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1

New insights into atherosclerotic plaque rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery atherosclerosis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the indus- trialised world. Progressive narrowing of cor- onary arteries causes angina. However, it is rupture of the plaque that causes the cata- strophic consequences of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction. Recent work has identified that the stability of the plaque rather than its absolute size determines the

D M Braganza; M R Bennett

2001-01-01

2

Biomechanics of Plaque Rupture: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plaque rupture has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet ruptured. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as

Peter D. Richardson

2002-01-01

3

Thermal detection of cellular infiltrates in living atherosclerotic plaques: possible implications for plaque rupture and thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Atherosclerotic lesions are heterogeneous and prognosis cannot easily be predicted, even with intracoronary ultrasound and angioscopy. Serial angiographic and necropsy studies suggest that the risk of plaque rupture correlates only weakly with the degree of stenosis. Most ruptured plaques are characterised by a large pool of cholesterol or necrotic debris and a thin fibrous cap with a dense infiltration

W. Casscells; W. K. Vaughn; H. McAllister; J. T. Willerson; B. Hathorn; M. David; T. Krabach; G. Bearman

1996-01-01

4

Stress analysis of carotid plaque rupture based on in vivo high resolution MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atheromatous carotid plaque rupture is responsible for the majority of ischaemic strokes in the developed world. Plaque rupture has been associated with plaque morphology, plaque components’ properties, inflammation and local stress concentration. High resolution multi-spectral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed the plaque components to be visualized in vivo. This study combined the recent advances in finite element analysis (FEA)

Zhi-Yong Li; Simon Howarth; Rikin A. Trivedi; Jean M. U-King-Im; Martin J. Graves; Andrew Brown; Liqun Wang; Jonathan H. Gillard

2006-01-01

5

Plaque rupture with severe pre-existing stenosis precipitating coronary thrombosis. Characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques underlying fatal occlusive thrombi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruptured atheromatous plaques were identified by step-sectioning technique as responsible for 40 of 51 recent coronary artery thrombi and 63 larger intimal haemorrhages. The degree of pre-existing luminal narrowing at the site of rupture was decisive for whether plaque rupture caused occlusive thrombosis or just intimal haemorrhage. If the pre-existing stenosis was greater than 90% (histologically determined) then plaque rupture

E Falk

1983-01-01

6

Macrophage Activation in Atherosclerosis: Pathogenesis and Pharmacology of Plaque Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis is still an important disease. It accounts for 39% of deaths in the U.K. and 12 million U.S citizens have atherosclerosis-associated disease. Atherosclerosis may exert clinical effects by slow narrowing, producing stable angina or dramatic rupture, producing acute coronary syndromes such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction and death. Macrophages are abundant in ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Macrophages are innate

J. J. Boyle

2005-01-01

7

The role of plaque rupture and thrombosis in coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. The progression of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary circulation is dependent on several risk factors. It is now clear that plaque composition is a major determinant of the risk of subsequent plaque rupture and superimposed thrombosis. The vulnerability of plaques to rupture is

A. G Zaman; G Helft; S. G Worthley; J. J Badimon

2000-01-01

8

Animal models of spontaneous plaque rupture: The holy grail of experimental atherosclerosis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the history of atherosclerosis research we have sought animal models of the disease process that exhibit high frequencies\\u000a of the features that make human plaque a clinical risk: plaque rupture, mural thrombosis, and intra-plaque hemorrhage. This\\u000a type of model is needed to determine the mechanisms by which plaques rupture and to design and test therapeutic interventions\\u000a for stabilizing plaques.

Michael E. Rosenfeld; Kevin G. S. Carson; Jason L. Johnson; Helen Williams; Christopher L. Jackson; Stephen M. Schwartz

2002-01-01

9

Intravascular ultrasound assessment of the association between spatial orientation of ruptured coronary plaques and remodeling morphology of culprit plaques in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the association between the spatial location of plaque rupture and remodeling pattern of culprit lesions in acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Positive remodeling suggests a potential surrogate marker of plaque vulnerability, whereas plaque rupture causes thrombus formation followed by coronary occlusion and MI. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can determine the precise spatial orientation of coronary plaque formation. We studied 52 consecutive patients with acute anterior MI caused by plaque rupture of the culprit lesion as assessed by preintervention IVUS. The plaques were divided into those with and without positive remodeling. We divided the plaques into three categories according to the spatial orientation of plaque rupture site: myocardial (inner curve), epicardial (outer curve), and lateral quadrants (2 intermediate quadrants). Among 52 plaque ruptures in 52 lesions, 27 ruptures were oriented toward the epicardial side (52%), 18 toward the myocardial side (35%), and 7 in the 2 lateral quadrants (13%). Among 35 plaques with positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 21 (52%) on the epicardial side, 12 (34%) on the myocardial side, and 2 (6%) on the lateral side. However, among 17 plaques without positive remodeling, plaque rupture was observed in 6 (35%), 6 (35%), and 5 (30%), respectively (p = 0.047). Atherosclerotic plaques with positive remodeling showed more frequent plaque rupture on the epicardial side of the coronary vessel wall in anterior MI than those without positive remodeling. PMID:21892739

Kusama, Ikuyoshi; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Kosuge, Masami; Sumita, Shinnichi; Tsukahara, Kengo; Okuda, Jun; Ebina, Toshiaki; Umemura, Satoshi; Kimura, Kazuo

2011-09-03

10

Plaque distribution and vascular remodeling of ruptured and nonruptured coronary plaques in the same vessel: an intravascular ultrasound study in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to identify potential differences between the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) characteristics of spontaneously ruptured and nonruptured coronary plaques.BACKGROUNDThe identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo may allow targeted prevention of acute coronary events and more effective evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches.METHODSIntravascular ultrasound was used to identify 29 ruptured plaques in arteries containing another nonruptured plaque in an adjacent

Clemens von Birgelen; Wolfgang Klinkhart; Gary S Mintz; Alexandra Papatheodorou; Jörg Herrmann; Dietrich Baumgart; Michael Haude; Heinrich Wieneke; Junbo Ge; Raimund Erbel

2001-01-01

11

The severity of coronary atherosclerosis at sites of plaque rupture with occlusive thrombosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture with superimposed thrombosis is recognized as the lesion causing greater than 90% of acute myocardial infarctions. To determine the severity of atherosclerosis at the site of plaque rupture, 184 coronary arteries from autopsies of 162 patients who died of acute myocardial infarction were studied. There were 102 men, 72 +/- 10 years old (mean +/- SD), and 60 women, 75 +/- 8 years old. All arteries were dissected from the heart, fixed, decalcified, cut at 2 to 3 mm intervals and processed routinely for histologic examination. A planimeter was used to measure artery, plaque, thrombus and luminal cross-sectional area at the site of plaque rupture with thrombosis in sections projected at x13.8 magnification. At the site of atherosclerotic plaque rupture with superimposed thrombosis, the degree of stenosis due to plaque was: 90 +/- 7% for the right (n = 67), 91 +/- 6% for the left anterior descending (n = 79) and 91 +/- 6% for the left circumflex (n = 38) coronary arteries. Plaque rupture in fatal acute myocardial infarction occurs at sites of severe narrowing (mean 91%, range 67% to 99%). Thus, plaque rupture with thrombosis is unlikely to cause the fatal acute myocardial infarction in patients with mild to moderate coronary stenosis. PMID:2007714

Qiao, J H; Fishbein, M C

1991-04-01

12

What have we learned about plaque rupture in acute coronary syndromes?  

PubMed

The most common cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is rupture of an atherosclerotic lesion containing a large necrotic core and a thin fibrous cap followed by acute luminal thrombosis because the rupture of the thin fibrous cap allows contact of the platelets with the highly thrombogenic necrotic core. Pathologic studies have suggested that the precursor of the ruptured plaque is the so-called thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). Unfortunately, true natural history studies of TCFAs and their transition to ruptured plaques are rare. Most of the data and concepts have been inferred from studies performed at a single point in time. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have shown ruptured plaques in approximately two thirds of ACS culprit lesions and occur in predictable locations. The features that differentiate secondary, nonculprit plaque ruptures from those that cause ACS events appear to be superimposed thrombosis and lumen compromise, either from the thrombus or from the underlying lesion. Secondary plaque ruptures appear to heal with optimal medical therapy. In vivo definitions of TCFAs have been derived from pathology study to include positive remodeling, a fibrous cap less than 100 microm (and perhaps <65 microm) at its minimum thickness, macrophage infiltration especially in the thin fibrous cap, a large lipid/necrotic core often containing hemorrhage and/or speckled or diffuse calcification (not enough to increase plaque stability although the absence of any calcium is also rare in rupture-prone plaques), and abundant intraplaque vasa vasorum and/or hemorrhage. Early data from in vivo imaging have substantiated the pathologic observations, but have also suggested that spontaneous stabilization of TCFAs with medical therapy alone is possible. PMID:20425160

Choi, So-Yeon; Mintz, Gary S

2010-07-01

13

Developing a novel rabbit model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis by cold-induced endothelial injury  

PubMed Central

Background It is widely believed that atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis leads to acute coronary events and stroke. However, study of the mechanism and treatment of human plaque rupture is hampered by lack of a suitable animal model. Our aim was to develop a novel animal model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture to facilitate the study of human plaque disruption and thrombosis. Methods 28 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: rabbits in group A (n = 12) were only fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks; rabbits in group B (n = 16) underwent cold-induced endothelial injury with liquid nitrogen, then were given a high-fat diet for eight weeks. After completion of the preparatory regimen, triggering of plaque rupture was attempted by local injection of liquid nitrogen in both groups. Results All rabbits in group B had disrupted plaques or rupture-driven occlusive thrombus formation, but none in group A showed any effects. More importantly, the cold-induced plaques in our model were reminiscent of human atherosclerotic plaques in terms of architecture, cellular composition, growth characteristics, and patterns of lipid accumulation. Conclusion We successfully developed a novel rabbit model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis, which is simple, fast, inexpensive, and reproducible, and has a low mortality and a high yield of triggering. This model will allow us to better understand the mechanism of human plaque rupture and also to develop plaque-stabilizing therapies.

Fang, Shun-Miao; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Zhi-Xin

2009-01-01

14

Association of statin therapy with reduced coronary plaque rupture: an optical coherence tomography study  

PubMed Central

Objective Statin therapy induces plaque regression and may stabilize atheromatous plaques. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution in-vivo imaging modality that allows characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aimed to demonstrate the potential utility of OCT in evaluating coronary plaques in patients with or without statin therapy. Methods Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were enrolled. We identified culprit lesions and performed intracoronary OCT imaging. Plaque lipid pool, fibrous cap thickness, and frequency of thin-cap fibroatheroma were evaluated using previously validated criteria. Macrophage density was determined from optical signals within fibrous caps. Presence of calcification, thrombosis, and rupture was assessed. Results Forty-eight patients were included (26 on statins, 22 without statins). Baseline characteristics were similar apart from lipid profile. Patients on statin therapy had lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (4.45± 1.35 vs. 5.26 ± 0.83 mmol/l, P = 0.02; 2.23 ± 0.78 vs. 3.26 ±0.62 mmol/l, P < 0.001, respectively). Frequencies of lipid-rich plaque (69 vs. 82%), thin-cap fibroatheroma (31 vs. 50%), plaque calcification (15 vs. 5%) and thrombosis (15 vs. 32%), and fibrous cap macrophage density were comparable between statin and nonstatin groups (5.9 vs. 6.3%; all P =NS). Ruptured plaques were, however, significantly less frequent in patients on established statin therapy (8 vs. 36%; P = 0.03) with a trend toward increased minimum fibrous cap thickness (78 vs. 49 ?m; P = 0.07). Conclusion We demonstrated the use of OCT in plaque characterization and found that patients on prior statin therapy have reduced incidence of ruptured plaques and a trend toward thicker fibrous caps. This suggests that statins may stabilize coronary plaques.

Chia, Stanley; Raffel, Owen Christopher; Takano, Masamichi; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Jang, Ik-Kyung

2009-01-01

15

Mechanical, biological and structural characterization of in vitro ruptured human carotid plaque tissue.  

PubMed

Recent experimental studies performed on human carotid plaques have focused on mechanical characterization for the purpose of developing material models for finite-element analysis without quantifying the tissue composition or relating mechanical behaviour to preoperative classification. This study characterizes the mechanical and biological properties of 25 human carotid plaques and also investigates the common features that lead to plaque rupture during mechanical testing by performing circumferential uniaxial tests, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on each specimen to relate plaque composition to mechanical behaviour. Mechanical results revealed large variations between plaque specimen behaviour with no correlation to preoperative ultrasound prediction. However, FTIR classification demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between stress and stretch values at rupture and the level of calcification (P=0.002 and P=0.009). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was carried out to confirm that the calcium levels observed using FTIR analysis were accurate. This work demonstrates the potential of FTIR as an alternative method to ultrasound forpredicting plaque mechanical behaviour. SEM imaging at the rupture sites of each specimen highlighted voids created by the nodes of calcifications in the tissue structure which could lead to increased vulnerability of the plaque. PMID:23871944

Mulvihill, J J; Cunnane, E M; McHugh, S M; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, S R; Walsh, M T

2013-07-19

16

The Fat-Fed Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mouse Brachiocephalic Artery in the Study of Atherosclerotic Plaque Rupture  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis has been studied in animals for almost a century, yet the events leading up to the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque (the underlying cause of the majority of fatal thrombosis formation) have only been studied in the past decade, due in part to the development of a mouse model of spontaneous plaque rupture. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice, when fed a high-fat diet, consistently develop lesions in the brachiocephalic artery that rupture at a known time point. It is therefore now possible to observe the development of lesions to elucidate the mechanisms behind the rupture of plaques. Critics argue that the model does not replicate the appearance of human atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. The purpose of this review is to highlight the reasons why we should be looking to the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse to further our understanding of plaque rupture.

Bond, Andrew R.; Jackson, Christopher L.

2011-01-01

17

Multiple Atherosclerotic Plaque Rupture in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Three-Vessel Intravascular Ultrasound Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—To test the hypothesis of general atherosclerotic plaque destabilization during acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the present study sought to analyze the 3 coronary arteries by systematic intravascular ultrasound scan (IVUS). Methods and Results—Seventy-two arteries were explored in 24 patients referred for percutaneous coronary intervention after a first ACS with troponin I elevation. Fifty plaque ruptures (mean, 2.08 per patient; range,

G. Rioufol; G. Finet; I. Ginon; X. André-Fouët; R. Rossi; E. Vialle; E. Desjoyaux; G. Convert; J. F. Huret; A. Tabib

2002-01-01

18

Cyclic Bending Contributes to High Stress in a Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque and Rupture Risk  

PubMed Central

Many acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke are caused by atherosclerotic plaque ruptures which often happen without warning. MRI-based models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis for atherosclerotic plaques and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. In this paper, cyclic bending was added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models for more accurate mechanical predictions. Curvature variation was prescribed using the data of a human left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five computational models were constructed based on ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque data to assess the effects of cyclic bending, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. In vitro experiments using a hydrogel stenosis model with cyclical bending were performed to observe effect of cyclical bending on flow conditions. Our results indicate that cyclical bending may cause more than 100% or even up to more than 1000% increase in maximum principal stress values at locations where the plaque is bent most. Stress increase is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, or resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (21.6% decrease in maximum velocity, 10.8% decrease in flow rate, maximum flow shear stress changes were < 5%). Computational FSI models including cyclic bending, plaque components and structure, axial stretch, accurate in vivo measurements of pressure, curvature, and material properties should lead to significant improvement on stress-based plaque mechanical analysis and more accurate coronary plaque vulnerability assessment.

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Teng, Zhongzhao; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N.

2009-01-01

19

Relation of ruptured plaque culprit lesion phenotype and outcomes in patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We used virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) to assess culprit plaque rupture in 172 patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. VH-IVUS-defined thin-capped fibroatheroma (VH-TCFA) had necrotic core (NC) > 10% of plaque area, plaque burden > 40%, and NC in contact with the lumen for ? 3 image slices. Ruptured plaques were present in 72 patients, 61% of which were located in the proximal 30 mm of a coronary artery. Thirty-five were classified as VH-TCFA and 37 as non-VH-TCFA. Vessel size, lesion length, plaque burden, minimal lumen area, and frequency of positive remodeling were similar in VH-TCFA and non-VH-TCFA. However, the NC areas within the rupture sites of VH-TCFAs were larger compared to non-VH-TCFAs (p = 0.002), while fibrofatty plaque areas were larger in non-VH-TCFAs (p < 0.0001). Ruptured plaque cavity size was correlated with distal reference lumen area (r = 0.521, p = 0.00002), minimum lumen area (r = 0.595, p < 0.0001), and plaque area (r = 0.267, p = 0.033). Sensitivity and specificity curve analysis showed that a minimum lumen area of 3.5 mm2, a distal reference lumen area of 7.5 mm2, and a maximum NC area of 35% best predicted plaque rupture. Although VH-TCFA (35 of 72) was the most frequent phenotype of plaque rupture in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, plaque rupture also occurred in non-VH-TCFA: pathologic intimal thickening (8 of 72), thick-capped fibroatheroma (1 of 72), and fibrotic (14 of 72) and fibrocalcified (14 of 72) plaque. In conclusion, not all culprit plaque ruptures in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction occur as a result of TCFA rupture; a prominent fibrofatty plaque, especially in a proximal vessel, may be another form of vulnerable plaque. Further study should identify additional factors causing plaque rupture. PMID:22196783

Kim, Sang Wook; Hong, Young Joon; Mintz, Gary S; Lee, Sung Yun; Doh, Jun Hyung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kang, Hyun Jae; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Jung Sun; Lee, Wang-Soo; Oh, Seong Jin; Lee, Sahng; Hahn, Joo Yong; Lee, Jin Bae; Bae, Jang Ho; Hur, Seung Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jo

2011-12-21

20

Plaque Rupture is a Determinant of Vascular Events in Carotid Artery Atherosclerotic Disease: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by cap rupture, leading to thromboembolism and stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and carotid plaque instability. Methods Eighty atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 74 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Clinical information was obtained from each patient, and plaque morphology was examined at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The immunohistochemical expressions of MMPs were graded using semiquantitative scales. Results Macroscopic ulceration (84.6% versus 63.4%, p=0.042) and microscopic cap rupture (79.5% versus 51.2%, p=0.010) were more common in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients. Immunoreactivities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased in 40 and 36 atheromatous plaques, respectively. Macroscopic ulceration was strongly correlated with the expressions of MMP-2 (p<0.001) and MMP-9 (p=0.001). There were significant correlations between increased MMP-2 expression and cap rupture (p=0.002), intraplaque hemorrhage (p=0.039), and a thin fibrous cap (p=0.002), and between increased MMP-9 expression and cap rupture (p=0.010) and a large lipid core (p=0.013). Conclusions Plaque rupture was significantly associated with the development of vascular events in carotid atherosclerotic disease. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are strongly correlated with plaque instability.

Heo, Sung Hyuk; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Hye Ok; Jo, Yong Hwa; Lee, Ju Hie; Park, Ju-Cheol; Park, Key Chung; Ahn, Tae-Beom; Chung, Kyung Cheon; Chang, Dae-Il

2011-01-01

21

Developing a Rabbit Model of Neointimal Stenosis and Atherosclerotic Fibrous Plaque Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background A precise understanding of the mechanism of human neointimal stenoses and atherosclerotic fibrous plaques, which give rise to thromboses in vital arteries, requires a suitable animal model that would mimic the same characteristics well. We developed a rabbit model of neointimal stenosis and fibrotic plaque rupture in the carotid artery to visualize the lesion progress and to characterize the lesion types according to the American Heart Association classification. Methods Twenty-eight healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: The rabbits in group A (n = 14) consumed a standard chow diet, and those in group B (n = 14) were injured via perivascular cold injury using liquid nitrogen at the right common carotid artery before being fed a high cholesterol diet (1.5%) for eight weeks. Plasma lipid evaluation was performed before the sacrificing of the rabbits. At the end of every week, at least 1 rabbit from group B was sacrificed for an analysis of lesion histopathology and calculation of the area ratios of the intima to media. Results The plasma lipid level in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (p value < 0.05). The histopathological results revealed atherosclerosis characteristics such as endothelial layer destruction, fatty streaks and lipid-containing macrophages (foam cells) formation in the intima and media layers, extracellular lipid collections, smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration, neointima formation, intima thickening and deformation, fibrotic plaque formation, and finally plaque rupture. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in the intima-to-media ratio at the end of the eighth week (6.41 ± 0.27, p value < 0.05). Conclusion We successfully developed a rabbit model of neointimal stenosis and atherosclerotic fibrous connective tissue plaque rupture, which is not only quickly and easily reproducible and inexpensive but also without mortality. The merits of our model render the evaluation of neointimal stenoses and fibrotic plaques and their treatment strategies more feasible in humans.

Mehrad, Hossein; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Mohsenifar, Afshin

2011-01-01

22

The severity of atherosclerosis at sites of plaque rupture with occlusive thrombosis in saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture with superimposed thrombosis is recognized as the lesion causing late, acute, thrombotic saphenous vein coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) occlusion. To determine the severity of atherosclerosis at the site of plaque rupture, 68 saphenous vein CABGs removed at the time of reoperation or at autopsy were studied. The study population consisted of 57 men, 64 +/- 9 years old, and nine women, 70 +/- 10 years old. The duration of graft implantation was 7.9 +/- 2.7 years (mean +/- S.D.). All CABGs were dissected from the hearts, fixed, decalcified, cut at 2 to 3 mm intervals, and processed routinely for histologic examination. A planimeter was used to measure total vessel, plaque, thrombus, and luminal cross-sectional areas at the site of plaque rupture with thrombosis in sections projected at 13.8 power magnification. At the site of atherosclerotic plaque rupture with superimposed thrombosis, the degree of stenosis due to plaque was: 90 +/- 11% for the right coronary artery grafts (n = 19); 94 +/- 7% for the left anterior descending artery grafts (n = 41), and 90 +/- 14% for the left circumflex artery (n = 8) grafts. Thus in saphenous vein CABGs, atherosclerotic plaque rupture with thrombosis usually occurs at sites of severe narrowing (mean = 93%) by preexisting atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:1927881

Qiao, J H; Walts, A E; Fishbein, M C

1991-10-01

23

Proportion of fibrin and platelets differs in thrombi on ruptured and eroded coronary atherosclerotic plaques in humans  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the proportion of platelets and fibrin in coronary thrombi. Design: Immunohistochemical and morphometric means to examine the coronary arteries of 31 patients who died of acute myocardial infarction. Results: Fresh thrombi were detected in the feeding arteries of infarction areas in 23 cases (74%) and were associated with plaque rupture in 18 (78%) and plaque erosion in 5 (22%). An immunohistochemical study showed that the thrombi consisted of a mixture of fibrin and platelets as well as some other types of blood cells. The fibrin and platelet positive areas in the thrombi associated with plaque rupture accounted for 74 (19)% and 35 (20)% (p < 0.01) and those associated with erosion accounted for 51 (6)% and 70 (21)%, respectively, of the total areas. Areas of positive immunoreactivity for tissue factor and C reactive protein were also significantly greater in ruptured than in eroded plaques. Conclusion: These results indicate that the proportions of fibrin and of platelets differ in coronary thrombi on ruptured and eroded plaques. Higher proportions of tissue factor and C reactive protein contribute more significantly to thrombus formation on plaque rupture than on plaque erosion.

Sato, Y; Hatakeyama, K; Yamashita, A; Marutsuka, K; Sumiyoshi, A; Asada, Y

2005-01-01

24

Sites of Rupture in Human Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques are Associated with High Structural Stresses: an In Vivo MRI-Based 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose It has been hypothesized that high structural stress in atherosclerotic plaques at critical sites may contribute to plaque disruption. To test that hypothesis, 3D fluid-structure interaction models were constructed based on in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques to assess structural stress behaviors of plaques with and without rupture. Methods In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 12 patients scheduled for endarterectomy were acquired for model reconstruction. Histology confirmed that five of the twelve plaques had rupture. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS) and Flow Maximum Shear Stress (FMSS) were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. A Critical PWS (CPWS) (maximum of PWS values from all possible vulnerable sites) was determined for each plaque. Results Mean plaque wall stress (PWS) from all ulcer nodes in ruptured plaques was 86% higher than that from all non-ulcer nodes (123.0 vs. 66.3 kPa, p<0.0001). Mean FMSS from all ulcer nodes in ruptured plaques was 170% higher than that from all non-ulcer nodes (38.9 vs. 14.4 dyn/cm2, p<0.0001). Mean CPWS from the 5 ruptured plaques was 126% higher than that from the 7 non-ruptured ones (247.3 vs. 108 kPa, p=0.0016 using log transformation). Conclusion The results of this study show that plaques with prior ruptures are associated with higher critical stress conditions: both at ulcer sites and when compared with non-ruptured plaques. With further validations, plaque stress analysis may provide additional stress indicators helpful for image-based plaque vulnerability assessment.

Tang, Dalin; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Yang, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Huang, Xueying; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Yuan, Chun

2009-01-01

25

3D Critical Plaque Wall Stress Is a Better Predictor of Carotid Plaque Rupture Sites Than Flow Shear Stress: An In Vivo MRI-Based 3D FSI Study  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture leading to stroke is the major cause of long-term disability as well as the third most common cause of mortality. Image-based computational models have been introduced seeking critical mechanical indicators, which may be used for plaque vulnerability assessment. This study extends the previous 2D critical stress concept to 3D by using in vivo magnetic resonance image (MRI) data of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques and 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models to: identify 3D critical plaque wall stress (CPWS) and critical flow shear stress (CFSS) and to investigate their associations with plaque rupture. In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 18 patients scheduled for endarterectomy were acquired using histologically validated multicontrast protocols. Of the 18 plaques, histology-confirmed that six had prior rupture (group 1) as evidenced by presence of ulceration. The remaining 12 plaques (group 2) contained no rupture. The 3D multicomponent FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain 3D plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS) distributions. Three-dimensional CPWS and CFSS, defined as maxima of PWS and FSS from all vulnerable sites, were determined for each plaque to investigate their association with plaque rupture. Slice-based critical PWS and FSS were also calculated for all slices for more detailed analysis and comparison. The mean 3D CPWS of group 1 was 263.44 kPa, which was 100% higher than that from group 2 (132.77, p = 0.03984). Five of the six ruptured plaques had 3D CPWS sites, matching the histology-confirmed rupture sites with an 83% agreement. Although the mean 3D CFSS (92.94 dyn/cm2) for group 1 was 76% higher than that for group 2 (52.70 dyn / cm2), slice-based CFSS showed no significant difference between the two groups. Only two of the six ruptured plaques had 3D CFSS sites matching the histology-confirmed rupture sites with a 33% agreement. CFSS had a good correlation with plaque stenosis severity (R2 = 0.40 with an exponential function fitting 3D CFSS data). This in vivo MRI pilot study using plaques with and without rupture demonstrates that 3D critical plaque wall stress values are more closely associated with atherosclerotic plaque rupture then critical flow shear stresses. Critical wall stress values may become indicators of high risk sites of rupture. Future work with a larger population will establish a possible CPWS-based plaque vulnerability classification.

Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Yang, Chun; Huang, Xueying; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.

2010-01-01

26

Pravastatin inhibits plaque rupture and subsequent thrombus formation in atherosclerotic rabbits with hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that statin can reduce the risk of acute coronary syndrome. In order to explore the mechanism, we observed the effects of pravastatin on plaque stability in atherosclerotic rabbits. Sixteen male rabbits were fed with a high fat diet following their damaged abdominal aortic endothelium by using catheter. Eight of them were administered with pravastatin (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. Then the rabbit atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis were triggered by injection of viper venom and histamine. Compared with model group, the thrombus area on aorta in pravastatin-treated group was reduced. Fibre cap on plaque was more thick and integrant, and inflammatory cell infiltration was also decreased. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and contents of cholesterol in abdominal aorta were decreased. 6-Keto-prostaglandin F(1?) (6-keto-PGF(1?)) level and ratio of 6-keto-PGF(1?)/thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) in aorta were significantly increased. These results suggested that pravastatin could increase plaque stability and inhibit thrombosis through both lipid-dependent and lipid-independent way. PMID:23207681

Wu, Gang; Xie, Qiang; Xu, Lin; Jiang, Hong; Huang, Zhengrong; Huang, Congxin

2012-12-03

27

In Vivo Detection of Activated Platelets Allows Characterizing Rupture of Atherosclerotic Plaques with Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early and non-invasive detection of platelets on micro atherothrombosis provides a means to identify unstable plaque and thereby allowing prophylactic treatment towards prevention of stroke or myocardial infarction. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) of activated platelets as early markers of plaque rupture using targeted contrast agents is a promising strategy. In this study, we aim to specifically image activated platelets in murine atherothrombosis by in vivo mMRI, using a dedicated animal model of plaque rupture. Methods An antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa-receptor of activated platelets was conjugated to microparticles of iron oxide (MPIO) to form the LIBS-MPIO contrast agent causing a signal-extinction in T2*-weighted MRI. ApoE?/? mice (60 weeks-old) were fed a high fat diet for 5 weeks. Using a small needle, the surface of their carotid plaques was scratched under blood flow to induce atherothrombosis. In vivo 9.4 Tesla MRI was performed before and repetitively after intravenous injection of either LIBS-MPIO versus non-targeted-MPIO. Results LIBS-MPIO injected animals showed a significant signal extinction (p<0.05) in MRI, corresponding to the site of plaque rupture and atherothrombosis in histology. The signal attenuation was effective for atherothrombosis occupying ?2% of the vascular lumen. Histology further confirmed significant binding of LIBS-MPIO compared to control-MPIO on the thrombus developing on the surface of ruptured plaques (p<0.01). Conclusion in vivo mMRI detected activated platelets on mechanically ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE?/? mice with a high sensititvity. This imaging technology represents a unique opportunity for noninvasive detection of atherothrombosis and the identification of unstable atherosclerotic plaques with the ultimate promise to prevent strokes and myocardial infarctions.

Wiens, Kristina; Neudorfer, Irene; Zirlik, Andreas; Meissner, Mirko; Tilly, Peg; Charles, Anne-Laure; Bode, Christoph; Peter, Karlheinz; Fabre, Jean-Etienne

2012-01-01

28

Current status of PET-imaging probes of ?-amyloid plaques.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss. One of pathological hallmarks of AD is the accumulation and deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) plaques which is a potential target for the early diagnosis of AD. Positron emission tomography (PET), a sensitive radionuclide imaging technique, has provided opportunities to detect A? plaques of AD. PET-imaging probes of A? plaques have been extensively developed during the last decade. [(18)F]Florbetapir, the (18)F-labeled PET-imaging probe of A? plaques, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration. A number of follow-on PET-imaging probes are currently being developed in academia and pharmaceutical companies. This article will discuss the recent development of PET-imaging probes from [(11)C]PIB to [(18)F]Florbetapir, which are in clinic trials, and several follow-on probes in preclinical stage. PMID:23812777

Koo, Jaehyung; Byun, Youngjoo

2013-07-01

29

Microcalcifications increase coronary vulnerable plaque rupture potential: a patient-based micro-CT fluid-structure interaction study.  

PubMed

Asymptomatic vulnerable plaques (VP) in coronary arteries accounts for significant level of morbidity. Their main risk is associated with their rupture which may prompt fatal heart attacks and strokes. The role of microcalcifications (micro-Ca), embedded in the VP fibrous cap, in the plaque rupture mechanics has been recently established. However, their diminutive size offers a major challenge for studying the VP rupture biomechanics on a patient specific basis. In this study, a highly detailed model was reconstructed from a post-mortem coronary specimen of a patient with observed VP, using high resolution micro-CT which captured the microcalcifications embedded in the fibrous cap. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations were conducted in the reconstructed model to examine the combined effects of micro-Ca, flow phase lag and plaque material properties on plaque burden and vulnerability. This dynamic fibrous cap stress mapping elucidates the contribution of micro-Ca and flow phase lag VP vulnerability independently. Micro-Ca embedded in the fibrous cap produced increased stresses predicted by previously published analytical model, and corroborated our previous studies. The 'micro-CT to FSI' methodology may offer better diagnostic tools for clinicians, while reducing morbidity and mortality rates for patients with vulnerable plaques and ameliorating the ensuing healthcare costs. PMID:22234864

Rambhia, S H; Liang, X; Xenos, M; Alemu, Y; Maldonado, N; Kelly, A; Chakraborti, S; Weinbaum, S; Cardoso, L; Einav, S; Bluestein, Danny

2012-01-11

30

Cyclic Bending Contributes to High Stress in a Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque and Rupture Risk: In Vitro Experimental Modeling and Ex Vivo MRI-Based Computational Modeling Approach.  

PubMed

Many acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke are caused by atherosclerotic plaque ruptures which often happen without warning. MRI-based models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis for atherosclerotic plaques and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. In this paper, cyclic bending was added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models for more accurate mechanical predictions. Curvature variation was prescribed using the data of a human left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Five computational models were constructed based on ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque data to assess the effects of cyclic bending, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. In vitro experiments using a hydrogel stenosis model with cyclical bending were performed to observe effect of cyclical bending on flow conditions. Our results indicate that cyclical bending may cause more than 100% or even up to more than 1000% increase in maximum principal stress values at locations where the plaque is bent most. Stress increase is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, or resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (21.6% decrease in maximum velocity, 10.8% decrease in flow rate, maximum flow shear stress changes were < 5%). Computational FSI models including cyclic bending, plaque components and structure, axial stretch, accurate in vivo measurements of pressure, curvature, and material properties should lead to significant improvement on stress-based plaque mechanical analysis and more accurate coronary plaque vulnerability assessment. PMID:19412353

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N

2008-01-01

31

In vivo serial MRI-based models and statistical methods to quantify sensitivity and specificity of mechanical predictors for carotid plaque rupture: location and beyond.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that mechanical risk factors may be used to predict future atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Truly predictive methods for plaque rupture and methods to identify the best predictor(s) from all the candidates are lacking in the literature. A novel combination of computational and statistical models based on serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was introduced to quantify sensitivity and specificity of mechanical predictors to identify the best candidate for plaque rupture site prediction. Serial in vivo MRI data of carotid plaque from one patient was acquired with follow-up scan showing ulceration. 3D computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models using both baseline and follow-up data were constructed and plaque wall stress (PWS) and strain (PWSn) and flow maximum shear stress (FSS) were extracted from all 600 matched nodal points (100 points per matched slice, baseline matching follow-up) on the lumen surface for analysis. Each of the 600 points was marked "ulcer" or "nonulcer" using follow-up scan. Predictive statistical models for each of the seven combinations of PWS, PWSn, and FSS were trained using the follow-up data and applied to the baseline data to assess their sensitivity and specificity using the 600 data points for ulcer predictions. Sensitivity of prediction is defined as the proportion of the true positive outcomes that are predicted to be positive. Specificity of prediction is defined as the proportion of the true negative outcomes that are correctly predicted to be negative. Using probability 0.3 as a threshold to infer ulcer occurrence at the prediction stage, the combination of PWS and PWSn provided the best predictive accuracy with (sensitivity, specificity)?=?(0.97, 0.958). Sensitivity and specificity given by PWS, PWSn, and FSS individually were (0.788, 0.968), (0.515, 0.968), and (0.758, 0.928), respectively. The proposed computational-statistical process provides a novel method and a framework to assess the sensitivity and specificity of various risk indicators and offers the potential to identify the optimized predictor for plaque rupture using serial MRI with follow-up scan showing ulceration as the gold standard for method validation. While serial MRI data with actual rupture are hard to acquire, this single-case study suggests that combination of multiple predictors may provide potential improvement to existing plaque assessment schemes. With large-scale patient studies, this predictive modeling process may provide more solid ground for rupture predictor selection strategies and methods for image-based plaque vulnerability assessment. PMID:21744932

Wu, Zheyang; Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin

2011-06-01

32

Biomechanical structural stresses of atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning, causing fatal clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Degree of stenosis, which is the current criterion for assessment of atherosclerotic disease severity, has been observed to have poor correlation with plaque vulnerability. Under physiological conditions, plaque undertakes mechanical loadings due to blood pressure and flow. From the material view point, rupture possibly occurs when the extra loading exceeds the material strength of the plaque. Therefore, morphological and mechanical features should be considered in an integrated way for a more accurate assessment of plaque vulnerability and for identification of the at-risk patient. Biomechanical stress analysis is a technique that allows such comprehensive assessment. This article focuses on the mechanical stresses in the plaque structure, which are believed to be of greater magnitude than the associated wall shear stress and are thought to be more closely associated with plaque rupture. We discuss the basic mechanics that govern plaque behavior, the material properties of atherosclerotic tissues and the studies investigating the association between high biomechanical stresses and plaque rupture. Parameter studies investigating the effect of morphologic factors on the critical biomechanical stresses and limitations of current simulation models are also reviewed. PMID:20936933

Sadat, Umar; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H

2010-10-01

33

Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib promotes a rupture-prone plaque phenotype in ApoE-deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin–proteasome system is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was\\u000a to investigate whether plaque composition is affected by proteasome function. In vitro, the potent and selective proteasome\\u000a inhibitor bortezomib induced apoptosis in both cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and activated macrophages. This effect\\u000a was associated with increased expression of C\\/EBP homologous protein

Jozef Leo Van Herck; Guido R. Y. De Meyer; Wim Martinet; Hidde Bult; Christiaan J. Vrints; Arnold G. Herman

2010-01-01

34

Amyloid plaque imaging in vivo: current achievement and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a very complex neurodegenerative disorder, the exact cause of which is still not known. The major\\u000a histopathological features, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, already described by Alois Alzheimer, have been the\\u000a focus in research for decades. Despite a probable whole cascade of events in the brain leading to impairment of cognition,\\u000a amyloid is still the target

Agneta Nordberg

2008-01-01

35

A Case of In-Stent Neointimal Plaque Rupture 10 Years After Bare Metal Stent Implantation: Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings  

PubMed Central

Neointimal hyperplasia mainly develops within several months of coronary stent deployment, after which it stabilizes. Although it was widely accepted, particularly during the bare-metal stent (BMS) era, that in-stent restenosis (ISR) generally does not present as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but rather as a gradual recurrence of angina symptoms, recent data have shown that a substantial number of patients with ISR present as ACS. There has also been consistent postmortem evidence of plaque rupture secondary to atherosclerotic change within the neointima of a BMS. We report here a case of ACS in which intravascular ultrasound and optical coherent tomographic assessments revealed neointimal atherosclerotic change and ruptured plaque 10 years after BMS deployment.

Yoon, Hyuck-Jun; Kim, Shin-Keun; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Hyoung-Seob; Cho, Yun-Kyeong; Nam, Chang-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Kim, Kwon-Bae

2011-01-01

36

Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Method and Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression Simulation Using Multi-Year MRI Patient-Tracking Data  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and progression have been the focus of intensive investigations in recent years. Plaque rupture is closely related to most severe cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke. A computational procedure based on meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was introduced to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Participating patients were scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Vessel wall thickness (WT) changes were used as the measure for plaque progression. Since there was insufficient data with the current technology to quantify individual plaque component growth, the whole plaque was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, hyperelastic, isotropic and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 2D plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the solid model and adjusting wall thickness using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with actual plaque geometry at T3 given by MRI data. We believe this is the first time plaque progression simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression simulation adds time dimension to plaque vulnerability assessment and will improve prediction accuracy for potential plaque rupture risk.

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Kerwin, William; Liu, Fei; Canton, Gador; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Atluri, Satya

2009-01-01

37

Fetal membrane healing after spontaneous and iatrogenic membrane rupture: A review of current evidence  

PubMed Central

In view of the important protective role of the fetal membranes, wound sealing, tissue regeneration, or wound healing could be life saving in cases of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Although many investigators are studying the causes of preterm premature rupture of membranes, the emphasis has not been on the wound healing capacity of the fetal membranes. In this review, the relevant literature on the pathophysiologic condition that leads to preterm premature rupture of membranes will be summarized to emphasize a continuum of events between rupture and repair. We will present the current knowledge on fetal membrane wound healing and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. We will critically discuss recent experimental interventions in women to seal or heal the fetal membranes after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Devlieger, R.; Millar, L. K.; Bryant-Greenwood, G.; Lewi, L.; Deprest, J. A.

