz, 40nA resolution) of repassivation <span class="hlt">current</span> transients on fatigue precracked, circumferentially notched, and smooth tensile specimens. Finite</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. G. Kolman; J. R. Scully</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S21C2070X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Off-fault Yielding During Dynamic <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span>: Distribution and Orientations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use 2D spectral element code to simulate dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on a fault governed by slip- and velocity-weakening friction with off-fault yielding and possible elastic contrast across the fault. The off-fault yielding is implemented with Mohr-Coulomb plasticity, and a continuum brittle damage that accounts for dynamic changes of elastic properties in the yielding zones (Lyakhovsky et al., 1997). The studies attempt to clarify properties of dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and generated yielding zones for different off-fault rheologies, frictional laws, orientations of the maximum regional compressive stress relative to fault ?, values of the seismic S ratio and conditions representing different depth sections. In the <span class="hlt">current</span> simulations, the damage rheology is used with parameters that prevent off-fault instabilities, leading to results that are generally similar to those obtained with plasticity. The location and extent of the yielding zone are found to depend on ?, seismic S ratio and the crack vs. pulse mode of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, in agreement with previous theoretical and numerical studies. The off-fault yielding zone is wide for conditions representing shallow depth and becomes progressively localized for conditions representing deeper sections. The intensity of plasticity/damage for both <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes is enhanced for larger regional stress, but the width can be suppressed due to higher confining pressure and larger rock cohesion. The angle ? representing expected microcrack orientations is generally shallow (less than 45 degrees) on the compressional side and steep (greater than 45 degrees) on the extensional side. The ? values depend also on the S ratio, conditions representing different depth sections, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, and existence of velocity contrast across the fault. The latter produces steeper angles of ? on the compliant side compared to the stiffer side for situations representing the same type (extension or compression) of quadrant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, S.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=347527"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human endothelial cell culture <span class="hlt">plaques</span> induced by Rickettsia rickettsii.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inoculated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-purified Rickettsia rickettsii. After adsorption of rickettsiae, monolayers were overlaid with medium containing 0.5% agarose. Small <span class="hlt">plaques</span> appeared on day 4 postinoculation, and distinct 1- to 2-mm <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were observed on day 5. <span class="hlt">Plaquing</span> efficiency was less than that of primary chicken embryo cells in the same medium. Human endothelial cell monolayers were susceptible to infection by R. rickettsii and underwent necrosis as demonstrated by supravital staining. The topographic association of endothelial cell necrosis and rickettsial infection in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> model confirmed the direct cytopathic effect of R. rickettsii on human endothelium. Uninfected cells appeared normal by supravital staining and transmission electron microscopy. This model offers the possibility of investigating rickettsial pathogenesis and mechanisms of enhanced severity of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in specific genetically determined conditions. Images PMID:6809631</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, D H; Firth, W T; Edgell, C J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2854144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aortic Arch <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> and Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Death</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Aortic arch <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although the stroke mechanism is conceivably thromboembolic, no randomized studies have evaluated the efficacy of antithrombotic therapies in preventing recurrent events. Methods and Results The relationship between arch <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and recurrent events was studied in 516 patients with ischemic stroke, double–blindly randomized to treatment with warfarin or aspirin as part of the Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS), based on the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS). <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> thickness and morphology was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. End-points were recurrent ischemic stroke or death over a 2-year follow-up. Large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (?4mm) were present in 19.6% of patients, large complex <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (those with ulcerations or mobile components) in 8.5 %. During follow-up, large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were associated with a significantly increased risk of events (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-4.32), especially those with complex morphology (HR 2.55, CI 1.10-5.89). The risk was highest among cryptogenic stroke patients, both for large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (HR 6.42, CI 1.62-25.46) and large-complex <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (HR 9.50, CI 1.92-47.10). Event rates were similar in the warfarin and aspirin groups in the overall study population (16.4% vs. 15.8%; p=0.43). Conclusions In patients with stroke, and especially cryptogenic stroke, large aortic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> remain associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke and death at two years despite treatment with warfarin or aspirin. Complex <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology confers a slight additional increase in risk. PMID:19380621</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Tullio, Marco R.; Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9586530"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> removal efficacy of a newly developed powered toothbrush in the primary dentition of pre-school children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cross-over, single-blind clinical study was performed to compare a powered and a manual toothbrush for their ability to remove <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from the teeth of pre-school children. Seventy-three randomly selected 4- to 6-year-old children from two kindergarten classes in Erfurt, Germany participated in the study. A new powered children's toothbrush (Rowenta) and a <span class="hlt">currently</span> marketed manual children's toothbrush (Elmex) were used for an assessment period of two weeks each. Then the groups were crossed over to use the alternate toothbrush for another two weeks. Whole mouth, gingival margin and interproximal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area levels were determined using the Rustogi et al. <span class="hlt">plaque</span> index. Statistical analysis of the data showed significantly effective (p < 0.05) <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal with both toothbrushes, immediately after toothbrushing and at one and two weeks, compared to the respective baseline scores. The statistical analysis also demonstrated that the powered toothbrush was significantly (p < 0.05) better on percent <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction on all tooth areas compared to the manual toothbrush, except at two weeks with the interproximal assessment. PMID:9586530</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borutta, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3660..343K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of coronary arterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> volume using 3D reconstructions formed by fusing intravascular ultrasound and biplane angiography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper, through <span class="hlt">plaque</span> quantification, demonstrates the use of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of coronary arteries to assess compensatory enlargement. The lumen and medial-adventitial border are segmented from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images using a novel 3D method called active surfaces and the segmented data is used to calculate the cross-sectional area of the lumen and vessel, respectively. The area of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> for each slice is the difference of the two. Information about the distance between path points, located using a calibrated biplane angiography system, is used for the calculation of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> volume. This quantification system can be used to track the progression or regression of atherosclerosis and is <span class="hlt">currently</span> being used to document compensatory enlargement, a physiological phenomenon in which the overall vessel cross-sectional area increases with an increase in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area with little or no decrease in luminal cross-sectional area. Four ex-vivo cases have been quantified, all demonstrating this remodeling mechanism, shown by strong positive correlation between <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area and vessel area over the reconstructed length of the vessel (R equals 0.98, R equals 0.93, R equals 0.98, R equals 0.68).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klingensmith, Jon D.; Vince, David G.; Shekhar, Raj; Kuban, Barry D.; Tuzcu, E. M.; Cornhill, J. Fredrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1743-422X-2-84.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of an improved microneutralization assay for respiratory syncytial virus by automated <span class="hlt">plaque</span> counting using imaging analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Although several experimental RSV vaccines are under investigation, immuno therapy is the only treatment <span class="hlt">currently</span> available. In assessing the immunogenicity of various vaccine formulations, a <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction neutralization assay for the evaluation of RSV neutralizing antibody has been widely used. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edyta Zielinska; Daiqing Liu; Hong-Yin Wu; Jorge Quiroz; Ruth Rappaport; Da-Ping Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28948520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical repair of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the surgical results of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the Achilles ten don treated from 1973 to 1984 to determine the causes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and to evaluate our treatment methods. Patients were divided into early and late repair groups and their charts reviewed to determine common clinical features. A new method of repair with early functional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James L. Beskin; Richard A. Sanders; Stephen C. Hunter; Jack C. Hughston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54098453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the endpoints of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here I examine the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven G. Wesnousky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4182714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Watershed Infarcts and Recent Intra <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Haemorrhage in Carotid Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Watershed infarcts (WSI) are thought to result from hemodynamic mechanism, but studies have suggested that microemboli from unstable carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may distribute preferentially in watershed areas, i.e., between two cerebral arterial territories. Intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH) is an emerging marker of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability and microembolic activity. We assessed the association between WSI and IPH in patients with recently symptomatic moderate carotid stenosis. Methods and Results We selected 65 patients with symptomatic moderate (median NASCET degree of stenosis?=?31%) carotid stenosis and brain infarct on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from a multicentre prospective study. Fourteen (22%) had WSI (cortical, n?=?8; internal, n?=?4; cortical and internal, n?=?2). Patients with WSI were more likely to have IPH than those without WSI although the difference was not significant (50% vs. 31%, OR?=?2.19; 95% CI, 0.66–7.29; P?=?0.20). After adjustment for degree of stenosis, age and gender, the results remained unchanged. Conclusion About one in fifth of brain infarcts occurring in patients with moderate carotid stenosis were distributed in watershed areas. Albeit not significant, an association between IPH - more generally <span class="hlt">plaque</span> component - and WSI, still remains possible. PMID:25272160</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Isabel, Clothilde; Lecler, Augustin; Turc, Guillaume; Naggara, Olivier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Belkacem, Samia; Oppenheim, Catherine; Touzé, Emmanuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.216...53X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes for reverse faults?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Chong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NIMPB.231..326R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear microscopy of diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the brains of transgenic mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using nuclear microscopy, extracellular diffuse amyloid deposits in fresh unstained brain tissue from Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice Tg2576 have been identified and analyzed for trace element content. Off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) images can be obtained which are similar to the images produced using direct STIM. Since the proton beam <span class="hlt">current</span> required for off-axis STIM is compatible with PIXE and RBS, we can identify the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> location and analyze for trace elements simultaneously. Analysis of the diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span> showed an increase in the transition metals iron and zinc compared with the surrounding area of comparable areal density. This supports the theory that redox interactions between A? and metals could be at the heart of a pathological feedback system wherein A? amyloidosis and oxidative stress promote each other, possibly via Fenton chemistry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rajendran, Reshmi; Ren, Minqin; Casadesus, Gemma; Smith, Mark A.; Perry, George; Huang, En; Ong, Wei Yi; Halliwell, Barry; Watt, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1094528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of listerine on dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and gingivitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study was performed in 10 adults in order to evaluate the effect of an antiseptic mouthrinse (Listerine) on the rate of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and gingivitis development during a 2-week period when all efforts towards active mechanical oral hygiene were withdrawn. The study was performed as a crossover study and was carried out during four consecutive 2-week periods. During the first and third periods (preparatory periods) the participants were subjected to repeated professional tooth cleanings in order to establish <span class="hlt">plaque</span>- and gingivitis-free dentitions. During the second and fourth periods (test and control periods) the participants were not allowed to brush their teeth but rinsed their mouths three times a day with Listerine or a placebo mouthwash. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Index, Gingival Index, gingival fluid flow, and crevicular leukocytes were assessed on d 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. On d 7 and 14, dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was removed from the right and left jaws respectively and the wet weights determined. The chemotactic activity elaborated by the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was studied in Boyden chambers. During the Listerine test period, significantly lower <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> and Gingival Index values were scored and lower amounts of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> could be sampled in comparison to the control period. PMID:1094528</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fornell, J; Sundin, Y; Lindhe, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16159053"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> intracranial aneurysms in the elderly: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often a devastating condition and a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Because the percentage of senior citizens is increasing in many countries and because of the increased incidence of SAH in elderly patients, <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> intracranial aneurysm is an increasingly frequent pathology in western countries. Twenty years ago, older people were considered to have such a poor prognosis that they were frequently excluded from active treatment on the unique basis of their advanced age. Improving results published in recent studies showed that the classic fatalistic attitude associated with age and intracranial aneurysm (IA) should be reconsidered. Therefore, because of improvements in surgical results and neuro-intensive care, the appearance of interventional neuroradiology, and more aggressive rehabilitation programs, the management of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> IA in the elderly is changing. This article aims to review epidemiology, emphasize the specific aspects of the disease in the elderly, and present the <span class="hlt">current</span> management of SAH in an elderly population. PMID:16159053</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sedat, Jacques; Dib, Mustapha; Rasendrarijao, David; Fontaine, Denys; Lonjon, Michel; Paquis, Philippe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19843435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> commonly affect middle-aged athletes and can result in considerable functional impairment. While the cause is multifactorial, the greatest risk is present for athletes involved in sports that involve sudden acceleration and deceleration. A thorough history and physical examination can accurately yield a diagnosis, but when question remains, magnetic resonance imaging is superior to ultrasound-guided evaluation. The best evidence available suggests that operative treatment has a lower rate of rerupture, a higher rate of return to the same level of sport participation, and a higher complication rate, if an open technique is used. Percutaneous methods of fixation have lower complication rates without an increase in the rate of rerupture when compared with open methods. Augmentation of an Achilles tendon repair has demonstrated no clinical benefit. Rehabilitation with early mobilization leads to improved patient-reported outcomes. PMID:19843435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deangelis, Joseph P; Wilson, Kristina M; Cox, Charles L; Diamond, Alex B; Thomson, A Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2777620"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Surgery of traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, surgery and results of patients with acute traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta in a series of 21 consecutive patients. Direct cross-clamping without additional methods of spinal cord protection was used in 18/21 patients (86%). Direct suture was possible in 12/21 patients (60%). In the remaining patients, the repair was carried out by interposition of a Dacron graft. Overall mortality was 7/21 patients (33%). However, in 3 patients with severe polytrauma irreversible brain damage was the cause of death whereas 2 patients died from septicemia and myocardial infarction, respectively. No paraplegia nor paraparesis occurred in the surviving patients which were operated by direct cross-clamping of the aorta and rapid reanastomosis without additional methods of spinal cord protection. PMID:2777620</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Segesser, L; Schneider, K; Siebenmann, R; Glinz, W; Turina, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5012634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dural lucent line: characteristic sign of hyperostosing meningioma en <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hyperostosis of the skull associated with en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> form of meningioma may present a diagnostic challenge, since the intracranial part of the tumor is not visualized by skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), or other neuroradiologic methods. The authors report four cases of hyperostosing meningioma en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> demonstrating a characteristic feature: a subdural layer of ossification along the hyperostotic bone with a dural lucent interface. Polytomography or high-resolution CT at bone window settings is necessary to identify the dural lucent line. The absence of this sign does not exclude meningioma en <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, K.S.; Rogers, L.F.; Lee, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800442"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tuberculoma of the cervical spinal canal mimicking en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previously healthy, HIV-negative, 40-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of progressive weakness of his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural, extramedullary <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-shaped lesion at C6-T1 levels with high contrast enhancement. Based on the patient's clinical and radiologic findings, it was believed that the patient had an en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma, and he was operated on. Histologic examination of the mass revealed granulomas with multinucleated and Langhans-type giant cells, typical of a tuberculoma. Intradural extramedullary tuberculomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma as a rare entity. PMID:15800442</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirzai, Hasan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21336556"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> and thrombus evaluation by optical coherence tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography has been explored as an imaging tool for vessel wall and thrombus characterization. OCT enables a high resolution arterial wall imaging, and light properties allow tissue characterization. It has been proved one of the most valuable imaging modalities for the evaluation of vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and thrombus. OCT has a unique capacity in volumetric quantification of calcium, and unlike ultrasound, light can easily penetrate calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Finally, this review paper will address aspects of the validation method of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> characterization and potential pitfalls and put in perspective new approaches that may help the evolution of the field. PMID:21336556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kubo, Takashi; Xu, Chenyang; Wang, Zhao; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S; Bezerra, Hiram G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34756875"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complement activation in amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer’s dementia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  Amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer’s dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement\\u000a activation in amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement\\u000a components and activated complement products. Amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but\\u000a no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Eikelenboom; C. E. Hack; J. M. Rozemuller; F. C. Stam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S43A1056H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics: Effect of Small Size Strength Heterogeneity on Earthquake Size, Slip Distribution and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geological data and kinematic inversions of seismological data show that the overall shapes of slip profile along strike present long linear slopes (Manighetti et al., J. Geophys. R, 2005). <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> dynamics of a homogeneous friction properties fault do not lead to such slip distribution. We tried to retrieve this feature using a direct modelling of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, performing 3D simulations with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation, dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, and finally, self <span class="hlt">rupture</span> arrest (without a priori knowledge of the final size of the event). This last characteristic was obtained by imposing fault resistance to be infinite on some randomly sized and localized small patches. We found that small size heterogeneities, which cannot be identified by kinematic inversions using low frequency signal and hence only describing large-scale properties of earthquakes, might have a great influence on the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: -For statistically identical random realizations of barrier distribution, we obtain a great variability of event size, with a majority of small events and a few realizations leading to the entire fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. -The arrest of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by the distributed barrier leads, in general, final slip distribution to decay almost linearly from the zone of maximum slip. -Whereas, on an homogeneous model, one could observe a jump from subshear to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation velocity, with small barriers but the same slip-weakening law parameters (stress drop, strength excess & Dc), the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can keep propagating at subshear velocities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hok, S.; Campillo, M.; Cotton, F.; Manighetti, I.; Favreau, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20339922"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging with 256-slice multidetector computed tomography: interobserver variability of volumetric lesion parameters with semiautomatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> analysis software.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential clinical value of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging with a new generation CT scanner and the interobserver variability of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assessment with a new semiautomatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> analysis application. Thirty-five isolated <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the left anterior descending coronary artery from 35 patients were evaluated with a new semiautomatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> analysis application. All patients were scanned with a 256-slice MDCT scanner (Brilliance iCT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland OH, USA). Two independent observers evaluated lesion volume, maximum <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden, lesion CT number mean and standard deviation, and relative lesion composition. We found 10 noncalcified, 16 mixed, and 9 calcified lesions in our study cohort. Relative interobserver bias and variability for lesion volume were -37%, -13%, -49%, -44% and 28%, 16%, 37%, and 90% for all, noncalcified, mixed, and calcified lesions, respectively. Absolute interobserver bias and variability for relative lesion composition were 1.2%, 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.3% and 3.3%, 4.5%, 7.0%, and 4.4% for all, noncalcified, mixed, and calcified lesions, respectively. While mixed and calcified lesions demonstrated a high degree of lesion volume interobserver variability, noncalcified lesions had a lower degree of lesion volume interobserver variability. In addition, relative noncalcified lesion composition had a very low interobserver variability. Therefore, there may a role for MDCT in serial noncalcified <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assessment with semiautomatic analysis software. PMID:20339922</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klass, Oliver; Kleinhans, Susanne; Walker, Matthew J; Olszewski, Mark; Feuerlein, Sebastian; Juchems, Markus; Hoffmann, Martin H K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other <span class="hlt">currently</span> used discriminants. We show more information which known from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations. The longer <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madlazim [Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics and Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1454..142M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations estimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, Tdur. Tdur can be related to the critical parameters <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (?) while Tdur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or ?. Our analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/?, depth and size than Mw and other <span class="hlt">currently</span> used discriminants. We show more information which known from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations. The longer <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length, because Tdur is proportional L and greater Mo/?. Because Mo/? is proportional L. So, with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madlazim, <aff>Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics; Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231, <country>Indonesia</country></aff></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70137547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation. A dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near?fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (? see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> computer simulation codes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4077554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human APOE4 increases microglia reactivity at A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in a mouse model of A? deposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Having the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE-?4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accumulation of amyloid beta (A?) in the brain is influenced by APOE genotype. Transgenic mice co-expressing five familial AD mutations (5xFAD) in the presence of human APOE alleles (?2, ?3 or ?4) exhibit APOE genotype-specific differences in early A? accumulation, suggesting an interaction between APOE and AD pathology. Whether APOE genotype affects A?-<span class="hlt">plaque</span>-associated neuroinflammation remains unclear. In the <span class="hlt">current</span> study, we address the role of APOE genotype on A?-associated microglial reactivity in the EFAD transgenic mouse model. Methods We analyzed A?-induced glial activation in the brains of 6-month-old EFAD transgenic mice (E2FAD, E3FAD and E4FAD). Region-specific morphological profiles of A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in EFAD brain sections were compared using immunofluorescence staining. We then determined the degree of glial activation in sites of A? deposition while comparing levels of the inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) by ELISA. Finally, we quantified parameters of A?-associated microglial reactivity using double-stained EFAD brain sections. Results Characterization of A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> revealed there were larger and more intensely stained <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in E4FAD mice relative to E2FAD and E3FAD mice. E4FAD mice also had a greater percentage of compact <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the subiculum than E3FAD mice. Reactive microglia and dystrophic astrocytes were prominent in EFAD brains, and primarily localized to two sites of significant A? deposition: the subiculum and deep layers of the cortex. Cortical levels of IL-1? were nearly twofold greater in E4FAD mice relative to E3FAD mice. To control for differences in levels of A? in the different EFAD mice, we analyzed the microglia within domains of specific A? deposits. Morphometric analyses revealed increased measures of microglial reactivity in E4FAD mice, including greater dystrophy, increased fluorescence intensity and a higher density of reactive cells surrounding cortical <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, than in E3FAD mice. Conclusions In addition to altering morphological profiles of A? deposition, APOE genotype influences A?-induced glial activation in the adult EFAD cortex. These data support a role for APOE in modulating A?-induced neuroinflammatory responses in AD progression, and support the use of EFAD mice as a suitable model for mechanistic studies of A?-associated neuroinflammation. PMID:24948358</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22100638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiobiology for eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy and evaluation of implant duration and radionuclide choice using an objective function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Clinical optimization of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy is <span class="hlt">currently</span> limited to tumor coverage, consensus prescription dosage, and dose calculations to ocular structures. The biologically effective dose (BED) of temporary brachytherapy treatments is a function of both chosen radionuclide R and implant duration T. This study endeavored to evaluate BED delivered to the tumor volume and surrounding ocular structures as a function of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> position P, prescription dose, R, and T. Methods: <span class="hlt">Plaque</span>-heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions were generated with MCNP5 for the range of <span class="hlt">currently</span> available COMS <span class="hlt">plaques</span> loaded with sources using three available low-energy radionuclides. These physical dose distributions were imported into the PINNACLE{sup 3} treatment planning system using the TG-43 hybrid technique and used to generate dose volume histograms for a T = 7 day implant within a reference eye geometry including the ciliary body, cornea, eyelid, foveola, lacrimal gland, lens, optic disc, optic nerve, retina, and tumor at eight standard treatment positions. The equation of Dale and Jones was employed to create biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs), allowing for BED volumetric analysis of all ROIs. Isobiologically effective prescription doses were calculated for T = 5 days down to 0.01 days, with BEDVHs subsequently generated for all ROIs using correspondingly reduced prescription doses. Objective functions were created to evaluate the BEDVHs as a function of R and T. These objective functions are mathematically accessible and sufficiently general to be applied to temporary or permanent brachytherapy implants for a variety of disease sites. Results: Reducing T from 7 to 0.01 days for a 10 mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> produced an average BED benefit of 26%, 20%, and 17% for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively, for all P; 16 and 22 mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> results were more position-dependent. {sup 103}Pd produced a 16%-35% BED benefit over {sup 125}I, whereas {sup 131}Cs produced a 3%-7% BED detriment, independent of P, T, and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> size. Additionally, corresponding organ at risk physical doses were lowest using {sup 103}Pd in all circumstances. Conclusions: The results suggest that shorter implant durations may correlate with more favorable outcomes compared to 7 day implants when treating small or medium intraocular lesions. The data also indicate that implant duration may be safely reduced if the prescription physical dose is likewise diminished and that {sup 103}Pd offers a substantial radiobiological benefit over {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs irrespective of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> position, implant duration, and tumor size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24730200"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the knee is a common knee injury associated with sports and exercise. The injury typically arises when the foot is tightly locked against the floor or ground, whereby a sudden change of direction combined with the slowed motion causes a rotary motion of the upper part of the tibia and a force <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> the cruciate ligament. Approximately 30% of the injuries take place during a situation of direct contact. The instability of the knee due to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may be strongly invalidizing. In such case surgical therapy is required, if appropriate conservative treatment does not lead to a good result. PMID:24730200</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suomalainen, Piia; Sillanpää, Petri; Järvelä, Timo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2890.photos.193733p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3596.photos.575953p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elevation view of dedication <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on east wall of south ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elevation view of dedication <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1760.photos.316074p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification <span class="hlt">plaque</span> ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification <span class="hlt">plaque</span> located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1390.photos.017139p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">32. STUDIO VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">32. STUDIO VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398139"> <span id="translatedtitle">A helical microwave antenna for welding <span class="hlt">plaque</span> during balloon angioplasty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A catheter-based microwave helix antenna has been developed in an attempt to improve the long-term success of balloon angioplasty treatment of arteriosclerosis. When the balloon is inflated to widen vessels obstructed with <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, microwave power is deposited in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, heating it, and thereby fixing it in place. By optimizing the helix pitch angle and excitation frequency, the antenna radiation pattern can be adjusted to deposit microwave power preferentially in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> while avoiding overheating the healthy artery. The optimal power deposition patterns of helical antennas are analytically computed for four-layered concentric and four-layered nonconcentric cylindrical geometries, which model symmetric and asymmetric occluded arteries. Experiments were performed on occluded artery phantom models with a prototype antenna for both symmetric and asymmetric models, which matched the theoretical predictions well, indicating almost complete power absorption in the low-water-content simulated <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, P.; Rappaport, C.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ar0065.photos.010507p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0703.photos.034868p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">10. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">10. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS GROUND, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS; NOW IN CUSTODY OF WARREN COUNTY HIGHWAY SUPERINTENDENT - Campbell Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek at Sumner Township Road 22, Little York, Warren County, IL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/a011238120517070.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cholesterol in the senile <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: often mentioned, never seen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lipid components of the senile <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (SP) remain largely unknown. Senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were said to be enriched in cholesterol\\u000a in a few studies using the cholesterol probe filipin and a histoenzymatic method based upon cholesterol oxidase activity.\\u000a We provide data that strongly suggest that these results are false-positive: the SPs were still stained in the absence of\\u000a the enzyme</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thibaud Lebouvier; Claire Perruchini; Maï Panchal; Marie-Claude Potier; Charles Duyckaerts</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u2hnpbpx83xlw377.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prion protein expression in senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prion protein (PrPC) is a glycolipid-anchored cell membrane sialoglycoprotein that localises in presynaptic membranes. Since synapses are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the present study examines PrPC expression in senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, one of the major structural abnormalities in AD, by single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Punctate PrPC immunoreactivity is found in diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, whereas isolated large coarse PrPC-positive granules reminiscent of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Ferrer; R. Blanco; M. Carmona; B. Puig; R. Ribera; M. J. Rey; T. Ribalta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+resistance+AND+resource&id=EJ826517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance classes are assigned based on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between thumb and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3704084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> by intravascular optical coherence tomography images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is rapidly becoming the method of choice for the in vivo investigation of coronary artery disease. While IVOCT visualizes atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with a resolution <20µm, image analysis in terms of tissue composition is <span class="hlt">currently</span> performed by a time-consuming manual procedure based on the qualitative interpretation of image features. We illustrate an algorithm for the automated and systematic characterization of IVOCT atherosclerotic tissue. The proposed method consists in a supervised classification of image pixels according to textural features combined with the estimated value of the optical attenuation coefficient. IVOCT images of 64 <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, from 49 in vivo IVOCT data sets, constituted the algorithm’s training and testing data sets. Validation was obtained by comparing automated analysis results to the manual assessment of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. An overall pixel-wise accuracy of 81.5% with a classification feasibility of 76.5% and per-class accuracy of 89.5%, 72.1% and 79.5% for fibrotic, calcified and lipid-rich tissue respectively, was found. Moreover, measured optical properties were in agreement with previous results reported in literature. As such, an algorithm for automated tissue characterization was developed and validated using in vivo human data, suggesting that it can be applied to clinical IVOCT data. This might be an important step towards the integration of IVOCT in cardiovascular research and routine clinical practice. PMID:23847728</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ughi, Giovanni Jacopo; Adriaenssens, Tom; Sinnaeve, Peter; Desmet, Walter; D’hooge, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8497229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3604295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: why is it important?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/343749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Renal allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with iliofemoral thrombophlebitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a renal allograft in the early posttransplant period is associated with tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria, swelling, pain, a falling hematocrit level, and tenderness at the transplant site. Occasionally, the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> allograft can be saved by control of the hemorrhage. Deep vein thrombophlebitis, a common occurrence after prolonged surgery and cortocosteroid therapy, is less common in renal allograft transplantation, but may be associated with renal vein thrombosis. The simultaneous occurrence of deep vein thrombophlebitis, renal vein thrombosis, and allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> contraindicates anticoagulent therapy. We present a patient in whom ipsilateral deep vein thrombophlebitis developed eight days after a cadaveric renal allograft, followed in two days by hypotension, a falling hematocrit level, oliguria, and a painfall mass at the allograft site. Surgical exploration revealed a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> allograft with iliofemoral and renal vein thrombosis and profuse hemorrhage. A transplant nephrectomy was performed. PMID:343749</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldman, M H; Leapman, S B; Handy, R D; Best, D W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Iliac Artery <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Endovascular Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1177P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process of Izmit (turkey) Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Izmit (Turkey) earthquake of 17 August 1999 (Mw=7.6), have been analysed using the wave form of P and S waves and the directivity function of Rayleigh waves recorded at teleseismic distances. The source model is a unilateral rectangular fault of finite dimensions (Haskell model). Initial values of orientation and sense <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, fault length and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity have been obtained from first motion of P wave and directivity function of Rayleigh waves. Depth and focal mechanism have been obtained from wave form of P and SH waves using a finite dimension source. The obtained solution is a strike slip mechanism with fault orientation : strike 270z, dip 80z and rake -180z, focal depth 10 km, fault length 120 km, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity 3 km/s and seismic moment 1.66 x 10^20 Nm. This solution agrees with the North Anatolia Fault tectonics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pro, C.; Buforn, E.; Udias, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4049806"> <span id="translatedtitle">Altered microglial response to A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in APPPS1-21 mice heterozygous for TREM2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Recent genome-wide association studies linked variants in TREM2 to a strong increase in the odds of developing Alzheimer’s disease. The mechanism by which TREM2 influences the susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease is <span class="hlt">currently</span> unknown. TREM2 is expressed by microglia and is thought to regulate phagocytic and inflammatory microglial responses to brain pathology. Given that a single allele of variant TREM2, likely resulting in a loss of function, conferred an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, we tested whether loss of one functional trem2 allele would affect A? <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deposition or the microglial response to A? pathology in APPPS1-21 mice. Results There was no significant difference in A? deposition in 3-month old or 7-month old APPPS1-21 mice expressing one or two copies of trem2. However, 3-month old mice with one copy of trem2 exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-associated microglia. While there were no statistically significant differences in cytokine levels or markers of microglial activation in 3- or 7-month old animals, there were trends towards decreased expression of NOS2, C1qa, and IL1a in 3-month old TREM2+/? vs. TREM2+/+ mice. Conclusions Loss of a single copy of trem2 had no effect on A? pathology, but altered the morphological phenotype of <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-associated microglia. These data suggest that TREM2 is important for the microglial response to A? deposition but that a 50% decrease inTREM2 expression does not affect A? <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden. PMID:24893973</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34631161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Frames in Psychology: Demarcations and <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author\\u000a believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent\\u000a science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental “<span class="hlt">ruptures</span>” are identified: the “horizontal” <span class="hlt">rupture</span>\\u000a between various schools</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrey V. Yurevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JInst...8C5005P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential X-ray phase contrast tomography of Alzheimer <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in mouse models: perspectives for drug development and clinical imaging techniques</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming threat on an ever-ageing population, with devastating effects on the human intellect. A particular characteristic lesion — the extracellular amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> — accumulates in the brain of AD patients during the course of the disease, and could therefore be used to monitor the progression of the disease, years before the first neurological symptoms appear. In addition, strategies for drug intervention in AD are often based on amyloid reduction, since amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are hypothesized to be involved in a chain of reactions leading to the death of neurons. Developments in both fields would benefit from a microscopic technique that is capable of single <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging, ideally in 3D. While such a non-destructive, single-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging technique does not yet exist for humans, it has been recently shown that synchrotron based differential X-ray phase contrast imaging can be used to visualize individual <span class="hlt">plaques</span> at ?m resolution in mouse models of AD ex-vivo. This method, which relies on a grating interferometer to measure refraction angles induced by fluctuations in the refractive index, yields a precise three-dimensional distribution of single <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. These data could not only improve the understanding of the evolution of AD or the effectiveness of drugs, but could also help to improve reliable markers for <span class="hlt">current</span> and future non-invasive clinical imaging techniques. In particular, validation of PET markers with small animal models could be rapidly carried out by co-registration of PET and DPC signals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinzer, B. R.; Cacquevel, M.; Modregger, P.; Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.353...38B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes during the April 11, 2010 deep-focus earthquake beneath Granada, Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mw=6.3 deep-focus earthquake beneath Granada, Spain, in 2010 consisted of three resolvable sub-events occurring within a time span of 5 s. Estimated sub-event seismic moment partitioning is 12%, 7% and 81%, respectively. All sub-events had similar focal mechanisms with a vertical and a near-horizontal nodal plane, and all occurred within 5 km of each other at a similar depth, suggesting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the near-horizontal nodal plane. However, directivity analyses indicate that the first sub-event <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> unilaterally on the vertical plane. Its modeled <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length of ?9 km and stress drop of ?2 MPa are typical of crustal earthquakes. In contrast, the following sub-events show no clear directivity. The third, best resolved, sub-event had a hypocenter ?2 km from the first and a focal mechanism indistinguishable from the first, but it had a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dimension of <6.5 km and a stress drop of >40 MPa. This requires an ambient stress field significantly greater than the stress drop of the first sub-event, implying that the first sub-event <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> as a slip pulse with a transient weakening mechanism. The large stress drops of the second and third sub-events suggest a crack-like <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without fault healing and with nearly total stress drop. Fault-zone melting and metastable olivine are viable mechanisms for these <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics of the first sub-event seem incompatible with most mechanisms <span class="hlt">currently</span> under consideration for deep-focus earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in 1868 on the Hayward fault in north Oakland and major <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> in prehistoric earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WGCEP90 estimated the Hayward fault to have a high probability (0.45 in 30 yr) of producing a future M7 Bay Area earthquake. This was based on a generic recurrence time and an unverified segmentation model, because there were few direct observations for the southern fault and none for the northern Hayward fault. To better constrain recurrence and segmentation of the northern Hayward fault, we trenched in north Oakland. Unexpectedly, we observed evidence of surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> probably from the M7 1868 earthquake. This extends the limit of that surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> 13 km north of the segmentation boundary used in the WGCEP90 model and forces serious re-evaluation of the <span class="hlt">current</span> two-segment paradigm. Although we found that major prehistoric <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have occurred here, we could not radiocarbon date them. However, the last major prehistoric event appears correlative with a recently recognized event 13 km to the north dated AD 1640-1776. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lienkaemper, J.J.; Williams, P.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15135256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rosuvastatin reduces MMP-7 secretion by human monocyte-derived macrophages: potential relevance to atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by their actions on atherogenic lipid profiles and by pleiotropic effects. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a new statin, rosuvastatin (Crestor), on sterol synthesis and the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Rosuvastatin dose-dependently inhibited sterol synthesis from acetate with an IC(50) of 70 nM. In addition, MMP-7 levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 50% (P < 0.01) at 1 microM. Also, addition of isoprenoids such as farnesyl pyrophosphate (Fpp) or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGpp) fully overcame the inhibitory effect of rosuvastatin on MMP-7. Neither quantitative PCR nor transient transfection of HMDM with a luciferase reporter construct under the control of human MMP-7 promoter (2300 bp of the 5' region on MMP-7 gene) showed a decrease in MMP-7 mRNA following treatment with rosuvastatin (10(-6)M). However, the inhibitory effect of the statin occurred at the post-transcriptional level as determined by actinomycin D experiment. In conclusion, several studies have reported a high expression of active MMP-7 in human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> indicating a potential role in the weakening of the fibrous cap, predisposing it to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The effect of rosuvastatin in reducing MMP-7 might protect fibrous caps from degradation and in turn stabilize atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. PMID:15135256</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Furman, Christophe; Copin, Corinne; Kandoussi, Mejid; Davidson, Robert; Moreau, Martine; McTaggiart, Fergus; Chapman, M John; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rouis, Mustapha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4274101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elevated Uptake of Plasma Macromolecules by Regions of Arterial Wall Predisposed to <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Instability in a Mouse Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25531765</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohri, Zahra; Rowland, Ethan M.; Clarke, Lindsey A.; De Luca, Amalia; Peiffer, Véronique; Krams, Rob; Sherwin, Spencer J.; Weinberg, Peter D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PMB....58.8457B"> <span id="translatedtitle">A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (VP) <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3170713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can anti-erosion dentifrices also provide effective <span class="hlt">plaque</span> control?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: While gingivitis and caries continue to be prevalent issues, there is growing concern about dental erosion induced by dietary acids. An oral hygiene product that protects against all these conditions would be beneficial. This study investigated the potential of two anti-erosion dentifrices to inhibit <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Methods: This was a randomized, three-period, two-treatment, double-blind, crossover study evaluating a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnCl2/NaF, blend-a-med® Pro Expert) and a popular anti-erosion dentifrice (NaF, Sensodyne® ProNamel™). During Period 3, subjects were randomized to repeat one treatment to evaluate any product carryover effects. Each treatment period was 17 days. Test dentifrices were used with a standard manual toothbrush. Digital <span class="hlt">plaque</span> image analysis (DPIA) was employed at the end of each period to evaluate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> levels (i) overnight (am prebrush); (ii) post-brushing with the test product (am post-brush); and (iii) mid-afternoon (pm). Analysis was conducted via an objective computer algorithm, which calculated total area of visible <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Results: Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. At all time points, subjects had statistically significantly (P ? 0.0001) lower <span class="hlt">plaque</span> levels after using the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice than the NaF dentifrice. The antiplaque benefit for the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice versus the NaF dentifrice was: am prebrush = 26.0%; am post-brushing = 27.9%; pm = 25.7%. Conclusions: The SnCl2/NaF dentifrice provided significantly greater daytime and overnight <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inhibition than the NaF toothpaste. When recommending dentifrice to patients susceptible to dental erosion, clinicians can consider one that also inhibits <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:21356021</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bellamy, PG; Prendergast, M; Strand, R; Yu, Z; Day, TN; Barker, ML; Mussett, AJ</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4628799"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival of human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> flora in various transport media.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However, VMG II showed a higher recovery of organisms from these specimens with an increase in the storage period, suggesting multiplication of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> flora. RTF did not allow the growth of oral bacterial flora under all experimental conditions. On the basis of the relative performance of these media it is suggested that RTF is a satisfactory medium for the transport of oral bacteria present in the samples. PMID:4628799</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Syed, S A; Loesche, W J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5746..223W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">plaque</span> development and local hemodynamics in coronary arteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanisms of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> development in coronary arteries are not yet completely understood. Vessel geometry influences the local hemodynamics within a vessel, and the resulting wall shear stress in turn influences <span class="hlt">plaque</span> development. Previously, we showed in-vivo that <span class="hlt">plaque</span> tends to accumulate more on the inner curvature of a vessel than on its outer curvature. While vessel curvature is preserved during <span class="hlt">plaque</span> progression, the local wall shear stresses change with lumen narrowing. The aim of this study was to test how the hypothesis that locations of low wall shear stress coincide with circumferentially larger <span class="hlt">plaque</span> accumulation depends on vascular remodeling with or without lumen narrowing. We have analyzed 39 in-vivo intravascular-ultrasound pullbacks, for which geometrically accurate 3-D models were obtained by fusion with x-ray angiography. Distorting subsegments (branches, calcifications, stents) were discarded, and the relative number of vessel locations was determined within a 10-40% area-stenosis range. This range corresponds to compensatory enlargement (outward or positive vessel remodeling), but not yet lumen narrowing, and these vessel segments were a focus of our study. For each segment, we determined the relative number of vessel locations for which circumferentially low wall shear stress coincided with larger <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness and vice versa. The inverse association between wall shear stress and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness was significantly more pronounced (p<0.005) in vessel cross sections exhibiting compensatory enlargement without luminal narrowing than when the full spectrum of vessel stenosis severity was considered. Thus, the hypothesis is supported more in subsegments with less developed disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wahle, Andreas; Lopez, John J.; Olszewski, Mark E.; Vigmostad, Sarah C.; Braddy, Kathleen C.; Brennan, Theresa M. H.; Bokhari, Syed W.; Bennett, J. Gray; Holper, Elizabeth M.; Rossen, James D.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Sonka, Milan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3483411"> <span id="translatedtitle">Association between Variations in Coagulation System Genes and Carotid <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective Genetic variation in coagulation and fibrinolysis may affect the development of subclinical atherosclerosis modifying the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, data on the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and genes involved in the coagulation system are sparse. The objective of this study is to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coagulation system genes and subclinical carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phenotypes. Methods From the Genetic Determinants of Subclinical Carotid Disease study, 287 Dominicans were examined for carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> presence, thickness, and surface irregularity by high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasound. Logistic regression was used to test for association between 101 SNPs in 23 coagulation system genes and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phenotypes while controlling for age, sex, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Within gene haplotypes and interactions between genes were examined. A follow-up of SNPs in moderate to high (r2>0.25) linkage disequilibrium (LD) with those implicated in the discovery analysis (p?0.01) was performed in an independent sample of 301 Dominicans. Results The prevalence of carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (47% discovery; 46% follow-up) as well as the mean age (65±8 discovery; 65±9 follow-up) of the participants was similar in both datasets. Two genes (vWF and THBS1) were associated (p?0.01) with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> size and surface irregularity. In followup, 5 SNPs in vWF were associated (p?0.05) with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> size. SERPINE1 was an additional gene of interest in the haplotype and interaction analyses. Conclusions Variation in the vWF, THBS1, and SERPINE1 gene may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:22982001</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Della-Morte, David; Beecham, Ashley; Dong, Chuanhui; Wang, Liyong; McClendon, Mark S.; Gardener, Hannah; Blanton, Susan H.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21867660"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Recurring pneumothorax due to traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case where a patient is diagnosed with a traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ten years after the trauma, after eight incidences of pneumothorax and two thoracoscopic operations. Ten years before the <span class="hlt">current</span> case, the female patient was the victim of a blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma. In the following years, she had recurrent right-sided pneumothorax and no effect of thoracoscopic surgery. In connection with the third thoracoscopic operation, a right-sided diaphragm lesion was discovered. We believe that part of the syndrome catamenial pneumothorax, where air is thought to pass through the cervix, could explain her condition. PMID:21867660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehnert, Per; Christensen, Merete; Ravn, Jesper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54034681"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Paths in Kappa-Maps: Quantitative Insights on Heterogeneous Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> From Energy Arguments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. Although heterogeneities of strength and initial stress contribute to this <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity, a systematic approach to quantify their effect has not yet been attempted. For instance, little is known about the relation between the final size of an earthquake and the statistical properties of initial strength excess fields. Canonical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ampuero; J. Ripperger; M. Mai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.444a2102P"> <span id="translatedtitle">ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> dosimetry: commissioning and verification of an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> SimulatorTM eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy planning system was commissioned for ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and Amersham Health model 6711 Iodine 125 seeds, using TG43-UI data. The brachytherapy module of the RADCALC® independent checking program was configured to allow verification of the accuracy of the dose calculated by <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> SimulatorTM. Central axis depth dose distributions were compared and observed to agree to within 2% for all ROPES <span class="hlt">plaque</span> models and depths of interest. Experimental measurements were performed with a customized PRESAGEm 3-D type dosimeter to validate the calculated depth dose distributions. Preliminary results have shown the effect of the stainless steel <span class="hlt">plaque</span> backing decreases the measured fluorescence intensity by up to 25%, and 40% for the 15 mm and 10 mm diameter ROPES <span class="hlt">plaques</span> respectively. This effect, once fully quantified should be accounted for in the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> SimulatorTM eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy planning system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poder, J.; Annabell, N.; Geso, M.; Alqathami, M.; Corde, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimal parameters for near infrared fluorescence imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer’s disease mouse models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyloid-? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are an Alzheimer’s disease biomarker which present unique challenges for near-infrared fluorescence tomography because of size (<50 ?m diameter) and distribution. We used high-resolution simulations of fluorescence in a digital Alzheimer’s disease mouse model to investigate the optimal fluorophore and imaging parameters for near-infrared fluorescence tomography of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Fluorescence was simulated for amyloid-targeted probes with emission at 630 and 800 nm, <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-to-background ratios from 1–1000, amyloid burden from 0–10%, and for transmission and reflection measurement geometries. Fluorophores with high <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-to-background contrast ratios and 800 nm emission performed significantly better than <span class="hlt">current</span> amyloid imaging probes. We tested idealized fluorophores in transmission and full-angle tomographic measurement schemes (900 source–detector pairs), with and without anatomical priors. Transmission reconstructions demonstrated strong linear correlation with increasing amyloid burden, but underestimated fluorescence yield and suffered from localization artifacts. Full-angle measurements did not improve upon the transmission reconstruction qualitatively or in semi-quantitative measures of accuracy; anatomical and initial-value priors did improve reconstruction localization and accuracy for both transmission and full-angle schemes. Region-based reconstructions, in which the unknowns were reduced to a few distinct anatomical regions, produced highly accurate yield estimates for cortex, hippocampus and brain regions, even with a reduced number of measurements (144 source–detector pairs). PMID:19794239</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raymond, S B; Kumar, A T N; Boas, D A; Bacskai, B J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119506"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unified theory on the pathogenesis of Randall's <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and plugs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kidney stones develop attached to sub-epithelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals (termed Randall's <span class="hlt">plaque</span>) and/or form as a result of occlusion of the openings of the Ducts of Bellini by stone-forming crystals (Randall's plugs). These <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and plugs eventually extrude into the urinary space, acting as a nidus for crystal overgrowth and stone formation. To better understand these regulatory mechanisms and the pathophysiology of idiopathic calcium stone disease, this review provides in-depth descriptions of the morphology and potential origins of these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and plugs, summarizes existing animal models of renal papillary interstitial deposits, and describes factors that are believed to regulate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and calcium overgrowth. Based on evidence provided within this review and from the vascular calcification literature, we propose a "unified" theory of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation-one similar to pathological biomineralization observed elsewhere in the body. Abnormal urinary conditions (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia), renal stress or trauma, and perhaps even the normal aging process lead to transformation of renal epithelial cells into an osteoblastic phenotype. With this de-differentiation comes an increased production of bone-specific proteins (i.e., osteopontin), a reduction in crystallization inhibitors (such as fetuin and matrix Gla protein), and creation of matrix vesicles, which support nucleation of CaP crystals. These small deposits promote aggregation and calcification of surrounding collagen. Mineralization continues by calcification of membranous cellular degradation products and other fibers until the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reaches the papillary epithelium. Through the activity of matrix metalloproteinases or perhaps by brute physical force produced by the large sub-epithelial crystalline mass, the surface is breached and further stone growth occurs by organic matrix-associated nucleation of CaOx or by the transformation of the outer layer of CaP crystals into CaOx crystals. Should this theory hold true, developing an understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in progression of a small, basic interstitial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to that of an expanding, penetrating <span class="hlt">plaque</span> could assist in the development of new therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25119506</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khan, Saeed R; Canales, Benjamin K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3510519"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of echinococcal cysts: diagnosis, classification, and clinical implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors classify <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of echinococcal cysts into three types: contained, communicating, and direct. Contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when only the parasitic endocyst <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and the cyst contents are confined within the host-derived pericyst. When cyst contents escape via biliary or bronchial radicles that are incorporated in the pericyst, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is communicating. Direct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when both the endocyst and the pericyst tear, spilling cyst contents directly into the peritoneal or pleural cavities or occasionally into other structures. Communicating and direct forms have more serious clinical implications than contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but even contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should have prompt surgical attention to prevent it from developing into one of the other forms. Untreated communicating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a liver cyst can lead to obstruction of the biliary system with a 50% mortality rate. Direct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may cause anaphylaxis, and it should be managed surgically, possibly with adjunctive treatment with antihelminthic drugs to decrease the possibility of metastatic hydatosis. PMID:3510519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewall, D B; McCorkell, S J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2906248"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angiotensin Receptor Blockade With Candesartan Attenuates Atherosclerosis, <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Disruption, and Macrophage Accumulation Within the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> in a Rabbit Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Little is known about whether direct angiotensin receptor blockade can reduce atherosclerosis and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption. This study evaluated the effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on both the development of atherosclerosis and the disruption of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in a modified Constantinides animal model. Methods and Results Twenty-eight New Zealand White rabbits underwent aortic balloon injury followed by a 1% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Thirteen rabbits received candesartan at 0.5 mg · kg?1 · d?1 beginning 2 days before aortic balloon injury and continued for the total 8 weeks of the cholesterol diet. The rabbits were then pharmacologically triggered and humanely killed, and their aortas were analyzed. The degree of atherosclerosis was determined by intima-media ratio of the infrarenal portion of the aorta. The frequency of intra-aortic thrombosis, a measure of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption, and the percentages of macrophage area and collagen-staining area of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were determined. Candesartan-treated rabbits had less atherosclerosis (intima-media infrarenal aorta ratio of 1.18±0.08 versus 1.57±0.08 [mean±SEM] for the placebo group, P<0.001); fewer thrombi (3 of 13 versus 11 of 15; P<0.05); lower percentage area of macrophages to total <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (18.8±2.7% versus 27±2.5%, P<0.05); and higher collagen to total <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area (45±3% versus 35±2%, P<0.01). Conclusions These results demonstrate that angiotensin receptor blockade attenuates the degree of atherosclerosis and reduces both <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption and macrophage accumulation while increasing collagen deposition in the aortas of this animal model. PMID:15451796</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perez, Alexandra S.; Nasser, Imad; Stewart, Robert; Vaidya, Anand; Al Ammary, Fawaz; Schmidt, Ben; Horowitz, Gary; Dolgoff, Jennifer; Hamilton, James; Quist, William C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3047936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Infliximab in the treatment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> type psoriasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Psoriasis is a chronic and immunomediated skin disease characterized by erythematous scaly <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Psoriasis affects approximately 1% to 3% of the Caucasian population. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Infliximab is an anti-TNF-? drug widely used for the treatment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> type psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that infliximab is characterized by a high degree of clinical response in moderate to severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. Moreover infliximab showed rapid efficacy in nail psoriasis which represents a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists and a relevant source of distress for patients with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. This anti-TNF-? has an encouraging safety profile, especially as long as physicians are watchful in prevention and early diagnosis of infections and infuse reactions. The efficacy, tolerability and safety profiles suggest infliximab as a suitable anti-psoriatic drug in the long-term treatment of a chronic disease such as <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-type psoriasis. PMID:21436966</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saraceno, Rosita; Saggini, Andrea; Pietroleonardo, Lucia; Chimenti, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12471391"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Motivation on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> control and gingival bleeding in school children].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of two pedagogical motivational approaches for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and gingival bleeding control among 135 students of local public schools in Santa Tereza, Brazil, in 1999 The motivational program consisted of different educational strategies offered to two distinct groups: Group A, who attended only one explanatory session about oral hygiene, and Group B, who attended a total of four pedagogical sessions. In order to evaluate the methodology applied, the visible <span class="hlt">plaque</span> index (according to Ainamo & Bay, 1975) and gingival bleeding index (according to L e and Silness, 1963) were calculated. A highly statistically significant reduction in the visible <span class="hlt">plaque</span> index and gingival bleeding index was observed in both groups after the educational sessions (p<0.001). Moreover, a higher reduction in the gingival bleeding index and an even more accentuated decrease in the visible <span class="hlt">plaque</span> index was found in group B when compared to group A (p<0.001). In conclusion, the motivational reinforcement in educational and preventive programs has a positive effect for the reduction and control of gingival bleeding and bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:12471391</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toassi, Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti; Petry, Paulo Cauhy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/749422"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Endemic pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and environmental factors (author's transl)].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an agricultural town in Burgenland (Austria) we found an increased prevalence of pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. These calcifying thickenings of the pleura are related to minimal asbestos exposure such as is mesothelioma, but they cannot be regarded as a precancerosis. The increased occurrence of pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in this town of nearly 3500 inhabitants (in which during 1916 to 1945 asbestos was mined) we first found at the chest x-ray archives of a pulmologic hospital, then by mass radiography and blind comparison with control groups. A photofluoroscopy of 300 persons yielded 16 cases with definite pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (5.3%) among which were 4 cases with suspected asbestosis and another 14 cases with uncertain pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (4.7%). The 600 control persons showed no such radiological changes. Interviews wich persons detected for pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> at mass radiography gave no indication that they had occupational asbestos exposure. But asbestos was detected in the soil of vineyards and in the dust of the houses. Asbestos was also detectable in the atmospheric dust by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic techniques. PMID:749422</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neuberger, M; Gründorfer, W; Haider, M; Königshofer, R; Müller, H W; Raber, A; Riedmüller, G; Schwaighofer, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3640519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein <span class="hlt">Plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NIMPB.241..676K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiolabeled probes for imaging Alzheimer’s <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disease characterized by the presence of extra-cellular <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and intra-cellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. The major protein component of these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is beta amyloid peptide (A?), a 40-42 amino acid peptide cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase and a putative ?-secretase. We radioiodinated quinoline derivatives (clioquinol and oxine) and evaluated them as potential amyloid imaging agents based on their ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and on their selectivity to metal binding sites on amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The uptake of theses tracers in the brains of normal swiss-webster mice was rapid and so was the clearance. Selectivity was demonstrated by higher binding to AD brain homogenates compared to normal brain. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated the localization of the tracers in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regions of the AD brain sections as well as in liver tissue with amyloidosis. Further optimization and evaluations would likely lead to development of these molecules as AD <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging agents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kulkarni, P. V.; Arora, V.; Roney, A. C.; White, C.; Bennett, M.; Antich, P. P.; Bonte, F. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2850253"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Neprilysin Polymorphism and Amyloid-? <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> after Traumatic Brain Injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces the rapid formation of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like amyloid-? (AB) <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in about 30% of patients. However, the mechanisms behind this selective <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation are unclear. We investigated a potential association between amyloid deposition acutely after TBI and a genetic polymorphism of the AB-degrading enzyme, neprilysin (n?=?81). We found that the length of the GT repeats in AB-accumulators was longer than in non-accumulators. Specifically, there was an increased risk of AB <span class="hlt">plaques</span> for patients with more than 41 total repeats (p?<?0.0001; OR: 10.1). In addition, the presence of 22 repeats in at least one allele was independently associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deposition (p?=?0.03; OR: 5.2). In contrast, the presence of 20?GT repeats in one allele was independently associated with a reduced incidence of AB deposition (p?=?0.003). These data suggest a genetically linked mechanism that determines which TBI patients will rapidly form AB <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Moreover, these findings provide a potential genetic screening test for individuals at high risk of TBI, such as participants in contact sports and military personnel. PMID:19326964</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Victoria E.; Stewart, William; Graham, David I.; Stewart, Janice E.; Praestgaard, Amy H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24508324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uniaxial tensile testing approaches for characterisation of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pathological changes associated with the development of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> within arterial vessels result in significant alterations to the mechanical properties of the diseased arterial wall. There are several methods available to characterise the mechanical behaviour of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> tissue, and it is the aim of this paper to review the use of uniaxial mechanical testing. In the case of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, there are nine studies that employ uniaxial testing to characterise mechanical behaviour. A primary concern regarding this limited cohort of published studies is the wide range of testing techniques that are employed. These differing techniques have resulted in a large variance in the reported data making comparison of the mechanical behaviour of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from different vasculatures, and even the same vasculature, difficult and sometimes impossible. In order to address this issue, this paper proposes a more standardised protocol for uniaxial testing of diseased arterial tissue that allows for better comparisons and firmer conclusions to be drawn between studies. To develop such a protocol, this paper reviews the acquisition and storage of the tissue, the testing approaches, the post-processing techniques and the stress-strain measures employed by each of the nine studies. Future trends are also outlined to establish the role that uniaxial testing can play in the future of arterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> mechanical characterisation. PMID:24508324</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walsh, M T; Cunnane, E M; Mulvihill, J J; Akyildiz, A C; Gijsen, F J H; Holzapfel, G A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090814"> <span id="translatedtitle">The diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in the diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is widely accepted to be the imaging study of choice for most women. Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of silicone implant failure has been shown to have the highest sensitivity and specificity and has the ability to image the entire implant without the use of ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, some women are unable to have a magnetic resonance imaging examination of the breast because of contraindications such as cardiac pacemakers, aneurysm clips, and claustrophobia. Therefore, mammography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography will have roles in the diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. This article illustrates the spectrum of imaging appearances of normal silicone gel implants and the appearances of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:18090814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorczyca, David P; Gorczyca, Stephanie M; Gorczyca, Kathryn L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23622472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic levels of heavy truck tire <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transportation vehicles, whether they are passenger vehicles or heavy trucks and transport vehicles, rely upon rubber tires to negotiate the roadways and surfaces on which they are driven. These tires have the potential of sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from various causes including but not limited to over-pressurization, sidewall failures, or punctures from roadway debris. These <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events can and do occur while the vehicles are stationary (e.g., during servicing) or are being driven, and often occur without notice. While the phenomenon of sudden tire failure has been documented for several decades, the potential bodily injury which can occur when an individual is in close proximity to such a sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has only more recently been documented. Aside from anecdotal mention in case studies, there has been little quantitative information available on the acoustic levels during these failures. Our study provides measured acoustic levels as a function of distance for such catastrophic tire failures. PMID:23622472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Matthew; Woodruff, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5461408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequency estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyD..278...31B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bifurcation analysis of a model for atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> evolution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze two ordinary differential equation (ODE) models for atherosclerosis. The ODE models describe long time evolution of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in arteries. We show how the dynamics of the first atherosclerosis model (model A) can be understood using codimension-two bifurcation analysis. The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) intake parameter (d) is the first control parameter and the second control parameter is either taken to be the conversion rate of macrophages (b) or the wall shear stress (?). Our analysis reveals that in both cases a Bogdanov-Takens (BT) point acts as an organizing center. The bifurcation diagrams are calculated partly analytically and to a large extent numerically using AUTO07 and MATCONT. The bifurcation curves show that the concentration of LDL in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> as well as the monocyte and the macrophage concentrations exhibit oscillations for a certain range of values of the control parameters. Moreover, we find that there are threshold values for both the cholesterol intake rate dcrit and the conversion rate of the macrophages bcrit, which depend on the values of other parameters, above which the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> volume increases with time. It is found that larger conversion rates of macrophages lower the threshold value of cholesterol intake and vice versa. We further argue that the dynamics for model A can still be discerned in the second model (model B) in which the slow evolution of the radius of the artery is coupled self-consistently to changes in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> volume. The very slow evolution of the radius of the artery compared to the other processes makes it possible to use a slow manifold approximation to study the dynamics in this case. We find that in this case the model predicts that the concentrations of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> constituents may go through a period of oscillations before the radius of the artery will start to decrease. These oscillations hence act as a precursor for the reduction of the artery radius by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bulelzai, M. A. K.; Dubbeldam, J. L. A.; Meijer, H. G. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140016387&hterms=history&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhistory"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Inclusion of Arbitrary Load Histories in the Strength Decay Model for Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a failure mechanism where failures can occur after a period of time, even though the material has seen no increase in load. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have demonstrated the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failure mechanism. In a previous work, a model was proposed for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures based on strength degradation. However, the original model was limited to constant load periods (holds) at constant load. The model was expanded in this paper to address arbitrary loading histories and specifically the inclusions of ramp loadings up to holds and back down. The broadening of the model allows for failures on loading to be treated as any other failure that may occur during testing instead of having to be treated as a special case. The inclusion of ramps can also influence the length of the "safe period" following proof loading that was previously predicted by the model. No stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failures are predicted in a safe period because time is required for strength to decay from above the proof level to the lower level of loading. Although the model can predict failures during the ramp periods, no closed-form solution for the failure times could be derived. Therefore, two suggested solution techniques were proposed. Finally, the model was used to design an experiment that could detect the difference between the strength decay model and a commonly used model for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Although these types of models are necessary to help guide experiments for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, only experimental evidence will determine how well the model may predict actual material response. If the model can be shown to be accurate, <span class="hlt">current</span> proof loading requirements may result in predicted safe periods as long as 10(13) years. COPVs design requirements for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may then be relaxed, allowing more efficient designs, while still maintaining an acceptable level of safety.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reeder, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6862348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48445580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Failure of stent-assisted endovascular treatment for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> dissecting aneurysms of the basilar artery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report two instructive cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> dissecting aneurysm of the basilar artery. Although stent-assisted endovascular treatment was successful, recurrent bleeding occurred 4 h after the procedure in one patient, and the other's basilar artery occluded 6 days after the procedure. These cases suggest that the high porosity of <span class="hlt">currently</span> available stents may be insufficient to induce intraluminal thrombosis and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Kaku; S. Yoshimura; H. Yamakawa; N. Sakai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geodesy.cwu.edu/about/pubs/2009GL040465.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Future Cascadia megathrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> delineated by episodic tremor James S. Chapman1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">] A suite of 15 episodic tremor and slip events imaged between 1997 and 2008 along the northern Cascadia subduction zone suggests future coseismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> will extend to 25 km depth, or $60 km inland of the Pacific years, suggests the down-dip limit of <span class="hlt">current</span> seismogenic stress accumulation reaches well-inland, to 25</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, M. Meghan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7899E..05R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has been developed. The method uses eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Dr. Moliner 50, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); Medical Physics Section, University Hospital, Av. Ramon y Cajal 3, E47011 Valladolid (Spain)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=436880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescence of experimental atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with hematoporphyrin derivative.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluorescence of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) has been used clinically to localize malignant neoplasms because of its selective accumulation in these tissues. We tested the hypothesis that HPD may also be selectively concentrated within atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. 48 h after HPD injection in a variety of species, selective fluorescence of atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the aorta was seen in each animal (rabbits and Patas monkey) exhibiting such lesions. No fluorescence could be demonstrated in aortic segments free of atheromatous involvement. Since the efficacy of photodynamic destruction of malignant tumors with HPD has been demonstrated in clinical studies, the observations of the present study may have therapeutic implications in atheromatosis. Images PMID:6822671</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spears, J R; Serur, J; Shropshire, D; Paulin, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12038119"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Intrabiliary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatic hydatid cyst].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous hepatic hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary tract is unusual. The authors describe a case of a 62-year-old man with a hepatic hydatid cyst, showing that it is possible to confirm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary system with cholangiography-MRI. Surgical treatment remains the best form of management. Endoscopic management is a therapeutic possibility in all cases in which surgery is contraindicated. In the case observed endoscopic sphinctererotomy resolved the biliary obstruction, while the hydatid cyst was treated by transbiliary irrigation with scolicidal solutions and pharmacological therapy. The treatment permitted complete clinical resolution of the hepatic hydatosis. PMID:12038119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucinotta, Eugenio; Palmeri, Renato; Lazzara, Salvatore; Melita, Giuseppinella; Melita, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1797221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed gallbladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following percutaneous cholecystostomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Percutaneous cholecystostomy has become an accepted therapeutic alternative for high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. However, some authors have cautioned that patients with gallbladder wall necrosis and gangrene may not be effectively treated by means of percutaneous drainage alone. A case is reported in which gallbladder wall necrosis progressed following technically successful percutaneous drainage. Spontaneous gallbladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ensued, necessitating emergent cholecystectomy. Cholecystography 2 weeks following tube placement and 1 week prior to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> showed a markedly abnormal, irregular gallbladder lumen. The authors suggest that follow-up cholecystography may be a useful tool for evaluating patient response to percutaneous cholecystostomy and for determining subsequent patient management. PMID:1797221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaBerge, J M; Gordon, R L; Kerlan, R K; Ring, E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3531040"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rudimentary horn at 22 weeks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhar, Hansa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4119647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61413545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Live\\/dead real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess new therapies against dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-related pathologies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">DNA-based methodology for the identification and detection of specific bacteria in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> offers advantages over culturing techniques. One drawback of <span class="hlt">current</span> molecular techniques like real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) is that they are not able to distinguish between live or dead bacteria. To overcome this problem an assay was assessed to discriminate between viable or dead bacteria using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Loozen; N. Boon; M. Pauwels; M. Quirynen; W. Teughels</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Human carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phosphatidylcholine specifically interacts with paraoxonase 1, increases its activity, and enhances its uptake by macrophage at the expense of its binding to HDL.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is in direct contact with circulatory blood components. Thus, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and blood components may affect each other. The <span class="hlt">current</span> study presents the effects of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> chloroform:methanol (C:M) extract on the HDL-associated enzyme paraoxnase 1 (PON1). This study is part of our investigation on the mutual effects of the interactions between atherosclerotic lesions and blood components. Recombinant PON1 (rePON1) was incubated with the human carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> C:M extract and PON1 activities were analyzed. Lactonase and paraoxonase activities were elevated due to C:M treatment, by 140 and by 69%, respectively. Analytical chemistry analyses revealed specific phosphatidylcholines (PCs) as the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> active components. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching assay, together with molecular docking, shows that PON1 activity is enhanced in correlation with the level of PC affinity to PON1. Molecular docking revealed that PCs interact specifically with H2-PON1 ?-helix, which together with H1 enzyme ?-helix links the protein to the HDL surface. These findings are supported by additional results from the PON1 ?20 mutant that lack its H1-?-helix. Incubation of this mutant with the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> C:M extract increased PON1 activity by only 20%, much less than the wild-type PON1 that elevated PON1 activity at the same concentration by as much as 95%. Furthermore, as much as the affinity of the enzyme to the PC was augmented, the ability of PON1 to bind to the HDL particle decreased. Finally, PON1 interaction with PC enhance its uptake into the macrophage cytoplasm. In conclusions, Specific lesion phosphatidylcholines (PCs) present in the human carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> significantly enhance PON1 catalytic activities due to their interaction with the enzyme. Such a lesion?s PC-PON1 interaction, in turn, competes with HDL PCs and enhances PON1 uptake by macrophage at the expense of PON1 binding to the HDL. PMID:25091896</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cohen, Elad; Aviram, Michael; Khatib, Soliman; Artoul, Fadi; Rabin, Asaf; Mannheim, Dalit; Karmeli, Ron; Salamon, Tal; Vaya, Jacob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5098540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of extracellular <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/64981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of ceroid formation in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: in situ studies combination of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accumulation of the lipid-protein complex ceroid is a characteristic of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The mechanism of ceroid formation has been extensively studied, because the complex is postulated to contribute to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haka, Abigail S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...identified as a device intended to reduce the presence of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on teeth and oral mucosal surfaces by physical...that act by reducing the attachment and inhibiting the growth of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (b) Classification . Class II...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...identified as a device intended to reduce the presence of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on teeth and oral mucosal surfaces by physical...that act by reducing the attachment and inhibiting the growth of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (b) Classification . Class II...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...identified as a device intended to reduce the presence of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on teeth and oral mucosal surfaces by physical...that act by reducing the attachment and inhibiting the growth of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (b) Classification . Class II...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...identified as a device intended to reduce the presence of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on teeth and oral mucosal surfaces by physical...that act by reducing the attachment and inhibiting the growth of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (b) Classification. Class II...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...identified as a device intended to reduce the presence of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on teeth and oral mucosal surfaces by physical...that act by reducing the attachment and inhibiting the growth of bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (b) Classification . Class II...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/55/67/95/PDF/TB-CMBBM-13-orig.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries: effect of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deformability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modelling of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries: effect of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deformability of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries. Stenoses in arteries are usually induced the mechanical response of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the arteries [1]. This mechanical response is mainly induced</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8283390"> <span id="translatedtitle">Repair of distal tendo Achillis <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with the use of the Mitek Anchor System.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surgical repair of an acute, distal, tendo Achillis <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 59-year-old diabetic male is described in which the Mitek Anchor System was used. The injury described is a distal tear of the insertion of the tendon into the calcaneus without avulsion fracture of the calcaneus. Sixteen months of postoperative follow-up care, including casting for equinus deformity, progressive weightbearing, range of motion exercises, and physical therapy, have been free of complications. The authors include a brief overview of historical and <span class="hlt">current</span> reparative techniques for comparison. The authors conclude that the use of the Mitek Anchor System affords the surgeon a simple and effective method for the repair of acute, distal, tendo Achillis <span class="hlt">rupture</span> when other methods cannot be used because of the location of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:8283390</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanna, J R; Russell, R D; Giacopelli, J A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=422610"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Studies of <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Variants Derived From a Florida Strain of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Small- and large-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> variants of a Florida strain (Fe 3-7c) of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus were studied in vivo and in vitro. The small-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> variant was less virulent in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs than the large-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> variant. The variants could be distinguished by calcium phosphate chromatography. The implications of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> variants within a mixed virus population are discussed. Images PMID:4344368</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pedersen, Carl E.; Slocum, Donald R.; Robinson, David M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel anti-microbial therapies for dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-related diseases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Control of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-related diseases has traditionally relied on non-specific removal of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> by mechanical means. As our knowledge of oral disease mechanisms increases, future treatment is likely to be more targeted, for example at small groups of organisms, single species or at key virulence factors they produce. The aim of this review is to consider the <span class="hlt">current</span> status as regards novel treatment approaches. Maintenance of oral hygiene often includes use of chemical agents; however, increasing problems of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have encouraged the search for alternative natural products. Plants are the source of more than 25% of prescription and over-the-counter preparations, and the potential of natural agents for oral prophylaxis will therefore be considered. Targeted approaches may be directed at the black-pigmented anaerobes associated with periodontitis. Such pigments provide an opportunity for targeted phototherapy with high-intensity monochromatic light. Studies to date have demonstrated selective killing of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in biofilms. Functional inhibition approaches, including the use of protease inhibitors, are also being explored to control periodontitis. Replacement therapy by which a resident pathogen is replaced with a non-pathogenic bacteriocin-producing variant is <span class="hlt">currently</span> under development with respect to Streptococcus mutans and dental caries. PMID:18804350</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allaker, Robert P; Douglas, C W Ian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1110153B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> tracking with different seismological methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial length, time duration, and direction of an earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are important parameters for an early warning of a potential tsunami. With different seismological methods namely polarization analysis of incoming compressional waves (P-waves), directivity effect, and wavelet transform these parameters are tried to estimate from recordings of broadband three-component-seismometers. One important requirement for a successful tsunami warning is a very fast (real time) investigation of seismograms. For some of the methods a dense station network and especially a wide backazimuthal distribution is necessary. The latter is a premise for the investigation of the directivity effect of an earthquake (in the literature this effect is often compared with a kind of doppler-effect). We show for some earthquakes e.g. Sichuan of May 2008, great Andaman of December 2004, and Pakistan of