2006-01-01

38

A hypothesis for vulnerable plaque rupture due to stress-induced debonding around cellular microcalcifications in thin fibrous caps  

PubMed Central

In this article, we advance a hypothesis for the rupture of thin fibrous cap atheroma, namely that minute (10-?m-diameter) cellular-level microcalcifications in the cap, which heretofore have gone undetected because they lie below the visibility of current in vivo imaging techniques, cause local stress concentrations that lead to interfacial debonding. New theoretical solutions are presented for the local stress concentration around these minute spherical inclusions that predict a nearly 2-fold increase in interfacial stress that is relatively insensitive to the location of the hypothesized microinclusions in the cap. To experimentally confirm the existence of the hypothesized cellular-level microcalcifications, we examined autopsy specimens of coronary atheromatous lesions using in vitro imaging techniques whose resolution far exceeds conventional magnetic resonance imaging, intravascular ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography approaches. These high-resolution imaging modalities, which include confocal microscopy with calcium-specific staining and micro-computed tomography imaging, provide images of cellular-level calcifications within the cap proper. As anticipated, the minute inclusions in the cap are very rare compared with the numerous calcified macrophages observed in the necrotic core. Our mathematical model predicts that inclusions located in an area of high circumferential stress (>300 kPa) in the cap can intensify this stress to nearly 600 kPa when the cap thickness is <65 ?m. The most likely candidates for the inclusions are either calcified macrophages or smooth muscle cells that have undergone apoptosis.

Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Carlier, Stephane; Xanthos, Savvas; Cardoso, Luis; Ganatos, Peter; Virmani, Renu; Einav, Shmuel; Gilchrist, Lane; Weinbaum, Sheldon

2006-01-01

39

Current Management of Traumatic Rupture of the Descending Thoracic Aorta  

PubMed Central

Traumatic rupture of the descending thoracic aorta remains a leading cause of death following major blunt trauma. Management has evolved from uniformly performing emergent open repair with clamp and sew technique to include open repair with mechanical circulatory support, medical management and most recently, endovascular repair. This latter approach appears, in the short term, to be associated with perhaps better outcome, but long term data is still accruing. While an attractive option, there are specific anatomic and physiologic factors to be considered in each individual case.

Karmy-Jones, Riyad; Jackson, Nichole; Long, William; Simeone, Alan

2009-01-01

40

The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy.

Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

2011-01-01

41

Symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery plaque  

PubMed Central

Carotid atherosclerotic plaques represent both stable and unstable atheromatous lesions. Atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture owing to their intrinsic composition such as a large lipid core, thin fibrous cap and intraplaque hemorrhage are associated with subsequent thromboembolic ischemic events. At least 15–20% of all ischemic strokes are attributable to carotid artery atherosclerosis. Characterization of plaques may enhance the understanding of natural history and ultimately the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. MRI of carotid plaque and embolic signals during transcranial Doppler have identified features beyond luminal stenosis that are predictive of future transient ischemic attacks and stroke. The value of specific therapies to prevent stroke in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe carotid artery stenosis are the subject of current research and analysis of recently published clinical trials that are discussed in this article.

Mughal, Majid M; Khan, Mohsin K; DeMarco, J Kevin; Majid, Arshad; Shamoun, Fadi; Abela, George S

2011-01-01

42

Local critical stress correlates better than global maximum stress with plaque morphological features linked to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability: an in vivo multi-patient study  

PubMed Central

Background It is believed that mechanical stresses play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture process and may be used for better plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture risk predictions. Image-based plaque models have been introduced in recent years to perform mechanical stress analysis and identify critical stress indicators which may be linked to rupture risk. However, large-scale studies based on in vivo patient data combining mechanical stress analysis, plaque morphology and composition for carotid plaque vulnerability assessment are lacking in the current literature. Methods 206 slices of in vivo magnetic resonance image (MRI) of carotid atherosclerotic plaques from 20 patients (age: 49–71, mean: 67.4; all male) were acquired for model construction. Modified Mooney-Rivlin models were used for vessel wall and all plaque components with parameter values chosen to match available data. A morphological plaque severity index (MPSI) was introduced based on in vivo plaque morphological characteristics known to correlate with plaque vulnerability. Critical stress, defined as the maximum of maximum- principal-stress (Stress-P1) values from all possible vulnerable sites, was determined for each slice for analysis. A computational plaque stress index (CPSI, with 5 grades 0–4, 4 being most vulnerable) was defined for each slice using its critical stress value and stress interval for each CPSI grade was optimized to reach best agreement with MPSI. Correlations between CPSI and MPSI, plaque cap thickness, and lipid core size were analyzed. Results Critical stress values correlated positively with lipid core size (r = 0.3879) and negatively with cap thickness (r = -0.3953). CPSI classifications had 71.4% agreement with MPSI classifications. The Pearson correlation coefficient between CPSI and MPSI was 0.849 (p < 0.0001). Using global maximum Stress-P1 value for each slice to define a global maximum stress-based CPSI (G-CPSI), the agreement rate with MPSI was only 34.0%. The Pearson correlation coefficient between G-CPSI and MPSI was 0.209. Conclusion Results from this in vivo study demonstrated that localized critical stress values had much better correlation with plaque morphological features known to be linked to plaque rupture risk, compared to global maximum stress conditions. Critical stress indicators have the potential to improve image-based screening and plaque vulnerability assessment schemes.

Tang, Dalin; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Dong, Li; Huang, Xueying; Yuan, Chun

2009-01-01

43

Visualization of Fibrous Cap Thickness and Rupture in Human Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque In Vivo With High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The results of studies of advanced lesions of atherosclerosis suggest that the thickness of the fibrous cap that overlies the necrotic core distinguishes the stable lesion from one that is at high risk for rupture and thromboembolic events. We have developed a high-resolution MRI technique that can identify the fine structure of the lesion, including the fibrous cap, in vivo.

Thomas S. Hatsukami; Russell Ross; Nayak L. Polissar; Chun Yuan

44

Image-based modeling and precision medicine: patient-specific carotid and coronary plaque assessment and predictions.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning and cause acute cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. Current clinical screening tools are insufficient to identify those patients with risks early and prevent the adverse events from happening. Medical imaging and image-based modeling have made considerable progress in recent years in identifying plaque morphological and mechanical risk factors which may be used in developing improved patient screening strategies. The key steps and factors in image-based models for human carotid and coronary plaques were illustrated, as well as grand challenges facing the researchers in the field to develop more accurate screening tools. PMID:23362245

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Canton, Gador; Bach, Richard G; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Wang, Liang; Yang, Deshan; Billiar, Kristen L; Yuan, Chun

2013-01-25

45

Gene therapy for the vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent formation of an occlusive intracoronary thrombus (Figure 410-1)\\u000a are the major events precipitating acute coronary syndromes [1–6]. The vulnerable plaque is smaller in size [7], richer in lipids [1],[2], and more infiltrated with macrophages [2,3,8–10] than the stable, fibromuscular lesion. Therefore, lowering the lipid and\\/or macrophage pools stored in the plaque may “stabilize”

Douglas W. Losordo; Jeffrey M. Isner

46

Local Maximal Stress Hypothesis and Computational Plaque Vulnerability Index for Atherosclerotic Plaque Assessment  

PubMed Central

It is believed that atherosclerotic plaque rupture may be related to maximal stress conditions in the plaque. More careful examination of stress distributions in plaques reveals that it may be the local stress/strain behaviors at critical sites such as very thin plaque cap and locations with plaque cap weakness that are more closely related to plaque rupture risk. A “local maximal stress hypothesis” and a stress-based computational plaque vulnerability index (CPVI) are proposed to assess plaque vulnerability. A critical site selection (CSS) method is proposed to identify critical sites in the plaque and critical stress conditions which are be used to determine CPVI values. Our initial results based on 34 2D MRI slices from 14 human coronary plaque samples indicate that CPVI plaque assessment has an 85% agreement rate (91% if the square root of stress values is used) with assessment given by histopathological analysis. Large-scale and long-term patient studies are needed to further validate our findings for more accurate quantitative plaque vulnerability assessment.

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.; Petruccelli, Joseph D.; Sicard, Gregorio A.; Yuan, Chun

2006-01-01

47

Pathophysiology of atherosclerosis plaque progression.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture with luminal thrombosis is the most common mechanism responsible for the majority of acute coronary syndromes and sudden coronary death. The precursor lesion of plaque rupture is thought to be a thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) or "vulnerable plaque". TCFA is characterised by a necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap (?65 ?m) that is infiltrated by macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Intraplaque haemorrhage is a major contributor to the enlargement of the necrotic core. Haemorrhage is thought to occur from leaky vasa vasorum that invades the intima from the adventitia as the intima enlarges. The early atherosclerotic plaque progression from pathologic intimal thickening (PIT) to a fibroatheroma is thought to be the result of macrophage infiltration. PIT is characterised by the presence of lipid pools which consist of proteoglycan with lipid insudation. The conversion of the lipid pool to a necrotic core is poorly understood but is thought to occur as a result of macrophage infiltration which releases matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) along with macrophage apoptosis that leads to the formation of a acellular necrotic core. The fibroatheroma has a thick fibrous cap that begins to thin over time through macrophage MMP release and apoptotic death of smooth muscle cells converting the fibroatheroma into a TCFA. Other causes of thrombosis include plaque erosion which is less frequent than plaque rupture but is a common cause of thrombosis in young individuals especially women <50 years of age. The underlying lesion morphology in plaque erosion consists of PIT or a thick cap fibroatheroma. Calcified nodule is the least frequent cause of thrombosis, which occurs in older individuals with heavily calcified and tortious arteries. PMID:23541627

Sakakura, Kenichi; Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Ladich, Elena; Kolodgie, Frank D; Virmani, Renu

2013-03-29

48

Radionuclide imaging - A molecular key to the atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Despite primary and secondary prevention, serious cardiovascular events like unstable angina or myocardial infarction still account for one third of all deaths worldwide. Therefore, identifying individual patients with vulnerable plaques at high risk for plaque rupture is a central challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Several non-invasive techniques, such as MRI, multislice computed tomography and electron beam tomography are currently being tested for their ability to identify such patients by morphological criteria. In contrast, molecular imaging techniques use radiolabeled molecules to detect functional aspects in atherosclerotic plaques by visualizing its biological activity. Based upon the knowledge about the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, various studies in vitro, in vivo and the first clinical trials have used different tracers for plaque imaging studies, including radioactive labelled lipoproteins, components of the coagulation system, cytokines, mediators of the metalloproteinase system, cell adhesion receptors and even whole cells. This review gives an update on the relevant non-invasive plaque imaging approaches using nuclear imaging techniques to detect atherosclerotic vascular lesions.

Langer, Harald Franz; Haubner, Roland; Pichler, Bernd Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad

2008-01-01

49

Rust and Rupture: Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and integrates the latest clinical guidelines and\\u000a trials into a concise and practical guide to cardiovascular risk reduction and the management of dyslipidemia. These measures\\u000a form the basis for a management strategy aimed at halting the progression of atherosclerosis, stabilizing rupture-prone plaques,\\u000a preventing arterial thrombosis, and improving cardiovascular prognosis.

Justin T. Saunders; Christie M. Ballantyne

50

Effects of bacteriophage traits on plaque formation  

PubMed Central

Background The appearance of plaques on a bacterial lawn is one of the enduring imageries in modern day biology. The seeming simplicity of a plaque has invited many hypotheses and models in trying to describe and explain the details of its formation. However, until now, there has been no systematic experimental exploration on how different bacteriophage (phage) traits may influence the formation of a plaque. In this study, we constructed a series of isogenic ? phages that differ in their adsorption rate, lysis timing, or morphology so that we can determine the effects if these changes on three plaque properties: size, progeny productivity, and phage concentration within plaques. Results We found that the adsorption rate has a diminishing, but negative impact on all three plaque measurements. Interestingly, there exists a concave relationship between the lysis time and plaque size, resulting in an apparent optimal lysis time that maximizes the plaque size. Although suggestive in appearance, we did not detect a significant effect of lysis time on plaque productivity. Nonetheless, the combined effects of plaque size and productivity resulted in an apparent convex relationship between the lysis time and phage concentration within plaques. Lastly, we found that virion morphology also affected plaque size. We compared our results to the available models on plaque size and productivity. For the models in their current forms, a few of them can capture the qualitative aspects of our results, but not consistently in both plaque properties. Conclusions By using a collection of isogenic phage strains, we were able to investigate the effects of individual phage traits on plaque size, plaque productivity, and average phage concentration in a plaque while holding all other traits constant. The controlled nature of our study allowed us to test several model predictions on plaque size and plaque productivity. It seems that a more realistic theoretical approach to plaque formation is needed in order to capture the complex interaction between phage and its bacterium host in a spatially restricted environment.

2011-01-01

51

Visualization of the Vulnerable Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction (Naghavi et al., 2003). The mechanism underlying thrombus formation is presently under debate, but several pathological conditions have\\u000a been identified from human postmortem studies that correspond with the presence of thrombus. Of these conditions plaque rupture\\u000a is the most common, but erosion of the endothelial layer and existence

Rob Krams; Johannes Schaar; Frank Helderman; Caroline Cheng; Babak Mousavi Gourabi; L. C. A. Damme; D. Segers; Evelyn Regar; Cornelis J. Slager; Pim J. Feyter; Anton F. W. Steen; Patrick W. Serruys

52

Drug-eluting stents and vulnerable plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is the leading cause of death worldwide in both men and women.\\u000a ACS mostly occur as a result of rupture of “vulnerable plaque” with a superimposed thrombus formation, which ultimately leads\\u000a to distal cessation of blood flow. Vulnerable plaque mostly occurs in mildly obstructive coronary lesions rather than severely\\u000a stenosed (< 50%)

Mehmet Cilingiroglu; Faisal Khan

2009-01-01

53

3D MRI-Based Anisotropic FSI Models with Cyclic Bending for Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Mechanical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Heart attack and stroke are often caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture which happens without warning most of the time. MRI-based atherosclerotic plaque models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. For coronary arteries, cyclic bending associated with heart motion and anisotropy of the vessel walls may have significant influence on flow and stress/strain distributions in the plaque. FSI models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for coronary plaques are lacking in the current literature. Method of Approach In this paper, cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties were added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models so that the models would be more realistic for more accurate computational flow and stress/strain predictions. Six computational models using one ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque specimen data were constructed to assess the effects of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel properties, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. Results Our results indicate that cyclic bending and anisotropic properties may cause 50%–800% increase in maximum principal stress (Stress-P1) values at selected locations. The stress increase varies with location and is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, non-smooth plaque structure, and resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (9.8% decrease in maximum velocity, 2.5% decrease in flow rate, 15% increase in maximum flow shear stress). Conclusions Inclusion of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel material properties, accurate plaque structure, and axial stretch in computational FSI models should lead to considerable improvement of accuracy of computational stress/strain predictions for coronary plaque vulnerability assessment. Further studies incorporating additional mechanical property data and in vivo MRI data are needed to obtain more complete and accurate knowledge about flow and stress/strain behaviors in coronary plaques and to identify critical indicators for better plaque assessment and possible rupture predictions.

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Teng, Zhongzhao; Billiar, Kristen; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N.

2009-01-01

54

Fishbowl Plaques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an elementary art activity that successfully teaches the process of slabbing by having students create fishbowl plaques. Explains the process step-by-step beginning with a demonstration to the students along with showing previous examples. Endorses a type of clay that fires white because the glaze colors are much more vibrant. (CMK)|

Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

1998-01-01

55

An initial evaluation of analyser-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging of carotid plaque microstructure.  

PubMed

Carotid artery plaque instability can result in rupture and lead to ischaemic stroke. Stability of plaques appears to be a function of composition. Current non-invasive imaging techniques are limited in their ability to classify distinct histological regions within plaques. Phase-contrast (PC) X-ray imaging methods are an emerging class of techniques that have shown promise for identifying soft-tissue features without use of exogenous contrast agents. This is the first study to apply analyser-based X-ray PC imaging in CT mode to provide three-dimensional (3D) images of excised atherosclerotic plaques. The results provide proof of principle for this technique as a promising method for analysis of carotid plaque microstructure. Multiple image radiography CT (MIR-CT), a tomographic implementation of X-ray PC imaging that employs crystal optics, was employed to image excised carotid plaques. MIR-CT imaging yields three complementary images of the plaque's 3D X-ray absorption, refraction and scatter properties. These images were compared with histological sections of the tissue. X-ray PC images were able to identify the interface between the plaque and the medial wall. In addition, lipid-rich and highly vascularized regions were visible in the images as well as features depicting inflammation. This preliminary research shows MIR-CT imaging can reveal details about plaque structure not provided by traditional absorption-based X-ray imaging and appears to identify specific histological regions within plaques. This is the first study to apply analyser-based X-ray PC imaging to human carotid artery plaques to identify distinct soft-tissue regions. PMID:23239697

Appel, A A; Chou, C-Y; Larson, J C; Zhong, Z; Schoen, F J; Johnston, C M; Brey, E M; Anastasio, M A

2013-01-01

56

Cellular and molecular players in the atherosclerotic plaque progression.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis initiation and progression is controlled by inflammatory molecular and cellular mediators. Cells of innate immunity, stimulated by various endogenous molecules that have undergone a transformation following an oxidative stress or nonenzymatic glycation processes, activate cells of the adaptive immunity, found at the borders of atheromas. In this way, an immune response against endogenous modified antigens takes place and gives rise to chronic low-level inflammation leading to the slow development of complex atherosclerotic plaques. These lesions will occasionally ulcerate, thus ending with fatal clinical events. Plaque macrophages represent the majority of leukocytes in the atherosclerotic lesions, and their secretory activity, including proinflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading proteases, may be related to the fragilization of the fibrous cap and then to the rupture of the plaque. A considerable amount of work is currently focused on the identification of locally released proinflammatory factors that influence the evolution of the plaque to an unstable phenotype. A better understanding of these molecular processes may contribute to new treatment strategies. Mediators released by the immune system and associated with the development of carotid atherosclerosis are discussed. PMID:22823445

Businaro, Rita; Tagliani, Angela; Buttari, Brigitta; Profumo, Elisabetta; Ippoliti, Flora; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Capoano, Raffaele; Salvati, Bruno; Riganò, Rachele

2012-07-01

57

Shear strain in the adventitial layer of the arterial wall facilitates development of vulnerable plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial infarction and stroke are two of the leading causes of death and primarily triggered by destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Fatty streaks are known to develop at sites in the arterial wall where shear stress is low. These fatty streaks can develop into more advanced plaques that are prone to rupture. Rupture leads to thrombus formation, which may subsequently result

T. Idzenga; G. Pasterkamp; C. L. de Korte

2009-01-01

58

Study of carotid arterial plaque stress for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.  

PubMed

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, resulting mostly from the sudden ruptures of atherosclerosis carotid plaques. Until now, the exact plaque rupture mechanism has not been fully understood, and also the plaque rupture risk stratification. The advanced multi-spectral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed the plaque components to be visualized in-vivo and reconstructed by computational modeling. In the study, plaque stress analysis using fully coupled fluid structure interaction was applied to 20 patients (12 symptomatic and 8 asymptomatic) reconstructed from in-vivo MRI, followed by a detailed biomechanics analysis, and morphological feature study. The locally extreme stress conditions can be found in the fibrous cap region, 85% at the plaque shoulder based on the present study cases. Local maximum stress values predicted in the plaque region were found to be significantly higher in symptomatic patients than that in asymptomatic patients (200 ± 43 kPa vs. 127 ± 37 kPa, p=0.001). Plaque stress level, defined by excluding 5% highest stress nodes in the fibrous cap region based on the accumulative histogram of stress experienced on the computational nodes in the fibrous cap, was also significantly higher in symptomatic patients than that in asymptomatic patients (154 ± 32 kPa vs. 111 ± 23 kPa, p<0.05). Although there was no significant difference in lipid core size between the two patient groups, symptomatic group normally had a larger lipid core and a significantly thinner fibrous cap based on the reconstructed plaques using 3D interpolation from stacks of 2D contours. Plaques with a higher stenosis were more likely to have extreme stress conditions upstream of plaque throat. The combined analyses of plaque MR image and plaque stress will advance our understanding of plaque rupture, and provide a useful tool on assessing plaque rupture risk. PMID:21824619

Gao, Hao; Long, Quan; Kumar Das, Saroj; Halls, Justin; Graves, Martin; Gillard, Jonathan H; Li, Zhi-Yong

2011-08-06

59

Multiphoton microscopy of atheroslcerotic plaques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy is a techniques that fascilitates three dimensional imaging of intact, unstained tissue. Especially connective tissue has a relatively strong nonlinear optical response and can easily be imaged. Atherosclerosis is a disease where lipids accumulate in the vessel wall and there is a thickening of the intima by growth of a cap of connective tissue. The mechanical strength of this fibrous cap is of clinically importance. If the cap ruptures a thrombosis forms which can block a coronary vessel and therby causing myocardial infarction. Multiphoton microscopy can be used to image the fibrous cap and thereby determine the thickness of the cap and the structure of the connective fibres. This could possibly be developed into a diagnostic and clincal tool to monitor the vulnerability of a plaque and also to better understand the development of a plaque and effects of treatment. We have collected multiphoton microscopy images from atherosclerotic plaque in human aorta, both two photon excited fluorescens and second harmonic generated signal. The feasability of using this technique to determine the state of the plaque is explored.

Lilledahl, Magnus B.; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

2007-03-01

60

Radiolabelled probes for imaging of atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Unstable atherosclerotic plaques are prone to rupture followed by thrombus formation, vessel stenosis, and occlusion and frequently lead to acute myocardial infarction and brain infarction. As such, unstable plaques represent an important diagnostic target in clinical settings and the specific diagnosis of unstable plaques would enable preventive treatments for cardiovascular disease. To date, various imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) have been widely used clinically. Although these methods have advantages in terms of spatial resolution and the ability to make detailed identification of morphological alterations such as calcifications and vessel stenosis, these techniques require skill or expertise to discriminate plaque instability, which is essential for early diagnosis and treatment and can present difficulties for quantitative estimation. On the other hand, nuclear imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can noninvasively collect quantitative information on the expression levels of functional molecules and metabolic activities in vivo and thus provide functional diagnoses of unstable plaques with high sensitivity. Specifically, unstable plaques are characterized by an abundance of invasive inflammatory cells (macrophages), increased oxidative stress that increases oxidized LDL and its receptor expressed on cells in the lesions, increased occurrence of apoptosis of macrophages and other cells involved in disease progression, increased protease expression and activity, and finally thrombus formation triggered by plaque rupture, which is the most important mechanism leading to the onset of infarctions and ischemic sudden death. Therefore, these characteristics can all be targets for molecular imaging by PET and SPECT. In this paper, we review the present state and future of radiolabelled probes that have been developed for detecting atherosclerotic unstable plaques with nuclear imaging techniques.

Temma, Takashi; Saji, Hideo

2012-01-01

61

Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

Fok, Pak-Wing

2011-03-01

62

The influence of genetics on intracranial aneurysm formation and rupture: current knowledge and its possible impact on future treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of intracranial aneurysm formation and rupture remains mostly unknown, but lately several studies have increasingly\\u000a supported the role of genetic factors. In reports so far, genome-wide linkage studies suggest several susceptibility loci\\u000a that may contain one or more predisposing genes. Depending on the examined ethnic population, several different non-matching\\u000a chromosomal regions have been found. Studies of several candidate

B. Krischek; M. Tatagiba

63

Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current evidence indicates that most plaques classified as vulnerable or ruptured plaques do not lead to unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Improved methods are needed to risk stratify plaques to identify those which lead to most acute coronary syndromes. Collagen depletion in the intima overlying lipid collections appears to be a critical component of unstable plaques. In this study, we use polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for the assessment of coronary plaque collagen. Collagen is birefringent, meaning that different polarization states travel through it at different velocities. Changes in PS-OCT images are a measure of tissue birefringence. Twenty-two coronary artery segments were imaged with PS-OCT and analyzed by picrosirius staining (a measure of collagen intensity and fiber size) and trichrome blue. The regression plot between PS-OCT changes and measured collagen yielded a correlation coefficient value of 0.475 (p<0.002). Good correlation was noted between two blinded investigators both with respect to PS-OCT measurements as well as luminosity as assessed by picrosirius. The predictive value of a PS-OCT measurement of negligible birefringence (less than 33% change) for minimal collagen was 93% while the predictive value of high birefringence (greater than 66% change) for high collagen concentrations was 89%. The effect of fiber type (chemical composition) was minimal relative to the effect due to fiber concentration. The capability of PS-OCT to assess plaque collagen content, in addition to its ability to generate high resolution structural assessments, make it a potentially powerful technology for identifying high risk plaques.

Giattina, Susanne D.; Courtney, Brian K.; Herz, Paul R.; Harman, Michelle; Shortkroff, Sonya; Stamper, Debra L.; Liu, Bin; Fujimoto, James G.; Brezinski, Mark E.

2006-03-01

64

In Vivo/Ex Vivo MRI-Based 3D Non-Newtonian FSI Models for Human Atherosclerotic Plaques Compared with Fluid/Wall-Only Models  

PubMed Central

It has been recognized that fluid-structure interactions (FSI) play an important role in cardiovascular disease initiation and development. However, in vivo MRI multi-component FSI models for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with bifurcation and quantitative comparisons of FSI models with fluid-only or structure-only models are currently lacking in the literature. A 3D non-Newtonian multi-component FSI model based on in vivo/ex vivo MRI images for human atherosclerotic plaques was introduced to investigate flow and plaque stress/strain behaviors which may be related to plaque progression and rupture. Both artery wall and plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible and homogeneous. Blood flow was assumed to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. In vivo/ex vivo MRI images were acquired using histologically-validated multi-spectral MRI protocols. The 3D FSI models were solved and results were compared with those from a Newtonian FSI model and wall-only/fluid-only models. A 145% difference in maximum principal stresses (Stress-P1) between the FSI and wall-only models and 40% difference in flow maximum shear stress (MSS) between the FSI and fluid-only models were found at the throat of the plaque using a severe plaque sample (70% severity by diameter). Flow maximum shear stress (MSS) from the rigid wall model is much higher (20–40% in maximum MSS values, 100–150% in stagnation region) than those from FSI models.

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.

2009-01-01

65

Hypoechoic areas on ultrasound images of atheroma are not always diagnostic of fatty plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic plaques in ultrasound (US) images may have bright areas suggestive of fibrous plaque and hypoechoic areas that are often interpreted as fatty plaque. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that fibrous tissue in atherosclerotic plaques will be hyperechoic or hypoechoic, depending on collagen fiber morphology. Twelve segments of aortic arch containing atherosclerotic plaques obtained from cadavers

Ghasan M. Tabel; Jaroslaw Hepel; Peter Whittaker; Betsy Palal; P. Anthony Chandraratna

2005-01-01

66

Carotid Plaque Age Is a Feature of Plaque Stability Inversely Related to Levels of Plasma Insulin  

PubMed Central

Background The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric 14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s) to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. Methodology/Principal Finding The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time) was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5–15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p?=?0.0014). Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1–5). However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed) were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p?=?0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively), less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05), and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05) than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of 14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

Hagg, Sara; Salehpour, Mehran; Noori, Peri; Lundstrom, Jesper; Possnert, Goran; Takolander, Rabbe; Konrad, Peter; Rosfors, Stefan; Ruusalepp, Arno; Skogsberg, Josefin; Tegner, Jesper; Bjorkegren, Johan

2011-01-01

67

Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaque macrophage in a rabbit model with F-18 FDG PET: a histopathological correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are the major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the industrialized world. Thrombosis on disrupted atherosclerotic plaques plays a key role in the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Macrophages density is one of the most critical compositions of plaque in both plaque vulnerability and thrombogenicity upon rupture. It has been shown that macrophages

Zhuangyu Zhang; Josef Machac; Gerard Helft; Stephen G Worthley; Cheuk Tang; Azfar G Zaman; Oswaldo J Rodriguez; Monte S Buchsbaum; Valentin Fuster; Juan J Badimon

2006-01-01

68

Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Attenuated Plaques Detected by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background. Recent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have demonstrated that hypoechoic plaque with deep ultrasound attenuation despite absence of bright calcium is common in acute coronary syndrome. Such “attenuated plaque” may be an IVUS characteristic of unstable lesion. Methods. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 104 patients with unstable angina to compare lesion characteristics between IVUS-detected attenuated plaque and nonattenuated plaque. Results. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque was observed in 41 (39%) patients. OCT-detected lipidic plaque (88% versus 49%, P < 0.001), thin-cap fibroatheroma (48% versus 16%, P < 0.001), plaque rupture (44% versus 11%, P < 0.001), and intracoronary thrombus (54% versus 17%, P < 0.001) were more often seen in IVUS-detected attenuated plaques compared with nonattenuated plaques. Conclusions. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque has many characteristics of unstable coronary lesion. The presence of attended plaque might be an important marker of lesion instability.

Kubo, Takashi; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ino, Yasushi; Tanimoto, Takashi; Ishibashi, Kohei; Komukai, Kenichi; Kitabata, Hironori; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kimura, Keizo; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

2011-01-01

69

Experimental determination of circumferential properties of fresh carotid artery plaques.  

PubMed

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is currently accepted as the gold standard for interventional revascularisation of diseased arteries belonging to the carotid bifurcation. Despite the proven efficacy of CEA, great interest has been generated in carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) as an alternative to open surgical therapy. CAS is less invasive compared with CEA, and has the potential to successfully treat lesions close to the aortic arch or distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Following promising results from two recent trials (CREST; Carotid revascularisation endarterectomy versus stenting trial, and ICSS; International carotid stenting study) it is envisaged that there will be a greater uptake in carotid stenting, especially amongst the group who do not qualify for open surgical repair, thus creating pressure to develop computational models that describe a multitude of plaque models in the carotid arteries and their reaction to the deployment of such interventional devices. Pertinent analyses will require fresh human atherosclerotic plaque material characteristics for different disease types. This study analysed atherosclerotic plaque characteristics from 18 patients tested on site, post-surgical revascularisation through endarterectomy, with 4 tissue samples being excluded from tensile testing based on large width-length ratios. According to their mechanical behaviour, atherosclerotic plaques were separated into 3 grades of stiffness. Individual and group material coefficients were then generated analytically using the Yeoh strain energy function. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of each sample was also recorded, showing large variation across the 14 atherosclerotic samples tested. Experimental Green strains at rupture varied from 0.299 to 0.588 and the Cauchy stress observed in the experiments was between 0.131 and 0.779 MPa. It is expected that this data may be used in future design optimisation of next generation interventional medical devices for the treatment and revascularisation of diseased arteries of the carotid bifurcation. PMID:21497353

Lawlor, Michael G; O'Donnell, Michael R; O'Connell, Barry M; Walsh, Michael T

2011-04-16

70

Uterine Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy

71

Does microcalcification increase the risk of rupture?  

PubMed

Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which is related to maximal stress conditions in the plaque among others, is a major cause of mortality. More careful examination of stress distributions in atherosclerotic plaques reports that it could be due to local stress behaviors at critical sites caused by cap thinning, inflammation, macroscopic heterogeneity, and recently, the presence of microcalcifications. However, the role of microcalcifications is not yet fully understood, and most finite element models of blood vessels with atheroma plaque ignore the heterogeneity of the plaque constituents at the microscale. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of microcalcifications on the stress field of an atheroma plaque vessel section. This is achieved by performing a parametric finite element study, assuming a plane strain hypothesis, of a coronary artery section with eccentric atheroma plaque and one microcalcification incorporated. The geometrical parameters used to define and design the idealized coronary plaque anatomy and the microcalcification were the fibrous cap thickness and the microcalcification ratio, angle and eccentricity. We could conclude that microcalcifications should be considered in the modeling of this kind of problems since they cause a significant alteration of the vulnerable risk by increasing the maximum maximal principal stress up to 32%, although this increase of stress is not uniform (12% on average). The obtained results show that the fibrous cap thickness, the microcalcification ratio and the microcalcification eccentricity, in combination with the microcalcification angle, appear to be the key morphological parameters that play a determinant role in the maximal principal stress and accordingly in the rupture risk of the plaque. PMID:23637269

Cilla, Myriam; Monterde, David; Peña, Estefanía; Martínez, Miguel Á

2013-03-06

72

Plaque erosion is a major substrate for coronary thrombosis in acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the prevalence of plaque erosion as a substrate for coronary thrombosis.?DESIGN—Pathological study in patients with acute myocardial infarction not treated with thrombolysis or coronary interventional procedures.?PATIENTS—298 consecutive patients (189 men, mean (SD) age 66 (11) years; 109 women, 74 (8) years) dying in hospital between 1984 and 1996 from acute myocardial infarction, diagnosed by ECG changes and rise in cardiac enzymes.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Histopathological determination of plaque erosion as substrate for acute thrombosis; location and histological type of coronary thrombosis; acute and healed myocardial infarcts; ventricular rupture.?RESULTS—Acute coronary thrombi were found in 291 hearts (98%); in 74 cases (25%; 40/107 women (37.4%) and 34/184 men (18.5%); p = 0.0004), the plaque substrate for thrombosis was erosion. Healed infarcts were found in 37.5% of men v 22% of women (p = 0.01). Heart rupture was more common in women than in men (22% v 10.5%, p = 0.01). The distribution of infarcts, thrombus location, heart rupture, and healed infarcts was similar in cases of plaque rupture and plaque erosion.?CONCLUSIONS—Plaque erosion is an important substrate for coronary thrombosis in patients dying of acute myocardial infarction. Its prevalence is significantly higher in women than in men.???Keywords: plaque erosion; rupture; acute myocardial infarction

Arbustini, E; Dal, B; Morbini, P; Burke, A; Bocciarelli, M; Specchia, G; Virmani, R

1999-01-01

73

Effect of calcification on the mechanical stability of plaque based on a three-dimensional carotid bifurcation model  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterizes the distribution and components of plaque structure by presenting a three-dimensional blood-vessel modelling with the aim of determining mechanical properties due to the effect of lipid core and calcification within a plaque. Numerical simulation has been used to answer how cap thickness and calcium distribution in lipids influence the biomechanical stress on the plaque. Method Modelling atherosclerotic plaque based on structural analysis confirms the rationale for plaque mechanical examination and the feasibility of our simulation model. Meaningful validation of predictions from modelled atherosclerotic plaque model typically requires examination of bona fide atherosclerotic lesions. To analyze a more accurate plaque rupture, fluid-structure interaction is applied to three-dimensional blood-vessel carotid bifurcation modelling. A patient-specific pressure variation is applied onto the plaque to influence its vulnerability. Results Modelling of the human atherosclerotic artery with varying degrees of lipid core elasticity, fibrous cap thickness and calcification gap, which is defined as the distance between the fibrous cap and calcification agglomerate, form the basis of our rupture analysis. Finite element analysis shows that the calcification gap should be conservatively smaller than its threshold to maintain plaque stability. The results add new mechanistic insights and methodologically sound data to investigate plaque rupture mechanics. Conclusion Structural analysis using a three-dimensional calcified model represents a more realistic simulation of late-stage atherosclerotic plaque. We also demonstrate that increases of calcium content that is coupled with a decrease in lipid core volume can stabilize plaque structurally.

2012-01-01

74

Nanorose and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaque using dual-wavelength photothermal wave imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis and specifically rupture of vulnerable plaques account for 23% of all deaths worldwide, far surpassing both infectious diseases and cancer. In atherosclerosis, macrophages can infiltrate plaques which are often associated with lipid deposits. Photothermal wave imaging is based on the periodic thermal modulation of a sample using intensity modulated light. Intensity modulated light enters the sample and is absorbed

Tianyi Wang; Jinze Qiu; Li Leo Ma; Xiankai Li; Jingjing Sun; Seungyup Ryoo; Keith P. Johnston; Marc D. Feldman; Thomas E. Milner

2010-01-01

75

Plaque disruption and thrombus in Ambrose’s angiographic coronary lesion types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesion eccentricity with irregularities on coronary angiography is associated with ruptured plaques and thrombus based on postmortem and clinical angiographic studies. However, the predictive value of such angiographic markers of plaque disruption and thrombus remains to be determined in vivo. The purpose of this study was to establish whether Ambrose’s angiographic coronary lesion types and other angiographic criteria predict the

Sergio Waxman; Murray A Mittleman; Stuart W Zarich; Philip J Fitzpatrick; Stanley M Lewis; David E Leeman; Samuel J Shubrooks; George S Abela; Richard W Nesto

2003-01-01

76

Structure-dependent dynamic mechanical behavior of fibrous caps from human atherosclerotic plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although thrombosis associated witha fissured atherosclerotic plaque is believed tobethemostcommon causeofacute coronarysyndromes, theunderlying factors that trigger plaque rupture arecurrently unknown. However, themechanical behavior oftheplaque isprobably ofcritical importance. Methods andResults. Totestthehypothesis thatthemechanical properties ofa plaque are dependent on itscomposition and,inparticular, thatthestiffness offibrous capschanges within therangeoffrequencies carried bya physiological pressurewave,thestress-strain relation was studied in27fibrous capsandrelated totheunderlying histological structure of thefibrous cap.Fibrous

Richard T. Lee; Alan J. Grodzinsky; Eliot H. Frank; Roger D. Kamm; Fj Schoen

2010-01-01

77

Humanin, a Cytoprotective Peptide, Is Expressed in Carotid Artherosclerotic Plaques in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque progression leading to instability, rupture, and ischemic manifestation involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. Humanin (HN) is a newly emerging endogenously expressed cytoprotective peptide. Our goal was to determine the presence and localization of HN in carotid atherosclerotic plaques.Methods and ResultsPlaque specimens from 34 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were classified according to symptomatic history. Immunostaining combined

David G. Zacharias; Sung Gyun Kim; Alfonso Eirin Massat; Adi R. Bachar; Yun K. Oh; Joerg Herrmann; Martin Rodriguez-Porcel; Pinchas Cohen; Lilach O. Lerman; Amir Lerman

2012-01-01

78

Plaque neovascularization: defense mechanisms, betrayal, or a war in progress.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is induced from sprouting of preexisting endothelial cells leading to neovascularization. Imbalance in the angiogenic and antiangiogenic mediators triggers angiogenesis, which may be physiological in the normal state or pathological in malignancy and atherosclerosis. Physiologic angiogenesis is instrumental for restoration of vessel wall normoxia and resolution inflammation, leading to atherosclerosis regression. However, pathological angiogenesis enhances disease progression, increasing macrophage infiltration and vessel wall thickness, perpetuating hypoxia and necrosis. In addition, thin-walled fragile neovessels may rupture, leading to intraplaque hemorrhage. Lipid-rich red blood cell membranes and free hemoglobin are detrimental to plaque composition, increasing inflammation, lipid core expansion, and oxidative stress. In addition, associated risk factors that include polymorphysms in the haptoglobin genotype and diabetes mellitus may modulate the features of plaque vulnerability. This review will focus on physiological and pathological angiogenesis in atherosclerosis and summarizes the current status of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, microvascular rarefaction, and possible statin-mediated effects in atherosclerosis neovascularization. PMID:22548565

Moreno, Pedro R; Purushothaman, Meeranani; Purushothaman, K-Raman

2012-04-01

79

Antiangiogenic therapy for normalization of atherosclerotic plaque vasculature: a potential strategy for plaque stabilization.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis within human atherosclerotic plaques has an important role in plaque progression as immature blood vessels leak red blood cells and inflammatory mediators into the plaque center. Accumulation of free cholesterol from red blood cell membranes potentially increases the size of the necrotic core and triggers a chain of events that promote plaque destabilization. Antiangiogenic agents have been shown to prune some tumor vessels and 'normalize' the structure and function of the remaining vasculature, thereby improving the access of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors. We propose that antiangiogenic therapy can similarly stabilize vulnerable 'rupture-prone' plaques by pruning and normalizing immature intraplaque vessels, preventing further intraplaque hemorrhage. This normalization would limit necrotic core enlargement, further luminal narrowing and the degree of inflammation. Such normalization has been realized using vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists for the treatment of cancer and age-related macular degeneration. The development of this novel approach to prevent plaque progression might add to the armamentarium of preventive measures for acute myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death. PMID:17712362

Jain, Rakesh K; Finn, Aloke V; Kolodgie, Frank D; Gold, Herman K; Virmani, Renu

2007-09-01

80

Preliminary in vivo atherosclerotic carotid plaque characterization using the accumulated axial strain and relative lateral shift strain indices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we explore two parameters or strain indices related to plaque deformation during the cardiac cycle, namely, the maximum accumulated axial strain in plaque and the relative lateral shifts between plaque and vessel wall under in vivo clinical ultrasound imaging conditions for possible identification of vulnerable plaque. These strain indices enable differentiation between calcified and lipidic plaque tissue utilizing a new perspective based on the stiffness and mobility of the plaque. In addition, they also provide the ability to distinguish between softer plaques that undergo large deformations during the cardiac cycle when compared to stiffer plaque tissue. Soft plaques that undergo large deformations over the cardiac cycle are more prone to rupture and to release micro-emboli into the cerebral bloodstream. The ability to identify vulnerable plaque, prone to rupture, would significantly enhance the clinical utility of this method for screening patients. We present preliminary in vivo results obtained from ultrasound radio frequency data collected over 16 atherosclerotic plaque patients before these patients undergo a carotid endarterectomy procedure. Our preliminary in vivo results indicate that the maximum accumulated axial strain over a cardiac cycle and the maximum relative lateral shift or displacement of the plaque are useful strain indices that provide differentiation between soft and calcified plaques.

Shi, Hairong; Mitchell, Carol C; McCormick, Matthew; Kliewer, Mark A; Dempsey, Robert J; Varghese, Tomy

2010-01-01

81

Rupture disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut

Robert G

1977-01-01

82

Review How to evaluate plaque vulnerability in animal models of atherosclerosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of heart attack and stroke depends on detection of vulnerable plaques and development of plaque-stabilizing therapies. In turn, progress in diagnostics and treatment is contingent on our understanding of molecular mechanisms of plaque vulnerability. Animal models are essential for testing mechanistic hypotheses in a controlled manner. Currently, there is no single, golden standard animal model of a vulnerable plaque.

Mark D. Rekhter

83

Regulation of vulnerable plaque development by the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide system.  

PubMed

Plaque rupture and luminal thrombosis is the most common cause of coronary occlusion that leads to acute coronary syndromes. High-risk plaques, or vulnerable plaques, are defined as lesions that are prone to rupture, also known as thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), or lesions prone to erosion or with calcified cores. This review will focus mainly on the vulnerable plaque, which is thought to be the precursor of the thrombogenic or ruptured plaque. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein expression is specifically increased in lesions with a vulnerable plaque phenotype resembling TCFAs and correlates with a rise in expression levels of intimal proinflammatory markers. Data from several human and animal studies imply an important function for HO-1 in the genetic regulation of early, as well as late atherogenesis, and plaque destabilization toward a vulnerable phenotype. Although a direct association between HO-1, vulnerable plaque development, and clinical outcome is for now missing, the correlations that have been reported for HO-1 and coronary artery disease point to a possible link. PMID:20656217

Larsen, Katarína; Cheng, Caroline; Duckers, Henricus J

2010-02-01

84

SMC-Specific IGF-1 Overexpression in Apoe?/? Mice Does Not Alter Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden but Increases Features of Plaque Stability  

PubMed Central

Objective Growth factors may play a permissive role in atherosclerosis initiation and progression, in part via their promotion of VSMC accumulation in plaques. However, unstable human plaques often have a relative paucity of VSMC which has been suggested to contribute to plaque rupture and/or erosion and to clinical events. IGF-1 is an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine growth factor that is a mitogen for VSMC, but when infused into Apoe?/? mice paradoxically reduces atherosclerosis burden. Methods & Results To determine the effect of stimulation of VSMC growth on atherosclerotic plaque development and to understand mechanisms of IGF-1’s atheroprotective effect we assessed atherosclerotic plaques in mice overexpressing IGF-1 in SMC under the control of the ?SMA promoter, after backcrossing to the Apoe?/? background (SMP8/Apoe?/?). When compared with Apoe?/? mice these SMP8/Apoe?/? mice developed comparable plaque burden after 12 wks on a Western diet, suggesting that the ability of increased circulating IGF-1 to reduce plaque burden was mediated in large part via non-SMC target cells. However, advanced plaques in SMP8/Apoe?/? mice displayed several features of plaque stability, including increased fibrous cap area, ?SMA positive SMC and collagen content and reduced necrotic cores. Conclusion These findings indicate that stimulation of VSMC IGF-1 signaling does not alter total atherosclerotic plaque burden and may improve atherosclerotic plaque stability.

Shai, Shaw-Yung; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Higashi, Yusuke; Vaughn, Charlotte; Kelly, James; Delafontaine, Patrice

2010-01-01

85

Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque  

PubMed Central

Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7

de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

2003-01-01

86

Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque Elasticity Reconstruction Based on a Segmentation-Driven Optimization Procedure Using Strain Measurements: Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now recognized that prediction of the vulnerable coronary plaque rupture requires not only an accurate quantifica- tion offibrous cap thickness and necrotic core morphology but also aprecise knowledgeof the mechanical propertiesof plaquecompo- nents. Indeed, such knowledge would allow a precise evaluation of the peak cap-stress amplitude, which is known to be a good biome- chanical predictor of plaque

Simon Le Floc'h; Jacques Ohayon; Philippe Tracqui; Gérard Finet; Ahmed M. Gharib; Roch L. Maurice; Guy Cloutier; Roderic I. Pettigrew

2009-01-01

87

Balance between Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 Is in Favor of Angiopoietin-2 in Atherosclerotic Plaques with High Microvessel Density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque microvessels are associated with plaque hemorrhage and rupture. The mechanisms underlying plaque angiogenesis are largely unknown. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and -2 are ligands of the endothelial receptor Tie-2. Ang-1 induces formation of stable vessels, whereas Ang-2 destabilizes the interaction between endothelial cells and their support cells. We studied the expression patterns of Ang-1 and -2 in relation to

Simone Post; Wouter Peeters; Els Busser; Dennis Lamers; Joost P. G. Sluijter; Marie-José Goumans; Roel A. de Weger; Frans L. Moll; Pieter A. Doevendans; Gerard Pasterkamp; Aryan Vink

2008-01-01

88

Plaque disruption and thrombus in Ambrose's angiographic coronary lesion types.  

PubMed

Lesion eccentricity with irregularities on coronary angiography is associated with ruptured plaques and thrombus based on postmortem and clinical angiographic studies. However, the predictive value of such angiographic markers of plaque disruption and thrombus remains to be determined in vivo. The purpose of this study was to establish whether Ambrose's angiographic coronary lesion types and other angiographic criteria predict the presence of disrupted plaques and thrombus using intracoronary angioscopy. Angioscopy was performed before angioplasty in 60 patients with various coronary syndromes and culprit lesions that were not totally occlusive. Lesions were classified angiographically according to Ambrose's criteria as concentric, type I and II eccentric, and multiple irregularities, or as complex or noncomplex, and then compared with the corresponding angioscopic findings. Disruption and/or thrombus were seen in 17 of 19 type II eccentric lesions and 21 of 23 angiographically complex lesions and had the highest positive predictive value to detect complicated atherosclerotic plaques (type II eccentric lesions: positive predictive value 89%, 95% confidence intervals 67% to 99%; complex lesions: 91%, 95% confidence intervals 72% to 99%). We conclude that Ambrose's type II eccentric stenoses and angiographically complex lesions are strongly associated with disrupted plaques and/or thrombus as assessed by angioscopy in patients and represent unstable plaque substrates. PMID:12842238

Waxman, Sergio; Mittleman, Murray A; Zarich, Stuart W; Fitzpatrick, Philip J; Lewis, Stanley M; Leeman, David E; Shubrooks, Samuel J; Abela, George S; Nesto, Richard W

2003-07-01

89

[Achilles tendon rupture].  

PubMed

The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques. PMID:10798233

Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

2000-03-01

90

Recurrent spontaneous esophageal rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous esophageal rupture is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Recurrent rupture is extremely rare, with only one previously reported case in the literature. Here, we present a case series of two patients who had recurrent ruptures, and discuss the principles underlying the management of such cases.

Omar A. Khan; Clifford W. Barlow; David F. Weeden; Khalid M. Amer

2005-01-01

91

Spontaneous Kidney Allograft Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous renal allograft rupture is one of the most dangerous complications of kidney transplantation, which can result in graft loss.This condition needs immediate surgical intervention. Conservative management has dismal results. Its prevalence varies from 0.3% to 3%. Rupture occurs in first few weeks after transplantation. Predisposing factors for graft rupture are acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, and renal vein thrombosis.

H. Shahrokh; H. Rasouli; M. A. Zargar; K. Karimi; K. Zargar

2005-01-01

92

Increased Expression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins in Atherosclerotic Plaques of Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Vascular remodeling and atheromatous lesion formation are determined in part by the balance between apoptosis and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In the chronic stages, apoptosis of VSMCs in the atherosclerotic plaques contributes to the weakening and potential rupture of the plaque causing pathologies such as acute coronary syndrome. The higher incidence of apoptosis in the plaques of symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients has been demonstrated, but the expression of survival proteins, including the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2), x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and survivin in normal carotid arteries, and carotid endarterectomy specimens of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. The results demonstrated stronger immunopositivity to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain antigen (SM-MHC) (sm2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and p50 subunit of NF-?? in the asymptomatic plaques than in symptomatic plaques. Furthermore, there was higher expression of cIAP2, XIAP, and survivin in the symptomatic than in the asymptomatic plaques and this paralleled caspase-3 expression. The increased expression of IAPs in symptomatic plaques could be due to endogenous defense mechanism to protect against the pro-apoptotic effect of the inflammatory stimuli that are released in the plaques. This could be involved in the stabilization of symptomatic atheromatous plaques and may prove a potential therapeutic target.

Moran, Edward P.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

2009-01-01

93

Glass rupture disk  

DOEpatents

A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

94

Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque  

PubMed Central

Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy—termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)—provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC?SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance ?-carotene?ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

Scepanovic, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

2011-01-01

95

Histopathological classification of tympanosclerotic plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanosclerotic plaques seen in the middle ear and tympanic membrane as a sequelae of otitis media have different characteristics.\\u000a Tympanosclerotic plaque consistency shows a wide range from soft to hard during surgical excision and can be classified histologically.\\u000a The aim of this study is to classify surgically excised tympanosclerotic plaques macroscopically and histologically. Seventeen\\u000a surgically excised tympanosclerotic tissues were examined

Adin Selcuk; Serdar Ensar?; Ayse Kose Sarg?n; Belgin Can; Huseyin Dere

2008-01-01

96

Mapping elasticity moduli of atherosclerotic plaque in situ via atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested that evolving mechanical stresses and strains drive atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability. Especially, stress distribution in the plaque fibrous capsule is an important determinant for the risk of vulnerable plaque rupture. Knowledge of the stiffness of atherosclerotic plaque components is therefore of critical importance. In this work, force mapping experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were conducted in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mouse, which represents the most widely used experimental model for studying mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerotic lesions. To obtain the elastic material properties of fibrous caps and lipidic cores of atherosclerotic plaques, serial cross-sections of aortic arch lesions were probed at different sites. Atherosclerotic plaque sub-structures were subdivided into cellular fibrotic, hypocellular fibrotic and lipidic rich areas according to histological staining. Hertz's contact mechanics were used to determine elasticity (Young's) moduli that were related to the underlying histological plaque structure. Cellular fibrotic regions exhibit a mean Young modulus of 10.4±5.7kPa. Hypocellular fibrous caps were almost six-times stiffer, with average modulus value of 59.4±47.4kPa, locally rising up to ?250kPa. Lipid rich areas exhibit a rather large range of Young's moduli, with average value of 5.5±3.5kPa. Such precise quantification of plaque stiffness heterogeneity will allow investigators to have prospectively a better monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution, including arterial wall remodeling and plaque rupture, in response to mechanical constraints imposed by vascular shear stress and blood pressure. PMID:21296163

Tracqui, Philippe; Broisat, Alexis; Toczek, Jackub; Mesnier, Nicolas; Ohayon, Jacques; Riou, Laurent

2011-02-04

97

Knockdown of mTOR by lentivirus?mediated RNA interference suppresses atherosclerosis and stabilizes plaques via a decrease of macrophages by autophagy in apolipoprotein E?deficient mice.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and rupture leads to acute coronary syndromes which cause serious damage to human health worldwide. However, there is currently a lack of efficient therapeutic methods. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been suggested to be involved in the development of atherosclerotic plaques and serves as a therapeutic target. The present study was performed to determine whether RNA interference (RNAi) of mTOR in vivo by LV?mediated small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was capable of inhibiting the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. LV?mediated shRNA against mTOR (LV?shmTOR) was designed and obtained. Male apolipoprotein E?deficient mice were fed a high?fat diet and a constrictive collar was placed around the right carotid arteries of these mice to induce plaque formation. Eight weeks after surgery, mice were randomly divided into the mTOR RNA interference (LV?shmTOR) group, receiving treatment with LV?mTOR?shRNA; the LV?shCON group, receiving treatment with LV?non?specific?shRNA; and the control group, receiving treatment with phosphate?buffered saline. Following transfection, the mice were sacrificed to evaluate the effects of mTOR expression silencing on atherosclerosis. Transfection of LV?mTOR?shRNA markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression levels. Knockdown of mTOR ameliorated dysregulated blood lipid metabolism and stabilized aortic atherosclerotic plaques by decreasing the plaque area and increasing the fibrous cap and cap?to?core ratio. Furthermore, macrophages were decreased by silencing mTOR in atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that the knockdown of mTOR increased autophagy?related protein 13 (Atg13) dephosphorylation and light chain 3?I/light chain 3?II (LC3?I/LC3?II) ratios, both of which were associated with a high activity of autophagy, suggesting an increase of autophagy in atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, genes including matrix metalloproteinase 2, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and tissue factor, which promote plaque instability, were downregulated by silencing mTOR. These results demonstrate that LV?mediated mTOR silencing by RNAi treatment induces macrophage autophagy and is a potential strategy for the treatment of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:24043133

Wang, Xiaochuang; Li, Lingxia; Li, Manxiang; Dang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Lin; Wang, Ni; Bi, Xiaoju; Gu, Changwei; Qiu, Suijuan; Niu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xinye; Wang, Lina

2013-09-12

98

Genetic inactivation of IL-1 signaling enhances atherosclerotic plaque instability and reduces outward vessel remodeling in advanced atherosclerosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Clinical complications of atherosclerosis arise primarily as a result of luminal obstruction due to atherosclerotic plaque growth, with inadequate outward vessel remodeling and plaque destabilization leading to rupture. IL-1 is a proinflammatory cytokine that promotes atherogenesis in animal models, but its role in plaque destabilization and outward vessel remodeling is unclear. The studies presented herein show that advanced atherosclerotic plaques in mice lacking both IL-1 receptor type I and apolipoprotein E (Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice) unexpectedly exhibited multiple features of plaque instability as compared with those of Il1r1+/+Apoe–/– mice. These features included reduced plaque SMC content and coverage, reduced plaque collagen content, and increased intraplaque hemorrhage. In addition, the brachiocephalic arteries of Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice exhibited no difference in plaque size, but reduced vessel area and lumen size relative to controls, demonstrating a reduction in outward vessel remodeling. Interestingly, expression of MMP3 was dramatically reduced within the plaque and vessel wall of Il1r1–/–Apoe–/– mice, and Mmp3–/–Apoe–/– mice showed defective outward vessel remodeling compared with controls. In addition, MMP3 was required for IL-1–induced SMC invasion of Matrigel in vitro. Taken together, these results show that IL-1 signaling plays a surprising dual protective role in advanced atherosclerosis by promoting outward vessel remodeling and enhancing features of plaque stability, at least in part through MMP3-dependent mechanisms.

Alexander, Matthew R.; Moehle, Christopher W.; Johnson, Jason L.; Yang, Zhengyu; Lee, Jae K.; Jackson, Christopher L.; Owens, Gary K.

2011-01-01

99

Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque  

SciTech Connect

In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.i [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology (Italy); Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mallarini, Giorgio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2010-08-15

100

Denitrification in human dental plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that

Frank Schreiber; Peter Stief; Armin Gieseke; Ines M Heisterkamp; Willy Verstraete; Dirk de Beer; Paul Stoodley

2010-01-01

101

Control of Specific Plaque Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Specific Plaque Hypothesis posits that particular bacteria are of unique importance in the etiology of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and a logical conclusion is that these bacteria should be the targets for our 'magic bullets' in devising plaque-control methods. This paper considers the development of preventive measures based on understanding of the significance of particular bacterial species and

R. R. B. Russell

1994-01-01

102

Dental plaque as a biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental plaque is the diverse microbial community found on the tooth surface embedded in a matrix of polymers of bacterial and salivary origin. Once a tooth surface is cleaned, a conditioning film of proteins and glycoproteins is adsorbed rapidly to the tooth surface. Plaque formation involves the interaction between early bacterial colonisers and this film (the acquired enamel pellicle). To

P D Marsh; D J Bradshaw

1995-01-01

103

Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot  

PubMed Central

The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques.

Kastrup, Christian J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T.; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D.; Vegas, Arturo J.; Siegel, Cory D.; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R.; Coury, Arthur J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

104

Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot.  

PubMed

The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. PMID:23236189

Kastrup, Christian J; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D; Vegas, Arturo J; Siegel, Cory D; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R; Coury, Arthur J; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

2012-12-11

105

Plaque quantitation through protein measurement.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to establish whether the quantitation of dental plaque protein by a dye-binding method (Coomassie G-250) may be used as an index of the amount of dental plaque sampled. Ten sites were sampled in 34 children on 5 occasions at 4 month intervals. The mean protein concentration in 1391 plaque samples was 6.9 +/- 4.1 micrograms (micrograms) (mean +/- standard deviation). A three-way analysis of variance showed that the plaque protein concentration was similar at the different sampling sites in the same child (p = 0.14), but statistically significant differences were observed with respect to time of sampling (F = 36.24; p = 0.0001) and individual sampled (F = 5.69; p = 0.0001). These observations indicate that plaque bacterial counts may be expressed as units of protein concentration and this method may be useful to relate the number of viable bacteria to an estimate of the amount of plaque collected. This ratio allows standardisation for any variation in the amount of plaque collected. PMID:1401432

Smit, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Boardman, M E

1992-07-01

106

IVUS-Based Computational Modeling and Planar Biaxial Artery Material Properties for Human Coronary Plaque Vulnerability Assessment  

PubMed Central

Image-based computational modeling has been introduced for vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques to identify critical mechanical conditions which may be used for better plaque assessment and rupture predictions. In vivo patient-specific coronary plaque models are lagging due to limitations on non-invasive image resolution, flow data, and vessel material properties. A framework is proposed to combine intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, biaxial mechanical testing and computational modeling with fluid-structure interactions and anisotropic material properties to acquire better and more complete plaque data and make more accurate plaque vulnerability assessment and predictions. Impact of pre-shrink-stretch process, vessel curvature and high blood pressure on stress, strain, flow velocity and flow maximum principal shear stress was investigated.

Liu, Haofei; Cai, Mingchao; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Bach, Richard; Kural, Mehmet H.; Billiar, Kristen L.; Muccigrosso, David; Lu, Dongsi; Tang, Dalin

2012-01-01

107

A framework for the co-registration of hemodynamic forces and atherosclerotic plaque components.  

PubMed

Local hemodynamic forces, such as wall shear stress (WSS), are thought to trigger cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology, and to identify plaque features shown to be key determinants of plaque vulnerability. Image-based computational fluid dynamics has allowed researchers to obtain time-resolved WSS information of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of initiation and progression of atherosclerosis can be obtained through the comparison of WSS and plaque composition and morphology. To date, however, advance in knowledge has been limited greatly due to the lack of a reliable infrastructure to perform such analysis. The aim of this study is to establish a framework that will allow for the co-registration and analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of WSS and plaque components and morphology. The use of this framework will lead to future studies targeted to determining the role of WSS in atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability. PMID:23945133

Canton, Gador; Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Huijun; Chen, Yimin; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Kerwin, William S; Yuan, Chun

2013-08-14

108

[Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].  

PubMed

Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751

Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Antusevas, Aleksandras

2002-01-01

109

Aqueous extract of rhubarb stabilizes vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques due to depression of inflammation and lipid accumulation.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the effect of the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb on the stability of atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in rabbits through balloon injury with a high-cholesterol diet and then were divided into a control group, a rhubarb group and a simvastatin group. At week 24 recombinant-p53 adenoviruses were locally delivered to the atherosclerotic plaques. At week 26 plaque rupture was triggered by the intra-arterial Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Serological, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and gene expression studies were performed. The results showed that the incidence of plaque rupture in the rhubarb group and the simvastatin group was significantly lower than that in the control group (42.86% and 35.71% versus 80.00%, both p < 0.05). Serum TC, LDL-C (p < 0.05-0.01), IMT (both p < 0.01), PA (both p < 0.01), PB (%) (both p < 0.01) and the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and NF-kappaB (p < 0.05, 0.01, respectively) in the rhubarb group and the simvastatin group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In contrast, AIIc% (both p < 0.05) in the two treatment groups were significantly higher than those in the control group. These results suggest that rhubarb has antiatherosclerotic and plaque-stabilizing properties due to antiinflammation and lipid-lowering effects. PMID:18384190

Liu, Yunfang; Yan, Fangfang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Huiming; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yuxia

2008-07-01

110

Percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture.  

PubMed

Various studies have shown that the operative treatment of a freshly ruptured Achilles tendon is generally considered to be more appropriate than a nonoperative regimen. However, complications in open reconstructions are reported to occur in 11-29%. The method used in this study reduced the risk of complications arising from operation, but simultaneously allowed early postoperative mobilization and functional treatment. It was a percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon, using two Lengemann extension wires for coadaptation of the ruptured tendon. To fix the rupture site, the authors used a fibrin sealant. The spikes of the wire were hooked in at the fascia of the soleus muscle. Via a big, curved needle, the wire was placed in the distal stumps of the ruptured tendon and guided out laterally and medially above the calcaneus. After blocking the wires distally, the fibrin sealant was applied at the rupture site. The current report describes this method of treatment in 66 patients. The postoperative observation period was 1 year. Sixty-four patients were male and two were female. Their average age was 42 years. The Achilles tendon ruptures occurred during sporting activities and were treated by operation within 22 hours on average. The outcome was very good in 98%. One patient (2%) suffered a rerupture due to trauma. There were no other complications. PMID:15132929

Gorschewsky, Ottmar; Pitzl, Martin; Pütz, Andrej; Klakow, Andreas; Neumann, Wolfram

2004-04-01

111

[Knee extensor mechanism ruptures].  

PubMed

Knee extensor mechanism is composed of the quadriceps and its tendon, patella and patellar tendon. Rupture of either the quadriceps or patellar tendon, or of the patella itself, lead to a disruption of the knee extensor mechanism. Clinical examination reveals an inability to actively extend the knee. Standard radiographs of the knee show a suprapatellar swelling of the soft tissues in case of quadriceps tendon rupture, or a displaced patellar fracture, or a patella alta in case of patellar tendon rupture. Echography and MRI confirm the diagnosis and may reveal associated injuries. In case of knee extensor mechanism rupture, early surgical reconstruction of quadriceps or patellar tendon, or patella osteosynthesis, are mandatory to achieve early functional recovery. PMID:21919393

Duthon, V B; Fritschy, D

2011-08-10

112

Disappearance of La Caille Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bronze plaque erected to the memory of N.-L. de La Caille near the site of his observatory in Central Cape Town, has been stolen by metal thieves. It was designed by the famous architect Sir Herbert Baker.

2010-04-01

113

Dental plaque identification at home  

MedlinePLUS

... special tablets that contain a red dye that stains the plaque. One tablet is chewed thoroughly, moving ... this method is that it leaves no pink stains in the mouth. In the office, dentists are ...

114

A Plaque Assay for Feline Panleukopenia Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Plaque formation with representative strains of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) has been obtained using a permanent line of feline kidney cells under agarose over- lay. FPV-infected cells appear as white plaques after neutral red staining. Plaque size is determined by the extent of cell division in the infected monolayer. FPV assay by the plaque procedure is rapid and gives

GONTER SIEGL; GERTRUD KRONAUER

1980-01-01

115

Partial Rotator Cuff Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Partial rotator cuff ruptures are not rare and occur mainly in the supraspinatus tendon and may extend to that of infraspinatus,\\u000a but rarely to the tendon of subscapularis. Isolated lesions in the tendons of infraspinatus, teres minor or subscapularis\\u000a are rare. Partial ruptures usually occur before the sixth decade of life and can be a cause of unexplained pain in

Antonio Cartucho

116

Carbohydrates in Pooled Dental Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental plaque was collected from approximately 3,500 schoolchildren, and immediately pooled and frozen. The lyophilized plaque was processed in several batches as follows:After an aqueous extraction the water-insoluble portion was further extracted with 1 N KOH. Both aqueous and alkaline extracts were further subfractionated by precipitation at different ethanol concentrations. Nature and composition of carbohydrates in sub-fractions were investigated using

P. Hotz; B. Guggenheim; R. Schmid

1972-01-01

117

Recent concepts in plaque formation.  

PubMed

Dental plaque is an adherent, bacterial film, and is the main pathological agent for periodontal diseases. The formation of dental plaque can occur both supragingivally and subgingivally. The development of plaque is a three-step process. Following the formation of a pellicle, pioneer micro-organisms will adhere to it, proliferate and form colonies. The final stage involves the aggregation of filamentous organisms and spirochetes into a cohesive biofilm. Many products of the plaque bacteria reach the subepithelial tissue, causing inflammatory responses such as increased vascularity and leukocyte diapedesis. Both supragingival and subgingival plaque may form a hard, mineralized mass called calculus. The surface of calculus harbours bacteria, which may exacerbate the inflammatory responses. An effective oral antiseptic must be active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including streptococci and fusobacteria. Ideally, an effective agent would also penetrate the plaque biofilm. Data show that essential oil and chlorhexidine mouthwashes have the broadest antimicrobial effects. PMID:12787195

Bernimoulin, J-P

2003-01-01

118

Plaque Assay for Murine Norovirus  

PubMed Central

Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only member of the Norovirus genus that efficiently grows in tissue culture 1, 2. Cell lysis and cytopathic effect (CPE) are observed during MNV-1 infection of murine dendritic cells or macrophages 1. This property of MNV-1 can be used to quantify the number of infectious particles in a given sample by performing a plaque assay 1. The plaque assay relies on the ability of MNV-1 to lyse cells and to form holes in a confluent cell monolayer, which are called plaques 3. Multiple techniques can be used to detect viral infections in tissue culture, harvested tissue, clinical, and environmental samples, but not all measure the number of infectious particles (e.g. qRT-PCR). One way to quantify infectious viral particles is to perform a plaque assay 3, which will be described in detail below. A variation on the MNV plaque assay is the fluorescent focus assay, where MNV antigen is immunostained in cell monolayers 4. This assay can be faster, since viral antigen expression precedes plaque formation. It is also useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques. However, the fluorescent focus assay requires additional resources beyond those of the plaque assay, such as antibodies and a microscope to count focus-forming units. Infectious MNV can also be quantified by determining the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) 3. This assay measures the amount of virus required to produce CPE in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells by endpoint titration 5. However, its limit of detection is higher compared to a plaque assay 4. In this article, we describe a plaque assay protocol that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples 1, 4, 6. This method is based on the preparation of 10-fold serial dilutions of MNV-containing samples, which are used to inoculate a monolayer of permissive cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells). Virus is allowed to attach to the cell monolayer for a given period of time and then aspirated before covering cells with a mixture of agarose and cell culture media. The agar enables the spread of viral progeny to neighboring cells while limiting spread to distantly located cells. Consequently, infected cells are lysed and form holes in the monolayer known as plaques. Upon sufficient spread of virus, plaques become visible following staining of cells with dyes, like neutral red, methylene blue, or crystal violet. At low dilutions, each plaque originates from one infectious viral particle and its progeny, which spread to neighboring cells. Thus, counting the number of plaques allows one to calculate plaque-forming units (PFU) present in the undiluted sample 3.

Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B.; Bragazzi Cunha, Juliana; Wobus, Christiane E.

2012-01-01

119

Adhesive strength of atherosclerotic plaque in a mouse model depends on local collagen content and elastin fragmentation.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a major cause of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The adhesive strength of the bond between a plaque and the vascular wall, measured as local energy release rate, G, is used for quantitative plaque stability estimation. We tested the hypothesis that adhesive strength varies with plaque composition. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12) deficiency was previously reported to alter lesion composition. To estimate G values, peeling experiments are performed on aortic plaques from apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) and apoE MMP12 double knockout (DKO) male mice after 8 months on high-fat diet. For plaques in apoE KO and apoE MMP12 DKO mice, experimental values for G differ significantly (p<0.002) between genotypes, averaging 19.2J/m(2) and 12.1J/m(2), respectively. Histology confirms that plaques delaminate along their interface with the underlying internal elastic lamina (IEL) in both genotypes. Quantitative image analysis of stained tissue sections demonstrates a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) between local collagen content of lesions and G values in both genotypes, indicating that adhesive strength of plaques depends on local collagen content. Surprisingly, macrophage content of aortic plaques is neither significantly correlated with G values nor significantly different between genotypes. The IEL underlying plaques in apoE KO mice is significantly more fragmented (number of breaks and length of breaks) than in apoE MMP12 DKO mice, suggesting that elastin fragmentation also influences adhesion strength of plaques. Overall, our results suggest that plaques adhere more strongly to the underlying IEL in apoE KO mice than in apoE MMP12 DKO mice. PMID:23261250

Wang, Ying; Johnson, John A; Fulp, Abigail; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

2012-12-20

120

Doxycycline Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaque via Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinases and Attenuating Inflammation in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Enhanced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is implicated in the process of atherosclerotic plaque instability. We hypothesized that doxycycline, a broad MMPs inhibitor, was as effective as simvastatin in reducing the incidence of plaque disruption. Thirty rabbits underwent aortic balloon injury and were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. At the end of week 8, the rabbits were divided into three groups for 12-week treatment: a doxycycline-treated group that received oral doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d, a simvastatin-treated group that received oral simvastatin at a dose of 5 mg/kg/d, and a control group that received no treatment. At the end of week 20, pharmacological triggering was performed to induce plaque rupture. Biochemical, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies were performed. The results showed that oral administration of doxycycline resulted in a significant increase in the thickness of the fibrous cap of the aortic plaque whereas there was a substantial reduction of MMPs expression, local and systemic inflammation, and aortic plaque vulnerability. The incidence of plaque rupture with either treatment (0% for both) was significantly lower than that for controls (56.0%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between doxycycline-treated group and simvastatin-treated group in any serological, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression measurement except for the serum lipid levels that were higher with doxycycline than with simvastatin treatment. In conclusion, doxycycline at a common antimicrobial dose stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions via inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases and attenuating inflammation in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque. These effects were similar to a large dose of simvastatin and independent of serum lipid levels.

Dong, Mei; Zhong, Lin; Chen, Wen Qiang; Ji, Xiao Ping; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yu Xia; Li, Li; Yao, Gui Hua; Zhang, Peng Fei; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yun

2012-01-01

121

Automatic plaque characterization employing quantitative and multicontrast MRI.  

PubMed

Multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise in identifying and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques. One of the limitations of this technique is the lack of a practical automated plaque characterization scheme. In the current study, a prior-information-enhanced clustering (PIEC) technique that utilizes both multicontrast MR images and quantitative T(2) maps is proposed to characterize atherosclerotic plaque components automatically. The PIEC algorithm was assessed on computationally simulated images and multicontrast MRI data of coronary arteries. Multicontrast (T(1)-, T(2)-, partial T(2)-, and proton density-weighted) MR images were acquired from freshly excised human coronary arteries using a 4.7T small-animal scanner. The T(2) distribution for each plaque constituent was measured by exponentially fitting the signal from multiple MR images with different TEs and the same TR. The calculated T(2) distributions were used as the a priori information and combined with the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM)-based clustering algorithm to characterize plaque constituents. The proposed PIEC technique appears to be a promising algorithm for accurate automated plaque characterization. PMID:17969075

Sun, Binjian; Giddens, Don P; Long, Robert; Taylor, W Robert; Weiss, Diana; Joseph, Giji; Vega, David; Oshinski, John N

2008-01-01

122

Clustering of plaques contributes to plaque growth in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposition plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Post-mortem analysis of plaque development in mouse models of AD revealed that plaques are initially small, but then increase in size and become more numerous with age. There is evidence that plaques can grow uniformly over time; however, a complementary hypothesis of plaque development is that small plaques cluster and grow together thereby forming larger plaques. To investigate the latter hypothesis, we studied plaque formation in APPPS1 mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. We used sequential pre- and post-mortem staining techniques to label plaques at different stages of development and to detect newly emerged plaques. Post-mortem analysis revealed that a subset (22 %) of newly formed plaques appeared very close (<40 ?m) to pre-existing plaques and that many close plaques (25 %) that were initially separate merged over time to form one single large plaque. Our results suggest that small plaques can cluster together, thus forming larger plaques as a complementary mechanism to simple uniform plaque growth from a single initial plaque. This study deepens our understanding of A? deposition and demonstrates that there are multiple mechanisms at play in plaque development. PMID:23775142

McCarter, Joanna F; Liebscher, Sabine; Bachhuber, Teresa; Abou-Ajram, Claudia; Hübener, Mark; Hyman, Bradley T; Haass, Christian; Meyer-Luehmann, Melanie

2013-06-18

123

Characterizing atherosclerotic plaque with computed tomography: a contrast-detail study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaque characterization may benefit from the increasing distinctiveness of the attenuating properties of different soft plaque components at lower energies. Due to the relative slight increase in the CT number of the nonadipose soft plaque at lower tube voltage settings vs. adipose plaque, a higher contrast between atheromous adipose and non-adipose plaque may become visible with modern 64 slice systems. A contrast-detail (C-D) phantom with varying plaque composition as the contrast generating method, was imaged on a commercial 64 slice MDCT system using 80, 120, and 140 kVp settings. The same phantom was also imaged on a Cone Beam CT (CBCT) system with a lower tube voltage of 75 kVp. The results of experiments from four different observers on three different plaque types (lipid, fiber, calcific) indicate that CT attenuation within lipid cores and fibrous masses vary not only with the percentage of lipid or fiber present, but also with the size of the cores. Furthermore, the C-D curve analysis for all three plaque types reveals that while the noise constraints prevent visible differentiation of soft plaque at current conventional 64 slice MDCT settings, CBCT exhibits superior visible contrast detectability than its conventional counterpart, with the latter having appreciably better resolution limits and beneficial lower tube voltages. This low voltage CT technique has the potential to be useful in composition based diagnosis of carotid vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque.

Kasraie, Nima; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

2012-02-01

124

Oral rapamycin attenuates inflammation and enhances stability of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits independent of serum lipid levels  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis are the main cause of acute coronary syndrome. The study was aimed to test the hypothesis that oral administration of rapamycin may attenuate inflammation, inhibit progression and enhance stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Experimental approach: Thirty New Zealand rabbits were subjected to balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta and were fed a diet of 1% cholesterol for 20 weeks. From week 9 to week 20, the animals were treated with oral rapamycin (0.5 mg·kg?1·day?1; group A), oral simvastatin (5 mg·kg?1·day?1; group B) and no drugs (group C). At the end of week 20, all rabbits were challenged with injection of Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Serological, ultrasonographic, pathological, immunohistochemical and gene expression studies were performed. Key results: Rapamycin significantly increased the thickness of the fibrous caps and decreased plaque vulnerability index in group A rabbits. Serum lipid levels were higher whereas plaque burden was lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). The incidence of plaque rupture in group A (0%) and group B (0%) was significantly lower than that in group C (56.0%, P < 0.05). Conclusions and implications: Oral administration of rapamycin effectively attenuated inflammation, inhibited progression and enhanced stability of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits, without altering serum lipid levels. Our findings suggest a novel approach to the treatment of atherosclerosis.

Chen, Wen Qiang; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Ji, Xiao Ping; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yu Xia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun

2009-01-01

125

Identification of carotid plaque tissue properties using an experimental-numerical approach.  

PubMed

A biomechanical stress analysis could help to identify carotid plaques that are vulnerable to rupture, and hence reduce the risk of thrombotic strokes. Mechanical stress predictions critically depend on the plaque's constitutive properties, and the present study introduces a concept to derive viscoelastic parameters through an experimental-numerical approach. Carotid plaques were harvested from two patients during carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and, in total, nine test specimens were investigated. A novel in-vitro mechanical testing protocol, which allows for dynamic testing, keeping the carotid plaque components together, was introduced. Macroscopic pictures overlaid by histological stains allowed for the segmentation of plaque tissues, in order to develop high-fidelity and low-fidelity Finite Element Method (FEM) models of the test specimens. The FEM models together with load-displacement data from the mechanical testing were used to extract constitutive parameters through inverse parameter estimation. The applied inverse parameter estimation runs in stages, first addressing the hyperelastic parameters then the viscoelastic ones. Load-displacement curves from the mechanical testing showed strain stiffening and viscoelasticity, as is expected for both normal and diseased carotid tissue. The estimated constitutive properties of plaque tissue were comparable to previously reported studies. Due to the highly non-linear elasticity of vascular tissue, the applied parameter estimation approach is, as with many similar approaches, sensitive to the initial guess of the parameters. PMID:23790614

Heiland, Vincent M; Forsell, Caroline; Roy, Joy; Hedin, Ulf; Gasser, T Christian

2013-06-02

126

Apoptosis of human vascular smooth muscle cells derived from normal vessels and coronary atherosclerotic plaques.  

PubMed Central

We studied death of human vascular smooth muscle cells derived from coronary plaques and normal coronary arteries and aorta. Cells from normal arteries underwent death only upon removal of serum growth factors. In contrast, plaque-derived cells died even in high serum conditions, and death increased after serum withdrawal. Death was characteristically by apoptosis in both normal and plaque-derived cells, as determined by time-lapse videomicroscopy, electron microscopy, and DNA fragmentation patterns. IGF-1 and PDGF were identified as potent survival factors in serum, whereas EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor had little effect. Stable expression of bcl-2, a protooncogene that regulates apoptosis in other cell lines, protected smooth muscle cells from apoptosis, although there was no detectable difference in endogenous bcl-2 expression between cells from plaques or normal vessels. We conclude that apoptosis of human vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated by both specific gene products and local cytokines acting as survival factors. Apoptosis may therefore regulate cell mass in the normal arterial wall and the higher rates of apoptosis seen in plaque smooth muscle cells may ultimately contribute to plaque rupture and breakdown and thus to the clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis. Images

Bennett, M R; Evan, G I; Schwartz, S M

1995-01-01

127

Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

2001-12-01

128

“Silent” rupture of unscarred gravid uterus with subsequent pelvic abscess: Successful laparoscopic management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrapartum rupture of an unscarred uterus is rare in current times. However, it is still associated with significant maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Unlike rupture or dehiscence of a previous cesarean scar, which is occasionally bloodless, complete rupture of a gravid unscarred uterus frequently results in fetal jeopardy and significant maternal intraperitoneal bleeding, causes acute abdomen, and demands emergency

Chung-hsien Sun; Cheng-i Liao; Yuen-yee Kan

2005-01-01

129

Linear matching method for creep rupture assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed linear matching method (LMM), which is easily implemented within commercial FE codes, has been successfully used to evaluate elastic and plastic shakedown loads. In this paper, the method is extended to the prediction of the creep rupture life of a structure, based upon a bounding method currently used in the life assessment method R5. The method corresponds

H. F. Chen; M. J. Engelhardt; A. R. S. Ponter

2003-01-01

130

Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962

Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge

2013-06-13

131

Incomplete Cesarean Scar Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine rupture at the site of a previous cesarean scar is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of pregnancy, which is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation A 30-year old woman at 24th week of gestation and complaint of pain, contractions and spotting was admitted in Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran. She had a past medical history of an EP and a cesarean section delivery, respectively 4 and 2 years before hospitalization. Herniation of an amniotic membrane into the maternal bladder was found on ultrasound examination. Conclusion Risk factors of cesarean scar rupture should be considered in women undergoing subsequent pregnancies as they need extra care. Ultrasonography can be used to evaluate women with previous cesarean section to assess the risks of scar rupture during subsequent pregnancies.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Siahbazi, Shiva; Akhbari, Farnaz

2013-01-01

132

Ruptured extrauterine pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrauterine pregnancies contribute substantially to maternal mortality in all parts of the world. The most common cause of these deaths is massive bleeding after rupture of the ectopic pregnancy. The advent of transvaginal ultrasonography in early pregnancy and the use of quantitative measurement of the ?-unit of human chorionic gonadotropin have revolutionized the management of this condition. These diagnostic modalities

D. R. Slabbert; T. F. Kruger

2006-01-01

133

Plaque Formation by Virulent Shigella flexneri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An in vitro tissue culture plaque assay was developed to investigate the intracellular replication and intercellular spread of virulent shigellae. Shigella plaques were formed in HeLa cell monolayers in the presence of an agarose overlay containing tissue...