October 2005, that with a simple integration of regional and teleseismic recordings and subsequently plotting them sorted by the azimuth, stations can easily splitted into stations, from which the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> went away and stations, which lie in the direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. With this investigation, the question of the direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can quickly be answered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bayer, B.; Yuan, X.; Saul, J.; Kind, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141p4907G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Star polymers <span class="hlt">rupture</span> induced by constant forces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26599285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) scenarios</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) scenarios project was carried out in the EU 5th framework programme in the field of nuclear safety during years 2000–2002. The first objective of the project was to generate a comprehensive database on fission product retention in a steam generator. The second objective was to verify and develop predictive models to support accident management</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Auvinen; J. K. Jokiniemi; A. Lähde; T. Routamo; P. Lundström; H. Tuomisto; J. Dienstbier; S. Güntay; D. Suckow; A. Dehbi; M. Slootman; L. Herranz; V. Peyres; J. Polo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2568237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occult uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: role of ultrasonography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a case of occult spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicated by pelvic infection and peritonitis in the postpartum period. Ultrasonography played a primary role in the diagnosis of this complication and clearly demonstrated the uterine wall defect. This finding was confirmed later by computed tomography and by surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9640909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cadet, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_28_2010_otk7Nay4LH_09_28_2010_1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Northwest Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29864197"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the membranes and postpartum infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The greatest risk of preterm prelabour <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes (PPROM) is preterm delivery. According to the Perinatal Information System of Slovenia there were 5.92% preterm deliveries in 1994. We studied 809 deliveries of less than 34 weeks of gestation in the Ljubljana Maternity, from 1992 to 1994; 33.7% of these started with PPROM. Risk factors for PPROM were conization, cerclage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marjan Pajntar; Ivan Verdenik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular repair of iatrogenic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been used for traumatic and acute spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the descending thoracic aorta with good results. We present the case of a 40-year-old male whose thoracic spinal prosthesis eroded through the descending thoracic aorta; the aortic disruption was successfully managed with emergent deployment of an endovascular stent. PMID:23889586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lo, Casey; Galvin, Sean D; Barnett, Stephen; Seevanayagam, Siven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2728191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Management of Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Hepatocellular Adenoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIMS Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA) is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006) with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA). Three (10.7%) of 28 patients had spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation), as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation) and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient’s condition and the expertise of the surgical team. PMID:19690662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Chaib, Eleazar; Saad, William Abrão; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Cecconello, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50256677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fractal analysis of ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using the fractal dimension to characterise carotid atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from B-mode ultrasound images. The images were obtained from ten symptomatic and nine asymptomatic subjects. Symptomatic subjects included patients with previous history of cerebral events, whereas asymptomatic ones had no evidence of any cerebral symptoms prior to the time of the investigation. For</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Asvestas; S. Golemati; G. K. Matsopoulos; K. S. Nikita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47851293"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antibody Testing Against Canine Coronavirus by Immunoperoxidase <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Staining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of the immunoperoxidase (IP) <span class="hlt">plaque</span> staining procedure (IP test) to the diagnosis of canine coronavirus (CCV) infection was investigated. The IP test did not react with sera from either 15 specific pathogen-free (SPF) dogs or 7 SPF dogs immunized with a multivalent vaccine, including canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, and canine parainfluenza</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Soma; M. Hara; H. Ishii; S. Yamamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092575"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intracellular amyloid and the neuronal origin of Alzheimer neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic analysis of familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) causally links the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and AD. However, the specific type of amyloid and mechanisms of amyloid pathogenesis remain unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of intracellular amyloid with an aggregation specific conformation dependent monoclonal antibody, M78, raised against fibrillar Aß42. M78 immunoreactivity colocalizes with Aß and the carboxyl terminus of APP (APP-CTF) immunoreactivities in perinuclear compartments at intermediate times in 10month 3XTg-AD mice, indicating that this represents misfolded and aggregated protein rather than normally folded APP. At 12months, M78 immunoreactivity also accumulates in the nucleus. Neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> at 12months display the same spatial organization of centrally colocalized M78, diffuse chromatin and neuronal nuclear NeuN staining surrounded by peripheral M78 and APP-CTF immunoreactivity as observed in neurons, indicating that neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> arise from degenerating neurons with intracellular amyloid immunoreactivity. The same staining pattern was observed in neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in human AD brains, showing elevated intracellular M78 immunoreactivity at intermediate stages of amyloid pathology (Braak A and B) compared to no amyloid pathology and late stage amyloid pathology (Braak 0 and C, respectively). These results indicate that intraneuronal protein aggregation and amyloid accumulation is an early event in AD and that neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are initiated by the degeneration and death of neurons by a mechanism that may be related to the formation of extracellular traps by neutrophils. PMID:25092575</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pensalfini, Anna; Albay, Ricardo; Rasool, Suhail; Wu, Jessica W; Hatami, Asa; Arai, Hiromi; Margol, Lawrence; Milton, Saskia; Poon, Wayne W; Corrada, Maria M; Kawas, Claudia H; Glabe, Charles G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4124165"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amyloid <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Core Protein in Alzheimer Disease and Down Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have purified and characterized the cerebral amyloid protein that forms the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> core in Alzheimer disease and in aged individuals with Down syndrome. The protein consists of multimeric aggregates of a polypeptide of about 40 residues (4 kDa). The amino acid composition, molecular mass, and NH2-terminal sequence of this amyloid protein are almost identical to those described for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colin L. Masters; Gail Simms; Nicola A. Weinman; Gerd Multhaup; Brian L. McDonald; Konrad Beyreuther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14571118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> bacteria.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH <or=5.5, growth by an OD(660) of >or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9261553&hterms=lee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dlee"> <span id="translatedtitle">T. J. Lee Presents <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> to Vice President Dan Quayle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vice President Dan Quayle holds up an inscribed <span class="hlt">plaque</span> presented by Marshall Space Flight Center Director T. J. Lee (right) during Quayle's August 31, 1992 visit. While at Marshall, Quayle participated in a roundtable discussion with aerospace managers and addressed Center employees in Building 4755.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1921.photos.190822p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AT LEE VINING CANYON. ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AT LEE VINING CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 30.3 / 119 13 44.8 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268568"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> formation and marginal gingivitis associated with restorative materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of restorative materials on tooth surfaces is perceived to be a contributing factor to periodontal disease. This observation is a result of the increased accumulation of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on restorations adjacent to the gingiva, which may lead to gingivitis. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> is believed to adhere better to restorations than to enamel. This may be due to the surface characteristics of restorative materials such as surface roughness and surface-free energy inherent in the materials. This article reviews the experimental studies of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation on different restorative materials. In addition, clinical studies analyzing and comparing restorative materials and the consequent formation of gingivitis are reviewed. While in vitro and in vivo studies show variations in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation among restorative materials and enamel, clinical studies demonstrate that the progression of gingivitis can be prevented if patients maintain adequate oral hygiene and home care. Therefore, instructing the patient to maintain proper oral hygiene and home care is more important than the choice of restorative material. PMID:23268568</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Litonjua, Luis A; Cabanilla, Leyvee L; Abbott, Lawrence J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23738894"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> formation and marginal gingivitis associated with restorative materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of restorative materials on tooth surfaces is perceived to be a contributing factor to periodontal disease. This observation is a result of the increased accumulation of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on restorations adjacent to the gingiva, which may lead to gingivitis. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> is believed to adhere better to restorations than to enamel. This may be due to the surface characteristics of restorative materials such as surface roughness and surface-free energy inherent in the materials. This article reviews the experimental studies of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation on different restorative materials. In addition, clinical studies analyzing and comparing restorative materials and the consequent formation of gingivitis are reviewed. While in vitro and in vivo studies show variations in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation among restorative materials and enamel, clinical studies demonstrate that the progression of gingivitis can be prevented if patients maintain adequate oral hygiene and home care. Therefore, instructing the patient to maintain proper oral hygiene and home care is more important than the choice of restorative material. PMID:23738894</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Litonjua, Luis A; Cabanilla, Leyvee L; Abbott, Lawrence J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=539295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound imaging versus morphopathology in cardiovascular diseases. Coronary atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review article is aimed at comparing the results of histopathological and clinical imaging studies to assess coronary atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in humans. In particular, the gap between the two techniques and its effect on the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of coronary artery disease is critically discussed. PMID:15598352</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baroldi, Giorgio; Bigi, Riccardo; Cortigiani, Lauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32672738"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> busters: strategies to inhibit amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alzheimer's disease is a devastating degenerative disorder of the brain for which there is no cure or effective treatment. Although the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood, recent research suggests that deposition of cerebral amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is central to the disease process. Therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is to prevent, reduce or reverse amyloid deposition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claudio Soto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.miba.auc.dk/~06gr1088d/artikler/Pdf/Tangles%20and%20Plaques%20in%20Nondemented%20Aging%20and%20Preclinical%20AD.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tangles and <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in nondemented aging and ?preclinical? Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The distribution and density of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was studied in a unique series of cases whose premortem cognitive status had been assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), including 39 nondemented cases (CDR 5 0; age, 51- 88 years), 15 very mildly demented cases (CDR 5 0.5), and 8 severely demented (CDR 5 3) cases. The initial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph L. Price; John C. Morris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2785459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While our understanding of vulnerable coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is still at an early stage, the concept that certain types of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> predispose patients to developing an acute myocardial infarction continues to be at the forefront of cardiology research. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed to both identify and study these lesions due to its distinct resolution advantage over other imaging modalities. We review clinical research conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital over the past five years to develop, validate, and utilize this technology to improve our understanding of vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Our results show that intracoronary OCT may be safely conducted in patients and that it provides abundant information regarding <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microscopic morphology, which is essential to the identification and study of high-risk lesions. Even though many basic biological, clinical, and technological challenges must be addressed prior to widespread use of this technology, the unique capabilities of OCT ensure that it will have a prominent role in shaping the future of cardiology. PMID:16674177</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Bouma, Brett E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51328197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supershear <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Transition on Fault Stepovers using Different Friction Parameterizations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that fault stepovers can under some circumstances allow through-going <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and under other circumstances cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span> termination (e.g., Harris and Day 1993; Kase and Kuge, 1998; Duan and Oglesby, 2006). However, the effect of the stepover on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity has not been investigated, and there has also not been an investigation of how different frictional parameterizations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Ryan; D. D. Oglesby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268758"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD. PMID:25552833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24014791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review article: Treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes is controversial. Surgical fixation has lower rates of re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> and confers increased strength and function, whereas conservative treatment has lower risks of wound complications. We review the literature on the optimal treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes. PMID:24014791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stavrou, Maria; Seraphim, Andreas; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Mordecai, Simon C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A. Kelleher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/staff/martin/papers/AGUMonograph_Ampueroetal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties of Dynamic Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> With Heterogeneous Stress Drop</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. We introduce a simplified semi-dynamic crack model to investigate the connec - tion between the statistical properties of stress and those of macroscopic source parameters such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> size, seismic moment, apparent stress drop and radiated energy. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> initiation is treated consistently with nucleation on a linear slip- weakening</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-P. Ampuero; J. Ripperger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ssnmr.leidenuniv.nl/files/ssnmr/publications/285%20Braakman.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Advances in Visualizing Alzheimer's <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> by Magnetic Reso- nance Imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the brain is one of prominent histological features of Alzheimer's disease. However, imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in vivo in humans is not yet feasible. Recent technical advances in high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in mice have enabled not only the detection of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in vivo but also allowed to monitor the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niels Braakman; Mark A. van Buchem; Reinhard Schliebs; Huub J. M. de Groot</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9422851"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> disruption and coronary thrombosis: new insight into pathogenesis and prevention.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinical and pathologic studies have confirmed that disruption or superficial erosion of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is the major cause of coronary thrombosis, which is the primary mechanism responsible for acute coronary syndromes of unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Serial angiographic studies have shown that nearly 60-70% of acute coronary syndromes evolve from mildly to moderately obstructive atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The risk of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption appears to be a function of both <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability (intrinsic factors) and extrinsic triggers, and is determined largely by the size of the lipid-rich atheromatous core, the thickness of the fibrous cap covering the core, and the presence of ongoing inflammation within and underneath the cap. Hemodynamic or mechanical stresses may precipitate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption, particularly in places where the fibrous cap is weakest, such as the shoulders. The degree of thrombosis following <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption depends on the thrombogenicity of the disrupted <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, the disturbed local rheology, and the systemic thrombotic-thrombolytic milieu. Surges in sympathetic activity (such as those provoked by sudden vigorous exercise, emotional stress, or cold weather) may also trigger <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption. These observations have led to the concept of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stabilization as a new strategy for the prevention of acute coronary syndromes. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> stabilization can be achieved through pharmacologic and lifestyle-modifying interventions that alter <span class="hlt">plaque</span> composition and/or inflammatory activity within the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and thus reduce its vulnerability to disruption. PMID:9422851</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, P K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ag.udel.edu/soilchem/Moyer_MS%20abstact.