E. V. Oaks M. E. Wingfield S. B. Formal

1985-01-01

134

Antiangiogenic therapy for normalization of atherosclerotic plaque vasculature: a potential strategy for plaque stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis within human atherosclerotic plaques has an important role in plaque progression as immature blood vessels leak red blood cells and inflammatory mediators into the plaque center. Accumulation of free cholesterol from red blood cell membranes potentially increases the size of the necrotic core and triggers a chain of events that promote plaque destabilization. Antiangiogenic agents have been shown to

Aloke V Finn; Frank D Kolodgie; Renu Virmani; Rakesh K Jain; Herman K Gold

2007-01-01

135

Relationship Between Dental Plaque Indices and Bacteria in Dental Plaque and Those in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of indices has been developed for the quantitation of dental plaque. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the Löe plaque index and the number of bacteria on the same tooth. Furthermore, the effect of plaque accumulation on the salivary counts of some dental plaque organisms was estimated. Twenty volunteers were asked to abstain

M. J. M. Schaeken; T. J. Creugers; J. S. Van Der Hoeven

1987-01-01

136

Premature rupture of membranes.  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with premature rupture of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome for both mother and infant undoubtedly reflects data based on a combination of factors, among which are gestational age survival, evidence of fetal distress, presence or absence of labor and sepsis, and of course, the cervical condition as it is related to labor-readiness. An important recent advance is the recognition that an active observation management program is associated with less morbidity and mortality than the classic management course of delivery within 12 hours of membrane rupture. The fact that preterm premature rupture of membranes tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies offers an opportunity for prevention. Moreover, advances in perinatal and neonatal care will continue to improve the outcomes of these women and their children.

Poma, P. A.

1996-01-01

137

Nanorose and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaque using dual-wavelength photothermal wave imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atherosclerosis and specifically rupture of vulnerable plaques account for 23% of all deaths worldwide, far surpassing both infectious diseases and cancer. In atherosclerosis, macrophages can infiltrate plaques which are often associated with lipid deposits. Photothermal wave imaging is based on the periodic thermal modulation of a sample using intensity modulated light. Intensity modulated light enters the sample and is absorbed by targeted chromophores and generates a periodic thermal modulation. We report use of photothermal wave imaging to visualize nanoroses (taken up by macrophages via endocytosis) and lipids in atherosclerotic plaques. Two excitation wavelengths were selected to image nanoroses (800 nm) and lipids (1210 nm). Atherosclerotic plaque in a rabbit abdominal artery was irradiated (800 nm and 1210 nm separately) at a frequency of 4 Hz to generate photothermal waves. The radiometric temperature at the tissue surface was recorded by an infrared (IR) camera over a 10 second time period at the frame rate of 25.6 Hz. Extraction of images (256 × 256 pixels) at various frequencies was performed by Fourier transform at each pixel. Frequency amplitude images were obtained corresponding to 800 nm and 1210 nm laser irradiation. Computed images suggest that the distributions of both nanorose and lipid can be identified in amplitude images at a frequency of 4 Hz. Nanoroses taken up by macrophages are distributed at the edges of lipid deposits. Observation of high concentration of nanoroses in atherosclerotic plaque confirms that nanoroses are present at locations associated with lipid deposits.

Wang, Tianyi; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li Leo; Li, Xiankai; Sun, Jingjing; Ryoo, Seungyup; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

2010-02-01

138

Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: ex-vivo study using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis necessitates the detection and differentiation of rupture prone plaques. In principle, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has the ability to simultaneously visualize the structure and composition of atherosclerotic plaques by utilizing the difference in optical absorption. Extensive studies are required to validate the utility of IVPA imaging in detecting vulnerable plaques and address issues associated with the clinical implementation of the technique. In this work, we performed ex vivo imaging studies using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. The intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) images of the normal aorta and aorta with plaque were obtained and compared with histological slices of the tissue. The results indicate that IVPA imaging is capable of detecting plaques and showed potential in determining the composition. Furthermore, we initially addressed several aspects of clinical implementation of the IVPA imaging. Specifically, the configuration of combined IVPA and IVUS catheter was investigated and the effect of the optical absorption of the luminal blood on the IVPA image quality was evaluated. Overall, this study suggests that IVPA imaging can become a unique and important clinical tool.

Sethuraman, S.; Mallidi, S.; Aglyamov, S. R.; Amirian, J. H.; Litovsky, S.; Smalling, R. W.; Emelianov, S. Y.

2007-03-01

139

The role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaque on platelet EP(3) and EP(4) receptor activation and platelet function in whole blood.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis has an important inflammatory component. Macrophages accumulating in atherosclerotic arteries produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a main inflammatory mediator. Platelets express inhibitory receptors (EP(2), EP(4)) and a stimulatory receptor (EP(3)) for this prostanoid. Recently, it has been reported in ApoE(-/-) mice that PGE(2) accumulating in inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions might contribute to atherothrombosis after plaque rupture by activating platelet EP(3), and EP(3) blockade has been proposed to be a promising new approach in anti-thrombotic therapy. The aim of our investigation was to study the role of PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic plaques on human platelet function and thrombus formation. Plaque PGE(2) might either activate or inhibit platelets depending on stimulation of either EP(3) or EP(4), respectively. We found that the two EP(3)-antagonists AE5-599 (300 nM) and AE3-240 (300 nM) specifically and completely inhibited the synergistic effect of the EP(3)-agonist sulprostone on U46619-induced platelet aggregation in blood. However, these two EP(3)-antagonists neither inhibited atherosclerotic plaque-induced platelet aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa exposure, dense and alpha granule secretion in blood nor reduced plaque-induced platelet thrombus formation under arterial flow. The EP(4)-antagonist AE3-208 (1-3 ?M) potentiated in combination with PGE(2) (1 ?M) ADP-induced aggregation, demonstrating that PGE(2) enhances platelet aggregation when the inhibitory EP(4)-receptor is inactivated. However, plaque-induced platelet aggregation was not augmented after platelet pre-treatment with AE3-208, indicating that plaque PGE(2) does not stimulate the EP(4)-receptor. We found that PGE(2) was present in plaques only at very low levels (15 pg PGE(2)/mg plaque). We conclude that PGE(2) in human atherosclerotic lesions does not modulate (i.e. stimulate or inhibit) atherothrombosis in blood after plaque rupture. PMID:21424266

Schober, Lisa J; Khandoga, Anna L; Dwivedi, Suman; Penz, Sandra M; Maruyama, Takayuki; Brandl, Richard; Siess, Wolfgang

2011-08-01

140

Noninvasive diagnosis of ruptured peripheral atherosclerotic lesions and myocardial infarction by antibody profiling  

PubMed Central

Novel biomarkers, such as circulating (auto)antibody signatures, may improve early detection and treatment of ruptured atherosclerotic lesions and accompanying cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction. Using a phage-display library derived from cDNAs preferentially expressed in ruptured peripheral human atherosclerotic plaques, we performed serological antigen selection to isolate displayed cDNA products specifically interacting with antibodies in sera from patients with proven ruptured peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. Two cDNA products were subsequently evaluated on a validation series of patients with peripheral atherosclerotic lesions, healthy controls, and patients with coronary artery disease at different stages. Our biomarker set was able to discriminate between patients with peripheral ruptured lesions and patients with peripheral stable plaques with 100% specificity and 76% sensitivity. Furthermore, 93% of patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) tested positive for our biomarkers, whereas all patients with stable angina pectoris tested negative. Moreover, 90% of AMI patients who initially tested negative for troponin T, for which a positive result is known to indicate myocardial infarction, tested positive for our biomarkers upon hospital admission. In conclusion, antibody profiling constitutes a promising approach for noninvasive diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions, because a positive serum response against a set of 2 cDNA products showed a strong association with the presence of ruptured peripheral atherosclerotic lesions and myocardial infarction.

Cleutjens, Kitty B.J.M.; Faber, Birgit C.G.; Rousch, Mat; van Doorn, Ruben; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Vink, Cornelis; Geusens, Piet; ten Cate, Hugo; Waltenberger, Johannes; Tchaikovski, Vadim; Lobbes, Marc; Somers, Veerle; Sijbers, Anneke; Black, Darcey; Kitslaar, Peter J.E.H.M.; Daemen, Mat J.A.P.

2008-01-01

141

Shear stress and plaque development.  

PubMed

Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors 'prime the soil' for atherogenesis systemically, atherosclerosis primarily occurs in a site-specific manner with a predilection towards the inner wall of curvatures and outer wall of bifurcations with sparing of flow-dividers. Wall shear stress is a frictional force exerted parallel to the vessel wall that leads to alteration of the endothelial phenotype, endothelial cell signaling, gene and protein expression leading to a proinflammatory phenotype, reduced nitric oxide availability and disruption of the extracellular matrix, which in turn leads to plaque development. Clinical and experimental data are emerging that suggest the pathobiology associated with abnormal wall shear stress results in atherosclerotic plaque development and progression. PMID:20397828

Dhawan, Saurabh S; Avati Nanjundappa, Ravi P; Branch, Jonathan R; Taylor, W Robert; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Jo, Hanjoong; McDaniel, Michael C; Suo, Jin; Giddens, Don; Samady, Habib

2010-04-01

142

Plaque characteristics and arterial remodeling in coronary and peripheral arterial systems  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined plaque characteristics among multiple arterial beds in vivo. The purpose of this study was to compare the plaque morphology and arterial remodeling between coronary and peripheral arteries using gray-scale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at clinical presentation. Methods and Results IVUS imaging was performed in 68 patients with coronary and 93 with peripheral artery lesions (29 carotid, 50 renal, and 14 iliac arteries). Plaques were classified as fibroatheroma (VH-FA) (further subclassified as thin-capped [VH-TCFA] and thick-capped [VH-ThCFA]), fibrocalcific plaque (VH-FC) and pathological intimal thickening (VH-PIT). Plaque rupture (13% of coronary, 7% of carotid, 6% of renal, and 7% of iliac arteries; P=NS) and VHTCFA (37% of coronary, 24% of carotid, 16% of renal, and 7% of iliac arteries; p=0.02) were observed in all arteries. Compared with coronary arteries, VH-FA was less frequently observed in renal (p<0.001) and iliac arteries (p<0.006). Lesions with positive remodeling demonstrated more characteristics of VH-FA in coronary (84% vs. 25%, p<0.001), carotid (72% vs. 20%, p=0.001), and renal arteries (42% vs. 4%, p=0.001) compared with those with intermediate/negative remodeling. There was positive relationship between RI and percent necrotic area in all four arteries. Conclusions Atherosclerotic plaque phenotypes were heterogeneous among four different arteries; renal and iliac arteries had more stable phenotypes compared with coronary artery. In contrast, the associations of remodeling pattern with plaque phenotype and composition were similar among the various arterial beds.

Matsuo, Yoshiki; Takumi, Takuro; Mathew, Verghese; Chung, Woo-Young; Barsness, Gregory W.; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Gulati, Rajiv; McCue, Eric T.; Holmes, David R; Eeckhout, Eric; Lennon, Ryan J.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

2012-01-01

143

Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.  

PubMed

Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SFO) is the major electrophilic metabolite of safrole (4-allyl-1, 2-methylenedioxybenzene), a natural plant constituent found in essential oils of numerous edible herbs and spices and in food containing these herbs, such as pesto sauce, cola beverages and bologna sausages. The effects of SFO in mammalian systems, especially the cardiovascular system, are little known. Disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the main cause of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated SFO-induced atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability (possibility of rupture) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. Lipid area in vessel wall reached 59.8% in high dose SFO (SFO-HD) treated group, which is only 31.2% in control group. SFO treatment changed the lesion composition to an unstable phenotype, increased the number of apoptotic cells in plaque and the endothelium in plaques was damaged after SFO treatment. Furthermore, compared with control groups, the plaque endothelium level of p75(NTR) was 3-fold increased and the liver level of p75(NTR) was 17.4-fold increased by SFO-HD. Meanwhile, the serum level of KC (a functional homolog of IL-8 and the main proinflammatory alpha chemokine in mice) in apoE(-/-) mice was up to 357pg/ml in SFO-HD treated group. Thus, SFO contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE(-/-) mice through activating p75(NTR) and IL-8 and cell apoptosis in plaque. PMID:23270965

Su, Le; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Baoxiang; Miao, Junying

2012-12-25

144

Blood vessel rupture by cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation\\u000a induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe\\u000a the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics\\u000a were examined by imaging

Hong Chen; Andrew A. Brayman; Michael R. Bailey; Thomas J. Matula

2010-01-01

145

Rupture of an oxide blister  

SciTech Connect

Expressions have been derived which describe the critical stress and pressure necessary to rupture oxide blisters which form on aluminum during the growth of corrosion pits. These expressions have been derived and evaluated for radial cracks in the oxide blister. The critical stress and corresponding pressure for rupture decrease with increasing blister radius and decrease with increasing crack length. The critical stress is independent of the ratio of oxide film thickness to blister radius, whereas the rupture pressure increases with this ratio. The critical stress is independent of Poisson`s ratio for the oxide film whereas the rupture pressure is weakly dependent on Poisson`s ratio for the oxide film.

Ryan, R.L.; McCafferty, E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-08-01

146

Epidemiological features of uterine rupture in West Africa (MOMA Study).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was (1) to assess the incidence of uterine rupture in West Africa; (2) to identify its risk factors there; (3) to assess their predictiveness. The study (MOMA study) was prospective and population based. Data on a large cohort of pregnant women were collected. Univariable and multivariable analysis was used including stepwise logistic regression. We identified 25 cases of clinically symptomatic uterine rupture in a population of 20 326 pregnant women giving an incidence rate of 1.2 uterine ruptures per 1000 deliveries. Five variables were significantly associated with uterine rupture (in both the univariable and multivariable analyses): uterine scars, malpresentation, limping, cephalopelvic disproportion and high parity (>or=7). In conclusion, the incidence of uterine rupture is high in West Africa, even in large cities where essential obstetric care is available and despite the low prevalence of uterine scars. A uterine scar multiplies the risk of uterine rupture by 11. Uterine rupture cannot be predicted from currently known risk factors, including uterine scars. The high case fatality rate (33.3%) and the associated perinatal mortality (52%) bear witness to the absence or inadequacy of health facilities in providing essential obstetric care and to the poor quality of maternal health care, even in major cities. PMID:12060311

Ould El Joud, Dahada; Prual, Alain; Vangeenderhuysen, Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène

2002-04-01

147

Creep and stress rupture behavior of an advanced silicon nitride; Part 3: Stress rupture and the Monkman-Grant relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of the Monkman-Grant relationship to predict the stress rupture life of NT154 silicon nitride is examined. The data show that the Monkman-Grant lines relating rupture life to minimum creep rate are stratified with respect to temperature. A modification to the current expression for the Monkman-Grant relation is proposed to accommodate this temperature dependence. A phenomenological approach based on

Mamballykalathil N. Menon; Ho T. Fang; David C. Wu; Michael G. Jenkins; Mattison K. Ferber

1994-01-01

148

Patient-Specific Carotid Plaque Progression Simulation Using 3D Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Models with Fluid-Structure Interactions Based on Serial In Vivo MRI Data  

PubMed Central

Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression simulation adds time dimension to plaque vulnerability assessment and will improve prediction accuracy for potential plaque rupture risk.

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya

2011-01-01

149

Atherosclerotic plaques: is endothelial shear stress the only factor?  

PubMed

Initiation and development of atherosclerosis has largely been attributed to irregular shear stress patterns and values, in the current literature. Abnormalities such as low shear stress, reversing and oscillatory shear force patterns, as well as temporal variations of shear stress are the most cited factors. However, clinical findings have further indicated that plaques have still been formed and developed in arterial sites that possess relatively more steady and higher shear stresses than those observed in studies correlating low or oscillatory shear stresses with atherosclerosis. These data imply that deviations in shear stress from its normal physiological pattern alone may not be the only factor inducing atherosclerosis, and additional haemodynamics parameter other then shear stress may also contribute to the initiation and development of plaques. In this paper, we hypothesise that the combined effect of wall shear stress and circumferential stress waves, in the form of angular phase difference between the two waves at each cardiac cycle, may be a more accurate determinant of plaque formation and growth. Furthermore, arterial sites that possess more positive values of this angular phase difference may be more prone to plaque formation or development. If proved correct, this theory can transform our understanding of endothelial cell mechanotransduction and mechanobiology, and may lead to design and utilisation of new diagnostic procedures and equipment as predictive and preventive clinical tools for patients with abnormal arterial blood pressure. PMID:23688740

Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Korakianitis, Theodosios

2013-05-17

150

Detection of noncalcified and mixed plaque by multirow detector computed tomography.  

PubMed

New tomographic cardiovascular imaging tests, such as intravascular ultrasonography and coronary computed tomography angiography, can be used to assess atherosclerotic plaques for the characterization and early staging of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although intravascular ultrasonography provides high-resolution images that are capable of revealing early preclinical CAD, it is a highly invasive technique used clinically only in conjunction with coronary interventions. Multidetector computed tomography angiography, which is noninvasive and corresponds well with plaque histology, shows promise as a diagnostic method for CAD and can provide general evaluation of noncalcified and mixed plaque composition. The current generation of 64-slice computed tomography scanners have high accuracy for detection of lesions obstructing more than 50% of the lumen, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values all over 90% in patients without known CAD. They may have an important role in characterizing high-risk noncalcified and mixed plaques. Review of the currently available literature suggests that tissue density measured by multidetector computed tomography can be used to accurately characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition. With further advances in tomographic angiography, the goal will be to detect plaques earlier in the development of CAD and to characterize the plaques most likely to generate a clinical event. PMID:19105767

Foster, Gary; Shah, Harsh; Sarraf, Guilda; Ahmadi, Naser; Budoff, Matthew

2009-01-01

151

Creep Rupture Modelling of Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage by creep related fracture process is of primary importance in en gineering polymers and their composites. Modelling of creep rupture is useful for engi neering design especially in obtaining design stresses. Previously, the creep rupture times of polyethylene and polypropylene have been described successfully using a three element model with a critical elastic stored energy criterion. The modelling is

S. H. Teoh; B. W. Cherry; H. H. Kausch

1992-01-01

152

Creep Ruptures in Heterogeneous Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to rupture. We discover that the rupture time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes

H. Nechad; A. Helmstetter; R. El Guerjouma; D. Sornette

2005-01-01

153

Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging has the potential to discriminate between normal and lipid-rich atheromatous areas of arterial tissue by exploiting the differences in the absorption spectra of lipids and normal arterial tissue in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range. Identification of regions of high lipid concentration would be useful to identify plaques that are likely to rupture (vulnerable plaques). To demonstrate the feasibility of visualizing lipid-rich plaques, samples of human aortas were imaged in forward mode, at wavelengths of 970 and 1210 nm. It was shown that the structure of the arterial wall and the boundaries of lipid-rich plaques obtained from the photoacoustic images were in good agreement with histology. The presence of lipids was also confirmed by comparing the photoacoustic spectra (740 to 1400 nm) obtained in a region within the plaque to the spectral signature of lipids. Furthermore, a lipid-rich plaque was successfully imaged while illuminating the sample through 2.8 mm of blood demonstrating the possibility of implementing the photoacoustic technique in vivo.

Allen, Thomas J.; Hall, Andrew; Dhillon, Amar P.; Owen, James S.; Beard, Paul C.

2012-06-01

154

Balance Between PGD Synthase and PGE Synthase Is a Major Determinant of Atherosclerotic Plaque Instability in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis and is considered a proinflammatory enzyme. COX-2 and type 1 inducible PGE synthase (mPGES-1) have a role in metalloproteinase (MMP) release leading to plaque rupture. In contrast, lipocalin-type PGD synthase (L-PGDS) has been shown to exert antiinflammatory actions. Thus, in this study we investigated whether a shift from a PGDS-oriented

Francesco Cipollone; Maria Fazia; Annalisa Iezzi; Giovanni Ciabattoni; Barbara Pini; Chiara Cuccurullo; Sante Ucchino; Francesco Spigonardo; Mariella De Luca; Cesaria Prontera; Francesco Chiarelli; Franco Cuccurullo; Andrea Mezzetti

2010-01-01

155

Cholesterol in human atherosclerotic plaque is a marker for underlying disease state and plaque vulnerability  

PubMed Central

Background Cholesterol deposition in arterial wall drives atherosclerosis. The key goal of this study was to examine the relationship between plaque cholesterol content and patient characteristics that typically associate with disease state and lesion vulnerability. Quantitative assays for free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and protein markers in atherosclerotic plaque were established and applied to plaque samples from multiple patients and arterial beds (Carotid and peripheral arteries; 98 lesions in total). Results We observed a lower cholesterol level in restenotic than primary peripheral plaque. We observed a trend toward a higher level in symptomatic than asymptomatic carotid plaque. Peripheral plaque from a group of well-managed diabetic patients displayed a weak trend of more free cholesterol deposition than plaque from non-diabetic patients. Plaque triglyceride content exhibited less difference in the same comparisons. We also measured cholesterol in multiple segments within one carotid plaque sample, and found that cholesterol content positively correlated with markers of plaque vulnerability, and negatively correlated with stability markers. Conclusions Our results offer important biological validation of cholesterol as a key lipid marker for plaque severity. Results also suggest cholesterol is a more sensitive plaque marker than routine histological staining for neutral lipids.

2010-01-01

156

[The acute Achilles tendon rupture: new insights in the treatment].  

PubMed

The acute Achilles tendon rupture is a typical sports injury, which most commonly occurs in men. The diagnosis is easy to make but there is no consensus on best treatment: surgical or conservative treatment? In the case of surgical repair, the risk of a re-rupture is considerably smaller compared to conservative treatment by cast immobilisation. The results of conservative treatment using a functional brace are not good enough to serve as a good alternative for surgery. If surgical treatment is chosen, minimally invasive surgery should be performed. The risk of re-rupture is the same as in open reconstruction but the risk of, a possibly severe, wound infection is smaller. Independent of the suture technique chosen, the postoperative rehabilitation should be functional as opposed to full immobilisation. Too little is currently known about the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture for a broadly supported treatment guideline to be realised. PMID:19785867

Kolfschoten, Nicky; Metz, Roderik; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M

2009-01-01

157

Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

2013-01-01

158

The Source Physics of Large Earthquakes - Validating Spontaneous Rupture Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer simulations of earthquake source rupture physics started more than 20 years ago, and the now classic papers of Andrews [1976], Das and Aki [1977], Mikumo and Miyatake [1978], and Day [1982] are included in every new spontaneous rupture modeler's required reading. Until 10 years ago, only a few researchers were able to numerically simulate spontaneous rupture propagation in 3D and the users of this methodology were primarily theoretical seismologists. In contrast, in current times numerous spontaneous rupture computer codes are being developed by researchers around the world, and the results are starting to be implemented in earthquake hazard assessment, for both seismological and engineering applications. Since most of the problems simulated using this numerical approach have no analytical solutions, it is imperative to compare and validate the various versions of this research tool. To this end, a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation) is currently underway. Our first 3D simulation exercise occurred in the fall of 2003 and had participants with 8 operational 3D spontaneous rupture codes; the most recent 2004 exercise involves participants with 10 operational codes. We have started with the basic problem of earthquake nucleation and spontaneous rupture propagation on a vertical strike-slip fault in a homogeneous material. We will soon be moving from comparison to validation, by comparing our simulation results with laboratory recordings of seismic motion due to rupture on a vertical strike-slip fault. Future simulation exercises will have increased complexity in fault geometry, material properties, stress conditions, and friction. Our overall objective is a complete understanding of the simulation methods and their ability to faithfully replicate our hypotheses about earthquake rupture physics.

Harris, R. A.; Archuleta, R.; Aagaard, B.; Ampuero, J.; Andrews, D. J.; Dalguer, L.; Day, S.; Dunham, E.; Ely, G.; Kase, Y.; Lapusta, N.; Liu, Y.; Ma, S.; Oglesby, D.; Olsen, K.; Pitarka, A.

2004-12-01

159

Stratification of risk in thin cap fibroatheromas using peak plaque stress estimates from idealized finite element models.  

PubMed

Thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in coronary arteries is believed to be associated with plaque rupture leading to cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Catheter-based imaging platforms can identify TCFAs but detection algorithms lack specificity. Here we report results of an exploratory study of the variability in TCFA plaque attributes and effects on peak von Mises stress of TCFA using idealized finite element models. A total of 1272 idealized TCFA finite element models were developed by strategically varying attribute dimensions - external elastic membrane diameter, lumen diameter, necrotic core thickness, fibrous cap thickness, and necrotic core angle - obtained from a global registry of subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound. Peak stress exhibited parabolic or higher order proportionality with lumen diameter, sigmoidal proportionality with necrotic core thickness, inverse hyperbolic proportionality with fibrous cap thickness, and skewed sinusoidal proportionality with necrotic core angle. Each of these relationships was governed by highly sensitive, complex, and interdependent influences of various attributes on plaque stress. An over 7-fold increase in peak stress from 101 to 788kPa was observed in models of coronary dimensions commonly encountered in clinical practice. Peak stress of intramural TCFA within this common coronary artery subset did not exceed 300kPa for fibrous cap thickness greater than 100?m and necrotic core angle outside 90-120° range, indicating low risk of rupture. This exploratory study demonstrated the complex and interdependent influence of plaque attributes on the peak stress of TCFA. PMID:22342558

Dolla, William Jacob S; House, John A; Marso, Steven P

2012-02-17

160

Managing hypercholesterolemia and its correlation with carotid plaque morphology in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Hypercholesterolemia is a critical problem in patients with carotid atherosclerosis. The adequacy of attention to lipid risk factors in patients with carotid stenosis awaiting carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has rarely been studied. We also assessed patient awareness of hypercholesterolemia and carotid plaque morphology. Methods: A prospective study was conducted of 141 consecutive patients admitted electively for CEA. Each patient’s medical history was taken. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were determined. Plaque histology was scored according to American Heart Association criteria and their modification. Results: Of patients who were aware of their hypercholesterolemia and who were receiving treatment, 28.6% had total cholesterol levels ?5 mmol/L. Among those patients who had been told that they had no problem with hypercholesterolemia, 32.5% had plasma cholesterol concentrations ?5 mmol/L. Among those patients who had never had their plasma cholesterol measured, 48.4% had total cholesterol levels ?5 mmol/L. Patients in this last group tended to have more severe types of plaque pathology than those in other groups (12.9% plaque rupture). Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemia does not seem to be well managed in patients awaiting CEA.

Rerkasem, Kittipan; Gallagher, Patrick J; Grimble, Robert F; Calder, Philip C; Shearman, Clifford P

2008-01-01

161

Imaging of High-Risk Plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘High-risk’ or ‘vulnerable’ plaques in the coronary arteries have characteristics that make them more prone to disruption and subsequent thrombosis – the mechanisms of most acute coronary syndromes (ACS). There are a number of imaging modalities that are capable of visualizing these features. This article discusses invasive modalities for identifying ‘high-risk’ plaque such as intravascular ultrasound, coronary angioscopy, optical coherence

Dmitry Nemirovsky

2003-01-01

162

Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found.

2012-01-01

163

Fabrication of Ni-Plaque-Based Manganese Dioxide Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and electrochemical impregnation methods have been developed for the fabrication of manganese dioxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors using Ni plaques as current collectors. The methods enabled the synthesis of manganese dioxide in-situ in pores of Ni plaques. The chemical method was based on the reduction of KMnO4 solutions with isopropanol. Cathodic galvanostatic method and reverse pulse electrosynthesis method were

Yaohui Wang; Quan Min Yang; Igor Zhitomirsky

2011-01-01

164

Fabrication of Ni-plaque Based Manganese Dioxide Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and electrochemical impregnation methods have been developed for the fabrication of manganese dioxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors using Ni plaques as current collectors. The methods enabled the synthesis of manganese dioxide in-situ in pores of Ni plaques. Chemical method was based on the reduction of KMnO4 solutions with isopropanol. Cathodic galvanostatic method and reverse pulse electrosynthesis method were investigated

Yaohui Wang; Quan Min Yang; Igor Zhitomirsky

2011-01-01

165

Variation in atherosclerotic plaque composition according to increasing coronary artery calcium scores on computed tomography angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) are independently associated with cardiac events. Recent advents in coronary\\u000a computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have allowed us to better characterize individual plaque. Currently, it is unknown\\u000a if higher CACS are likely to be associated with more calcified or mixed and heterogeneous plaque burden on CCTA. The study\\u000a population consisted of 1,043 South Korean asymptomatic

Khurram Nasir; Juan J. Rivera; Yeonyee E. Yoon; Sung-A Chang; Sang-iI Choi; Eun-Ju Chun; Dong-Joo Choi; Matthew J. Budoff; Roger S. Blumenthal; Hyuk-Jae Chang

2010-01-01

166

Advanced Techniques for MRI of Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

This review examines the state of the art in vessel wall imaging by MRI with an emphasis on the biomechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. Three areas of advanced techniques are discussed. First, alternative contrast mechanisms, including susceptibility, magnetization transfer, diffusion and perfusion, are presented in regards to how they facilitate accurate determination of plaque constituents underlying biomechanics. Second, imaging technologies, including hardware and sequences, are reviewed in regards to how they provide the resolution and SNR necessary for determining plaque structure. Finally, techniques for combining MRI data into an overall assessment of plaque biomechanical properties, including wall shear stress and internal plaque strain, are presented. The paper closes with a discussion of the extent to which these techniques have been applied to different arteries commonly targeted by vessel wall MRI.

Kerwin, William S.; Canton, Gador

2011-01-01

167

Ni-Co alloy plaque for cathode of Ni-Cd battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present invention relates generally to Ni-Cd batteries, and, in particular, relates to the plaque material attached to the cathode. Because of the wide use of nickel-cadmium batteries, the corrosion rates of nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys are of interest to nickel-cadmium battery electrochemical theory and its technology. The plaque material of the cathode consists of a Ni-Co alloy in solid solution wherein the cobalt is by weight percent one to ten percent of the alloy. Conventional methods of applying the plaque material to the nickel core may be used. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved cathode for a nickel-cadmium battery wherein the nickel corrosion is substantially lessened in the plaque material. One process of making the plaque uses a nickel powder slurry that is applied to a nickel-plated steel core. This is then sintered at a high temperature which results in a very porous structure and an welding of the nickel grains to the core. This plaque is then soaked in appropriate salts to make either a positive or a negative plate; nickel salts make a positive plate and a cadmium salts a negative plate, for example. After impregnation, the plaque is placed in an electrolyte and an electric current is passed therethrough to convert the salts to their final form. In the nickel-cadmium cell, nickel hydroxide is the active material in the positive plate.

Lander, J. J.

1986-03-01

168

Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses.  

PubMed

The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013

Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong

2012-06-06

169

Creep Ruptures in Heterogeneous Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to rupture. We discover that the rupture time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of rupture prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths.

Nechad, H.; Helmstetter, A.; El Guerjouma, R.; Sornette, D.

2005-01-01

170

Creep ruptures in heterogeneous materials.  

PubMed

We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to rupture. We discover that the rupture time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of rupture prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths. PMID:15783567

Nechad, H; Helmstetter, A; El Guerjouma, R; Sornette, D

2005-01-31

171

Partial ACL rupture: an MR diagnosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial ante- rior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures and to allow dis- tinction of partial from complete ACL ruptures. Materials and methods. Eighty-eight patients were stud- ied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL ruptures, and 31 with complete ACL ruptures). MR

Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Leonard Petrus; Joong K. Lee

1995-01-01

172

[Splenic rupture and anticoagulant therapy].  

PubMed

Splenic rupture associated with anticoagulant therapy is a rare entity. We report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture in a 62-year-old man who was treated by acenocoumarol orally after an aortic-valve replacement. Unrecognised, minor trauma may lead to splenic haemorrhage in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. The symptoms and signs may mimic those of acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Early diagnosis is essential. Reversal of the anticoagulant and emergent splenectomy are the treatments of choice. PMID:15324967

Badaoui, R; Chebboubi, K; Delmas, J; Jakobina, S; Mahjoub, Y; Riboulot, M

2004-07-01

173

Creep rupture of polymer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A creep-rupture model, based on a creep model which was successfully applied in a previous paper to model and predict the creep of a unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composite and that of the epoxy matrix, and a critical energy fracture criterion, are presented. The results of the successful application of this model to predict the creep rupture of AS4\\/3501-6 composite specimens

J. Raghavan; M. Meshii

1997-01-01

174

The prevention and regression of atherosclerotic plaques: emerging treatments  

PubMed Central

Occlusive vascular diseases, such as sudden coronary syndromes, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease, are a huge burden on the health care systems of developed and developing countries. Tremendous advances have been made over the last few decades in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Intravascular ultrasound has been able to provide detailed information of plaque anatomy and has been used in several studies to assess outcomes. The presence of atherosclerosis disrupts the normal protective mechanism provided by the endothelium and this mechanism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease and stroke. Efforts are being put into the prevention of atherosclerosis, which has been shown to begin in childhood. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and discusses the current options available for the prevention and reversal of plaque formation.

Kalanuria, Atul Ashok; Nyquist, Paul; Ling, Geoffrey

2012-01-01

175

Earthquake Early Warning for Large Events using Probabilistic Models for Seismic Rupture Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) requires a rapid determination of source and ground motion parameters before strong shaking occurs. The potential warning time to heavily shaken areas are greatest for infrequent large earthquakes (Mw>7.5) with rupture expansions of hundreds of kilometers. However, these long rupture-length events pose a major challenge; that is how to recognize that an ongoing rupture is likely to propagate for a long distance. We determine the posterior probabilities of remaining rupture length Lr as a function of current slip amplitude uc from simulated slip pulses using calibrated stochastic 1-D models. We find that (1) large current slip amplitudes usually indicate that a rupture will continue, although the uncertainty is significant which underlines the need for a probabilistic description; and (2) the relationship between uc and Lr is strongly controlled by fault characteristics, such as the spatial roughness of slip along the fault, which may be a function of the maturity of the fault system. For a practical application this means that one of the most important challenges in EEW for large events is the rapid recognition of the characteristics of the fault, along which the rupture propagates. For example, a critical question is, "is this ongoing rupture on the San Andreas fault?"" Our findings also support the hypothesis (with the above constraints) that seismic ruptures are to some degree deterministic, that is magnitudes are statistically predictable within the first few seconds after rupture initiation, provided that the hypocenter is in a patch of large slip.

Heaton, T. H.; Böse, M.

2008-12-01

176

Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol/High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Ratio Predicts Plaque Vulnerability in Patients With Stable Angina  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The relationship between lipid profile and coronary plaque tissue characteristics in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tissue characteristics and lipid profile and predictors of unstable plaques (UPs) in patients with SAP by virtual histology intravascular ultrasonography (VH-IVUS). Subjects and Methods VH-IVUS was performed for target lesions in patients with SAP (61.7±9.2 years, 174 males, n=266) at the time of coronary angiography. UPs are characterized by thin-cap fibroatheroma, ruptured plaque, or remaining thrombus with VH-IVUS. Results The present study showed that 34 SAP patients had UPs (61.6±9.2 years, 24 males, 12.8%). The percentage of plaque area in the minimum luminal area in high low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio patients was significantly higher than in low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio patients (72.7±9.5% vs. 69.9±9.3%, p=0.035). An LDL-C/HDL-C ratio >2.0 was an independent predictor for UPs in SAP patients (odds ratio 5.252, 95% confidence interval 1.132-24.372, p=0.034). Conclusion An elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is a positive predictor for coronary plaque vulnerability in patients with SAP.

Kim, Jeong Hun; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Ki Hong; Kim, In Soo; Choi, Yun Ha; Lee, Min Goo; Park, Keun-Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

2012-01-01

177

Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

2002-12-01

178

Effect of N -chlorotaurine mouth rinses on plaque regrowth and plaque vitality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this 4-day plaque regrowth study was to assess the effect of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) mouth rinses on plaque inhibition and plaque vitality. Eighty volunteers participated in this investigator-blind,\\u000a randomized, clinical controlled study in parallel groups. No oral hygiene was permitted except rinsing with a 2% or 3% NCT\\u000a mouth rinse, a positive or a negative control. Primary parameters

K. Lorenz; D. Mayer; G. Bruhn; B. Noack; M. Brecx; C. Heumann; H. Toutenburg; L. Netuschil; M. Nagl; W. Gottardi; T. Hoffmann

2009-01-01

179

A Meta Analysis and Hierarchical Classification of HU-Based Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background Many computed tomography (CT) studies have reported that lipid-rich, presumably rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques can be characterized according to their Hounsfield Unit (HU) value. However, the published HU-based characterization criteria vary considerably. The present study aims to systematically analyze these values and empirically derive a hierarchical classification of the HU-based criteria which can be referred in clinical situation. Material and Methods A systematic search in PubMed and Embase for publications with HU-criteria to characterize lipid-rich and fibrous atherosclerotic plaques resulted in 36 publications, published between 1998 and 2011. The HU-criteria were systematically analyzed based on the characteristics of the reporting study. Significant differences between HU-criteria were checked using Student’s t-test. Subsequently, a hierarchical classification of HU-criteria was developed based on the respective study characteristics. Results No correlation was found between HU-criteria and the reported lumen contrast-enhancement. Significant differences were found for HU-criteria when pooled according to the respective study characteristics: examination type, vessel type, CT-vendor, detector-rows, voltage-setting, and collimation-width. The hierarchical classification resulted in 21 and 22 CT attenuation value categories, for lipid-rich and fibrous plaque, respectively. More than 50% of the hierarchically classified HU-criteria were significantly different. Conclusion In conclusion, variations in the reported CT attenuation values for lipid-rich and fibrous plaque are so large that generalized values are unreliable for clinical use. The proposed hierarchical classification can be used to determine reference CT attenuation values of lipid-rich and fibrous plaques for the local setting.

Kristanto, Wisnumurti; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

2013-01-01

180

CONFIRMED VIRUSES VERSUS UNCONFIRMED PLAQUES IN SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ninety-two treated and untreated sewage samples from seven wastewater treatment plants in Chicago, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Cincinnati, Ohio were examined for their virus content. Concentrated and unconcentrated samples were plaque assayed in five different cell culture ...

181

Motion compensated reconstructions of calcified coronary plaques in cardiac CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain motion-compensated reconstructions of calcified coronary plaques in cardiac CT, the dynamic trajectory of the plaque must be known rather accurately. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the dynamic trajectories of a plaque extracted from reconstructions provided by a previously developed tracking algorithm can be used for obtaining motion-compensated reconstructions of this plaque. A

Martin King; Xiaochuan Pan; Maryellen Giger; Kenji Suzuki

2007-01-01

182

Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact\\u000a removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different\\u000a biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their

Martinus J. Verkaik; Henk J. Busscher; Minie Rustema-Abbing; Anje M. Slomp; Frank Abbas; Henny C. van der Mei

2010-01-01

183

Visualising noncalcified coronary plaques by CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a rapid improvement of the new generation submillimetre multislice CT-technology noninvasive tomographic imaging of the coronary vessel wall has become reality. First clinical studies have shown the ability in particular of 16-slice CT to determine plaque burden, plaque composition and compensatory vessel-wall remodelling. These novel findings already constitute an important step forward to assess coronary atherosclerosis noninvasively in

Alexander W. Leber; Andreas Knez; Alexander Becker; Christoph Becker; Maximilian Reiser; Gerhard Steinbeck; Peter Boekstegers

2005-01-01

184

Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque  

PubMed Central

The leading cause of major morbidity and mortality in most countries around the world is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most commonly caused by thrombotic occlusion of a high-risk coronary plaque resulting in myocardial infarction or cardiac death, or embolization from a high-risk carotid plaque resulting in stroke. The lesions prone to result in such clinical events are termed vulnerable or high-risk plaques, and their identification may lead to the development of pharmacological and mechanical intervention strategies to prevent such events. Autopsy studies from patients dying of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death have shown that such events typically arise from specific types of atherosclerotic plaques, most commonly the thin-cap fibroatheroma. However, the search in human beings for vulnerable plaques before their becoming symptomatic has been elusive. Recently, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study demonstrated that coronary plaques that are likely to cause future cardiac events, regardless of angiographic severity, are characterized by large plaque burden and small lumen area and/or are thin-cap fibroatheromas verified by radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. This study opened the door to identifying additional invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that may improve detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions and patients. Beyond classic risk factors, novel biomarkers and genetic profiling may identify those patients in whom noninvasive imaging for vulnerable plaque screening, followed by invasive imaging for risk confirmation is warranted, and in whom future pharmacological and/or device-based focal or regional therapies may be applied to improve long-term prognosis.

Fleg, Jerome L.; Stone, Gregg W.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Granada, Juan F.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Ohayon, Jacques; Pettigrew, Roderic; Sabatine, Marc S.; Tearney, Guillermo; Waxman, Sergio; Domanski, Michael J.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Narula, Jagat

2013-01-01

185

Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether delay of the repair of the ruptured thoracic aorta in patients with other major injuries is safe and has a potential positive impact on survival. Summary Background Data The accepted treatment for acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta has been repair of the injury as soon as possible. This form of management, however, has been accompanied by a death rate of 0% to 54% mortality, often related to the presence of other injuries. Methods The records of 30 consecutive patients with rupture of the thoracic aorta from blunt trauma treated from 1995 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Two of them died shortly after admission and were excluded from further consideration. The remaining 28 patients were divided according to the time of the repair of the rupture into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent repair of the rupture immediately after the diagnosis was made. Group 2 patients, who had associated injuries that were likely to increase the risk of surgical death, had either repair more than 48 hours after injury (subgroup 2A) or had no repair (subgroup 2B). The patients in group 2 had their mean arterial pressure maintained at less than 70 mm Hg with medication to eliminate shear stress on the aortic tear while being observed. Results Twenty-eight patients (22 men, 6 women) with an average age of 36 years (range 19–76) were treated. Twenty-five had rupture of the descending thoracic aorta and three had rupture in the ascending thoracic aorta. Group 1 comprised 14 patients, 5 of whom died during surgery or in the early postoperative period. Group 2 comprised 14 patients, 9 in subgroup 2A and 5 in subgroup 2B. Two patients in subgroup 2A and three patients in subgroup 2B died of associated injuries or illnesses. Rupture of the traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta did not occur in any of the patients in group 2. Conclusions Delayed repair of acute traumatic aortic rupture is safe under appropriate treatment and should be considered in selected patients.

Symbas, Panagiotis N.; Sherman, Andrew J.; Silver, Jeffery M.; Symbas, John D.; Lackey, Jodi J.

2002-01-01

186

Rupture of the tracheobronchial tree.  

PubMed Central

Eleven cases of tracheobronchial rupture are described. Nine were the result of external non-penetrating trauma and all but three had other serious injuries. The remaining two were caused by endobronchial intubation. Of the cases caused by external injury, respiratory tract injury was confined to the cervical trachea in three. Two required tracheostomy and repair and the third was managed conservatively; all made satisfactory recoveries. Intrathoracic rupture was recognised on or soon after admission in three cases. One patient died of uncontrollable pulmonary haemorrhage before he could be operated on; immediate repair gave good long term results in the other two. In three cases rupture of the main bronchus was not recognised until complete obstruction developed three, five, and 12 weeks after the accidents. The strictures were resected and the lung re-expanded. Robertshaw endobronchial tubes ruptured the left main bronchus in two patients undergoing oesophageal surgery. Uneventful recovery followed immediate repair. The difficulty of confirming rupture of a major airway is discussed and the importance of conserving the lung when the diagnosis has been missed is emphasised. Images

Roxburgh, J C

1987-01-01

187

Abnormal pulmonary function associated with diaphragmatic pleural plaques due to exposure to asbestos.  

PubMed

Pulmonary function was measured in 79 men with diaphragmatic pleural plaques (DPP) as the only abnormality characteristic of asbestos disease on chest radiographs. They were selected from 4572 construction and shipyard workers exposed to asbestos. Abnormalities of pulmonary function in 21 non-smokers and 43 current smokers were compared with referent values adjusted for height, age, and duration of cigarette smoking. In the non-smokers, flows (FEV1) FEF75-85 and FEV1/FVC) were reduced and TGV and RV/TGV were raised. Current smokers had similar significant reductions. Thus by contrast with some current opinion that plaques are "an index only of past asbestos exposure," workers with plaques, even limited to the diaphragm, have functional impairment typical of pulmonary asbestosis. This suggests that they have pulmonary asbestosis, which is below the threshold of radiographic recognition. PMID:2207032

Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

1990-09-01

188

Hyperintense plaque identified by magnetic resonance imaging relates to intracoronary thrombus as detected by optical coherence tomography in patients with angina pectoris  

PubMed Central

Aims Many investigators have speculated that hyperintense plaques (HIPs) of the carotid artery on non-contrast T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) in magnetic resonance indicate the presence of mural or intraplaque haemorrhage containing methemoglobin. Coronary plaque imaging with T1WI is challenging, and the clinical significance of coronary HIP on T1WI remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare HIPs on T1WI with coronary plaque morphology assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), which allows us to identify not only plaque rupture, but also fibrous cap thickness and intracoronary thrombus in vivo, in patients with angina pectoris. Methods and results Twenty-six lesions from 26 patients with either stable or unstable angina pectoris were examined in this study. All patients underwent T1WI within 24 h before the day on which invasive coronary angiography was performed, and pre-interventional OCT was performed on a native atherosclerotic lesion, considered to be the culprit lesion. Of the 26 lesions studied, 16 (62%) were HIPs and 10 (38%) were non-HIPs. The signal intensity of the coronary plaque to cardiac muscle ratio in HIPs was significantly higher than that in non-HIPs. There were no significant differences in the frequency of lipid-rich plaque, thin-cap fibroatheroma, plaque rupture, and calcification between HIPs and non-HIPs. In contrast, the frequency of thrombus was significantly higher in HIPs than in non-HIPs (P = 0.004). Conclusion This study shows that the HIPs on T1WI in angina patients relate to the presence of intracoronary thrombus as detected by OCT imaging.

Ehara, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Takao; Nakata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Satoshi; Iguchi, Tomokazu; Kataoka, Toru; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

2012-01-01

189

Rupture testing of UFâ transport and storage cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture tests have been conducted on pressure vessels of all sizes and designs in current commercial use in the transport and storage of uranium hexafluoride. The test results have demonstrated the general conformance of the cylinders to their design criteria. Several of the test cylinders were taken from active service. A few were made available as the result of handling

K. T. Ziehlke; C. R. Barlow

1988-01-01

190

The role of shear stress in the generation of rupture-prone vulnerable plaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood-flow-induced shear stress acting on the arterial wall is of paramount importance in vascular biology. Endothelial cells sense shear stress and largely control its value in a feedback-control loop by adapting the arterial dimensions to blood flow. Nevertheless, to allow for variations in arterial geometry, such as bifurcations, shear stress control is modified at certain eccentrically located sites to let

JJ Wentzel; FJH Gijsen; JCH Schuurbiers; AC van der Wal; AFW van der Steen; P. W. Serruys; CJ Slager

2005-01-01

191

Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.  

PubMed

This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology. PMID:9395116

Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

1997-10-01

192

Amyloid Plaques in PSAPP Mice Bind Less Metal than Plaques in Human Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Amyloid beta (A?) is the primary component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high degree of neurodegeneration observed in humans. In this study, we imaged the Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ca ion distribution in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model representing end-stage AD (N = 6) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe. In order to account for differences in density in the plaques, the relative protein content was imaged with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same samples. FTIRM results revealed a 61% increase in protein content in the plaques compared to the surrounding tissue. After normalizing to protein density, we found that the PSAPP plaques contained only a 29% increase in Zn and there was actually less Cu, Fe, and Ca in the plaque compared to the surrounding tissue. Since metal-binding to A? is thought to induce redox chemistry that is toxic to neurons, the reduced metal-binding in PSAPP mice is consistent with the lack of neurodegeneration in these animals. These findings were in stark contrast to the high metal ion content observed in human AD plaques, further implicating the role of metal ions in human AD pathology.

Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Miller, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

193

Dealing with a penstock rupture: A success story  

SciTech Connect

Speed and safety are important considerations when repairing damaged penstocks. When the Control Gorge penstock in southern California ruptured, quick, successful action prevented complications. In the winter of 1991, a break occurred in the lower portion of the 8-foot-diameter Owens River Gorge penstock. The rupture created a vacuum, which caused about 1,500 feet of the pipe upstream of the break to collapse. Investigations by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) indicate that pressure surges in the penstock caused by rapid opening and closing of a turbine bypass-relief valve at the Control Gorge hydro plant and a defective weld at a manway (a small access that leads into the penstock) led to the rupture. Quick emergency repairs were required owing to the limited bypass capability around the penstock, the need for water flow for fish habitat in the lower sections of the Owens River, and water needs for Los Angeles. Within ten days, LADWP employees had temporarily repaired the penstock. In less than five months, workers had replaced the collapsed and ruptured sections, and returned the penstock to full service. The penstock rupture at Owens Gorge caused LADWP to recognize that older hydro plants may have hidden defects that would not have been left in place with current construction and inspection methods. Therefore, additional care should be taken during operation of these plants to avoid placing any unnecessary stresses on plant equipment.

Siminski, D.R. (Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, CA (United States))

1993-08-01

194

Characterization of coronary plaques with combined use of intravascular ultrasound, virtual histology and optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

According to post-mortem studies, luminal thrombosis occurs from plaque rupture, erosion and calcified nodules. In vivo studies have found thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) as the main vulnerable lesion, prone to rupture. Few data about other post-mortem lesions have been reported in vivo. Our main objective is to characterize in vivo the coronary plaques with intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology (IVUS-VH) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in order to detect not only thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), but also other possible vulnerable lesions. The secondary objective is to correlate these findings with clinical and analytical data. Twenty-five patients (18 stable) submitted to coronary angiography were included in this pilot study. After angiography, the three vessels were studied (when possible) with IVUS-VH and OCT. Plaque characteristics were correlated with clinical and analytical data. Forty-six lesions were analyzed. IVUS-VH detected significant necrotic core in 15 (3 were definite TCFA). OCT detected TCFA in 10 lesions, erosion in 6, thrombus in 5 and calcified nodule in 8. Possible vulnerable lesion was found in 61% of stable and 57% of unstable patients. Erosions and calcified nodules were only found in stable patients. Those with significant necrotic core had higher body mass index (P=0.016), higher levels of hs-CRP (P=0.019) and triglycerides (P=0.040). The higher the levels of hs-CRP, the larger the size of the necrotic core (r=0.69, P=0.003). Lesions with characteristics of vulnerability were detected by IVUS-VH and OCT in more than 50% of stable and unstable coronary patients. A significant necrotic core was mainly correlated with higher hs-CRP. PMID:21977297

Sánchez-Elvira, Guillermo; Coma-Canella, Isabel; Artaiz, Miguel; Páramo, José Antonio; Barba, Joaquín; Calabuig, José

2010-12-31

195

Characterization of coronary plaques with combined use of intravascular ultrasound, virtual histology and optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

According to post-mortem studies, luminal thrombosis occurs from plaque rupture, erosion and calcified nodules. In vivo studies have found thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) as the main vulnerable lesion, prone to rupture. Few data about other post-mortem lesions have been reported in vivo. Our main objective is to characterize in vivo the coronary plaques with intravascular ultrasound-virtual histology (IVUS-VH) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in order to detect not only thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), but also other possible vulnerable lesions. The secondary objective is to correlate these findings with clinical and analytical data. Twenty-five patients (18 stable) submitted to coronary angiography were included in this pilot study. After angiography, the three vessels were studied (when possible) with IVUS-VH and OCT. Plaque characteristics were correlated with clinical and analytical data. Forty-six lesions were analyzed. IVUS-VH detected significant necrotic core in 15 (3 were definite TCFA). OCT detected TCFA in 10 lesions, erosion in 6, thrombus in 5 and calcified nodule in 8. Possible vulnerable lesion was found in 61% of stable and 57% of unstable patients. Erosions and calcified nodules were only found in stable patients. Those with significant necrotic core had higher body mass index (P=0.016), higher levels of hs-CRP (P=0.019) and triglycerides (P=0.040). The higher the levels of hs-CRP, the larger the size of the necrotic core (r=0.69, P=0.003). Lesions with characteristics of vulnerability were detected by IVUS-VH and OCT in more than 50% of stable and unstable coronary patients. A significant necrotic core was mainly correlated with higher hs-CRP.

Sanchez-Elvira, Guillermo; Coma-Canella, Isabel; Artaiz, Miguel; Paramo, Jose Antonio; Barba, Joaquin; Calabuig, Jose

2010-01-01

196

Measurement of fibrous cap thickness in atherosclerotic plaques by spatiotemporal analysis of laser speckle images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Necrotic-core fibroatheromas (NCFA) with thin, mechanically weak fibrous caps overlying lipid cores comprise the majority of plaques that rupture and cause acute myocardial infarction. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has been recently demonstrated to enable atherosclerotic plaque characterization with high accuracy. We investigate spatio-temporal analysis of LSI data, in conjunction with diffusion theory and Monte Carlo modeling of light transport, to estimate fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs. Time-varying laser speckle images of 20 NCFAs are selected for analysis. Spatio-temporal intensity fluctuations are analyzed by exponential fitting of the windowed normalized cross-correlation of sequential laser speckle patterns to obtain the speckle decorrelation time constant, ?(?), as a function of distance ? from the source entry location. The distance, ??, at which ?(?) dropped to 65% of its maximum value is recorded. Diffusion theory and Monte Carlo models are utilized to estimate the maximum photon penetration depth, zmax(??), for a distance equal to ??, measured from LSI. Measurements of zmax(??) correlate well with histological measurements of fibrous cap thickness (R=0.78,p<0.0001), and paired t-tests show no significant difference between the groups (p=0.4). These results demonstrate that spatio-temporal LSI may allow the estimation of fibrous cap thickness in NCFAs, which is an important predictor of plaque stability.

Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bilenca, Alberto; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

2006-03-01

197

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2011-10-01

198

Traumatic duodenal rupture in a soccer player  

PubMed Central

Traumatic duodenal rupture resulting from blunt trauma during soccer is an extremely rare occurrence. A case report of this unusual condition is presented together with a review of the literature. Key Words: soccer; football; duodenal rupture; trauma

Houshian, S.

2000-01-01

199

Chordal rupture. I: aetiology and natural history.  

PubMed Central

Between 1970 and 1981, 12% of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery were found to have chordal rupture. Spontaneous or primary rupture accounted for 74.6% of patients (primary group); in the remainder (secondary group) chordal rupture complicated chronic rheumatic valvular disease (8.9%), bacterial endocarditis on both normal (8.5%) and rheumatic valves (4.7%), ischaemic heart disease (2.3%), acute rheumatic fever (0.5%), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.5%). Isolated posterior rupture was seen most frequently (54%), with anterior rupture in 36% and rupture of both mitral cusps in 10% of patients. A short symptomatic history of acute mitral regurgitation was rare, occurring in only 4% of patients in either the primary or secondary groups, suggesting that mitral regurgitation due to ruptured chordae is a progressive disease. In contrast to previous reports the clinical presentation did not help to differentiate the aetiology of the chordal rupture.

Oliveira, D B; Dawkins, K D; Kay, P H; Paneth, M

1983-01-01

200

Lifting the Silver Flakes: The Pathogenesis and Management of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition in which patients suffer from mild to chronic plaque skin plaques. The disease manifests through an excessive inflammatory response in the skin due to complex interactions between different genetic and environmental factors. Psoriasis can affect the physical, emotional, and psychosocial well-being of patients, and currently there is no cure with treatments focusing primarily on the use of anti-inflammatory agents to control disease symptoms. Traditional anti-inflammatory agents can cause immunosuppression and adverse systemic effects. Further understanding of the disease has led to current areas of research aiming at the development of selective molecular targets to suppress the pathogenic immune responses.

Chong, Heng T.; Cowin, Allison J.

2013-01-01

201

Open repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

Although the Achilles tendon is the strongest in the body, it also is the most often ruptured. Achilles tendon rupture most often occurs during sports activities in middle-aged men. Operative repair of a ruptured Achilles tendon can be accomplished with a variety of techniques, ranging from open repair, to minimally invasive technique, to endoscopic-assisted repair. This article focuses on open repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Surgical techniques, rehabilitation protocol, and the authors' preferred method are described. PMID:19857843

Rosenzweig, Seth; Azar, Frederick M

2009-12-01

202

Rupture dimensions and rupture processes of fluid-induced microcracks in salt rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and applied a simple empirical Green function method to study induced microcracks observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments in salt rock. Either unidirectional ruptures on rectangular faults or allround ruptures on elliptical faults are tested to explain the observed directivity effects in body-wave amplitude spectra. Mostly, the rectangular rupture model and horizontal fault planes are favored. The average rupture

T. Dahm

2001-01-01

203

Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements.

Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A.; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O.

2011-02-01

204

Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro.  

PubMed

Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements. PMID:21361695

Larsen, Eivind L P; Randeberg, Lise L; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O

2011-02-01

205

Histopathological findings in spontaneous tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

A spontaneous rupture of a tendon may be defined as a rupture that occurs during movement and activity, that should not and usually does not damage the involved musculotendinous units (1). Spontaneous tendon ruptures were uncommon before the 1950s. Böhler found only 25 Achilles tendon ruptures in Wien between 1925 and 1948 (2). Mösender & Klatnek treated 20 Achilles tendon ruptures between 1953 and 1956, but 105 ruptures between 1964 and 1967 (3). Lawrence et al. found only 31 Achilles tendon ruptures in Boston during a period of 55 years (1900-1954) (4). During the recent decades tendon ruptures have, however, become relatively common in developed countries, especially in Europe and North America. A high incidence of tendon ruptures has been reported in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany. Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA; somewhat lower incidences have been reported in Canada, France, Great Britain and Spain. On the other hand, Greece, Japan, the Netherlands and Portugal have reported a clearly lower incidence. Interestingly, Achilles tendon ruptures are a rarity in developing countries, especially in Africa and East-Asia (5). In many developed countries, the increases in the rupture incidence have been dramatic. In the National Institute of Traumatology in Budapest, Hungary, the number of patients with an Achilles tendon rupture increased 285% in men and 500% in women between two successive 7-year periods, 1972-1978 and 1979-1985 (5). PMID:9211612

Józsa, L; Kannus, P

1997-04-01

206

Case report Recurrent spontaneous esophageal rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous esophageal rupture is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Recurrent rupture is extremely rare, with only one previously reported case in the literature. Here, we present a case series of two patients who had recurrent ruptures, and discuss the principles underlying the management of such cases. Q 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Omar A. Khan; Clifford W. Barlow; David F. Weeden; Khalid M. Amer

207

Blunt Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Aortic rupture is a potentially fatal complication in trauma. We report our surgical result in the treatment of traumatic aortic rupture in eastern Taiwan. Patients and Methods: From August 1996 to October 2000, six patients with traumatic aortic rupture had surgery at Tzu Chi General Hospital. Five had a widened mediastinum on chest X-ray examination. They were diag- nosed

Shen-Feng Chao; Bee-Song Chang

208

Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active

Irep Gözen; Paul Dommersnes; Ilja Czolkos; Aldo Jesorka; Tatsiana Lobovkina; Owe Orwar

2010-01-01

209

Traumatic pericardial rupture with skeletonized phrenic nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traumatic pericardial rupture is a rare presentation. Pericardial rupture itself is asymptomatic unless complicated by either hemorrhage or herniation of the heart through the defect. Following diagnosis surgical repair of the pericardium is indicated because cardiac herniation may result in vascular collapse and sudden death. OBJECTIVES: Here we present a case of traumatic, non-herniated pericardial rupture with complete skeletonization

Zain Khalpey; Taufiek K Rajab; Jan D Schmitto; Philipp C Camp

2011-01-01

210

Helical CT of Blunt Diaphragmatic Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. This study evaluated CT findings for signs of blunt diaphragmatic rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS. CT examinations of 179 blunt trauma patients, includ- ing 11 with left-sided and five with right-sided blunt diaphragmatic rupture, were reviewed by two staff radiologists who first decided by consensus on the presence or absence of 11 pub- lished signs of blunt diaphragmatic rupture and

Alain Nchimi; David Szapiro; Benoît Ghaye; Valérie Willems; Jamil Khamis; Luc Haquet; Charlemagne Noukoua; Robert F. Dondelinger

211

Spontaneous rupture of a splenotic nodule.  

PubMed Central

A case is presented of spontaneous rupture of splenic tissue occurring 14 years after a splenectomy was carried out for trauma. Spontaneous rupture of a splenotic nodule has not previously been described and it may be added to the list of causes of spontaneous haemoperitoneum. The incidence and function of residual splenic tissue are briefly discussed and other causes of splenic rupture are outlined.

Lanigan, D. J.

1990-01-01

212

MRI of tibialis anterior tendon rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare. We present the clinical histories and MRI findings of three recent male patients with tibialis anterior tendon rupture aged 58–67 years, all of whom presented with pain over the dorsum of the ankle. Two of the three patients presented with complete rupture showing discontinuity of the tendon, thickening of the retracted portion of

Robert A. Gallo; Brett H. Kolman; Richard H. Daffner; Robert L. Sciulli; Catherine C. Roberts; Patrick J. DeMeo

2004-01-01

213

Rupture of spleen post colonoscopy.  

PubMed

We review an interesting case of elective colonoscopy for rectal bleeding in a 68-year-old woman complicated by splenic rupture. She was managed by aggressive fluid and blood resuscitation followed by splenectomy. She had a smooth recovery and was discharged home 4 days after admission. The extreme rarity and interesting clinical course of the patient are discussed. PMID:19668895

Younes, Nidal A; Al-Ardah, Mahmoud I; Daradkeh, Salam S

2009-08-01

214

Multiple tendon ruptures of unknown etiology.  

PubMed

Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study. PMID:23966259

Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G

2013-08-21

215

Numerical simulations of large earthquakes: Dynamic rupture propagation on heterogeneous faults  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our current conceptions of earthquake rupture dynamics, especially for large earthquakes, require knowledge of the geometry of the faults involved in the rupture, the material properties of the rocks surrounding the faults, the initial state of stress on the faults, and a constitutive formulation that determines when the faults can slip. In numerical simulations each of these factors appears to play a significant role in rupture propagation, at the kilometer length scale. Observational evidence of the earth indicates that at least the first three of the elements, geometry, material, and stress, can vary over many scale dimensions. Future research on earthquake rupture dynamics needs to consider at which length scales these features are significant in affecting rupture propagation. ?? Birkha??user Verlag, Basel, 2004.

Harris, R. A.

2004-01-01

216

GPR92/LPA5 lysophosphatidate receptor mediates megakaryocytic cell shape change induced by human atherosclerotic plaques  

PubMed Central

Aims Oxidative processes and vascular inflammation underlying atherosclerosis lead to an accumulation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) molecules in the atheromatous intima. LPA, a platelet-activating component of human atherosclerotic plaques, possibly contributes to atherothrombus formation after plaque rupture. Human platelets express mRNA for the G protein-coupled receptors LPA1–7 that derive from megakaryocytes. The aim of our study was to identify the functional LPA receptor(s) in human platelets by silencing individual LPA receptors in megakaryocytic (MK) cells. Methods and results We studied shape change of two human MK cell lines (Meg-01, Dami) by turbidometry, phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy. They showed upon LPA stimulation a rapid, Rho-kinase-mediated shape change similar to that of human platelets. By qRT–PCR analysis we found expression of LPA1–7 in both cell lines; LPA4 and LPA5 were the most abundant receptor transcripts. In both Meg-01 and Dami cells, the rank order of activation by LPA species was similar to that found in platelets: alkyl-LPA 18:1 > alkyl-LPA 16:0 > acyl-LPA 18:1 >> alkyl-LPA 18:0. Knock-down of individual LPA receptors by siRNA showed that LPA-mediated activation of MK cells was mediated by LPA5, but not by LPA1–4,6,7. Importantly, we found that human atherosclerotic plaque and lipid-rich core induced shape change of Dami cells, and that this effect was inhibited after LPA5 silencing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that LPA5 mediates LPA-induced shape change of MK cells and support its involvement in atherosclerotic plaque and lipid-rich core-mediated platelet activation. This receptor could be an attractive novel target for antithrombotic therapy.

Khandoga, Anna L.; Pandey, Dharmendra; Welsch, Ulrich; Brandl, Richard; Siess, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