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE ROLE OF IRON <span class="hlt">PLAQUES</span> IN IMMOBILIZING ARSENIC IN THE RICE-ROOT ENVIRONMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE ROLE OF IRON <span class="hlt">PLAQUES</span> IN IMMOBILIZING ARSENIC IN THE RICE-ROOT ENVIRONMENT by Cecily Eiko Moyer that iron (Fe) <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, consisting mainly of amorphous iron oxides, grow on the surfaces of the rice roots. Iron <span class="hlt">plaques</span> sorb As, immobilizing the toxin, preventing it from absorption into the plant body</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sparks, Donald L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54619313"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the great 1963 Kurile Islands earthquake sequence: Asperity interaction and multiple event <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The great Kurile Islands underthrusting earthquake (Mw=8.5) of October 13, 1963, was accompanied by a large foreshock and an aftershock. This sequence allows us to investigate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process and faul heterogeneities along a subduction zone. We have characterized the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the main shock event by deconvolving long-period P wave seismograms from azimuthally well-distributed stations to obtain source</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Susan L. Beck; Larry J. Ruff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4259387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disruption of Amyloid <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is <span class="hlt">currently</span> accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta <span class="hlt">plaques</span> whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic and structural studies of a novel equine papillomavirus identified from aural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect a wide range of animal species and show great genetic diversity. To date, excluding equine sarcoids, only three species of PVs were identified associated with lesions in horses: Equus caballus papillomavirus 1 (EcPV1-cutaneous), EcPV2 (genital) and EcPV3 (aural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>). In this study, we identified a novel equine PV from aural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, which we designated EcPV4. Cutaneous samples from horses with lesions that were microscopically diagnosed as aural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing. Rolling circle amplification and inverse PCR with specific primers confirmed the presence of an approximately 8 kb circular genome. The full-length EcPV4 L1 major capsid protein sequence has 1488 nucleotides (495 amino acids). EcPV4 had a sequence identity of only 53.3%, 60.2% and 51.7% when compared with the published sequences for EcPV1, EcPV2 and EcPV3, respectively. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcPV4 clusters with EcPV2, but not with EcPV1 and EcPV3. Using the <span class="hlt">current</span> PV classification system that is based on the nucleotide sequence of L1, we could not define the genus of the newly identified virus. Therefore, a structural analysis of the L1 protein was carried out to aid in this classification because EcPV4 cause lesion similar to the lesion caused by EcPV3. A comparison of the superficial loops demonstrated a distinct amino acid conservation pattern between EcPV4/EcPV2 and EcPV4/EcPV3. These results demonstrate the presence of a new equine PV species and that structural studies could be useful in the classification of PVs. PMID:22995874</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taniwaki, Sueli A; Magro, Angelo J; Gorino, Ana Claudia; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Fontes, Marcos R M; Borges, Alexandre S; Araujo, João P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773291"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic Susceptibility for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuritic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Pathology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To investigate whether Alzheimer’s disease (AD) susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) impact neuritic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pathology and to additionally identify novel risk loci for this trait. Design Candidate analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and GWAS in a joint clinicopathologic cohort study, followed by targeted validation in independent neuroimaging cohorts. Participants and Setting 725 deceased subjects from the Religious Orders and Rush Memory and Aging Project, two prospective, community-based studies of aging; the validation neuroimaging cohort consisted of 114 subjects from multiple clinical and research centers. Main Outcome Measures A quantitative measure of neuritic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pathologic burden, based on assessments of silver-stained tissue averaged from multiple brain regions. Validation based on ?-amyloid load by immunocytochemistry, and replication with fibrillar ?-amyloid Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B or florbetapir. Results Besides the previously reported APOE and CR1 loci, we find that ABCA7 (rs3764650, P=0.02) and CD2AP (rs9349407, P=0.03) AD susceptibility loci are associated with neuritic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden. In addition, among the top results of our GWAS, we discovered a novel variant near the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP, rs2829887) that is associated with neuritic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (P=3.3×10?6). This polymorphism was associated with postmortem ?-amyloid load, as well as fibrillar ?-amyloid in two independent cohorts of adults with normal cognition. Conclusion These findings enhance understanding of AD risk factors by relating validated susceptibility alleles to increased neuritic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> pathology and implicate common genetic variation at the APP locus in the earliest, pre-symptomatic stages of AD. PMID:23836404</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shulman, Joshua M.; Chen, Kewei; Keenan, Brendan T.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Fleisher, Adam; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Roontiva, Auttawut; McCabe, Cristin; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Yu, Lei; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Evans, Denis A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40448597"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> terminations and size of segment boundaries from historical earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the Basin and Range Province</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fault-segmentation method is commonly used to estimate the potential earthquake size. Segment boundaries play an important role in arresting earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from event to event. In the Basin and Range Province, earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> terminations are commonly associated with structural discontinuities, but not all-structural discontinuities have the capability to terminate an earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The size of structural discontinuities with respect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peizhen Zhang; Fengying Mao; D. B. Slemmons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25527320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm towards <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: refining clinical risk assessment using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction method.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with high mortality rates. Risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is multi-factorial involving AAA geometric configuration, vessel tortuosity, and the presence of intraluminal pathology. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulations were conducted in patient based computed tomography scans reconstructed geometries in order to monitor aneurysmal disease progression from normal aortas to non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and contained <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> AAA (rAAA), and the AAA risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was assessed. Three groups of 8 subjects each were studied: 8 normal and 16 pathological (8 non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and 8 rAAA). The AAA anatomical structures segmented included the blood lumen, intraluminal thrombus (ILT), vessel wall, and embedded calcifications. The vessel wall was described with anisotropic material model that was matched to experimental measurements of AAA tissue specimens. A statistical model for estimating the local wall strength distribution was employed to generate a map of a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> potential index (RPI), representing the ratio between the local stress and local strength distribution. The FSI simulations followed a clear trend of increasing wall stresses from normal to pathological cases. The maximal stresses were observed in the areas where the ILT was not present, indicating a potential protective effect of the ILT. Statistically significant differences were observed between the peak systolic stress and the peak stress at the mean arterial pressure between the three groups. For the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms, where the geometry of intact aneurysm was reconstructed, results of the FSI simulations clearly depicted maximum wall stress at the a priori known location of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The RPI mapping indicated several distinct regions of high RPI coinciding with the actual location of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The FSI methodology demonstrates that the aneurysmal disease can be described by numerical simulations, as indicated by a clear trend of increasing aortic wall stresses in the studied groups, (normal aortas, AAAs and rAAAs). Ultimately, the results demonstrate that FSI wall stress mapping and RPI can be used as a tool for predicting the potential <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an AAA by predicting the actual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> location, complementing <span class="hlt">current</span> clinical practice by offering a predictive diagnostic tool for deciding whether to intervene surgically or spare the patient from an unnecessary risky operation. PMID:25527320</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xenos, Michalis; Labropoulos, Nicos; Rambhia, Suraj; Alemu, Yared; Einav, Shmuel; Tassiopoulos, Apostolos; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Bluestein, Danny</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S11A0997E"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 3D Mimetic Finite Difference Method for <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We are developing a method for solving earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics problems on structured curvilinear meshes. The advantage of a curvilinear mesh over a rectangular mesh is that it can accommodate free-surface topography as well as non-planar fault geometry. The advantages of using a structured mesh over an unstructured mesh (as used in many finite element methods) is simplicity and computational efficiency. Structured meshes also make a number of computational tasks easier, such as parallelization, or coupling with other codes that use similar structured meshes. To build the discretized equations of motion on a structured, yet non Cartesian mesh, we use a mimetic method, so named because it takes special care to mimic the important conservation properties of the original equations of motion. We begin by writing the equations of motion in terms of gradient and divergence operators. We then derive a discrete grad (or div) operator by differentiating an interpolation function of the discrete variable. Next, that grad (or div) operator is plugged into a discrete analog of Gauss' Identity and manipulated to find the adjoint div (or grad) operator. We use a computer algebra system to handle the manipulations, which is practically essential for the 3D case because of the extreme lengths of the expressions to be coded. The code is <span class="hlt">currently</span> implemented as a "rapid prototype" in MATLAB and undergoing validation prior to conversion to a high performance language. We compare results for simple types of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that have analytical solutions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ely, G.; Minster, J.; Day, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12023892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Echo-Lucency of Computerized Ultrasound Images of Carotid Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> Are Associated With Increased Levels of Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins as Well as Increased <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Lipid Content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background—Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lipid content. Methods and Results—The study included 137 patients with neurological</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marie-Louise M. Grønholdt; Børge G. Nordestgaard; Britt M. Wiebe; Jens E. Wilhjelm; Henrik Sillesen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/01/02/46/45/PDF/2014_MRI_strain_imaging_-_Nederveen.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MRI Strain Imaging of the Carotid Artery: Present Limitations and Future Challenges Aart J. Nederveen1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">nowadays judge the risk of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mainly on general risk factors, like hypertension and blood-prone <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and studies have shown that biomechanical factors improve <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">plaque</span> risk assessment. Strain et al., 2004). However, these risk factors are not sufficient to identify all high risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resistance of a vaccinia virus A34R deletion mutant to spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the outer membrane of progeny virions on the surface of infected cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The extracellular form of vaccinia virus is referred to as an enveloped virion (EV) because it contains an additional lipoprotein membrane surrounding the infectious mature virion (MV) that must be discarded prior to cell fusion and entry. Most EVs adhere to the surface of the parent cell and mediate spread of the infection to adjacent cells. Here we show that some attached EVs have <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> envelopes. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> was detected by fluorescence microscopy of unfixed and unpermeabilized cells using antibodies to the F13 and L1 proteins, which line the inner side of the EV membrane and the outer side of the MV membrane, respectively. The presence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> EV membranes was confirmed by immunogold transmission electron microscopy. EVs with broken membranes were present on several cell lines examined including one deficient in glycosaminoglycans, which are thought to play a role in breakage of the EV membrane prior to fusion of the MV. No correlation was found between EVs with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> membranes and actin tail formation. Studies with several mutant viruses indicated that EV membranes lacking the A34 protein were unbroken. This result was consistent with other properties of A34R deletion mutants including resistance of the EV membrane to polyanions, small <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and low infectivity that can be increased by disruption of the EV membrane by freezing and thawing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Husain, Matloob; Weisberg, Andrea S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patient-specific prediction of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth from CTA angiography: a multiscale model for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computational fluid dynamics methods based on in vivo 3-D vessel reconstructions have recently been identified the influence of wall shear stress on endothelial cells as well as on vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in different events such as flow mediated vasodilatation, atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. Development of image-based modeling technologies for simulating patient-specific local blood flows is introducing a novel approach to risk prediction for coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth and progression. In this study, we developed 3-D model of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression that was tested in a set of patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for anginal symptoms. The 3-D blood flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modeled by a convection-diffusion equation. The low density lipoprotein (LDL) transports in lumen of the vessel and through the vessel tissue (which has a mass consumption term) are coupled by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is modeled using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. A full 3-D model was created. It includes blood flow and LDL concentration, as well as <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression. Furthermore, features potentially affecting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth, such as patient risk score, circulating biomarkers, localization and composition of the initial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, and coronary vasodilating capability were also investigated. The proof of concept of the model effectiveness was assessed by repetition of CTA, six months after. PMID:22665513</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parodi, Oberdan; Exarchos, Themis P; Marraccini, Paolo; Vozzi, Federico; Milosevic, Zarko; Nikolic, Dalibor; Sakellarios, Antonis; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Filipovic, Nenad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.3133H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> modulated by waves in damaged fault zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">are usually surrounded by damaged zones of lower elastic moduli and seismic wave velocities than their host rocks. If the interface between the damaged rocks and host rocks is sharp enough, earthquakes happening inside the fault zone generate reflected waves and head waves, which can interact with earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and modulate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, slip rate, and rise time. We find through 2-D dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations the following: (1) Reflected waves can induce multiple slip pulses. The rise time of the primary pulse is controlled by fault zone properties, rather than by frictional properties. (2) Head waves can cause oscillations of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and, in a certain range of fault zone widths, a permanent transition to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with speeds that would be unstable in homogeneous media. (3) Large attenuation smears the slip rate function and delays the initial acceleration of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed but does not affect significantly the rise time or the period of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed oscillations. (4) Fault zones cause a rotation of the background stress field and can induce plastic deformations on both extensional and compressional sides of the fault. The plastic deformations are accumulated both inside and outside the fault zone, which indicates a correlation between fault zone development and repeating <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Spatially periodic patterns of plastic deformations are formed due to oscillating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, which may leave a permanent signature in the geological record. Our results indicate that damaged fault zones with sharp boundaries promote multiple slip pulses and supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Yihe; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Helmberger, Don V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low footwall accelerations and variable surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior on the Fort Sage Mountains fault, northeast California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Fort Sage Mountains fault zone is a normal fault in the Walker Lane of the western Basin and Range that produced a small surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (L 5.6 earthquake in 1950. We investigate the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault and find evidence for two paleoearthquakes with surface displacements much larger than those observed in 1950. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Fort Sage fault ?5.6??ka resulted in surface displacements of at least 0.8–1.5 m, implying earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) of 6.7–7.1. An older <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at ?20.5??ka displaced the ground at least 1.5 m, implying an earthquake of Mw 6.8–7.1. A field of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is located less than 1 km from the surface?<span class="hlt">rupture</span> trace of this Holocene?active normal fault. Ground?motion prediction equations (GMPEs) predict peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2–0.3g for the 1950 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and 0.3–0.5g for the ?5.6??ka paleoearthquake one kilometer from the fault?surface trace, yet field tests indicate that the Fort Sage PBRs will be toppled by PGAs between 0.1–0.3g. We discuss the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault in the context of the nearby PBRs, GMPEs, and probabilistic seismic hazard maps for extensional regimes. If the Fort Sage PBRs are older than the mid?Holocene <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the Fort Sage fault zone, this implies that <span class="hlt">current</span> GMPEs may overestimate near?fault footwall ground motions at this site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Briggs, Richard W.