217

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. We test this model with 450 small earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation effects. Our approach avoids directly modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest directivity <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity model but suggest that directivity is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........42T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Requirements for imaging vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in the coronary artery using a coded aperture imaging system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A coded aperture1 plate was employed on a conventional gamma camera for 3D single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging on small animal models. The coded aperture design was selected to improve the spatial resolution and decrease the minimum detectable activity (MDA) required to image <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation in the APoE (apolipoprotein E) gene deficient mouse model when compared to conventional SPECT techniques. The pattern that was tested was a no-two-holes-touching (NTHT) modified uniformly redundant array (MURA) having 1,920 pinholes. The number of pinholes combined with the thin sintered tungsten plate was designed to increase the efficiency of the imaging modality over conventional gamma camera imaging methods while improving spatial resolution and reducing noise in the image reconstruction. The MDA required to image the vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in a human cardiac-torso mathematical phantom was simulated with a Monte Carlo code and evaluated to determine the optimum plate thickness by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) yielding the lowest possible MDA and highest area under the curve (AUC). A partial 3D expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction was developed to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, and spatial resolution over the linear correlation method of reconstruction. This improvement was evaluated by imaging a mini hot rod phantom, simulating the dynamic range, and by performing a bone scan of the C-57 control mouse. Results of the experimental and simulated data as well as other plate designs were analyzed for use as a small animal and potentially human cardiac imaging modality for a radiopharmaceutical developed at Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging Company, North Billerica, MA, for diagnosing vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. If left untreated, these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may <span class="hlt">rupture</span> causing sudden, unexpected coronary occlusion and death. The results of this research indicated that imaging and reconstructing with this new partial 3D algorithm improved the SNR, spatial resolution, dynamic range of 4:1 to 6:1, and decreased the MDA required at the site of a <span class="hlt">plaque</span> by twofold in comparison with other nuclear medicine imaging methods. Recommendations to increase the field of view (FOV) along with a better imaging geometry would enable placement of larger objects (human heart included) within the fully encoded FOV while improving spatial resolution, magnification factors, and efficiency. Further improvements to the algorithm and imaging system may enable novel vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging and early detection of coronary artery disease. 1See definitions beginning on page xvii.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tozian, Cynthia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3031176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Regulates p27kip Expression and Apoptosis in Smooth Muscle Cells of Human Carotid <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> via Forkhead Transcription Factor O1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is controlled by a balance between the effect of growth factors and cytokines, and is involved in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Recently, we reported high levels of atheroma-associated cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), in carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of symptomatic patients. These cytokines induce apoptosis of vascular SMCs, and thus could be responsible for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a clinically devastating event. In this study, we examined the effect of TNF-? on the cell cycle inhibitor p27kip and apoptosis of SMCs in human carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and the underlying mechanism. Both Forkhead box subclass o1 (FoxO1) and p27kip were more strongly expressed in symptomatic than asymptomatic atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. TNF-? significantly induced the expression of FoxO1 in asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> SMCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner via JNK signaling pathway. TNF-? also induced phosphorylation of FoxO1, resulting in its cytoplasmic translocation/nuclear exclusion of transcription factors. The effect of TNF-? was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Meanwhile, TNF-? not only induced the p27kip expression and cell cycle arrest in G0–G1 phase, but also enhanced caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis in SMCs of asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. However, the potential effect of TNF-? on the cell cycle inhibitor p27kip and apoptosis of SMCs was inhibited by siRNA against FoxO1 in asymptomatic patients. These data suggest the involvement of FoxO1 transcription factor in TNF-?-induced expression of a cell cycle regulatory protein and apoptosis of SMCs, thus regulating the stability of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with carotid stenosis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jia, Guanghong; Aggarwal, Anshu; Tyndall, Steve H.; Agrawal, Devendra K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD857268"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Assay System for Several Species of Rickettsia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay procedure developed in this laboratory for the Bitter Root strain of Rickettsia rickettsii has recently been shown to be appropriate for other rickettsiae. Large (2 mm) distinct <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were formed when chick primary monolayers were infec...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. McDade J. E. Stakebake P. J. Gerone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23517694"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> cerebral artery blister aneurysm].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the case of a young patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> blister-like aneurysm. Since this kind of aneurysms have fragile walls without a well-defined neck, their treatment is difficult. We initially planned the deployment of a flow-diverter stent, but an angiogram obtained after 10 days revealed a morphological change of the aneurysm. Therefore, we finally deployed a conventional stent and introduced 2 micro coils into the point of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, obtaining a good morphological result without rebleeding. Follow-up at 1 and 6 months did not observe regrowth of the aneurysm. We offer a brief introduction and discussion of this pathology and its treatment. PMID:23517694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vega Valdés, Pedro; Murias Quintana, Eduardo; Meilán Martínez, Angela; Gutiérrez Morales, Julio; Lopez Garcia, Antonio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of horseshoe kidney.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case of a 25-year-old male who came to the emergency room for pain and abdominal distension following trauma to the mesogastrium. A CT scan was performed, revealing a voluminous retroperitoneal hematoma with laceration of both inferior renal poles with regard to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the isthmus of a horseshoe kidney. The patient presented anemization and increased pain, requiring selective embolization by means of arteriography of a branch of the right renal artery and placement of a double J stent due to urinary extravasation in the lower left kidney pole. Following 1 year of monitoring, the patient has maintained normal renal function. Renal affection in blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, occurring in 7% of previously pathological kidneys. The traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of horseshoe kidney is facilitated by its particular anatomical characteristics, constituting an infrequent entity, knowledge of which is necessary to achieve conservative management that renders it possible to preserve renal function. PMID:21934278</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molina Escudero, R; Cancho Gil, M J; Husillos Alonso, A; Lledó García, E; Herranz Amo, F; Ogaya Piniés, G; Ramón Botella, E; Simó, G; Navas Martínez, M C; Hernández Fernández, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7837018"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatically <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> globes in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This retrospective study was designed to document the etiology of traumatically <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> globes in children and to determine the prognostic value of several clinical parameters with respect to visual outcome. Forty-six children 16 years of age and under seen in the emergency room over a 2-year period were found to have full thickness penetration of the globe. Fifty-nine percent of injuries occurred during recreational activities, and 59% occurred outside of the home. Boys outnumbered girls by a 6:1 ratio. For children, initial visual acuity proved to be less valuable as a prognostic indicator with regard to final vision than has been reported in adults. Smaller corneal wounds offered better visual outcomes. Four eyes were enucleated. Ten <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> (22%) were related to activity involving guns. Four of six BB gun injuries were the result of a ricocheted BB. Visual outcomes in gun-related injuries were particularly poor. PMID:7837018</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rudd, J C; Jaeger, E A; Freitag, S K; Jeffers, J B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23370454"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intracoronary imaging for detecting vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is now generally recognized that acute coronary syndromes most commonly result from disruption of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), which is characterized by a large necrotic core with an overlying thin-fibrous cap measuring <65 ?m. Recent advances in intracoronary imaging modalities have significantly improved the ability to detect TCFA in vivo. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is perhaps the most promising modality that has been used more than 15 years to evaluate atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. IVUS has revealed a lot of the clinical evidence regarding vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> detection in live humans. Recently, by analyzing the IVUS acoustic signal before demodulation and scan conversion, IVUS radiofrequency analysis can be used to differentiate adjacent smaller areas of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with heterogeneous composition. Coronary angioscopy allows direct visualization of the coronary artery wall and provides detailed information of the luminal surface of <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, such as color, thrombus or disruption. Optical coherence tomography imaging, recently been introduced for in vivo human imaging, offers a higher resolution than any other available imaging modality, and can visualize a thin fibrous cap measuring <65 ?m. In this review, we will discuss the features and limitations of each imaging modalities for detecting TCFA. PMID:23370454</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujii, Kenichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33137300"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> and the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span>-Enamel Interface in Human Experimental Caries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study describes the ultrastructrure of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-enamel interface after 2 and 3 weeks’ exposure to a cariogenic challenge. Five dental students carried a total of 25 specimens of smooth surface enamel in intraoral acrylic appliances. During the initial 3 days the volunteers refrained from oral hygiene and performed nine daily mouthrinses with 10% (w\\/v) solutions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Nyvad; O. Fejerskov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescent Green <span class="hlt">Plaques</span>: Light at the End of the Catheter?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The field of vascular molecular imaging is searching for the `holy grail' of an imaging technique that will quantitatively and reliably assess vulnerable coronary <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green specifically identifies lipid-rich <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in rabbits and in human <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and represents a promising, though invasive, approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehta, Nehal N.; Rader, Daniel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51179683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rayleigh Mixture Model for <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Characterization in Intravascular Ultrasound</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are the major cause of carotid and coronary vascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke. A correct modeling of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echomorphology and composition can help the identification of such lesions. The Rayleigh distribution is widely used to describe (nearly) homogeneous areas in ultrasound images. Since <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may contain tissues with heterogeneous re- gions, more complex distributions depending</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José C. Seabra; Francesco Ciompi; Oriol Pujol; Josepa Mauri; Petia Radeva; João Sanches</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15637975"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Index was used to assess full-mouth <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores for each subject. Prebrushing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction (P = .002) and interproximal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall <span class="hlt">plaque</span> or interproximal <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and interproximal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> over time. PMID:15637975</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57204754"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Studies of <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Control Agents: An Overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is massed packed bacterial cells which accumulate on the supra- and subgingival surfaces of the teeth as well as on the oral mucosa. The microorganisms of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> have been shown to be associated with both dental caries and periodontal disease. This overview of clinical studies of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> control agents reviews the properties and effects of chemical compounds which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ralph R. Lobene</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3112179"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New high-resolution molecular and structural imaging strategies are needed to visualize high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> that are likely to cause acute myocardial infarction, because <span class="hlt">current</span> diagnostic methods do not reliably identify at-risk subjects. While molecular imaging agents are available for lower-resolution detection of atherosclerosis in large arteries, a lack of imaging agents coupled to high-resolution modalities has limited molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in the smaller coronary arteries [AU: ok? YES]. Here, we have demonstrated that indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) emitting compound, targets atheromas within 20 minutes of injection and provides sufficient signal enhancement for in vivo detection of lipid-rich, inflamed, coronary-sized <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in atherosclerotic rabbits. In vivo NIRF sensing was achieved with an intravascular wire in the aortae, a vessel of comparable caliber to human coronary arteries. Ex vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging studies showed high <span class="hlt">plaque</span> target-to-background ratios in atheroma-bearing rabbits injected with ICG, compared to atheroma-bearing rabbits injected with saline. In vitro studies using human macrophages established that ICG preferentially targets lipid-loaded macrophages. In an early clinical study of human atheroma specimens from four patients, we found that ICG colocalized with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages and lipids. The atheroma-targeting capability of ICG has the potential to accelerate the clinical development of NIRF molecular imaging of high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in humans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinegoni, Claudio; Botnaru, Ion; Aikawa, Elena; Calfon, Marcella A.; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Folco, Eduardo J.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Weissleder, Ralph; Libby, Peter; Jaffer, Farouc A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3005156"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differentiating atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden in arterial tissues using femtosecond CARS-based multimodal nonlinear optical imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A femtosecond CARS-based nonlinear optical microscope was used to simultaneously image extracellular structural proteins and lipid-rich structures within intact aortic tissue obtained from myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits (WHHLMI). Clear differences in the NLO microscopic images were observed between healthy arterial tissue and regions dominated by atherosclerotic lesions. In the <span class="hlt">current</span> ex-vivo study, we present a single parameter based on intensity changes derived from multi-channel NLO image to classify <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden within the vessel. Using this parameter we were able to differentiate between healthy regions of the vessel and regions with <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, as well as distinguish <span class="hlt">plaques</span> relative to the age of the WHHLMI rabbit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mostaco-Guidolin, Leila B.; Sowa, Michael G.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Smith, Michael S. D.; Hewko, Mark D.; Kohlenberg, Elicia K.; Schattka, Bernie; Shiomi, Masashi; Stolow, Albert; Ko, Alex C.-T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18506411"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Erionite-induced pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Exposition to urban pollution in a female Turkish migrant in Germany].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Erionite is a zeolite mineral of volcanic origin which contains no asbestos. It is found in different regions of the world, including southeast Turkey in ash and dust, from which it can cause inflammatory pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We report a female Turkish migrant exposed to urban pollution in her home country who decades later suffered from pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with a nonspecific chronic inflammatory disease. The differential diagnosis of inflammatory pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was assumed radiologically and confirmed by video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy. Short-term clinical and radiologic control of the patient will be necessary because of the risk of MPM. For epidemiologic considerations discussed referring to <span class="hlt">current</span> literature, a growing incidence of this type of disease in migrants from high-risk areas must be reckoned with in Germany, even without exposition to asbestos. PMID:18506411</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gräsel, B; Kaya, A; Stahl, U; Rauber, K; Kuntz, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39203319"> <span id="translatedtitle">MRI <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging reveals high-risk carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> especially in diabetic patients irrespective of the degree of stenosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a new modality for risk assessment in atherosclerosis. It allows classification of carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in high-risk and low-risk lesion types (I-VIII). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) represents a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but its specific influence on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability is not fully understood. This study investigates whether MRI-<span class="hlt">plaque</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L Esposito; T Saam; P Heider; Angelina Bockelbrink; Jaroslav Pelisek; D Sepp; R Feurer; C Winkler; T Liebig; K Holzer; O Pauly; S Sadikovic; B Hemmer; H Poppert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29988792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic resonance imaging of carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inflammation in acute coronary syndromes: A sign of multisite <span class="hlt">plaque</span> activation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Widespread <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inflammation has been demonstrated in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We evaluated signs of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inflammation in carotid arteries of patients with ACS by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Carotid MRI was performed in 13 patients with ACS and in 9 controls having at least 1 carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with a stenosis ?40%. MRI criteria of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inflammation were: increased T2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonella Lombardo; Vittoria Rizzello; Luigi Natale; Mariaelena Lombardi; Stefano Coli; Francesco Snider; Lorenzo Bonomo; Filippo Crea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/74/16/5113.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simple Method for Plating Escherichia coli Bacteriophages Forming Very Small <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> or No <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> under Standard Conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of low concentrations (optimally 2.5 to 3.5 g\\/ml, depending on top agar thickness) of ampicillin in the bottom agar of the plate allows for formation of highly visible <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of bacteriophages which otherwise form extremely small <span class="hlt">plaques</span> or no <span class="hlt">plaques</span> on Escherichia coli lawns. Using this method, we were able to obtain <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of newly isolated bacteriophages, propagated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Los; Piotr Golec; G. Wegrzyn; A. Wegrzyn; M. Los</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2759097"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Gadofluorine-M and Gd-DTPA for Non-Invasive Staging of Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Stability Using MRI</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Inflammation and neovascularization play critical roles in the stability of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Whole-body quantitative assessment of these <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features may improve patient risk-stratification for life-threatening thromboembolic events and direct appropriate intervention. Here we determined the utility of the MR contrast agent Gadofluorine-M (GdF) for staging <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability and compared this to the conventional agent Gd-DTPA. Methods and Results 5 control and 7 atherosclerotic rabbits were sequentially imaged following administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) and GdF (0.1 mmol/kg) using a T1-weighted pulse sequence on a 3T MRI scanner. Diseased aortic wall could be distinguished from normal wall based on wall-to-muscle contrast-to-noise values following GdF administration. RAM-11 (macrophages) and CD-31 (endothelial cells) immunostaining of MR-matched histological sections revealed that GdF accumulation was related to the degree of inflammation at the surface of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and the extent of core neovascularization. Importantly, an MR measure of GdF accumulation at both 1 and 24 hours post-injection, but not Gd-DTPA at peak enhancement, was shown to correlate with a quantitative histological morphology index related to these two <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features. Conclusions GdF-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> allows non-invasive quantitative information about <span class="hlt">plaque</span> composition to be acquired at multiple time points post-injection (within 1 and up to 24 hours post-injection). This dramatically widens the imaging window for assessing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability that is <span class="hlt">currently</span> attainable with clinically approved MR agents, therefore opening the possibility of whole-body (including coronary) detection of unstable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the future and potentially improved mitigation of cataclysmic cardiovascular events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ronald, John A.; Chen, Yuanxin; Belisle, Andre J.-L.; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Rogers, Kem A.; Hegele, Robert A.; Misselwitz, Bernd; Rutt, Brian K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59238906"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of non-destructive methods to evaluate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> properties and non-Newtonian blood flow inside arteries with <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knowledge about the flow profile characteristics of blood inside vascular arteries in the presence of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is of greater interest to cardio vascular research community. Along with the flow pattern, the study of mechanical properties of the artery vessel wall and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is an important phenomenon that supports the detection and diagnosis of the vulnerability of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inside the arteries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rajagopa Balakrishnan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1420874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk Factors for Aneurysm <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Patients Kept Under Ultrasound Surveillance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To investigate risk factors associated with aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> using patients randomized into the U.K. Small Aneurysm Trial (n = 1090) or monitored for aneurysm growth in the associated study (n = 1167). Summary Background Data The U.K. Small Aneurysm Trial has shown that ultrasound surveillance is a safe management option for patients with small abdominal aortic aneurysms (4.0 to 5.5 cm in diameter), with an annual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rate of 1%. Methods In the cohort of 2257 patients (79% male), aged 59 to 77 years, 103 instances of abdominal aortic aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were identified during the 7-year period of follow-up (1991–1998). Almost all patients (98%) had initial aneurysm diameters in the range of 3 to 6 cm, and the majority of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> (76%) occurred in patients with aneurysms ?5 cm in diameter. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis were used to identify baseline risk factors associated with aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Results After 3 years, the annual rate of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 2.2% (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 2.8). The risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was independently and significantly associated with female sex (p < 0.001), larger initial aneurysm diameter (p < 0.001), lower FEV1 (p = 0.004), <span class="hlt">current</span> smoking (p = 0.01), and higher mean blood pressure (p = 0.01). Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol concentration, and ankle/brachial pressure index were not associated with an increased risk of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Conclusions Within this cohort of patients, women had a threefold higher risk of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than men. Effective control of blood pressure and cessation of smoking are likely to diminish the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Louise C.; Powell, Janet T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1503..124B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dual-mode ultrasound arrays for image-guided targeting of atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A feasibility study was undertaken in order to investigate alternative noninvasive treatment options for atherosclerosis. In particular, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays (DMUAs) for image guided treatment of atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. DMUAs offer a unique treatment paradigm for image-guided surgery allowing for robust image-based identification of tissue targets for localized application of HIFU. In this study we present imaging and therapeutic results form a 3.5 MHz, 64-element fenestrated prototype DMUA for targeting lesions in the femoral artery of familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine. Before treatment, diagnostic ultrasound was used to verify the presence of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in the femoral artery of the swine. Images obtained with the DMUA and a diagnostic (HST 15-8) transducer housed in the fenestration were analyzed and used for guidance in targeting of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Discrete therapeutic shots with an estimated focal intensity of 4000-5600 W/cm2 and 500-2000 msec duration were performed at several planes in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. During therapy, pulsed HIFU was interleaved with single transmit focus imaging from the DMUA and M2D imaging from the diagnostic transducer for further analysis of lesion formation. After therapy, the swine's were recovered and later sacrificed after 4 and 7 days for histological analysis of lesion formation. At sacrifice, the lower half of the swine was perfused and the femoral artery with adjoining muscle was fixed and stained with H&E to characterize HIFU-induced lesions. Histology has confirmed that localized thermal lesion formation within the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was achieved according to the planned lesion maps. Furthermore, the damage was confined to the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> tissue without damage to the intima. These results offer the promise of a new treatment potentially suited for vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The results also provide the first real-time demonstration of DMUA technology in targeting fine tissue structures for precise lesion formation in the presence or arterial pulsation and tissue motion. In this paper, we show results from targeting both proximal and distal sides of the vessel wall with a series of 5 - 7 discrete shots in each plane (typically three planes per <span class="hlt">plaque</span>). Experiments to demonstrate a full treatment forming contiguous lesion within the target <span class="hlt">plaque</span> are <span class="hlt">currently</span> underway.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ballard, John R.; Casper, Andrew J.; Liu, Dalong; Haritonova, Alyona; Shehata, Islam A.; Troutman, Mitchell; Ebbini, Emad S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7116984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation through soil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phenomenon of earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation through soil is quite complex and is not well understood at this time. This paper presents the results of an integrated investigation of this problem. Insights are developed from the examination of surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> field case histories, laboratory physical model tests, and physical analogies to the earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. Field observations and experimental results illustrate the typical patterns of behavior developed in the soil overlying a base rock fault displacement. Evidence suggests that differential movement across the distinct fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dissipates as the fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates toward the ground surface through unconsolidated earth materials, and that the characteristics of the soil overlying the bedrock fault strongly influence the observed earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bray, J.D.; Seed, R.B.; Seed, H.B. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Cluff, L.S. (Pacific Gas Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394458"> <span id="translatedtitle">The gelatinous <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: its relation to coronary atherosclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relations between the gelatinous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and the atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were investigated on more than 500 subjects aged 1--40 years. The appearance of the light microscopic aspect of the gelatinous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was related to a particular: a) evolution of the process of histolysis involving branch pads and thickened intimas; b) insudation, occurring in nodular proliferations of intimal smooth muscle cells; c) stage of atheroma formation. The results showed that the term gelatinous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> did not refer to an independent, early atherosclerotic lesion, or a true precursor of advanced lesions,but to an intermediate, transitional stage in the complex histogenesis of the atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:7394458</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Velican, C; Velican, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21549964"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of 'second <span class="hlt">rupture</span>' following open repair of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 54-year-old man whilst rehabilitating following end-to-end open repair of an acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> following surgical repair of Achilles tendon is well known. This case however, is atypical as the second <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred significantly proximal to the first <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. To our knowledge this is the first time this has been described in the English literature. We have termed this incident a 'second <span class="hlt">rupture</span>'. We describe the surgical technique used by the operating surgeon during open repair of this 'second <span class="hlt">rupture</span>', involving a gastrocnemius flap turndown. This has lead to the patient making a good recovery, despite complications. This case report serves to inform surgeons of the existence of this type of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, whilst considering possible aetiologies and suggesting a technique for repair of the injury. PMID:21549964</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rushton, P R P; Singh, A K; Deshmukh, R G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22055493"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of "fresh <span class="hlt">rupture</span>" after open repair of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 54-year-old man while rehabilitating after end-to-end open repair of an acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> after surgical repair of Achilles tendon is well known. The present case, however, is atypical, because the second <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred significantly proximal to the first <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. To our knowledge, this is the first time this has been described in English language studies. We have termed this incident a fresh <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. A gastrocnemius turndown flap was used to repair the fresh <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which led to a satisfactory recovery. This case report serves to inform surgeons of the existence of this type of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, while considering the possible etiologies and suggesting a technique that has been shown to be successful in the present case. PMID:22055493</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rushton, Paul R P; Singh, Alok K; Deshmukh, Rajiv G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k9wj3p82pt46w82r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed presentation of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A child with urine ascites as a delayed manifestation of post-traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is presented. The\\u000a diagnosis was suggested by abdominal CT scan and confirmed with a cystogram. While uncommon, late presentation of intraperitoneal\\u000a bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following trauma may occur from masking of a primary laceration or development of secondary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the\\u000a site of a hematoma in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Brown; H. L. Magill; T. L. Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3439128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Significance of ABCA1 in human carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is an important effector in the regulation of cholesterol efflux from cells. In this study, we assessed the role of ABCA1 in human carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (CAPs). We found that ABCA1 and retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) mRNAs were significantly increased in the atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> compared to control arteries. The increased ABCA1 mRNA correlated with that of RXR? in <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. According to the modified American Heart Association <span class="hlt">plaque</span> classification, atherosclerotic specimens were assigned to three grades, and ABCA1 and RXR? mRNA levels were compared across <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of different grades. Resultantly, <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of grade II and III exhibited higher mRNA levels than grade I, but there was no difference in mRNA levels between <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of grade II and III. By contrast, ABCA1 and RXR? protein levels were notably reduced in <span class="hlt">plaques</span> relative to control tissues. Similarly, <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of grade II and III exhibited lower ABCA1 and RXR? protein levels than grade I, and there was no difference in protein levels between <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of grade II and III. Our findings suggest that decreased ABCA1 protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CAP; the regulation of ABCA1 may be mediated by RXR? and ABCA1 mRNA levels may serve as an indicator for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LIU, HEANG-FANG; CUI, KE-FEI; WANG, JIAN-PING; ZHANG, MIN; GUO, YA-PEI; LI, XUE-YUAN; JIANG, CHAO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29298585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extracellular matrix content of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> anterior cruciate ligament tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) can <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with simple movements, suggesting that structural changes in the ligament may reduce the loading capacity of the ligament. We aimed to investigate if proteoglycan and collagen levels were different between <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ACLs. We also compared changes in <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tissue over time.During arthroscopic knee reconstruction surgery 24 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ACLs were collected from participants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kate Young; Tom Samiric; Julian Feller; Jill Cook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23428927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discordance of the areas of peak wall shear stress and tissue stress in coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> as revealed by fluid-structure interaction finite element analysis: a case study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simulation studies have been performed in attempts to elucidate the signifi cance of shear and tissue stresses in the progression and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, but few studies have analyzed both stresses simultaneously. We analyzed the distributions of shear stress and tissue stress in a model of coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> based on intravascular ultrasound data by fluid-structure interaction finite element analysis under physiological pressure and flow. As shown in previous studies, the region of peak shear stress was observed at the proximal side of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> where flow velocity was high but its value was at most 10 Pa. On the other hand, 1000-10,000 times greater tissue stress was located in the stenotic region but the location of peak tissue stress was different from that of shear stress. We also found that stenting not only stabilizes the stented segment but also reduces the stress in the adjacent region. Fluid-structure interaction analysis revealed discordance in the distribution of shear and tissue stresses. These two stresses exert distinct influences on the coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of which may occur where tissue stress exceeds the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> strength, which is weakened by pathological processes triggered by shear stress. PMID:23428927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asanuma, Tatsuya; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Nagai, Ryozo; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......127P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying uncertainty in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using dynamic and kinematic models, we analyze the ability of GPS and strong-motion data to recover the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of earthquakes. By analyzing the near-source ground-motion generated by earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> through barriers and asperities, we determine that both the prestress and yield stress of a frictional inhomogeneity can be recovered. In addition, we find that models with constraints on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity have less ground motion than constraint-free, spontaneous dynamic models with equivalent stress drops. This suggests that kinematic models with such constraints overestimate the actual stress heterogeneity of earthquakes. We use GPS data from the well-recorded 2004 Mw6.0 Parkfield Earthquake to further probe uncertainties in kinematic models. We find that the inversion for this data set is poorly resolved at depth and near the edges of the fault. In such an underdetermined inversion, it is possible to obtain spurious structure in poorly resolved areas. We demonstrate that a nonuniform grid with grid spacing matching the local resolution length on the fault outperforms small uniform grids, which generate spurious structure in poorly resolved regions, and large uniform grids, which lose recoverable information in well-resolved areas of the fault. The nonuniform grid correctly averages out large-scale structure in poorly resolved areas while recovering small-scale structure near the surface. In addition to probing model uncertainties in earthquake source models, we also examine the effect of model uncertainty in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). While methods for incorporating parameter uncertainty of a particular model in PSHA are well-understood, methods for incorporating model uncertainty are more difficult to implement due to the high degree of dependence between different earthquake-recurrence models. We show that the method used by the 2002 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP-2002) to combine the probability distributions given by multiple earthquake recurrence models has several adverse effects on their result. In particular, WGCEP-2002 uses a linear combination of the models which ignores model dependence and leads to large uncertainty in the final hazard estimate. In addition to analyzing <span class="hlt">current</span> statistical problems, we present alternative methods for rigorously incorporating model uncertainty into PSHA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Page, Morgan T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The incidence of AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has increased in recent decades. AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h756823057752941.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of asymptomatic neonates with prolonged <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Guidelines for management of asymptomatic term and preterm neonates born to mothers with prolonged <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes (PROM)\\u000a have not been clearly established. A survey was conducted to identify <span class="hlt">current</span> management practice of neonatologists in midwestern\\u000a states and to find if there is consensus among physicians with regard to management of PROM without choriomnionitis, with\\u000a chorioamnionitis but without treatment prior</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jagjit S. Teji; Gopal Srinivasan; Rosita S. Pildes; Robert J. Rydman; Norman Jacobs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3174030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enucleation versus <span class="hlt">plaque</span> irradiation for choroidal melanoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada. PMID:3174030</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Straatsma, B R; Fine, S L; Earle, J D; Hawkins, B S; Diener-West, M; McLaughlin, J A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6558940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enucleation versus <span class="hlt">plaque</span> irradiation for choroidal melanoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1877509"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cellular immune response in multiple sclerosis <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiple sclerosis <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were immunohistochemically stained to exhibit cells expressing immune-system antigens. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-positive cells formed dense rings around all <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regions. The majority were reactive microglia/macrophages. Counterstaining with oil red O revealed heavy myelin debris within these cells. They were distinct from astrocytes, which were identified with an antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and which did not contain oil red O myelin debris. Numerous leukocytes and microglia were stained with antibody to leukocyte common antigen (LCA). Lymphocytes in cuffs around vessels, along the margins of capillary walls, and, sparingly, in the tissue matrix of affected areas, were stained with antibodies to CD4 (T-helper/inducer) and CD8 (T-cytotoxic/suppressor). In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in Lewis rats, a similar proliferation of Ia-positive (OX6, OX17) cells displaying reactive microglia/macrophage morphology was observed. These Ia-positive cells also were easily distinguished from GFAP-positive astrocytes. The results suggest that macrophages/reactive microglia, and not astrocytes, express class II MHC antigens in multiple sclerosis and EAE <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyle, E. A.; McGeer, P. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6701005"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> radiotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. (Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. (Hahnemann Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1887321"> <span id="translatedtitle">Angiogenesis in human coronary atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neovascularization in the walls of coronary arteries is associated with the presence of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of these intraplaque microvessels are not understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of endothelial cell replication in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microvessels. Two hundred and one primary and restenotic coronary atherectomy specimens were analyzed for the presence of microvessels and proliferation as reflected by positive immunolabeling for Ulex agglutinin and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively. In primary but not restenotic specimens, proliferation of any cell type was associated with the detection of microvessels on the same slide. However, intraplaque microvessels were more commonly found in restenotic compared to primary specimens (P = 0.004). Twelve highly vascularized specimens with evidence of replication were subjected to detailed histomorphological and quantitative image analyses. At 200 x, the most vascular optical field of each slide was identified and consistently included <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages. Total slide endothelial cell replication indices for these specimens varied, but in some instances were remarkably elevated (eg, 43.5%). The role of intraplaque angiogenesis may be analogous to that of tumor or wound angiogenesis and be important in development and progression of coronary artery lesions and restenosis. Images Figure 4 Figure 5</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Brien, E. R.; Garvin, M. R.; Dev, R.; Stewart, D. K.; Hinohara, T.; Simpson, J. B.; Schwartz, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21521062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational evaluation of aortic aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk: what have we learned so far?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">current</span> clinical practice, aneurysm diameter is one of the primary criteria used to decide when to treat a patient with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). It has been shown that simple association of aneurysm diameter with the probability of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is not sufficient, and other parameters may also play a role in causing or predisposing to AAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Peak wall stress (PWS), intraluminal thrombus (ILT), and AAA wall mechanics are the factors most implicated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk and have been studied by computational risk evaluation techniques. The objective of this review is to examine these factors that have been found to influence AAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The prediction rate of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> among computational models depends on the level of model complexity and the predictive value of the biomechanical parameters used to assess risk, such as PWS, distribution of ILT, wall strength, and the site of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There is a need for simpler geometric analogues, including geometric parameters (e.g., lumen tortuosity and neck length and angulation) that correlate well with PWS, conjugated with clinical risk factors for constructing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk predictive models. Such models should be supported by novel imaging techniques to provide the required patient-specific data and validated through large, prospective clinical trials. PMID:21521062</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Ioannou, Christos V; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Kostas, Theodoros; Katsamouris, Asterios N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22112552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Striatal amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> density predicts Braak neurofibrillary stage and clinicopathological Alzheimer's disease: implications for amyloid imaging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amyloid imaging may revolutionize Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and clinical practice but is critically limited by an inadequate correlation between cerebral cortex amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and dementia. Also, amyloid imaging does not indicate the extent of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) spread throughout the brain. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, the presence of dementia as well as a minimal brain load of both <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and NFTs is required for the diagnosis of AD. Autopsy studies suggest that striatal amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may be mainly restricted to subjects in higher Braak NFT stages that meet clinicopathological diagnostic criteria for AD. Striatal <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, which are readily identified by amyloid imaging, might therefore be used to predict the presence of a higher Braak NFT stage and clinicopathological AD in living subjects. This study determined the sensitivity and specificity of striatal <span class="hlt">plaques</span> for predicting a higher Braak NFT stage and clinicopathological AD in a postmortem series of 211 elderly subjects. Subjects included 87 clinicopathologically classified as non-demented elderly controls and 124 with AD. A higher striatal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> density score (moderate or frequent) had 95.8% sensitivity, 75.7% specificity for Braak NFT stage V or VI and 85.6% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity for the presence of dementia and clinicopathological AD (National Institute on Aging - Reagan Institute "intermediate" or "high"). Amyloid imaging of the striatum may be useful as a predictor, in living subjects, of Braak NFT stage and the presence or absence of dementia and clinicopathological AD. Validation of this hypothesis will require autopsy studies of subjects that had amyloid imaging during life. PMID:22112552</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beach, Thomas G; Sue, Lucia I; Walker, Douglas G; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Serrano, Geidy; Dugger, Brittany N; Mariner, Monica; Yantos, Kim; Henry-Watson, Jonette; Chiarolanza, Glenn; Hidalgo, Jose A; Souders, Leslie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3090737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of intima stiffness and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology on peak cap stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the cap of a vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> present in a coronary vessel may cause myocardial infarction and death. Cap <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when the peak cap stress exceeds the cap strength. The mechanical stress within a cap depends on the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology and the material characteristics of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components. A parametric study was conducted to assess the effect of intima stiffness and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology on peak cap stress. Methods Models with idealized geometries based on histology images of human coronary arteries were generated by varying geometric <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features. The constructed multi-layer models contained adventitia, media, intima, and necrotic core sections. For adventitia and media layers, anisotropic hyperelastic material models were used. For necrotic core and intima sections, isotropic hyperelastic material models were employed. Three different intima stiffness values were used to cover the wide range reported in literature. According to the intima stiffness, the models were classified as stiff, intermediate and soft intima models. Finite element method was used to compute peak cap stress. Results The intima stiffness was an essential determinant of cap stresses. The computed peak cap stresses for the soft intima models were much lower than for stiff and intermediate intima models. Intima stiffness also affected the influence of morphological parameters on cap stresses. For the stiff and intermediate intima models, the cap thickness and necrotic core thickness were the most important determinants of cap stresses. The peak cap stress increased three-fold when the cap thickness was reduced from 0.25 mm to 0.05 mm for both stiff and intermediate intima models. Doubling the thickness of the necrotic core elevated the peak cap stress by 60% for the stiff intima models and by 90% for the intermediate intima models. Two-fold increase in the intima thickness behind the necrotic core reduced the peak cap stress by approximately 25% for both intima models. For the soft intima models, cap thickness was less critical and changed the peak cap stress by 55%. However, the necrotic core thickness was more influential and changed the peak cap stress by 100%. The necrotic core angle emerged as a critical determinant of cap stresses where a larger angle lowered the cap stresses. Contrary to the stiff and intermediate intima models, a thicker intima behind the necrotic core increased the peak cap stress by approximately 25% for the soft intima models. Adventitia thickness and local media regression had limited effects for all three intima models. Conclusions For the stiff and intermediate intima models, the cap thickness was the most important morphological risk factor. However for soft intima models, the necrotic core thickness and necrotic core angle had a bigger impact on the peak cap stress. We therefore need to enhance our knowledge of intima material properties if we want to derive critical morphological <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features for risk evaluation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4244..428M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arterial fluorescent components involved in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability: differentiation by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of our ongoing research on spectroscopic differentiation between unstable and stable atherosclerotic lesions, we report data on time-resolved fluorescence of components of arterial intima matrix (different types of cholesterols, lipoproteins, and collagens). Certain compositional features of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> have been associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We have characterized and compared the time-resolved spectra of structural proteins (Types I and III collagens, and elastin), lipoproteins (LDL, VLDL), and cholesterols (free cholesterol, and cholesteryl oleate and linoleate) induced with nitrogen laser excitation pulses (337 nm, 3 ns) and detected (360-510 nm range, 5 nm interval) with an MCP-PMT connected to a fast digitizer (2 Gsamples/s). Spectral intensities and time-dependent parameters (lifetime (tau) f; decay constants (tau) 1 (fast-term), (tau) 2 (slow-term), A1 (fast-term amplitude contribution)) derived from the time-resolved spectra were used for samples characterization and comparison. We observed that time- resolved data distinguish collagens from cholesterols and from lipoproteins, and additionally, distinguish different types of cholesterols, different types of lipoproteins and different types of collagen from each other. For instance, the collagen lifetime (390 nm: Type I 5.2 ns, Type III 2.95 ns) was significantly longer than that of cholesterols (free 1.5 ns, linoleate 0.9 ns, oleate 1.0 ns) and that of lipoproteins (LDL 0.95 ns, VLDL 0.85 ns).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marcu, Laura; Grundfest, Warren S.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49085499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resistance to extinction of low fitness virus subjected to <span class="hlt">plaque-to-plaque</span> transfers: diversification by mutation clustering 1 1 Edited by J. Karn</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Plaque-to-plaque</span> transfers of RNA viruses lead to accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. To test whether continuing <span class="hlt">plaque-to-plaque</span> transfers would lead to viral extinction, we have subjected several low fitness foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) clones to up to 130 successive <span class="hlt">plaque</span> transfers, and have analyzed the evolution of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> titers and genomic nucleotide sequences. No case of viral extinction could</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristina Escarm??s; Gema Gómez-Mariano; Mercedes Dávila; Ester Lázaro; Esteban Domingo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29201007"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the uterus: A changing picture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eighty nine cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the gravid uterus occurring over a period of 15 years with 77,133 deliveries, were analysed. The overall incidence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uteri was 1 per 866 deliveries. The patients were devided into two groups, those with a scarred uterus (47) and those with an unscarred uterus (42). Distinct differences in terms of parity, age, aetiology</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. V. Van der Merwe; W. U. A. M. Ombelet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v081/i032/JB081i032p05679/JB081i032p05679.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. J. Andrews</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10680095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the innominate artery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Blunt traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the innominate artery is uncommon. We reviewed our experience to correlate the impact of patient stability, presence of associated injuries and location of the injury within the artery with outcome. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients admitted between January 1, 1998 and December 17, 2002 with traumatic innominate artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Injuries were defined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riyad Karmy-Jones; Robert DuBose; Stephen King</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60403918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capacity credit calculation for exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports that overpressure relieving in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case is quite different from other cases, such as fire, utility failure, inadvertent valve opening\\/closure, etc., when designing a pressure relief valve (PRV). In most cases, it is quite straightforward. The calculated relief load is the capacity that needs to be relieved. But, in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55725946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Interface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Extremely Heterogeneous Media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials usually show the maximum speed of smooth <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at some 30 % of the relevant shear wave speed. This experimental maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed is by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms, and some seismic inversions (e.g., the 1979 Imperial Valley, 1992 Landers, 1999 Izmit, 2001 the central</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Uenishi; K. Tsuji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3085625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superficial Dorsal Vein <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Imitating Penile Fracture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dorsal vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the penis is a rare condition, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a 41-year-old man who presented with mildly painful and acute swollen penis, which initially imitated a penile fracture but was surgically explored and shown to be a superficial dorsal vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Topsakal, Medih; Kavukcu, Ender; Karadeniz, Tahir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28955380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posterior tibial tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletic people</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present our findings in six athletic patients with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> or partially <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> posterior tibial tendon. Pain in the midarch region, difficulty pushing off while running, and a pronated flattened longitudinal arch are the usual symptoms and physical findings of this injury. Surgical treatment, including reattachment of the rup tured posterior tibial tendon, is effective in restoring some but</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee Woods; Robert E. Leach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32203434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arachnoid Cyst <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> with Concurrent Subdural Hygroma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are relatively common intracranial mass lesions, which occur most often in the middle cranial fossa. While these lesions can present as a mass lesion, many are asymptomatic. Rarely, posttraumatic or spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of ACs can result in intracystic hemorrhage, subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma. We have encountered two cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arachnoid cysts that resulted in subdural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jill W. Donaldson; Mary Edwards-Brown; Thomas G. Luerssen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20537884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of EHL revisited.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isolated closed injuries to the EHL are rare. Traumatic closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of EHL in the absence of diabetes mellitus, arthritis or local steroid injections is hitherto unreported. We present a case of closed EHL <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after a hyperflexion injury to the interphalangeal joint of the big toe, successfully managed with surgery, along with review of existing literature. PMID:20537884</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, K; Carter, Bob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28064956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of polyester knitted vascular prostheses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim: The purpose of the study was the characterization of a type of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurring on warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 cases of warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses that were explanted from humans that showed a longitudinal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a part of a collaborative retrieval program. All the prostheses were immediately fixed in a 10% formaldehyde</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nabil Chakfe; Gunnar Riepe; Florence Dieval; Jean-Francois Le Magnen; Lu Wang; Elisabeth Urban; Marc Beaufigeau; Bernard Durand; Herbert Imig; Jean-Georges Kretz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/198/3/831.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">CREEP <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> OF WALLABY TAIL TENDONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tail tendons from wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to- <span class="hlt">rupture</span> decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">XIAO TONG WANG; ROBERT F. KER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26099653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of polymer-matrix composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An accelerated characterization method for resin-matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer-matrix composites. Comparisons between creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments and analytical models are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. F. Brinson; W. I. Griffith; D. H. Morris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19901876"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Andrade Shear Disk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of the Andrade shear disk as a means of determining the multiaxial stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> criteria for metals is discussed. Test results are reported for disks machined from materials which undergo both small and large strains to failure. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behaviour of the disks which undergo large deformations is analysed. Statements are made concerning the use of conventional constitutive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Hayhurst; B. Storakers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of diagnostic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction neutralization tests for flavivirus infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flavivirus infections (including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis and dengue fever/severe dengue) present a worldwide public health problem. Recent climate change may affect the geographical distribution of the arthropod vectors for these viruses and so the risk of flavivirus epidemics may increase. Many methods have been developed for the serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections, such as haemagglutination inhibition assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence in staining. However, the specificity of these assays varies. The <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction neutralizing test (PRNT) using live viruses is <span class="hlt">currently</span> the 'gold standard' for the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses. The specificity of results obtained with PRNT is better than that for other protocols and many laboratories apply the PRNT protocol to the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses. Here, recent refinements to the PRNT protocols with genetically modified recombinant viruses or reporter-harbouring virus-like particles are reviewed. Further, the problems associated with the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses using PRNT are discussed. PMID:23036176</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maeda, Akihiko; Maeda, Junko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with skeletonized phrenic nerve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare presentation. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> itself is asymptomatic unless complicated by either hemorrhage or herniation of the heart through the defect. Following diagnosis surgical repair of the pericardium is indicated because cardiac herniation may result in vascular collapse and sudden death. Objectives Here we present a case of traumatic, non-herniated pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with complete skeletonization of the phrenic nerve. Case report An 18-year-old healthy male suffered multi-trauma after falling 50 feet onto concrete. The patient could not be stabilized despite exploratory laparotomy with splenectomy, IR embolization and packing for a liver laceration. Right posterolateral thoracotomy revealed a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pericardium with a completely skeletonized phrenic nerve. The pericardium was repaired with a Goretex(R) patch. Conclusion A high level of suspicion for pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is necessary in all patients with high-velocity thoracic injuries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DFD.KF007T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Risk Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Currently</span> there is no reliable method to predict the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of AAAs. Our study seeks to improve the capabilities of biomedical techniques to better monitor the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk of these aneurysms by quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of mechanical stresses acting on the vessel walls. Specifically it aims at providing improved guidelines for surgical or endovascular intervention. Numerical simulations has been performed to calculate the wall stress distribution based on the peak blood pressure (static analysis) in both idealized and patient specific models of AAAs, using finite element method. Pulsatile blood flows were also simulated for idealized models with different parameters. Our results have shown that, in addition to the maximum AAA diameter, eccentricity and the presence of thrombus are also significant factors affecting the wall stress distribution, flow characteristics and hemodynamic forces in AAAs. Therefore, we confirmed that <span class="hlt">current</span> criterion based solely on maximum diameter obtained from population-based statistics is not appropriate for the clinical management of AAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and other factors such as AAA shape and the presence of ILT should also be considered for a better assessment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, Rubing; Geindreau, Christian; Lasheras, Juan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S42I..02N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Great Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the northern Cascadia margin, the Juan de Fuca plate is underthrusting North America at about 45 mm/yr. Thermal and deformation studies indicate that, off southern Vancouver Island, the interplate interface is presently fully locked for a distance of some 60 km downdip from the deformation front. Great thrust earthquakes on this section of the interface, with magnitudes of up to 9, have been estimated to occur at an average interval of about 590 yr. Further downdip there is a transition zone from fully locked behavior to aseismic sliding, with the deep aseismic zone exhibiting slow slip thrust events. We show that at the northern Cascadia margin there is a change in the reflection character on seismic images from a thin reflection package (< 2 km thick) where the subduction thrust is inferred to be seismogenic, to a broad reflection band (> 4 km thick) at greater depth where there is aseismic slip. This change in reflection character provides us with a new technique for detailed mapping of the maximum landward extent of great earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The landward edge of the locked zone on the northern Cascadia subduction thrust inferred by reflection imaging appears to lie some 25-30 km closer to the land than estimated from thermal and dislocation modeling, possibly suggesting a somewhat greater megathrust seismic hazard at inland cities. Deep seismic reflection images from Alaska, Chile and SW Japan show a similar broad reflection band above the subduction thrust in the region of stable sliding and thin thrust reflections further seaward, perhaps suggesting that reflection imaging may be a globally important predictive tool for determining the maximum expected <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area in megathrust earthquakes. The eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is an ideal setting for testing this hypothesis. In this region, recent megathrust earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> areas are defined by aftershocks, inversion of geodetic data points to strong lateral variations in coupling, and wide shelf area allows for a relatively inexpensive and full marine mapping of the locked and transition zones, and partial mapping of the slow slip zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nedimovi?, M. R.; Hyndman, R. D.; Ramachandran, K.; Spence, G. D.; Brocher, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2946581"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Intracranial Mycotic Aneurysm in Infective Endocarditis: A Natural History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mycotic aneurysms are a rare cause of intracranial aneurysms that develop in the presence of infections such as infective endocarditis. They account for a small percentage of all intracranial aneurysms and carry a high-mortality rate when <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve and acute stroke. He subsequently developed subarachnoid hemorrhage during antibiotic treatment, and a large intracranial aneurysm was discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. <span class="hlt">Current</span> recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuo, Isabel; Long, Theodore; Nguyen, Nathan; Chaudry, Bharat; Karp, Michael; Sanossian, Nerses</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3157469"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computer Simulations of Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Growth in Coronary Arteries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A three dimensional mathematical model with a linear <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth function was developed to investigate the geometrical adaptation of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in coronary arteries and study the influences of flow wall shear stress (WSS), blood viscosity and the inlet flow rate on the growth of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> using computational <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth simulations. The simulation results indicated that the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> wall thickness at the neck of the stenosis increased at a decreasing rate in the atherosclerosis progression. The simulation results also showed a strong dependence of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> wall thickness increase on the blood viscosity and the inlet flow rate. The progression rate in a coronary artery was lower with a higher inlet velocity flow rate and higher with a smaller value of the blood viscosity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Biyue; Tang, Dalin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2724207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical stress analysis of a rigid inclusion in distensible material: a model of atherosclerotic calcification and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of atherosclerotic calcification in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> remains controversial. In previous analyses using finite element model analysis, circumferential stress was reduced by the inclusion of a calcium deposit in a representative human anatomical configuration. However, a recent report, also using finite element analysis, suggests that microscopic calcium deposits increase <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stress. We used mathematical models to predict the effects of rigid and liquid inclusions (modeling a calcium deposit and a lipid necrotic core, respectively) in a distensible material (artery wall) on mechanical failure under uniaxial and biaxial loading in a range of configurations. Without inclusions, stress levels were low and uniform. In the analytical model, peak stresses were elevated at the edges of a rigid inclusion. In the finite element model, peak stresses were elevated at the edges of both inclusions, with minimal sensitivity to the wall distensibility and the size and shape of the inclusion. Presence of both a rigid and a soft inclusion enlarged the region of increased wall stress compared with either alone. In some configurations, the rigid inclusion reduced peak stress at the edge of the soft inclusion but simultaneously increased peak stress at the edge of the rigid inclusion and increased the size of the region affected. These findings suggest that the presence of a calcium deposit creates local increases in failure stress, and, depending on relative position to any neighboring lipid pools, it may increase peak stress and the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area at risk of mechanical failure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoshino, Tetsuya; Chow, Lori A.; Hsu, Jeffrey J.; Perlowski, Alice A.; Abedin, Moeen; Tobis, Jonathan; Tintut, Yin; Mal, Ajit K.; Klug, William S.; Demer, Linda L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a 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href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/43/3/513.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Assay for the Simian Rotavirus SA11</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY A sensitive, quantitative and reproducible <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay for the measurement of the simian rotavirus SAII is described. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> formation required the presence of the facilitators pancreatin or trypsin and diethylaminoethyl-dextran in the agar overlay. SAII produced <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in three continuous primate cell lines: MA-Io4, CV-I and LLC-MK2. MA-Io 4 cells were the most sensitive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ERIC M. SMITH; MARY KOLB ESTES; DAVID Y. GRAHAM; CHARLES P. GERBA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/1/1/81.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Mutability of Small-<span class="hlt">Plaque</span>-Forming Encephalomyocarditis Virus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Sixty-four single <span class="hlt">plaque</span> subclones of a small-<span class="hlt">plaque</span>-forming mutant of encephalomyocarditis virus, EMC\\/r +, were isolated and titrated. In addition to EMC\\/r + virus, some contained large-<span class="hlt">plaque</span>-forming virus, EMC\\/r. The selective conditions which prevailed during the growth and iso- lation of the subclones were analysed in detail. All the evidence suggests that only negligible differential selection favouring either the parental</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. C. Breeze; H. Subak-Sharpe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2908450"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oral biofilm models for mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In vitro <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24–40%), while the manual brush as a control (5–11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies in vitro.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19565279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oral biofilm models for mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In vitro <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verkaik, Martinus J; Busscher, Henk J; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S51D1766T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Through Branched Fault Configurations With Off-fault Inelastic Response</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the propagation of shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along branched fault paths, allowing for elastic-plastic deformation in damaged fault-bordering zones. Geometric complexities (step-overs, bends and branches) along faults can control earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and in many cases confine propagation extent. Multiple numerical investigations have focused on such complexities during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Harris and Day, 1991, 1993; Aochi et al., 2000; Kame et al., 2003) and, separately, on the role of inelastic off- fault material response during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Andrews, 2005, 2007; Shi and Ben-Zion, 2006; Templeton and Rice, 2008; Viesca et al., 2008; Duan, 2008). Those inelastic studies use pressure-dependent elastic-plastic material descriptions such as Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager, which are standard models for describing plastic deformation in granulated or cracked materials like expected in damaged fault-bordering zones. We first summarize <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> path selection at fault branching junctions, as supported by field and laboratory comparisons with modeling, including previous studies in our group based on boundary integral equation implementations of slip-weakening <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but with assumption of elastic off-fault response (Poliakov et al., 2002; Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007; Fliss et al., 2005). We then show through dynamic finite element modeling how inelastic deformation in damaged fault-bordering zones contributes to path selection, and how branch activation affects seismic radiation. We assess dynamic path selection for a variety of branch angles and pre-stress directions, considering both sub-Rayleigh and supershear propagation speeds at the branching junction, and compare results for incohesive elastic-plastic off-fault response with those for elastic response. In particular, we have modeled <span class="hlt">rupture</span> through possible fault branches along Solitario Canyon Fault (SCF) in the hanging wall, a normal fault bordering Yucca Mountain, NV. We find that (incohesive) inelastic response during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> slightly increases the range of branch angles activated during dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds, but decreases the range of angles for sub-Rayleigh speeds. The inelastic response significantly reduces seismically generated ground accelerations at the proposed repository site, approximately 300 m below the crest of Yucca Mountain. We also address the energy partitioning during <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and find that branch activation can decrease the plastic energy dissipation during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> compared with the no-branch case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Templeton, E. L.; Bhat, H. S.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485186"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> stability and the southern European paradox.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differences between European countries in coronary heart disease mortality were initially described in the 20th century, and albeit less dramatic than first reported, these differences remain substantial. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the so-called "Mediterranean paradox": a) underestimation of coronary heart disease mortality due to methodological flaws; b) the "lag time" hypothesis, and c) the traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle. In this manuscript we present and discuss another possible explanation for the Mediterranean paradox related to the higher prevalence and and incidence of stable atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in this area. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org/en. PMID:23485186</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dégano, Irene R; Elosua, Roberto; Kaski, Juan C; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel J; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23078876"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> stability and the southern European paradox.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differences between European countries in coronary heart disease mortality were initially described in the 20th century, and albeit less dramatic than first reported, these differences remain substantial. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the so-called "Mediterranean paradox": a) underestimation of coronary heart disease mortality due to methodological flaws; b) the "lag time" hypothesis, and c) the traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle. In this manuscript we present and discuss another possible explanation for the Mediterranean paradox related to the higher prevalence and and incidence of stable atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in this area. PMID:23078876</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dégano, Irene R; Elosua, Roberto; Kaski, Juan C; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel J; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868152"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Plaque</span> surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3161059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urothelial <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Formation in Post-Golgi Compartments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are specialized membrane domains in urothelial superficial (umbrella) cells, composed of highly ordered uroplakin particles. We investigated membrane compartments involved in the formation of urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in mouse umbrella cells. The Golgi apparatus did not contain uroplakins organized into <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. In the post-Golgi region, three distinct membrane compartments containing uroplakins were characterized: i) Small rounded vesicles, located close to the Golgi apparatus, were labelled weakly with anti-uroplakin antibodies and they possessed no <span class="hlt">plaques</span>; we termed them “uroplakin-positive transporting vesicles” (UPTVs). ii) Spherical-to-flattened vesicles, termed “immature fusiform vesicles” (iFVs), were uroplakin-positive in their central regions and contained small urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. iii) Flattened “mature fusiform vesicles” (mFVs) contained large <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, which were densely labelled with anti-uroplakin antibodies. Endoytotic marker horseradish peroxidase was not found in these post-Golgi compartments. We propose a detailed model of de novo urothelial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation in post-Golgi compartments: UPTVs carrying individual 16-nm particles detach from the Golgi apparatus and subsequently fuse into iFV. Concentration of 16-nm particles into <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and removal of uroplakin-negative membranes takes place in iFVs. With additional fusions and buddings, iFVs mature into mFVs, each carrying two urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> toward the apical surface of the umbrella cell.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hudoklin, Samo; Jezernik, Kristijan; Neumuller, Josef; Pavelka, Margit; Romih, Rok</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3158870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-invasive detection of vulnerable coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Non-invasive imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and positron emission tomography holds the potential to differentiate between low- and high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. There have been significant technological advances in non-invasive imaging modalities, and the aim is to achieve a diagnostic sensitivity for these technologies similar to that of the invasive modalities. Molecular imaging with the use of novel targeted nanoparticles may help in detecting high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> that will ultimately cause acute myocardial infarction. Moreover, nanoparticle-based imaging may even provide non-invasive treatments for these <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> nor have they been shown to definitively predict outcome. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non-flow-limiting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to establish patient specific targeted therapy and to refine <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stabilizing strategies in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharif, Faisal; Lohan, Derek G; Wijns, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/dc0594.photos.030187p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">DETAIL OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DETAIL OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=376683"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Formation by Mumps Virus and Inhibition by Antiserum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Boston and ABC strains of mumps virus produced <span class="hlt">plaques</span> approximately 1.0 mm in diameter in monolayers of BGM cells. The <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were circular and either clear or target-like in form. Ricki strain virus produced <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of similar size and form but, in addition, a red <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was observed with this agent. The vaccine strain of mumps virus, Jeryl Lynn, produced minute clear <span class="hlt">plaques</span> approximately 0.3 mm in diameter. Incorporation of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran into the overlay medium did not affect the size difference between Jeryl Lynn <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and those of the other strains. However <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the Jeryl Lynn and Ricki strains were more easily visualized when the overlay medium contained 400 ?g/ml of DEAE-dextran. Simultaneous titration by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and roller tube infectivity showed that these two methods were of equal sensitivity. Virus neutralization by antibody was demonstrated by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction. Rise in antibody titer was observed in sera from human and animal infection, human vaccination, and rabbit immunization. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flanagan, Thomas D.; Barron, Almen L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3031776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased brain iron coincides with early <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elevated brain iron content, which has been observed in late stage human Alzheimer’s disease, is a potential target for early diagnosis. However, the time course for iron accumulation is <span class="hlt">currently</span> unclear. Using the PSAPP mouse model of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation, we conducted a time course study of metal ion content and distribution [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)] in the cortex and hippocampus using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). We found that iron in the cortex was 34% higher than age-matched controls at an early stage, corresponding to the commencement of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation. The elevated iron was not associated with the amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Interestingly, none of the metal ions were elevated in the amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> until the latest time point (56 weeks), where only the Zn content was significantly elevated by 38%. Since neuropathological changes in human Alzheimer’s disease are presumed to occur years before the first cognitive symptoms appear, quantification of brain iron content could be a powerful marker for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Kretlow, Ariane; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Barrea, Raul; Vogt, Stefan; Miller, Lisa M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387185"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freeze-Fracture Replica Immunolabelling Reveals Urothelial <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> in Cultured Urothelial Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary function of the urothelium is to provide the tightest and most impermeable barrier in the body, i.e. the blood-urine barrier. Urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are formed and inserted into the apical plasma membrane during advanced stages of urothelial cell differentiation. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, it is supposed that differentiation with the final formation of urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is hindered in cultured urothelial cells. With the aid of the high-resolution imaging technique of freeze-fracture replica immunolabelling, we here provide evidence that urothelial cells in vitro form uroplakin-positive urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, localized in fusiform-shaped vesicles and apical plasma membranes. With the establishment of such an in vitro model of urothelial cells with fully developed urothelial <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and functional properties equivalent to normal bladder urothelium, new perspectives have emerged which challenge prevailing concepts of apical plasma membrane biogenesis and blood-urine barrier development. This may hopefully provide a timely impulse for many ongoing studies and open up new questions for future research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Robenek, Horst</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21277846"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> control in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances: a clinical study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multibracket orthodontic appliances increase dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> retention and make teethbrushing more difficult for patients. As a result, advice from the orthodontist on oral hygiene along with patient motivation regarding teethbrushing are particularly important. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electric toothbrushes with that of manual brushing associated with mouth-rinses comprising chlorhexidine (0.12%) and 0% alcohol. To this end, 84 patients receiving <span class="hlt">current</span> orthodontic treatment were randomly selected from patients treated at the Dento-Facial Orthopedics department in the Casablanca Dental Consultation and Treatment Center. Selected patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: manual teethbrushing; Group 2: electric teethbrushing; Group 3: manual brushing combined with mouth rinse. Oral hygiene was assessed using the Loe-Silness <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and gingival indices. Measurements were made before and 4 weeks after the observation period. Results were subjected to statistical comparison in order to determine the group showing greatest improvement and to deduce the best means of controlling bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The electric toothbrush and the chlorhexidine mouth rinse appear to control dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> more effectively than manual teethbrushing alone. Following this study, patients receiving multibracket treatment were invited to combine manual brushing with short clinical mouth-rinsing sessions or to use an electric toothbrush. PMID:21277846</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ousehal, Lahcen; Lazrak, Laila; Es-Said, Rabia; Hamdoune, Hind; Elquars, Farid; Khadija, Amine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S43C2285W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Fault Evolution Model Including the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamic Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a preliminary numerical simulation of seismicity and stress evolution along a strike-slip fault in a 3D elastic half space. Following work of Ben-Zion (1996), the fault geometry is devised as a vertical plane which is about 70 km long and 17 km wide, comparable to the size of San Andreas Fault around Parkfield. The loading mechanism is described by "backslip" method. The fault failure is governed by a static/kinetic friction law, and induced stress transfer is calculated with Okada's static solution. In order to track the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation in detail, we allow induced stress to propagate through the medium at the shear wave velocity by introducing a distance-dependent time delay to responses to stress changes. <span class="hlt">Current</span> simulation indicates small to moderate earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter law and quasi-periodical characteristic large earthquakes, which are consistent with previous work by others. Next we will consider introducing a more realistic friction law, namely, the laboratory-derived rate- and state- dependent law, which can simulate more realistic and complicated sliding behavior such as the stable and unstable slip, the aseismic sliding and the slip nucleation process. In addition, the long duration of aftershocks is expected to be reproduced due to this time-dependent friction law, which is not available in <span class="hlt">current</span> seismicity simulation. The other difference from previous work is that we are trying to include the dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in this study. Most previous study on seismicity simulation is based on the static solution when dealing with failure induced stress changes. However, studies of numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics have revealed lots of important details which are missing in the quasi-static/quasi- dynamic simulation. For example, dynamic simulations indicate that the slip on the ground surface becomes larger if the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process reaches the free surface. The concentration of stress on the propagating crack tip keeps the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continuing easily. Therefore, comparing with the <span class="hlt">current</span> simulation, we expect a different stress evolution after a large earthquake in a short time scale, which is very essential for the short-term prediction. Once the model is successfully constructed, we intend to apply it to the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield segment. We try to simulate the seismicity evolution and the distribution of coseismic and postseismic slip and interseismic creep in the past decades. We expect to reproduce some specific events and slip distributions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Y.; Chen, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21144790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatal lower extremity varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare cause of death, although varicosities are a common pathology. We present three cases of sudden death due to varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After a review of the literature, the case circumstances and the findings of imaging examination, performed in two cases, are presented. One of them had undergone a post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), and one a PMCTA as well as a post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging prior to conventional autopsy. One of the cases presented herein is, to our knowledge, the youngest known fatality due to varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:21144790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Preiss, Ulrich; Hatch, Gary M; Zech, Wolf Dieter; Ketterer, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3407438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laparoscopic Repair of a Traumatic Bladder <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laparoscopic repair of the traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a proven, safe, and effective technique in the appropriate setting. A 23-year-old male with traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> proven by cystogram after a motor vehicle collision was successfully repaired via a laparoscopic approach. We describe the technique in detail including 2-layer closure and follow-up care. A review of the literature using PubMed with the key words [laparoscopic repair bladder injury] AND [bladder trauma] was performed. We recommend the consideration of laparoscopic repair of the intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in more trauma patients who meet criteria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hugo Cuadra, Rene; Ricchiuti, Daniel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23085307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay methods for alphaviruses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed. PMID:23085307</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21398643"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraplaque haemorrhages as the trigger of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the western countries. Human atherothrombotic disease begins early in life in relation to circulating lipid retention in the inner vascular wall. Risk factors enhance the progression towards clinical expression: dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, ageing, etc. The evolution from the initial lipid retention in the arterial wall to clinical events is a continuum of increasingly complex biological processes. <span class="hlt">Current</span> strategies to fight the consequences of atherothrombosis are orientated either towards the promotion of a healthy life style and preventive treatment of risk factors, or towards late interventional strategies. Despite this therapeutic arsenal, the incidence of clinical events remains dramatically high, dependent, at least in part, on the increasing frequency of type 2 diabetes and ageing. But some medical treatments, focusing only on prevention of the metabolic risk, have failed to reduce cardiovascular mortality, thus illustrating that our understanding of the pathophysiology of human atherothrombosis leading to clinical events remain incomplete. New paradigms are now emerging which may give rise to novel experimental strategies to improve therapeutic efficacy and prediction of disease progression. Recent studies strengthen the concept that the intraplaque neovascularization and bleeding (Figure 1, upper panel) are events that could play a major role in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> progression and leucocyte infiltration, and may also serve as a measure of risk for the development of future events. The recent advances in our understanding of Intra<span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Hemorrhage as a critical event in triggering acute clinical events have important implications for clinical research and possibly future clinical practice. PMID:21398643</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Virmani, Renu; Arbustini, Eloïsa; Pasterkamp, Gerard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating practice patterns for managing moderate to severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Objective To describe practice patterns for care of Canadian patients with moderate to severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. Design Online survey of a consumer panel. Setting Participants were drawn from a population-wide Canadian consumer database. Participants To be eligible to participate, respondents had to have been diagnosed with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis within the past 5 years, and to have had body surface area involvement of 3% or greater in the past 5 years, or to have psoriasis on a sensitive area of the body (hands, feet, scalp, face, or genitals), or to be <span class="hlt">currently</span> receiving treatment with systemic agents or phototherapy for psoriasis. Main outcome measures Proportion of respondents with psoriasis managed by FPs and other specialists, psoriasis therapies, comorbidities, and patient satisfaction. Results Invitations were sent to 3845 panelists with self-reported psoriasis, of which 514 qualified to complete the survey. Family physicians were reported to be the primary providers for diagnosis and ongoing care of psoriasis in all provinces except Quebec. Overall physician care was reported to be satisfactory by 62% of respondents. Most respondents receiving over-the-counter therapies (55%) or prescribed topical therapies (61%) reported that their psoriasis was managed by FPs. Respondents receiving prescription oral or injectable medications or phototherapy were mainly managed by dermatologists (42%, 74%, and 71% of respondents, respectively). Ongoing management of respondents with body surface area involvement of 10% or greater was mainly split between dermatologists (47%) and FPs (45%), compared with rheumatologists (4%) or other health care professionals (4%). Of those respondents receiving medications for concomitant health conditions, treatment for high blood pressure was most common (92%), followed by treatment for heart disease (75%) and elevated cholesterol and lipid levels (68%). Conclusion Patient-reported practice patterns for the diagnosis and management of moderate to severe psoriasis vary among provinces and in primary and secondary care settings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poulin, Yves; Wasel, Norman; Chan, Daphne; Bernstein, Geula; Andrew, Robin; Fraquelli, Elisa; Papp, Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2831775"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, a subclinical precursor of vascular events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Carotid atherosclerosis is a known biomarker associated with future vascular disease. The risk associated with small, nonstenotic carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is less clear. The objective of this study was to examine the association between maximum carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness and risk of vascular events in an urban multiethnic cohort. Methods As part of the population-based Northern Manhattan Study, carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was analyzed among 2,189 subjects. Maximum carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness was evaluated at the cutoff level of 1.9 mm, a prespecified value of the 75th percentile of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness distribution. The primary outcome measure was combined vascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death). Results Carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was present in 1,263 (58%) subjects. After a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, vascular events occurred among 319 subjects; 121 had fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, 118 had fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 166 died of vascular causes. Subjects with maximum carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness greater than 1.9 mm had a 2.8-fold increased risk of combined vascular events in comparison to the subjects without carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (hazard ratio, 2.80; 95% CI, 2.04–3.84). In fully adjusted models, this association was significant only among Hispanics. Approximately 44% of the low-risk individuals by Framingham risk score had a 10-year vascular risk of 18.3% if having carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Conclusions Maximum carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness is a simple and noninvasive marker of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with increased risk of vascular outcomes in a multiethnic cohort. Maximum carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness may be a simple and nonexpensive tool to assist with vascular risk stratification in preventive strategies and a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rundek, T.; Arif, H.; Boden-Albala, B.; Elkind, M.S.; Paik, M.C.; Sacco, R.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19272235"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical approach to acute pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pectoralis major <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a very uncommon injury first time described by Patissier in 1822. Tears are classified on the type (partial and complete) or on the site (tendinous, myotendinous junction, intramuscular). <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> are reported in young high-performance athletes as results of eccentric contractions of the musculotendinous unit. The most probable mechanism in elderly patients is a brisk tearing movement applied to stiff atrophic muscle. Injuries generally involve the sternal portion; the localization to the clavicular portion is rare and can be misdiagnosed as muscle sprain. Preoperative planning include MRI as gold standard regarding operative versus non operative treatment decisions. Surgical repair is recommended in cases of complete tears because of loss of strenght in adduction, flexion and internal rotation. Aim of the <span class="hlt">current</span> study is to describe the surgical repair of acute pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in 5 patients. Surgery was performed through a modified delto-pectoral approach; pectoralis major tendon was attached at its anatomic insertion using two metallic anchors. The patient as been immobilized in a sling for 30 days and then assisted physiotherapy begun; strenght exercises were allowed at 90 days. At a mean follow-up of 24 months results were excellent in all cases with restoration of strenght and coming back to previously sports activity. PMID:19272235</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merolla, G; Campi, F; Paladini, P; Porcellini, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soil&pg=2&id=EJ826517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance classes are assigned based on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between thumb and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3603255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aldosterone Increases Early Atherosclerosis and Promotes <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Inflammation Through a Placental Growth Factor-Dependent Mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Aldosterone levels correlate with the incidence of myocardial infarction and mortality in cardiovascular patients. Aldosterone promotes atherosclerosis in animal models, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods and Results Aldosterone was infused to achieve pathologically relevant levels that did not increase blood pressure in the atherosclerosis?prone apolipoprotein E–knockout mouse (ApoE?/?). Aldosterone increased atherosclerosis in the aortic root 1.8±0.1?fold after 4 weeks and in the aortic arch 3.7±0.2?fold after 8 weeks, without significantly affecting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> size in the abdominal aorta or traditional cardiac risk factors. Aldosterone treatment increased lipid content of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (2.1±0.2?fold) and inflammatory cell content (2.2±0.3?fold), induced early T?cell (2.9±0.3?fold) and monocyte (2.3±0.3?fold) infiltration into atherosclerosis?prone vascular regions, and enhanced systemic inflammation with increased spleen weight (1.52±0.06?fold) and the circulating cytokine RANTES (regulated and normal T cell secreted; 1.6±0.1?fold). To explore the mechanism, 7 genes were examined for aldosterone regulation in the ApoE?/? aorta. Further studies focused on the proinflammatory placental growth factor (PlGF), which was released from aldosterone?treated ApoE?/? vessels. Activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by aldosterone in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) caused the release of factors that promote monocyte chemotaxis, which was inhibited by blocking monocyte PlGF receptors. Furthermore, PlGF?deficient ApoE?/? mice were resistant to early aldosterone?induced increases in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden and inflammation. Conclusions Aldosterone increases early atherosclerosis in regions of turbulent blood flow and promotes an inflammatory <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phenotype that is associated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in humans. The mechanism may involve SMC release of soluble factors that recruit activated leukocytes to the vessel wall via PlGF signaling. These findings identify a novel mechanism and potential treatment target for aldosterone?induced ischemia in humans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGraw, Adam P.; Bagley, Jessamyn; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Galayda, Carol; Nickerson, Heather; Armani, Andrea; Caprio, Massimiliano; Carmeliet, Peter; Jaffe, Iris Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.mit.edu/hst.035/lectures/OCT/OCT_coronaries_2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Vivo Characterization of Coronary Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> by Use of Optical Coherence Tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background—The <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease is based largely on postmortem studies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution (10 m), catheter-based imaging modality capable of investigating detailed coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology in vivo. Methods and Results—Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were enrolled and categorized according to their clinical presentation: recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute coronary syndromes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ik-Kyung Jang; Guillermo J. Tearney; Briain MacNeill; Masamichi Takano; Fabian Moselewski; Nicusor Iftima; Milen Shishkov; Stuart Houser; H. Thomas Aretz; Elkan F. Halpern; Brett E. Bouma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683610"> <span id="translatedtitle">The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training promote atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stabilization in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with diabetic atherosclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical exercise is the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease treatment. The present study investigated whether exercise training affects atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> composition through the modification of inflammatoryrelated pathways in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE?/?) mice with diabetic atherosclerosis. Forty-five male apoE?/? mice were randomized into three equivalent (n=15) groups: control (CO), sedentary (SED), and exercise (EX). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration. High-fat diet was administered to all groups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, CO mice were euthanatized, while the sedentary and exercise groups continued high-fat diet for 6 additional weeks. Exercising mice followed an exercise program on motorizedtreadmill (5 times/week, 60 min/session). Then, blood samples and atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the aortic root were examined. A considerable (P<0.001) regression of the atherosclerotic lesions was observed in the exercise group (180.339±75.613×103µm2) compared to the control (325.485±72.302×103 µm2) and sedentary (340.188±159.108×103µm2) groups. We found decreased macrophages, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-3, MMP-8 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations (P<0.05) in the atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the exercise group. Compared to both control and sedentary groups, exercise training significantly increased collagen (P<0.05), elastin (P<0.001), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) (P<0.001) content in the atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Those effects paralleled with increased fibrous cap thickness and less internal elastic lamina <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> after exercise training (P<0.05), while body-weight and lipid parameters did not significantly change. Plasma MMP-2 and MMP-3 concentrations in atherosclerotic tissues followed a similar trend. From our study we can conclude that exercise training reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions in apoE?/? mice with diabetic atherosclerosis. A favorable modification of the inflammatory regulators seems to explain those beneficial effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kadoglou, N.P.E.; Moustardas, P.; Kapelouzou, A.; Katsimpoulas, M.; Giagini, A.; Dede, E.; Kostomitsopoulos, N.; Karayannacos, P.E.; Kostakis, A.; Liapis, C.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23340037"> <span id="translatedtitle">MR microscopy of human amyloid-? deposits: characterization of parenchymal amyloid, diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and vascular amyloid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cerebral deposits of amyloid-? peptides (A?) form the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In the brain, A? can aggregate as insoluble fibrils present in amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and vascular amyloid, or as diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span> consisting of mainly non-fibrillar A?. Previously, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be capable of detecting individual amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, not only via the associated iron, but also A? itself has been suggested to be responsible for a decrease in the image intensity. In this <span class="hlt">current</span> study we aim to investigate the MRI properties of the different cerebral A? deposits including diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and vascular amyloid. Postmortem 60-?m-thick brain sections of AD, CAA, and Down's syndrome patients, known to contain A?, were studied. High resolution T2*- and T2-weighted MRI scans and quantitative relaxation maps were acquired using a microcoil on a Bruker 9.4T MRI system. Specific MRI characteristics of each type of A? deposit were examined by co-registration of the MRI with Congo Red and A?-immunostainings of the same sections. Our results show that only fibrillar A?, present in both vascular and parenchymal amyloid, induced a significant change in T2* and T2 values. However, signal changes were not as consistent for all of the vessels affected by CAA, irrespective of possible dyshoric changes. In contrast, the non-fibrillar diffuse <span class="hlt">plaques</span> did not create any detectable MRI signal changes. These findings are relevant for the interpretation and further development of (quantitative) MRI methods for the detection and follow-up of AD and CAA. PMID:23340037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nabuurs, Rob J A; Natté, Remco; de Ronde, Fenna M; Hegeman-Kleinn, Ingrid; Dijkstra, Jouke; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Webb, Andrew G; Rozemuller, Annemieke J; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Weerd, Louise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Iliac Artery <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Endovascular Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085055"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without cardiac injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare injury following blunt chest trauma. It is frequently fatal because of serious complications such as cardiac herniation and/or contusion. We report a case of traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without cardiac injury, which was incidentally identified intraoperatively. A 63-year-old woman was transported to the hospital after sustaining blunt chest trauma from a motor vehicle accident. Radiographic workup demonstrated multiple fractures, pulmonary contusion, and hemopneumothorax. A chest tube was inserted, and persistent bleeding was observed. An exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and active pulmonary bleeding was controlled. Further exploration revealed major pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without cardiac herniation or intrapericardial injury, which was repaired by a bovine pericardial patch. Her postoperative course was uneventful. It is usually difficult to make a diagnosis of pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and a misdiagnosis often leads to a fatal consequence. Therefore, an immediate surgical exploration is warranted if clinical and radiographic findings suggest the condition. PMID:19085055</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakamura, Teruya; Maloney, James D; Osaki, Satoru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10854026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a soccer player.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traumatic duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from blunt trauma during soccer is an extremely rare occurrence. A case report of this unusual condition is presented together with a review of the literature. PMID:10854026</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houshian, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=NUREG0651"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NRC Staff's review of three domestic pressurized water reactor steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events has shown that no significant offsite doses or systems performance inadequacies have occurred. The plant operators and systems successfully avoided dire...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. B. Marsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum of CT findings in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prompt diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysms is imperative. The computed tomographic (CT) findings of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms are often straightforward. Most <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are manifested as a retroperitoneal hematoma accompanied by an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Periaortic blood may extend into the perirenal space, the pararenal space, or both. Intraperitoneal extravasation may be an immediate or a delayed finding. Discontinuity of the aortic wall or a focal gap in otherwise continuous circumferential wall calcifications may point to the location of a <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There usually is a delay of several hours between the initial intramural hemorrhage and frank extravasation into the periaortic soft tissues. Contained or impending <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are more difficult to identify. A small amount of periaortic blood may be confused with the duodenum, perianeurysmal fibrosis, or adenopathy. Imaging features suggestive of instability or impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> include increased aneurysm size, a low thrombus-to-lumen ratio, and hemorrhage into a mural thrombus. A peripheral crescent-shaped area of hyperattenuation within an abdominal aortic aneurysm represents an acute intramural hemorrhage and is another CT sign of impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Draping of the posterior aspect of an aneurysmal aorta over the vertebrae is associated with a contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:17374865</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rakita, Dmitry; Newatia, Amit; Hines, John J; Siegel, David N; Friedman, Barak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17550047"> <span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal with Carisolv system: a clinical approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, removal of artifcial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in pits and fissures with the Carisolv system was compared with that of conventional bristle brush methoda in vitro. The results indicate that in the dental clinic, complete <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal with the Carisolv is possible, and in addition to acid etching, treated cavity was almost free of debris which might increase sealant retention. PMID:17550047</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamada, Yoshishige; Hossain, Mozammal; Kimura, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yukio; Masuda, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Yuko; Matsumoto, Koukichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29193948"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Rheolytic System for Percutaneous Coronary and Peripheral <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Removal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> dissolution has been identified that percutaneously delivers a pulsatile high-velocity stream of saline to the site of an atheromatous lesion within a coronary or peripheral artery. In vitro evaluation and in vivo canine and porcine testing were performed using this 'rheolytic' system to deter mine its feasibility in ablating calcified <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and soft thrombotic tissue.A prototype</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William J. Drasler; Mark L. Jenson; Gregory J. Wilson; Joseph M. Thielen; Emmanuil I. Protonotarios; Robert G. Dutcher; Zinon C. Possis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33127022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Formation of Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few investigations on the development of dental have considered the first changes which can occur on a cleaned tooth surface during the first 4 h of exposure to the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> oral environment. The present study has investigated, using the scanning electron microscope, the colonization of enamel surfaces in vivo, and some of the factors influencing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation during the initial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. A. Saxton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53085763"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of MHC-specific haemolytic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-forming cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IT would be convenient to be able to measure the antibody response to alloantigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at a cellular level. As MHC alloantigens are expressed on erythrocyte membranes in mice one might suppose that a conventional Jerne <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay with enumeration of haemolytic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-forming cells (allo-PFC) against a lawn of suitable allogeneic erythrocytes would be straightforward.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan C. Howard; Jose R. F. Corvalan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7803925"> <span id="translatedtitle">No cultural detection of Helicobacter pylori in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Helicobacter pylori causes human type B gastritis and is involved in the etiology of peptic ulcer disease. The routes of transmission of H. pylori are still unclear. The microorganism may be transmitted orally, since H. pylori has been detected in dental <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. To confirm the hypothesis that dental <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are a reservoir of H. pylori, 100 dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> specimens from 55 dental surgery patients were incubated on one nonselective and up to four selective agar media for the detection of H. pylori. In addition, urease activity of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> material was tested, and the gingival status of the patients was assessed. H. pylori was not cultivated from any of the specimens investigated. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> material from 12 patients with moderate and severe gingivitis showed urease activity. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that dental <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are a relevant reservoir of viable H. pylori cells. However, non-cultivatable forms of H. pylori may survive in dental <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Urea cleaving activity of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> may be a marker of gingival inflammation. PMID:7803925</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Von Recklinghausen, G; Weischer, T; Ansorg, R; Mohr, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/72/8/5211.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/id0438.photos.195739p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">24. View of one of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from Clark Fork ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">24. View of one of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.oilpullingsecrets.com/OilPullingStudy1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Oil Pulling on <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> and Gingivitis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oil pulling is an age-old process mentioned in Charaka Samhita and Sushratha's Arthashastra. This study was conducted to assess the effect of oil pulling on <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> and Gingivitis. Objectives: (1) To assess the effect of oil pulling on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and gingivitis. (2) To monitor its safety on oral soft and hard tissues. Methodology: 10 subjects performed Oil Pulling along with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HV Amith; Anil V Ankola; L Nagesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2770317"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aortic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in seat belt wearers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several investigations have indicated that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in similar accidents. The location of the aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending aorta were mostly found in unbelted victims and were sustained in frontal impact collisions, the injury-causing part of the car being the steering wheel. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the distal descending part of the aorta were frequently associated with fractures of the thoracic vertebra. PMID:2770317</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24732112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal and pelvic tumors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of tumors is usually a critical and life-threatening condition. We demonstrate a wide variety of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tumors\\u000a with their imaging characteristics including gastric lymphoma, gastric leiomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma of the ileum, hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma, pancreatic pseudocyst, renal angiomyolipoma, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian endometrial cyst, ovarian corpus luteum\\u000a cyst, and ovarian teratoma. Their imaging features are illustrated with an emphasis on clues</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshie Iwasaki; Junichi Matsumoto; Eimei Okamoto; Hiroshi Niimi; Yasuo Nakajima; Tohru Ishikawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2584656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three rare causes of extensor tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three unusual cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of finger extensor tendons by attrition are reported. In one instance it was associated with long-standing nonunion of a scaphoid fracture, with a posttraumatic dorsal subluxation of the lower end of the ulna in another, and with a Madelung's deformity in the third. Extensor tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has not been previously recorded in the English-language literature after the first two conditions. PMID:2584656</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harvey, F J; Harvey, P M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/7q57323t7175088j.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Frames in Psychology: Demarcations and <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author\\u000a believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent\\u000a science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental “<span class="hlt">ruptures</span>” are identified: the “horizontal” <span class="hlt">rupture</span>\\u000a between various schools</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrey V. Yurevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14529221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed primary realignment of posterior urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of acute posterior urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is controversial. Twelve patients who presented with acute posterior urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a five-year period were treated by delayed primary realignment of the injury. The technique of this procedure and the outcome are the subject of this presentation. Eight patients had successful realignment without strictures. Two patients with strictures responded to simple dilatations with bougies and the other two had formal urethroplasty. PMID:14529221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shittu, O B; Okeke, L I; Kamara, T B; Adebayo, S A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2879216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Profunda Femoris Aneurysm Secondary to Neurofibromatosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by abnormal growth that involves tissues of mesodermal and neuroectodermal origin. Aneurysms are rarely seen in peripheral arteries. This report presents a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arterial aneurysm secondary to neurofibromatosis; the lesion occurred in the profunda femoris artery, a highly unusual location. Treatment of patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arterial aneurysm secondary to neurofibromatosis may be interventional or surgical. In this case, a surgical approach was successful.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emrecan, Bilgin; Onem, Gokhan; Susam, Ibrahim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2918134"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluoride in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> following use of dentifrices containing sodium monofluorophosphate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous work showed that <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluoride increased with increasing NaF content of mouthwashes following daily use. The main aim of this study was to test whether a similar relationship was detectable after regular use of dentifrices containing amounts of sodium monofluorophosphate equivalent to 1000, 1500, and 2500 micrograms F/g. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> was collected from three groups, each consisting of approximately 80 children, who had each used one of the dentrifrices for one year. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> fluoride increased significantly with increasing Na2FPO3 content of the dentifrices. For the 1000-micrograms-F/g group, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluoride also increased significantly with increasing frequency of dentifrice use, but did not correlate with amount of dentifrice applied per brushing. The inverse correlation observed between mean <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluoride concentrations and mean three-year caries increments suggests that oral fluoride measurements may prove valuable in estimating the likely anti-caries efficacy of fluoride-containing dental products. PMID:2918134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duckworth, R M; Morgan, S N; Burchell, C K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2854144"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aortic Arch <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> and Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Death</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Aortic arch <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although the stroke mechanism is conceivably thromboembolic, no randomized studies have evaluated the efficacy of antithrombotic therapies in preventing recurrent events. Methods and Results The relationship between arch <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and recurrent events was studied in 516 patients with ischemic stroke, double–blindly randomized to treatment with warfarin or aspirin as part of the Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS), based on the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS). <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> thickness and morphology was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. End-points were recurrent ischemic stroke or death over a 2-year follow-up. Large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (?4mm) were present in 19.6% of patients, large complex <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (those with ulcerations or mobile components) in 8.5 %. During follow-up, large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were associated with a significantly increased risk of events (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-4.32), especially those with complex morphology (HR 2.55, CI 1.10-5.89). The risk was highest among cryptogenic stroke patients, both for large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (HR 6.42, CI 1.62-25.46) and large-complex <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (HR 9.50, CI 1.92-47.10). Event rates were similar in the warfarin and aspirin groups in the overall study population (16.4% vs. 15.8%; p=0.43). Conclusions In patients with stroke, and especially cryptogenic stroke, large aortic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> remain associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke and death at two years despite treatment with warfarin or aspirin. Complex <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology confers a slight additional increase in risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Tullio, Marco R.; Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8610652"> <span id="translatedtitle">Episcleral <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thermoradiotherapy of posterior uveal melanomas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Episcleral <span class="hlt">plaque</span> radiotherapy is a widely applied treatment for selected patients with uveal melanomas. This treatment is well tolerated but may produce severe late radiation complications resulting in decreased visual acuity that reduces the attractiveness of conservative therapy. The purpose of this study was to access if the addition of episcleral hyperthermia decreases late radiation complications through radiation dose reduction while maintaining high incidence of local tumor control. In a 3-year period, episcleral <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thermoradiotherapy was given to 25 patients with uveal melanoma in a Phase I study. The mean tumor height was 6.2 mm and the mean tumor basal area was 173 mm(2). The mean radiation dose given to the tumor apex was 72.2 Gy and the mean hyperthermia temperature, given once for 45 min, was 43.5 degrees C. Of the 25 patients treated, 22 (88%) showed tumor height reduction, 2 (8%) showed no change, and 1 (4%) had an increase in tumor height. At the last follow-up (range, 20-68 months; mean, 31.2 months), a 43% mean tumor height reduction was recorded (p = 0.0002). Of the 22 patients initially showing tumor regression, 2 (9%) had subsequent tumor progression. At least ambulatory vision (>5/200) was maintained by 20 (80%) patients. Severe complications, including hemorrhagic retinal detachment and a large vitreous hemorrhage, were seen in 2 (8%) patients early in this Phase I study. The treatment program was well tolerated by the study patients. Severe late treatment toxicity was sharply reduced by limiting the mean scleral temperature to < or equal to 44 degrees C. This study employing 30% lower radiation doses, showed tumor regression in the majority of patients. Longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term treatment efficacy and late treatment complications. PMID:8610652</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petrovich, Z; Pike, M; Astrahan, M A; Luxton, G; Murphree, A L; Liggett, P E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22617149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel methodology for 3D reconstruction of carotid arteries and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> characterization based upon magnetic resonance imaging carotid angiography data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we present a novel methodology that allows reliable segmentation of the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for accurate fully automated three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the carotid arteries and semiautomated characterization of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> type. Our approach uses active contours to detect the luminal borders in the time-of-flight images and the outer vessel wall borders in the T(1)-weighted images. The methodology incorporates the connecting components theory for the automated identification of the bifurcation region and a knowledge-based algorithm for the accurate characterization of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components. The proposed segmentation method was validated in randomly selected MRI frames analyzed offline by two expert observers. The interobserver variability of the method for the lumen and outer vessel wall was -1.60%±6.70% and 0.56%±6.28%, respectively, while the Williams Index for all metrics was close to unity. The methodology implemented to identify the composition of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was also validated in 591 images acquired from 24 patients. The obtained Cohen's k was 0.68 (0.60-0.76) for lipid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, while the time needed to process an MRI sequence for 3D reconstruction was only 30 s. The obtained results indicate that the proposed methodology allows reliable and automated detection of the luminal and vessel wall borders and fast and accurate characterization of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> type in carotid MRI sequences. These features render the <span class="hlt">currently</span> presented methodology a useful tool in the clinical and research arena. PMID:22617149</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakellarios, Antonis I; Stefanou, Kostas; Siogkas, Panagiotis; Tsakanikas, Vasilis D; Bourantas, Christos V; Athanasiou, Lambros; Exarchos, Themis P; Fotiou, Evangelos; Naka, Katerina K; Papafaklis, Michail I; Patterson, Andrew J; Young, Victoria E L; Gillard, Jonathan H; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3181242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Histopathological Changes and Clinical Responses of Buruli Ulcer <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Lesions during Chemotherapy: A Role for Surgical Removal of Necrotic Tissue?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is a necrotizing skin disease usually starting with a subcutaneous nodule or <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, which may ulcerate and progress, if untreated, over months and years. During the <span class="hlt">currently</span> recommended antibiotic treatment with rifampicin/streptomycin <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions tend to ulcerate, often associated with retarded wound healing and prolonged hospital stays. Methodology/Principal Findings Included in this study were twelve laboratory reconfirmed, HIV negative BU patients presenting with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions at the CDTUB in Allada, Benin. Punch biopsies for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were taken before start of treatment and after four to five weeks of treatment. Where excision or wound debridement was clinically indicated, the removed tissue was also analyzed. Based on clinical judgment, nine of the twelve patients enrolled in this study received limited surgical excision seven to 39 days after completion of chemotherapy, followed by skin grafting. Lesions of three patients healed without further intervention. Before treatment, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions were characterized by a destroyed subcutis with extensive necrosis without major signs of infiltration. After completion of antibiotic treatment partial infiltration of the affected tissue was observed, but large necrotic areas remained unchanged. Conclusion/Significance Our histopathological analyses show that ulceration of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions during antibiotic treatment do not represent a failure to respond to antimycobacterial treatment. Based on our results we suggest formal testing in a controlled clinical trial setting whether limited surgical excision of necrotic tissue favours wound healing and can reduce the duration of hospital stays.