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Brune, James N.; Purvance, Matthew D.; Mahan, Shannon A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51F..03D"> <span id="translatedtitle">A synthetic GMPE based on deterministic simulated ground motion data obtained from dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Empirical ground motion prediction in the very near-field and for large magnitudes is often based on extrapolation of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) outside the range where they are well constrained by recorded data. With empirical GMPEs it is also difficult to capture source-dominated ground motion patterns, such as the effects of velocity pulses induced by subshear and supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity, buried and surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span>, hanging-wall and foot-wall, weak shallow layers, complex geometry faults and stress drop. A way to cope at least in part with these shortcomings is to augment the calibration datasets with synthetic ground motions. To this aim, physics-based dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models - where the physical bases involved in the fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are explicitly considered - appear to be a suitable approach to produce synthetic ground motions. In this contribution, we first perform an assessment of a database of synthetic ground motions generated by a suite of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations to verify compatibility of the peak ground amplitudes with <span class="hlt">current</span> GMPEs. The synthetic data-set is composed by 360 earthquake scenarios with moment magnitudes in the range of 5.5-7, for three mechanisms of faulting (reverse, normal and strike-slip) and for both buried faults and surface <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> faults. Second, we parameterise the synthetic dataset through a GMPE. For this purpose, we identify the basic functional forms by analyzing the variation of the synthetic peak ground motions and spectral ordinates as a function of different explanatory variables related to the earthquake source characteristics, in order to account for some of the source effects listed above. We argue that this study provides basic guidelines for the developments of future GMPEs including data from physics-based numerical simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dalguer, L. A.; Baumann, C.; Cauzzi, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15220353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic characterization of postmortem amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> isolated by laser capture microdissection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the brain is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report here a comprehensive proteomic analysis of senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from postmortem AD brain tissues. Senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> labeled with thioflavin-S were procured by laser capture microdissection, and their protein components were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 488 proteins co-isolated with the <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and we found multiple phosphorylation sites on the neurofilament intermediate chain, implicating the complexity and diversity of cellular processes involved in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation. More significantly, we identified 26 proteins enriched in the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of two AD cases by quantitative comparison with surrounding non-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> tissues. The localization of several proteins in the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was further confirmed by the approach of immunohistochemistry. In addition to previously identified <span class="hlt">plaque</span> constituents, we discovered novel association of dynein heavy chain with the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in human postmortem brain and in a double transgenic AD mouse model, suggesting that neuronal transport may play a role in neuritic degeneration. Overall, our results revealed for the first time the sub-proteome of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> that is important for further studies on disease biomarker identification and molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. PMID:15220353</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liao, Lujian; Cheng, Dongmei; Wang, Jian; Duong, Duc M; Losik, Tatyana G; Gearing, Marla; Rees, Howard D; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Peng, Junmin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22757631"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical action of the blood onto atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: influence of the stenosis shape and morphology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vulnerability of atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the carotid artery may be related to several factors, the most important being the degree of severity of the endoluminal stenosis and the thickness of the fibrous cap. It has recently been shown that the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> length can also affect the mechanical response significantly. However, in their study on the effect of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> length, the authors did not consider the variations of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology and the shape irregularities that may exist independently of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> length. These aspects are developed in this paper. The mechanical interactions between the blood flow and an atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> are studied through a numerical model considering fluid-structure interaction. The simulation is achieved using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian scheme in the COMSOL TM commercial finite element package. The stenosis severity and the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> length are, respectively, set to 45% and 15 mm. Different shapes of the stenosis are modelled, considering irregularities made of several bumps over the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The resulting flow patterns, wall shear stresses, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deformations and stresses in the fibrous cap reveal that the effects of the blood flow are amplified if the slope upstream stenosis is steep or if the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology is irregular with bumps. More specifically, the maximum stress in the fibrous cap is 50% larger for a steep slope than for a gentle slope. These results offer new perspectives for considering the shape of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the evaluation of the vulnerability. PMID:22757631</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belzacq, Tristan; Avril, Stéphane; Leriche, Emmanuel; Delache, Alexandre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8802E..0SP"> <span id="translatedtitle">Texture based segmentation method to detect atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from optical tomography images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been widely employed in assessing cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is one of the major cause cardio vascular diseases. However visual detection of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from OCT images is often limited and further complicated by high frame rates. We developed a texture based segmentation method to automatically detect <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and non <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regions from OCT images. To verify our results we compared them to photographs of the vascular tissue with atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> that we used to generate the OCT images. Our results show a close match with photographs of vascular tissue with atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Our texture based segmentation method for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> detection could be potentially used in clinical cardiovascular OCT imaging for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> detection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prakash, Ammu; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael; Sherif, Sherif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4024772"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the <span class="hlt">current</span> body of evidence regarding the role of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3189976"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the characterization of the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the ability of a flexible fiberoptic-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) technique to resolve biochemical features in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fibrotic cap associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability and based solely on fluorescence decay characteristics. Autofluorescence of atherosclerotic human aorta (11 autopsy samples) was measured at 48 locations through two filters, F377: 377/50 and F460: 460/60 nm (center wavelength/bandwidth). The fluorescence decay dynamic was described by average lifetime (?) and four Laguerre coefficients (LECs) retrieved through a Laguerre deconvolution technique. FLIM-derived parameters discriminated between four groups [elastin-rich (ER), elastin and macrophage-rich (E+M), collagen-rich (CR), and lipid-rich (LR)]. For example, ?F377 discriminated ER from CR (R = 0.84); ?F460 discriminated E+M from CR and ER (R = 0.60 and 0.54, respectively); LEC-1F377 discriminated CR from LR and E+M (R = 0.69 and 0.77, respectively); P < 0.05 for all correlations. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify this data set with specificity >87% (all cases) and sensitivity as high as 86%. <span class="hlt">Current</span> results demonstrate for the first time that clinically relevant features (e.g., ratios of lipid versus collagen versus elastin) can be evaluated with a flexible-fiber based FLIM technique without the need for fluorescence intensity information or contrast agents. PMID:21950932</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phipps, Jennifer; Sun, Yinghua; Saroufeem, Ramez; Hatami, Nisa; Fishbein, Michael C.; Marcu, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3696803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Langerinneg conventional dendritic cells produce IL-23 to drive psoriatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation in mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Psoriasis is an autoinflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Topical application of Aldara cream containing the Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 agonist Imiquimod (IMQ) onto patients induces flares of psoriasis. Likewise, in mice IMQ triggers pathological changes closely resembling psoriatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation. Key cytokines like IL-23 and type-I IFN (IFN-I), both being produced mainly by dendritic cells (DCs), have been implicated in psoriasis. Although plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are the main source of IFN? and thought to initiate disease, conventional DCs (cDCs) appear to maintain the psoriatic lesions. Any role of cDCs during lesion formation remains elusive. Here, we report that selective activation of TLR7 signaling specifically in CD11c+ DCs was sufficient to induce psoriasiform skin disease in mice. Intriguingly, both pDCs and the IFN-I pathway were dispensable for the development of local skin inflammation. Selective TLR7 triggering of Langerin+ DCs resulted in attenuated disease, whereas their depletion did not alter the severity of skin lesions. Moreover, after IMQ-painting, IL-23 was exclusively produced by Langerinneg DCs in vivo. In conclusion, TLR7-activated Langerinneg cDCs trigger psoriatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation via IL-23–mediated activation of innate IL-17/IL-22–producing lymphocytes, independently of pDCs or IFN-I. These results suggest therapeutic targeting of IL-23 production by cDCs to refine <span class="hlt">current</span> treatment strategies for psoriasis. PMID:23754427</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wohn, Christian; Ober-Blöbaum, Julia L.; Haak, Stefan; Pantelyushin, Stanislav; Cheong, Cheolho; Zahner, Sonja P.; Onderwater, Sabina; Kant, Marius; Weighardt, Heike; Holzmann, Bernhard; Reizis, Boris; Becher, Burkhard; Prens, Errol P.; Clausen, Björn E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423844"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization induced by PM2.5 exposure and coping strategies].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the increasingly more serious environmental pollution in China in recent years, effective intervention with PM25-induced health risks has become a major scientific issue to be addressed urgently in medical research field in China. NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a family of cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors that have critical roles in innate immunity. On the basis of study progresses in international cardiovascular disease research "Fine particulate matter exposure is a modifiable risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases", and with reference to the <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in PM2.5-induced acute coronary syndrome, this study intended to investigate whether intracellular pattern recognition NL-RP3 plays a important role in the inital event of PM2.5 induced vessel inflammation as a foreign matter in the process of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization and to thoroughly explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for PM2.5-induced acute cardiovascular events. On the other hand, it also studies the feasibility of using traditional Chinese medicine to treat <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization cause by PM2.5 exposure and discuss it's pathogenesis and intervention strategy based on TCM theory. This paper in order to provide scientific basis for social focal issues in public health proactively and offers the references for relevant research. PMID:25423844</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yu-Jie; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ya-Jie; Yao, Hong-Mei; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Li, Han-Qing; Liu, Xu-Cen; Zhou, Bing-Bing; Guo, Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early diagnosis and management of myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. We present an 82-year-old woman with an anterolateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Because of unexplained hypotension, echocardiography was performed and contrast (Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging) was used to improve visualization. Findings included a small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without frank tamponade, however, there was significant intramyocardial tracking of the contrast into the epicardial space, localized to the mid to apical portion of the anterior septum, consistent with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or disruption of the wall segment. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room where fresh blood and clots were evacuated from the pericardial space with immediate hemodynamic improvement. The patient underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:25547556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Shuangbo; Glavinovic, Tamara; Tam, James W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of gastrocnemius muscle <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, known as "tennis leg", typically occurs when the muscle has been overstretched by dorsiflexion of the ankle with full knee extension. The classic clinical presentation is a middle-aged person who complains of sports-related acute pain in the mid portion of the calf, associated with a snapping sensation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound is often required to evaluate patients with this condition. This injury is usually managed non-operatively, surgical treatment rarely being indicated according to published reports. One case of longstanding and one of recent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius that were successfully treated by surgical repair are presented here and the MRI characteristics and indications for surgery are discussed. PMID:23109311</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, Yu; Yang, Hui-lin; Sun, Zhi-yong; Ni, Li; Zhang, Hong-tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4091436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Plasmodium vivax malaria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to the infection, which requires attention. PMID:25025027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860005910&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Internal%2BCombustion%2529%2BEngine%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of Stirling engine materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10769409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical behavior of calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: a summary of compression and stress-relaxation experiments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper summarizes the results from mechanical testing of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> performed in the Cardiovascular Mechanics Laboratory and the Laboratory for Implantable Materials at UMBC. The motivation for our work is that balloon angioplasty, stenting, and roto-ablation are mechanical processes that are designed to permanently alter the shape of an occluded arterial lumen. The mechanisms of permanent <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deformation are not known. Therefore, to study the mechanical behavior of <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, we performed mechanical tests on atherosclerotic lesions with different compositions and investigated differences in the materials' mechanical responses. Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> specimens were subjected to two main types of loading: multiple cyclic compression and stress-relaxation. The multiple-cycle test protocol was two fifteen-cycle loading phases that were separated by a 10-15 minute unloaded "rest" period. The compressive stress-relaxation test protocol was a series of three consecutive loadings (called phases I, II, and III). Each phase consisted of a 25% compression that was achieved in less than 1 second, a 10 minute relaxation period, and a 10 minute unloaded "rest" period between loadings. In the multiple cycle compressive loading, <span class="hlt">plaques</span> exhibited three distinct types of behavior, which corresponded to the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> compositions. Calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span> showed behaviors distinct from other <span class="hlt">plaque</span> types and healthy vessels. In contrast to the cyclic compression results, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> types could not be distinguished solely on the basis of stress relaxation behavior. Calcified and fibrous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> had similar behavior, and therefore histology was used for definite identification. Calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span> have unique mechanical properties, and therefore interventions like angioplasty, roto-ablation, and stenting may require protocols specific for calcified lesions. The optimum protocols for calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may be quite different from <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with other compositions. It is essential to learn more about the mechanical behavior of all <span class="hlt">plaque</span> types to increase the success rate of occlusive atherosclerosis treatments. PMID:10769409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Topoleski, L D; Salunke, N V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28941058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of partial Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifty-four patients with a total of 58 partial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the Achilles tendon were treated surgically. The postoperative observation time ranged from 8 months to 7 years. Forty-six patients indicated that they were pleased with the results, 8 were satisfied, and 3 were unsatisfied (one died during the interim). Thirty-seven of the 44 patients who had been engaged in competitive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tor Finn Denstad; Asbjørn Roaas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3951965"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Repetition of Large-Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This survey of well-documented repeated fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerry Sieh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026606"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JBO....14c4007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (<span class="hlt">rupture</span>) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JInst...7C2002E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in EMCCD technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20506939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous reconstruction of quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after TKA and neglected Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of simultaneous reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and neglected Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which occurred before TKA with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft. A 64-year-old woman presented with persistent right knee pain. She also had right heel pain and had received multiple steroid injections at the knee joint and heel. On examination, she showed osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint and an Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the ipsilateral limb. There was skin dimpling and the proximal portion of tendon was migrated. We performed TKA, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. She returned 3 months postoperatively, however, with skin dimpling around the suprapatellar area and weakness of knee extension. Her ankle symptoms were also aggravated because she could not use the knee joint freely. We performed simultaneous reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon and the Achilles tendon using an ipsilateral hamstring autograft.Hamstring autograft offers a good alternative treatment option for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> repair, particularly with concommitant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of multiple sites when primary repair is not possible or the viability of repaired tissue is poor. PMID:20506939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Yong Seuk; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Oh, Kyung Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Lung Hydatid Cyst <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> into Bronchi and Pleural Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=347497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Definition of human rotavirus serotypes by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction assay.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty different human rotavirus reassortants were characterized serologically by a <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction assay as belonging to one of three distinct serotypes. Fourteen were similar if not identical to our prototype Wa strain; two were like th