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brun, Luc Valere; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Barogui, Yves Thierry; Johnson, Roch Christian; Pluschke, Gerd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23705576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> using parallel imaging and 3 T black-blood in vivo CMR.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: To determine if black-blood 3 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (bb-CMR) can depict differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: In this prospective monocentric observational study 34 patients (24 males; 70 +/-9.3 years) with symptomatic carotid disease defined as ischemic brain lesions in one internal carotid artery territory on diffusion weighted images underwent a carotid bb-CMR at 3 T with fat-saturated pre- and post-contrast T1w-, PDw-, T2w- and TOF images using surface coils and Parallel Imaging techniques (PAT factor = 2) within 10 days after symptom onset. All patients underwent extensive clinical workup (lab, brain MR, duplex sonography, 24-hour ECG, transesophageal echocardiography) to exclude other causes of ischemic stroke. Prevalence of American Heart Association lesion type VI (AHA-LT6), status of the fibrous cap, presence of hemorrhage/thrombus and area measurements of calcification, necrotic core and hemorrhage were determined in both carotid arteries in consensus by two reviewers who were blinded to clinical information. McNemar and Wilcoxon's signed rank tests were use for statistical comparison. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Symptomatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> showed a higher prevalence of AHA-LT6 (67.7% vs. 11.8%; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 12.5), <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> fibrous caps (44.1% vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 15.0), juxtaluminal thrombus (26.5 vs. 0%; p < 0.01; odds ratio = 7.3) and intraplaque hemorrhage (58.6% vs. 11.8%; p = 0.01; odds ratio = 3.8). Necrotic core and hemorrhage areas were greater in symptomatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (14.1 mm2 vs. 5.5 mm2 and 13.6 mm2 vs. 5.3 mm2; p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: 3 T bb-CMR is able to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, demonstrating the potential of bb-CMR to differentiate between stable and vulnerable lesions and ultimately to identify patients with low versus high risk for cardiovascular complications. Best predictors of the symptomatic side were a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> fibrous cap, AHA-LT 6, juxtaluminal hemorrhage/thrombus, and intraplaque hemorrhage. PMID:23705576</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grimm, Jochen M; Schindler, Andreas; Freilinger, Tobias; Cyran, Clemens C; Bamberg, Fabian; Yuan, Chun; Reiser, Maximilian F; Dichgans, Martin; Freilinger, Caroline; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Saam, Tobias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082811"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sequential use of biologics in the treatment of moderate-to-severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of biologic agents, including the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab, and the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 antagonist ustekinumab, are available for the treatment of moderate-to-severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis in the U.K. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, the selection of the first biologic, and the choice of sequential biologics in the event of efficacy/tolerability concerns, is made using a limited evidence base. The efficacy of biologics, the potential mechanisms of primary and secondary failure and the evidence for sequencing therapy among TNF antagonists and between TNF antagonists and IL-12/IL-23 blockade are reviewed. As psoriasis biologics registers begin to produce long-term safety and efficacy data, therapy decisions in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis may become more objective, and it may be possible to individualize treatment based on clinical or pharmacogenetic information. PMID:23082811</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leman, J; Burden, A D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2710401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors affecting supragingival biofilm composition. I. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> mass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To examine the relationship between total DNA probe counts of supragingival biofilm samples, clinical parameters and supragingival biofilm composition. Methods Supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples were taken from 187 systemically healthy adult subjects at baseline (N samples = 4,745). All samples were individually analyzed for their content of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The relationship between total DNA probe counts and microbial composition was examined by sub-setting the data into 10 groups based on 10 percentile increments of the total DNA probe counts. Differences among groups in terms of species counts and proportions were sought as well as relationships of total <span class="hlt">plaque</span> DNA probe count and clinical parameters. Results There was a wide distribution in mean total DNA probe counts among the 187 subjects. With increasing total <span class="hlt">plaque</span> levels there was a change in the proportions of individual species and microbial complexes. “Small <span class="hlt">plaques</span>” were characterized by high proportions of species in the yellow, orange, purple and “other” complexes; <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of moderate mass were characterized by high proportions of Actinomyces and purple complex species, while “large <span class="hlt">plaques</span>” exhibited increased proportions of green and orange complex species. Measures of gingival inflammation, pocket depth and recession were significantly positively associated with total DNA probe counts. Increased <span class="hlt">plaque</span> numbers were related to increased pocket depth irrespective of presence or absence of gingival inflammation. Conclusion The proportions of individual species and microbial complexes in supragingival biofilms are influenced by the total numbers of organisms in the biofilm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haffajee, A. D.; Teles, R.P.; Patel, M.R.; Song, X.; Veiga, N.; Socransky, S. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4361294"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collagenolytic activity of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> associated with periodontal pathology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Certain dental <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, removed from sites of gingival and periodontal pathology in mentally retarded, institutionalized individuals, when incubated in phosphate buffer with Achilles tendon collagen, gave rise to an increase in ninhydrin-positive material. These <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, while showing great variability, released significantly more ninhydrin-positive material per milligram of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (wet weight) than did either the endogenous or heat-treated controls. Certain <span class="hlt">plaques</span> could also break down soluble, tritiated, labeled collagen isolated from the calvaria of chicken embryos. Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Clostridia histolyticum were found in <span class="hlt">plaques</span> by either fluorescent antibody or cultural methods. C. histolyticum, when detected, accounted for about 0.01 to 0.1% of the bacteria in <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. A conspicuous isolate from some <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was a Bacillus species which rapidly liquefied gelatin. Cell-free supernatants of this organism were able to degrade about 50 to 70% of the soluble collagen when incubated at 36 C. C. histolyticum ATCC 8034 caused an 80% degradation of the collagen under the same conditions of incubation. The Bacillus strains were facultative, could ferment glucose, reduced nitrate to nitrite, and were catalase, indole, and urease negative. The limited taxonomic information for the isolates is compatible with the description given for Bacillus cereus. PMID:4361294</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loesche, W J; Paunio, K U; Woolfolk, M P; Hockett, R N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21847078"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vivo near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) intravascular molecular imaging of inflammatory <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, a multimodal approach to imaging of atherosclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vascular response to injury is a well-orchestrated inflammatory response triggered by the accumulation of macrophages within the vessel wall leading to an accumulation of lipid-laden intra-luminal <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, smooth muscle cell proliferation and progressive narrowing of the vessel lumen. The formation of such vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> underlies the majority of cases of acute myocardial infarction. The complex molecular and cellular inflammatory cascade is orchestrated by the recruitment of T lymphocytes and macrophages and their paracrine effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cells.(1) Molecular imaging in atherosclerosis has evolved into an important clinical and research tool that allows in vivo visualization of inflammation and other biological processes. Several recent examples demonstrate the ability to detect high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in patients, and assess the effects of pharmacotherapeutics in atherosclerosis.(4) While a number of molecular imaging approaches (in particular MRI and PET) can image biological aspects of large vessels such as the carotid arteries, scant options exist for imaging of coronary arteries.(2) The advent of high-resolution optical imaging strategies, in particular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), coupled with activatable fluorescent probes, have enhanced sensitivity and led to the development of new intravascular strategies to improve biological imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis. Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging utilizes excitation light with a defined band width (650-900 nm) as a source of photons that, when delivered to an optical contrast agent or fluorescent probe, emits fluorescence in the NIR window that can be detected using an appropriate emission filter and a high sensitivity charge-coupled camera. As opposed to visible light, NIR light penetrates deeply into tissue, is markedly less attenuated by endogenous photon absorbers such as hemoglobin, lipid and water, and enables high target-to-background ratios due to reduced autofluorescence in the NIR window. Imaging within the NIR 'window' can substantially improve the potential for in vivo imaging.(2,5) Inflammatory cysteine proteases have been well studied using activatable NIRF probes(10), and play important roles in atherogenesis. Via degradation of the extracellular matrix, cysteine proteases contribute importantly to the progression and complications of atherosclerosis(8). In particular, the cysteine protease, cathepsin B, is highly expressed and colocalizes with macrophages in experimental murine, rabbit, and human atheromata.(3,6,7) In addition, cathepsin B activity in <span class="hlt">plaques</span> can be sensed in vivo utilizing a previously described 1-D intravascular near-infrared fluorescence technology(6), in conjunction with an injectable nanosensor agent that consists of a poly-lysine polymer backbone derivatized with multiple NIR fluorochromes (VM110/Prosense750, ex/em 750/780nm, VisEn Medical, Woburn, MA) that results in strong intramolecular quenching at baseline.(10) Following targeted enzymatic cleavage by cysteine proteases such as cathepsin B (known to colocalize with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages), the fluorochromes separate, resulting in substantial amplification of the NIRF signal. Intravascular detection of NIR fluorescence signal by the utilized novel 2D intravascular NIRF catheter now enables high-resolution, geometrically accurate in vivo detection of cathepsin B activity in inflamed <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. In vivo molecular imaging of atherosclerosis using catheter-based 2D NIRF imaging, as opposed to a prior 1-D spectroscopic approach,(6) is a novel and promising tool that utilizes augmented protease activity in macrophage-rich <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to detect vascular inflammation.(11,12) The following research protocol describes the use of an intravascular 2-dimensional NIRF catheter to image and characterize <span class="hlt">plaque</span> structure utilizing key aspects of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biology. It is a translatable platform that when integrated with existing clinical imaging technologies including angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), offers a uniq</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Calfon, Marcella A; Rosenthal, Amir; Mallas, Georgios; Mauskapf, Adam; Nudelman, R Nika; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Jaffer, Farouc A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=264505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microorganisms in situ.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> exhibit pronounced cell surface hydrophobicity. These data support the hypothesis that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in mediating bacterial adherence on tooth surfaces. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenberg, M; Judes, H; Weiss, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2753765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computer assisted treatment planning for 125I ophthalmic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> radiotherapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a computer program for planning the treatment of ocular tumors with 125I <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The program permits the input of the tumor configuration into a model eye and facilitates the viewing of the relative geometry of the tumor and various eye structures in different perspectives. Custom-designed 125I <span class="hlt">plaques</span> can be localized onto the globe, and dose distributions can be calculated and superimposed on the eye structures in any plane or on the inner eye surface. The program allows efficient evaluation of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> design in terms of radiation dose distribution relative to the tumor and critical structures. PMID:2753765</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ling, C C; Chen, G T; Boothby, J W; Weaver, K; Stuart, A; Barnett, C; Char, D; Phillips, T L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6856091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capacity credit calculation for exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports that overpressure relieving in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case is quite different from other cases, such as fire, utility failure, inadvertent valve opening/closure, etc., when designing a pressure relief valve (PRV). In most cases, it is quite straightforward. The calculated relief load is the capacity that needs to be relieved. But, in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases, the actual amount of relieving capacity from the relieving device is not necessarily equal to the one from the high-pressure side through a tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Very often, the actual amount of relieving capacity from the relieving device is less than the flow from the higher-pressure side through a tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. At the time of a tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the process fluid flows through the breakage of a heat exchanger tube wall from its high-pressure side to its low-pressure side. The process fluid will then flow through the orifice of a PRV from the low-pressure side of the heat exchanger to the back-pressure side, which could be a flare, a K.O. drum or even atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, W.Y. (Stothert-Christenson Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, B.C. (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=470154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from blunt chest trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Borrie, J. and Lichter, I. (1974).Thorax, 29, 329-337. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from blunt chest trauma. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may occur in two distinct anatomical sites, namely the diaphragmatic pericardium and the pleuropericardium. They may be combined. The problems in each type are different. In <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> diaphragmatic pericardium the rent may involve the pericardial cavity alone, or may extend into one or both adjoining pleural cavities. Upward herniation of abdominal viscera can occur, with or without strangulation. The presence of a pericardial rent may be suggested by diagnostic pneumoperitoneum, and chest films showing displaced abdominal viscera; its extent may be fully revealed only by thoracotomy. If the rent involves only the diaphragmatic pericardium without lateral spread into a pleural cavity, the presence of a rent may be revealed only by exploratory thoracotomy with pericardiotomy. In <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pleuropericardium the rent is usually vertical and may occur on either side, more usually on the left. It may be recognized on chest films in its early stages by the presence of intrapericardial air arising from associated lung trauma. There is serious risk of heart dislocation with or without strangulation. The defect must be surgically repaired and, because of pericardial retraction, it may require a fabric patch. Teflon fabric has proved to be a long-term satisfactory pericardial substitute. Two cases of each type of pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are described and illustrate these points. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borrie, J.; Lichter, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5747.1720D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cerebrovascular <span class="hlt">plaque</span> segmentation using object class uncertainty snake in MR images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease leads to formation of lipid-laden <span class="hlt">plaques</span> that can form emboli when <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> causing blockage to cerebral vessels. The clinical manifestation of this event sequence is stroke; a leading cause of disability and death. In vivo MR imaging provides detailed image of vascular architecture for the carotid artery making it suitable for analysis of morphological features. Assessing the status of carotid arteries that supplies blood to the brain is of primary interest to such investigations. Reproducible quantification of carotid artery dimensions in MR images is essential for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> analysis. Manual segmentation being the only method presently makes it time consuming and sensitive to inter and intra observer variability. This paper presents a deformable model for lumen and vessel wall segmentation of carotid artery from MR images. The major challenges of carotid artery segmentation are (a) low signal-to-noise ratio, (b) background intensity inhomogeneity and (c) indistinct inner and/or outer vessel wall. We propose a new, effective object-class uncertainty based deformable model with additional features tailored toward this specific application. Object-class uncertainty optimally utilizes MR intensity characteristics of various anatomic entities that enable the snake to avert leakage through fuzzy boundaries. To strengthen the deformable model for this application, some other properties are attributed to it in the form of (1) fully arc-based deformation using a Gaussian model to maximally exploit vessel wall smoothness, (2) construction of a forbidden region for outer-wall segmentation to reduce interferences by prominent lumen features and (3) arc-based landmark for efficient user interaction. The algorithm has been tested upon T1- and PD-weighted images. Measures of lumen area and vessel wall area are computed from segmented data of 10 patient MR images and their accuracy and reproducibility are examined. These results correspond exceptionally well with manual segmentation completed by radiology experts. Reproducibility of the proposed method is estimated for both intra- and inter-operator studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Das, Bipul; Saha, Punam K.; Wolf, Ronald; Song, Hee Kwon; Wright, Alexander C.; Wehrli, Felix W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship Between a Systemic Inflammatory Marker, <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Inflammation, and <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Characteristics Determined by Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count, local <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fibrous cap macrophage density, and the morphological features and presence of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) identified by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods and Results OCT was performed in patients undergoing catheterization. Images were analyzed using validated criteria for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> characteristics. Baseline WBC count correlated with macrophage density (r=0.483, P<0.001). Both parameters were associated with lipid-rich <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and correlated inversely with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fibrous cap thickness (r=?0.547 for macrophage density and ?0.423 for WBC count, P<0.015). <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> classified as TCFA had a higher median macrophage density than non-TCFA <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (7.4 versus 4.99, P<0.001). Patients with TCFA had a higher WBC count compared with those without TCFA (11.0 versus 7.9, P=0.007). Receiver operator curves for WBC count, macrophage density, and these combined parameters for prediction of TCFA showed the area under the curves were 0.88, 0.91, and 0.97 (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion This study provides the first in vivo data linking the peripheral WBC count, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fibrous cap macrophage density, and the characteristics and presence of TCFA. Macrophage density correlated with the WBC count, and both parameters independently and particularly in combination predict the presence of TCFA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raffel, O. Christopher; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Gauthier, Denise DeJoseph; Halpern, Elkan F.; Bouma, Brett E.; Jang, Ik-Kyung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23960215"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> composition and classification identified by coronary computed tomography: assessment of computed tomography-generated <span class="hlt">plaque</span> maps compared with virtual histology intravascular ultrasound and histology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background- Computed tomography (CT) is used routinely for coronary angiography, and higher-risk features of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> can also be identified. However, the ability of CT to discriminate individual <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components and classify <span class="hlt">plaques</span> according to accepted histological definitions is unknown. Methods and Results- We first determined CT attenuation ranges for individual <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components using combined in vivo CT coregistered with virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) in 108 <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from 57 patients. Comparison with contrast attenuation created <span class="hlt">plaque</span>/contrast attenuation ratios that were significantly different for each component. In a separate validation cohort of 47 patients, these <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Maps correlated significantly with VH-IVUS-determined <span class="hlt">plaque</span> component volumes (necrotic core: r=0.41, P=0.002; fibrous <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: r=0.54, P<0.001; calcified <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: r=0.59, P<0.001; total <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: r=0.62, P<0.001). We also assessed VH-IVUS and CT <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Maps against coregistered histology in 72 (VH-IVUS) and 87 (CT) segments from 8 postmortem coronary arteries. The diagnostic accuracy of CT to detect calcified <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (83% versus 92%), necrotic core (80% versus 65%), and fibroatheroma (80% versus 79%) was comparable with VH-IVUS. However, although VH-IVUS could identify thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) with a diagnostic accuracy of between 74% and 82% (depending on the TCFA definition used), the spatial resolution of CT prevented direct identification of TCFA. Conclusions- CT-derived <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Maps based on contrast-adjusted attenuation ranges can define individual <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components with a similar accuracy to VH-IVUS ex vivo. However, coronary CT <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Maps could not reliably classify <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and identify TCFA, such that high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may be misclassified or overlooked. PMID:23960215</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Obaid, Daniel R; Calvert, Patrick A; Gopalan, Deepa; Parker, Richard A; Hoole, Stephen P; West, Nick E J; Goddard, Martin; Rudd, James H F; Bennett, Martin R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3004802"> <span id="translatedtitle">MRI <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging reveals high-risk carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> especially in diabetic patients irrespective of the degree of stenosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> imaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a new modality for risk assessment in atherosclerosis. It allows classification of carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in high-risk and low-risk lesion types (I-VIII). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) represents a known risk factor for atherosclerosis, but its specific influence on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability is not fully understood. This study investigates whether MRI-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging can reveal differences in carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features of diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics. Methods 191 patients with moderate to high-grade carotid artery stenosis were enrolled after written informed consent was obtained. Each patient underwent MRI-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging using a 1.5-T scanner with phased-array carotid coils. The carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were classified as lesion types I-VIII according to the MRI-modified AHA criteria. For 36 patients histology data was available. Results Eleven patients were excluded because of insufficient MR-image quality. DM 2 was diagnosed in 51 patients (28.3%). Concordance between histology and MRI-classification was 91.7% (33/36) and showed a Cohen's kappa value of 0.81 with a 95% CI of 0.98-1.15. MRI-defined high-risk lesion types were overrepresented in diabetic patients (n = 29; 56.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed association between DM 2 and MRI-defined high-risk lesion types (OR 2.59; 95% CI [1.15-5.81]), independent of the degree of stenosis. Conclusion DM 2 seems to represent a predictor for the development of vulnerable carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> irrespective of the degree of stenosis and other risk factors. MRI-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging represents a new tool for risk stratification of diabetic patients. See Commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/78/abstract</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31686463"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a Silicone Gel Mammary Prosthesis and Amyloidosis: A Case Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the safety of silicone breast implants. Silicone gel prostheses older than 10 years have the risk of either leakage or outright <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The role of silicone gel in relation to connective tissue disease or amyloidosis has not been proved by <span class="hlt">current</span> serologic, immunologic, or epidemiologic tests. In this paper, we present</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ufuk Emekli; Burçak Tümerdem; Misten Demiryont</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Open surgical management of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> intracranial aneurysm in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber (KTW) syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 24-year-old man with a history of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome presented with severe headache and neck pain. Work-up revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage and evidence of multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient was treated with open surgical clipping of his <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm and is <span class="hlt">currently</span> doing well. PMID:23314873</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smitherman, Adam Derik; Woodall, Michael Neil; Alleyne, Cargill H; Rahimi, Scott Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10140552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequency estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8948254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing incidence of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the period 1987-91, 153 cases of total Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were diagnosed in the city of Malmo (population 230,000). Almost two thirds were caused by sporting activities, notably badminton. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> caused by nonsports injuries were found in older subjects. Compared to the age-specific incidence in 1950-73, a marked increase in both sports and nonsports injuries was found and patients in the latter group were older than in the former period. Patients with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can be classified into two subgroups with partly different etiologies: young or middle-aged athletes and older non-athletic persons. The increase in the former group is mostly explained by increased participation in recreational sports; the cause of increase in the latter group is unknown. PMID:8948254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Möller, A; Astron, M; Westlin, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16146098"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm in computed tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study is presentation the usefulness of CT examination in evaluation of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms. Material comprises a group of six patients (two women and four men) aged 52-79 years, examined in the 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical University of Lublin between the year 1997 and 2002. In all patients US examination and CT was performed. USG was performed with a Hitachi EUB 410 apparatus. CT was performed with Somatom AR. T scanner by Siemens, with two matrixes, 512 x 512 and 320 x 320 pixels. High resolution reconstruction algorithm was used with the possibility of performing spatial reformations. Five- and 10 mm-axial sections were performed before and after administering of contrast agents. Delayed scans were performed to reveal extravasations of the contrast agent. In three cases axial sections and MPR reconstructions revealed the presence of the periaortic haematoma with active extravasation of the contrasted blood. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm in two cases was associated with extensive retroperitoneal haematoma. The periaortic haematoma extended along the wall of the aneurysm. In one case the haematoma was localized mainly in front of aorta. In one case of aneurysm of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or left iliac artery with large retroperitoneal haematoma in the pelvis and intensive extravasation of contrasted blood was seen. The US examination with Power Doppler and Duplex facilitate in three cases evaluation of aneurysm localization. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysm is life-threatening condition, in vast majority of cases resulting in patient's death. In cases of acute <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the clinical symptoms and CT examination of stable patients are essential. In chronic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the early diagnosis is very important. The main role plays CT examination, which enables revealing of the aneurysm, precise evaluation of the leakage, retroperitoneal haematoma, vertebral destruction and dislocation of aorta and kidneys. PMID:16146098</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pas?awski, Marek; Z?omaniec, Janusz; Gwizdak, Jacek; Szafranek, Joanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22100638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiobiology for eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy and evaluation of implant duration and radionuclide choice using an objective function</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: Clinical optimization of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy is <span class="hlt">currently</span> limited to tumor coverage, consensus prescription dosage, and dose calculations to ocular structures. The biologically effective dose (BED) of temporary brachytherapy treatments is a function of both chosen radionuclide R and implant duration T. This study endeavored to evaluate BED delivered to the tumor volume and surrounding ocular structures as a function of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> position P, prescription dose, R, and T. Methods: <span class="hlt">Plaque</span>-heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions were generated with MCNP5 for the range of <span class="hlt">currently</span> available COMS <span class="hlt">plaques</span> loaded with sources using three available low-energy radionuclides. These physical dose distributions were imported into the PINNACLE{sup 3} treatment planning system using the TG-43 hybrid technique and used to generate dose volume histograms for a T = 7 day implant within a reference eye geometry including the ciliary body, cornea, eyelid, foveola, lacrimal gland, lens, optic disc, optic nerve, retina, and tumor at eight standard treatment positions. The equation of Dale and Jones was employed to create biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs), allowing for BED volumetric analysis of all ROIs. Isobiologically effective prescription doses were calculated for T = 5 days down to 0.01 days, with BEDVHs subsequently generated for all ROIs using correspondingly reduced prescription doses. Objective functions were created to evaluate the BEDVHs as a function of R and T. These objective functions are mathematically accessible and sufficiently general to be applied to temporary or permanent brachytherapy implants for a variety of disease sites. Results: Reducing T from 7 to 0.01 days for a 10 mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> produced an average BED benefit of 26%, 20%, and 17% for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively, for all P; 16 and 22 mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> results were more position-dependent. {sup 103}Pd produced a 16%-35% BED benefit over {sup 125}I, whereas {sup 131}Cs produced a 3%-7% BED detriment, independent of P, T, and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> size. Additionally, corresponding organ at risk physical doses were lowest using {sup 103}Pd in all circumstances. Conclusions: The results suggest that shorter implant durations may correlate with more favorable outcomes compared to 7 day implants when treating small or medium intraocular lesions. The data also indicate that implant duration may be safely reduced if the prescription physical dose is likewise diminished and that {sup 103}Pd offers a substantial radiobiological benefit over {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs irrespective of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> position, implant duration, and tumor size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21954592"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Methylation profiling of human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Somatic mutation theory of atherogenesis proved by alterations at the DNA level such as "loss of heterozygosity" and microsatellite instability in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is complemented by the date of epigenetic variability of genetic loci involved in the pathological process. However, only recently large-scale analysis of epigenetic modifications in the human genome became possible. For the first time quantitative microarray-based methylation profiling of 1505 CpG-sites across 807 genes was performed in atherosclerotic aorta and carotid artery wall lesions using the GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I ("Illumina", USA). One hundred and three (7%) CpG-sites in 90 (11%) genes were differentially methylated between tissue samples. The most pronounced differences in DNA methylation levels were registered for a site which is located in CpG-island of imprinted gene H19. By comparing 90 genes that were differentially methylated between tissue samples in our study, 10 genes (ICAM1, GSTM1, IGFBP1, POMC, APOA1, IL1RN, INS, LTA, MMP3, THBS2) were overlapped with data in Human Genome Epidemiology Network (HuGENet), in which they were identified as candidates for cardiovascular disease continuum. PMID:21954592</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nazarenko, M S; Puzyrev, V P; Lebedev, I N; Frolov, A V; Barbarash, O L; Barbarash, L S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3752875"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of post-intubation tracheal membrane <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: A practical approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an infrequent, severe complication of endotracheal intubation, which can be difficult to diagnose. Post-intubation tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (PiTR) is distinct from non-iatrogenic causes of tracheobronchial trauma and often requires different treatment. The increasing adoption of pre-hospital emergency services increases the likelihood of such complications from emergency intubations. Effective management strategies for PiTR outside specialist cardiothoracic units are possible. Two cases of severe PiTR, successfully managed non-operatively on a general medical-surgical intensive care unit, illustrate a modified approach to <span class="hlt">current</span> standards. The evidence base for PiTR is reviewed and a pragmatic management algorithm presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Suveer; Gurney, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction <span class="hlt">plaque</span> endoexocytosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction <span class="hlt">plaque</span> membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction <span class="hlt">plaque</span> internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Murray, Sandra A. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)], E-mail: smurray@pitt.edu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/va1729.photos.368734p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">13. SOUTHEAST OBELISK WITH <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> COMMEMORATING CROSSING OF THE NORTH ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">13. SOUTHEAST OBELISK WITH <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> COMMEMORATING CROSSING OF THE NORTH ANNA RIVER BY ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA MAY 22, 1864; LOOKING EAST - Fox Bridge No. 1936, Spanning North Anna River at U.S. Route 1, Ashland, Hanover County, VA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ar0065.photos.010507p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0703.photos.034868p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">10. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">10. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS GROUND, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS; NOW IN CUSTODY OF WARREN COUNTY HIGHWAY SUPERINTENDENT - Campbell Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek at Sumner Township Road 22, Little York, Warren County, IL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/va1928.photos.365084p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">HISTORIC IMAGE: VIEW OF MEIGS LODGE, WITH <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> IN FOREGROUND. ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">HISTORIC IMAGE: VIEW OF MEIGS LODGE, WITH <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH CA. 1930S. CEMETERY MAINTENANCE LEDGER, NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Alexandria National Cemetery, 1450 Wilkes Street, Alexandria, Independent City, VA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/tn0300.photos.375475p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">33. HISTORIC <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">33. HISTORIC <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1227.photos.314809p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> IN HONOR ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> IN HONOR OF KELLER, MARKS THE CENTER OF THE BRIDGE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/sd0088.photos.365340p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">GETTYSBURG ADDRESS AND NATIONAL REGISTER <span class="hlt">PLAQUES</span>, WITH HEADSTONES IN BACKGROUND. ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">GETTYSBURG ADDRESS AND NATIONAL REGISTER <span class="hlt">PLAQUES</span>, WITH HEADSTONES IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Hot Springs National Cemetery, Virginia Medical Center 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2890.photos.193733p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30798257"> <span id="translatedtitle">STONE FORMATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO PAPILLARY SURFACE COVERAGE BY RANDALL'S <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PurposeRandall's <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are common in calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers (SF). <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> coverage correlates directly with urine calcium excretion and inversely with urine volume. We hypothesize that <span class="hlt">plaque</span> coverage should increase proportionally with increasing stone number. We measured <span class="hlt">plaque</span> areas in idiopathic CaOx stone formers and nonstone formers (NSF), and identified significant relationships with quantified stone histories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SAMUEL C. KIM; FREDRIC L. COE; WILLIAM W. TINMOUTH; RAMSAY L. KUO; RYAN F. PATERSON; JOAN H. PARKS; LARRY C. MUNCH; ANDREW P. EVAN; JAMES E. LINGEMAN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29308569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urine calcium and volume predict coverage of renal papilla by Randall's <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urine calcium and volume predict coverage of renal papilla by Randall's <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.BackgroundRenal papillary <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are common in calcium stone formers. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">plaque</span> should increase directly with urine calcium excretion, and inversely with urine volume. To test this, we measured papillary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> areas in both idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers and nonstone formers and examined 24-hour urine data to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramsay L. Kuo; James E. Lingeman; Andrew P. Evan; Ryan F. Paterson; Joan H. Parks; Sharon B. Bledsoe; Larry C. Munch; Fredric L. Coe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=105103"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Formation by and <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis Biovar Trachoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new technique for the induction of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than that of plasmid-positive strains, possession of the plasmid and glycogen accumulation were not essential for the survival of C. trachomatis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, Akira; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Ohuchi, Masanobu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx. PMID:22883898</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/657630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bilateral simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendons is very rare and occurred in an 82-year-old man. This may be the fifth case to have been reported in the English literature. Only minor stress on extensor mechanisms preceded the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Interrupted mattress sutures restored muscle continuity and function. A "pull-out" wire system was not used for protection of healing muscles because adequate amount of tissue mass was available for approximation. Excellent results require intensive postoperative physical therapy. Old age of the patient should not be a deterrent to surgical treatment in carefully selected individuals. PMID:657630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siwek, K W; Rao, J P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23293421"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rudimentary horn at 22 weeks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhar, Hansa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3277969"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> ICA during Transsphenoidal Surgery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the internal carotid artery (ICA) during transsphenoidal surgery is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Direct surgical repair of the ICA may be difficult and time-consuming in an acute setting. Urgent endovascular treatments with vascular plug or stent-graft have been the feasible options to date. We desrcibe two cases of iatrogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of ICA during transsphenoidal surgery. In the first case we occluded the ICA with a vascular plug at the site of tear where cross circulation was adequate. In the second case we had to preserve the ICA with stent-graft since there was no adequate cross circulation. These two strategies are discussed below.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghatge, S.B.; Modi, D.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886036"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> MODELS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> correlations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Macheret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Surgical procedures review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Sci...271..482B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Dissipation during <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Adhesive Bonds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study energy-dissipation mechanisms during the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a thin adhesive bond formed by short chain molecules. The degree of dissipation and its velocity dependence varied with the state of the film. When the adhesive was in a liquid phase, dissipation was caused by viscous loss. In glassy films, dissipation occurred during a sequence of rapid structural rearrangements. Roughly equal amounts of energy were dissipated in each of three types of rapid motion: cavitation, plastic yield, and bridge <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These mechanisms have similarities to nucleation, plastic flow, and crazing in commercial polymeric adhesives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baljon, Arlette R. C.; Robbins, Mark O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Persistent edematous-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> photosensitivity observed with sitagliptin phosphate (Januvia®).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photosensitivity to sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, is reported. No previous reports of photosensitivity to any DPP-4 inhibitors are known. Physical examination of the patient revealed edematous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> confined to sun-exposed areas of the skin. An unusual finding in this case was the spongy sensation upon palpation of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Histopathology revealed parakeratosis and abundant eosinophils, supporting the clinical impression of cutaneous drug sensitivity. The eruption finally cleared, approximately two years after onset. PMID:22398230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stricklin, Sherea M; Stoecker, William V; Rader, Ryan K; Hood, Antoinette F; Litt, Jerome Z; Schuman, Thomas P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15138480"> <span id="translatedtitle">Senile <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Neurites in Alzheimer Disease Accumulate Amyloid Precursor Protein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are polymorphous beta-amyloid protein deposits found in the brain in Alzheimer disease and normal aging. This beta-amyloid protein is derived from a larger precursor molecule of which neurons are the principal producers in brain. We found that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-immunoreactive neurites were involved in senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and that only a subset of these neurites showed markers for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patrick Cras; Mitsuru Kawai; David Lowery; Patty Gonzalez-Dewhitt; Barry Greenberg; George Perry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56490203"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interstellar Message <span class="hlt">Plaques</span>: Application of White-Light Holography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During Spring \\/ Summer 2001, a prototype white-light holographic interstellar-probe message <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was created under Contract H-29712D of NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC), and commercial white-light holograms were tested for space-radiation tolerance at the MSFC Space Environment Facility (SEF) in Huntsville, AL, USA. Artist C Bangs' message <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was created at the Center for Holographic Arts in Long Island City,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. L. Matloff</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37108867"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Association of Pericardial Fat With Calcified Coronary <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background:Pericardial fat has a higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines than subcutaneous fat. Cytokines released from pericardial fat around coronary arteries may act locally on the adjacent cells.Objective:We examined the relationship between pericardial fat and calcified coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.Methods and Procedures:Participants in the community-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan for the assessment of calcified coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jingzhong Ding; Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Tamara B. Harris; Gregory L. Burke; Robert C. Detrano; Moyses Szklo; J. Jeffrey Carr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12160258"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of rinse with calcium enriched milk on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous research has shown that rinsing the mouth with milk significantly diminished the pH in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid; however, the degree of saturation with respect to the dental enamel (DS) was not significantly decreased because of an increase in the calcium ion concentration in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the cariostatic effect of adding calcium to milk on the DS value of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid after rinsing. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> samples were collected from 8 Japanese male dental students. Prior to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> collection, all subjects refrained from practicing oral hygiene for 48 hr and fasted overnight. Supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples were collected from one side of the mouth of each subject, and then collected from the other side, following a 30-second rinse with 15 mL of calcium-enriched milk, which was prepared by adding calcium carbonate to ordinary milk, and a 10-minute waiting period. The samples were cleared by centrifugation, and the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid was analyzed for inorganic ions and pH, using an ion chromatograph and pH microelectrode, respectively. The calcium ion concentration of the milk was 6.4 mM, which was about 36% higher than that of ordinary milk. The pH decreased significantly (p<5%) from 6.4 to 6.1 following the rinse with calcium enriched milk, as tested by the paired t-test. The decrease in pH might have caused a reduction of the DS value; however, it was compensated for by a significant (p<0.5%) increase in the calcium ion concentration of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid. PMID:12160258</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, M; Matsunaga, K; Kadoma, Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615996"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tryptase Promotes Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Haemorrhage in ApoE-/- Mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian, Dai; Li, Xiaobo; Ning, Yanxia; Yin, Lianhua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3131194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adiponectin-coated nanoparticles for enhanced imaging of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> diagnosis is still a challenge in cardiovascular medicine. The main focus of this study was to make atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> visible using targeted nanoparticles for improved imaging. Today various biomarkers are known to be involved in the pathophysiologic scenario of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. One promising new candidate is the globular domain of the adipocytokine adiponectin (gAd), which was used as a targeting sequence in this study. Methods: gAd was coupled to two different types of nanoparticles, namely protamine-oligonucleotide nanoparticles, known as proticles, and sterically stabilized liposomes. Both gAd-targeted nanoparticles were investigated for their potency to characterize critical scenarios within early and advanced atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions using an atherosclerotic mouse model. Aortic tissue from wild type and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, both fed a high-fat diet, were stained with either fluorescent-labeled gAd or gAd-coupled nanoparticles. Ex vivo imaging was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: gAd-targeted sterically stabilized liposomes generated a strong signal by accumulating at the surface of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, while gAd-targeted proticles became internalized and showed more spotted <span class="hlt">plaque</span> staining. Conclusion: Our results offer a promising perspective for enhanced in vivo imaging using gAd-targeted nanoparticles. By means of nanoparticles, a higher payload of signal emitting molecules could be transported to atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Additionally, the opportunity is opened up to visualize different regions in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scenario, depending on the nature of the nanoparticle used.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Almer, Gunter; Wernig, Karin; Saba-Lepek, Matthias; Haj-Yahya, Samih; Rattenberger, Johannes; Wagner, Julian; Gradauer, Kerstin; Frascione, Daniela; Pabst, Georg; Leitinger, Gerd; Mangge, Harald; Zimmer, Andreas; Prassl, Ruth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6147766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive detection of tritium in southern blot and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> hybridizations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sensitive method for detecting /sup 3/H-labeled probes in Southern blot and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> hybridizations is described. The method is a combination of dipping nitrocellulose filters in melted Permablend III and preflashing X-ray films. About 10 cpm per band or <span class="hlt">plaque</span> can be detected after 1 week. This method is used to detect cloned rDNA from Aspergillus nidulans and cloned variant sequences of calf satellite I DNA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartnik, E.; Borsuk, P.; Pieniazek, N.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537374"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methotrexate toxicity presenting as cutaneous ulcerations on psoriatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective but potentially toxic treatment for psoriasis. We describe a patient who administered 20?mg daily of MTX for 5?d and presented with ulcerated and necrotic lesions on the psoriatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, mouth erosions and hair loss. However, his psoriatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and ulcerations totally healed rapidly within two weeks and no recurrence has been observed for the 6 months of follow up. PMID:23537374</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koçak, Asl?han Yonca; Koçak, O?uzhan; Aslan, Figen; Tekta?, Mustafa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2794433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular MRI of Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> With Targeted Contrast Agents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular MRI of atherosclerosis involves the use of novel contrast agents to image cellular and molecular processes within atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Agents to image <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lipid content, inflammation, angiogenesis, and thrombosis have been developed and studied extensively in animal models of atherosclerosis and vascular injury. Selected agents have also been studied in humans, with highly promising initial results. In this brief review, recent advances as well as opportunities and challenges in the field are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sosnovik, David E.; Caravan, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5202..381B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for the detection of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cerebral aneurysm is a weakened portion of an artery in the brain. When a cerebral aneurysm <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, a specific type of bleeding known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs. No test exists <span class="hlt">currently</span> to screen people for the presence of an aneurysm. The diagnosis of a SAH is made after an aneurysm <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and the literature indicates that nearly one-third of patients with a SAH are initially misdiagnosed and subjected to the risks associated with aneurysm re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span>. For those individuals with a suspected SAH, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain usually demonstrates evidence of the bleeding. However, in a considerable portion of people, the CT scan is unable to detect the blood that has escaped from the blood vessel. For circumstances when a SAH is suspected despite a normal CT scan, physicians make the diagnosis of SAH by performing a spinal tap. A spinal tap uses a needle to sample the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the patient"s back; CSF is tainted with blood after the aneurysm <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. To distinguish between a common headache and a SAH, a fast and an effective solution is required. We describe the development of an effective detection system integrating hardware and a powerful software interface solution. Briefly, CSF from the patient is aspirated and excited with an appropriate wavelength of light. The software employs spectrophotometric analysis of the output spectra and lays the foundation for the development of portable and user-friendly equipment for detection of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhadri, P. R.; Majumder, A.; Morgan, C. J.; Pyne, G. J.; Zuccarello, M.; Jauch, E.; Wagner, K. R.; Clark, J. F.; Caffery, J., Jr.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19008059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the intracranial vertebral artery due to rotational acceleration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reason for blunt forces against the head to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the basal brain arteries has been discussed in forensic and trauma research. However, well-documented case reports demonstrating the mechanism of injury, the clinical course and the forensic work up are rare. We present the case of a 40-year-old man, who was assaulted with blunt force to the head resulting in death 34 h later from a longitudinal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal left vertebral artery. Computer tomography of the brain and the face demonstrated a basal subarachnoidal haemorrhage, signs of increased intracranial pressure and a fracture of the right orbital bone. Angiography showed a long fusiform dilatation of both intracranial vertebral arteries with an active pseudoaneurysm on the left side. At autopsy signs of a blunt trauma to the head, extensive basal subarachnoidal haemorrhage and a minor subdural haemorrhage were found. Histological examination revealed a transmural longitudinal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left vertebral artery with vital reaction and no signs of preexisting vascular disease. We discuss the <span class="hlt">current</span> literature regarding traumatic basal brain artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, important clinical decision making processes as well as pitfalls in the forensic work up. In addition, this singular well-documented case gives new insights in the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of traumatic basal artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:19008059</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaiser, Ch; Schnabel, A; Berkefeld, J; Bratzke, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2785944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> predicts long-term cardiac outcome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims The aim was to test the hypothesis that carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) predicts cardiac events. Methods and results Prospective cohort study of 162 consecutive patients undergoing elective carotid endarterectomy. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 content was quantified by immunoblotting and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Additional biomolecular profiling by immunoblotting included C-reactive protein, p67phox, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. Macrophage <span class="hlt">plaque</span> content was determined by quantitative immunostaining, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> collagen content by quantitative Sirius red staining. Follow-up for cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction was accomplished over a period of 48 ± 14 months. Expression of Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC was higher in carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of patients with than without cardiac events [median 1.6 (25th, 75th percentile 0.9, 2.5) vs. 0.8 (0.5, 2.0), P = 0.01 and 413 (281, 443) vs. 226 (96, 351) mmol/L, P = 0.03]. Smoking and point increase in carotid Lp-PLA2 expression but no other traditional cardiovascular risk factor, histological or molecular marker remained predictive of cardiac events in the multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses [HR 3.65 (1.36–9.83), P = 0.01 and HR 1.34 (1.01–1.77), P = 0.039]. Carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> Lp-PLA2 expression above the median constituted a more than three times higher risk for cardiac events [HR 3.39 (1.13–10.17), P = 0.03]. Conclusion Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 expression in carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is a predictor of long-term cardiac outcome. The <span class="hlt">current</span> study supports the concept of atherosclerosis as a systemic disease with multi-focal complications and personalized medicine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herrmann, Joerg; Mannheim, Dallit; Wohlert, Christine; Versari, Daniele; Meyer, Fredric B.; McConnell, Joseph P.; Gossl, Mario; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3704084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> by intravascular optical coherence tomography images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is rapidly becoming the method of choice for the in vivo investigation of coronary artery disease. While IVOCT visualizes atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with a resolution <20µm, image analysis in terms of tissue composition is <span class="hlt">currently</span> performed by a time-consuming manual procedure based on the qualitative interpretation of image features. We illustrate an algorithm for the automated and systematic characterization of IVOCT atherosclerotic tissue. The proposed method consists in a supervised classification of image pixels according to textural features combined with the estimated value of the optical attenuation coefficient. IVOCT images of 64 <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, from 49 in vivo IVOCT data sets, constituted the algorithm’s training and testing data sets. Validation was obtained by comparing automated analysis results to the manual assessment of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. An overall pixel-wise accuracy of 81.5% with a classification feasibility of 76.5% and per-class accuracy of 89.5%, 72.1% and 79.5% for fibrotic, calcified and lipid-rich tissue respectively, was found. Moreover, measured optical properties were in agreement with previous results reported in literature. As such, an algorithm for automated tissue characterization was developed and validated using in vivo human data, suggesting that it can be applied to clinical IVOCT data. This might be an important step towards the integration of IVOCT in cardiovascular research and routine clinical practice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ughi, Giovanni Jacopo; Adriaenssens, Tom; Sinnaeve, Peter; Desmet, Walter; D'hooge, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48904992"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of plastic deformation on bimaterial fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elastic mismatch across a fault is not sufficient to predict <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directionThe orientation of the stress state controls the location of plastic deformationStress orientation and elastic mismatch control <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nora DeDontney; Elizabeth L. Templeton-Barrett; James R. Rice; Renata Dmowska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.2145D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary study of the detectability of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with PET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evaluation of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability could be of great diagnostic value in cardiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a good candidate due to its ability to quantify micromolar concentrations of targeted drugs. However, the detectability of sub-voxel targets such as coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is limited by partial volume effects and by cardiorespiratory motion. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of these factors in the detectability of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> uptake. Radioactive markers were implanted on the epicardium of a pig and in vivo scans were performed. This was complemented with phantom measurements to determine the minimum detectable uptake as a function of background activity. Simulations were used to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory motion on the reconstructed lesions. Despite cardiorespiratory motion of up to 7 mm, the markers were detectable in the in vivo scans even after the injection of background. A lower limit of 250 Bq was found for a target to be detectable. Motion reduced the contrast of the reconstructed lesions to 23% of their static counterpart. Respiratory gating improved this to 49% of the static value. The results suggest that coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> evaluation with PET is possible, provided that sufficient <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-to-myocardium uptake contrast (50 to 100) can be achieved. This requirement increases exponentially for lesions with uptake below 250 Bq. The described experiments provide a means of estimating the minimum uptake and contrast required to ensure the detectability of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Delso, G.; Martinez-Möller, A.; Bundschuh, R. A.; Nekolla, S. G.; Ziegler, S. I.; Schwaiger, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7038152"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell culture of Peyronie's disease <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and normal penile tissue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cell cultures derived from Peyronie's disease <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and normal penile tissue were characterized morphologically and examined by immunofluorescence for actin cable formation, and their growth properties were compared. Relative to normal penile cell cultures which grew as contact inhibited, poorly refractile fibroblast-like cells, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> derived cell cultures consisted of round and spindle shaped cells that were more refractile and exhibited random crisscross growth patterns. Scanning electron microscopy of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> derived cell cultures revealed changes in cell surface topography characterized by the appearance of surface membrane blebs amd microvilli. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cells containing organized cytoplasmic microfilament bundles and nuclear indentations which resembled myofibroblasts. Such alterations were less extensive or absent in normal penile cell cultures. The amount and extent of actin cable formation was increased in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> derived compared to normal penile cell cultures. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> derived cells also exhibited differences in growth properties and grew to higher saturation densities than their normal counterparts. These results demonstrate that cells derived from Peyronie's disease <span class="hlt">plaque</span> can be grown in vitro and that these cells are morphologically altered and have an enhanced proliferative capacity. The availability of these cell cultures will permit studies directed at understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of Peyronie's disease. PMID:7038152</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somers, K D; Dawson, D M; Wright, G L; Leffell, M S; Rowe, M J; Bluemink, G G; Vande Berg, J S; Gleischman, S H; Devine, C J; Horton, C E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8497229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3262102"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reproducibility of IVUS Border Detection for Carotid Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> composition is a potentially important diagnostic feature for carotid artery stenting (CAS). The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the reproducibility of manual border correction in intravascular ultrasound with virtual histology (VH IVUS) images. Three images each were obtained from 51 CAS datasets on which automatic border detection was corrected manually by two trained observers. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> was classified using the definitions from the CAPITAL (Carotid Artery <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Virtual Histology Evaluation) study, listed in order from least to most pathological: no <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, pathological intimal thickening, fibroatheroma, fibrocalcific, calcified fibroatheroma, thin-cap fibroatheroma, and calcified thin-cap fibroatheroma. Inter-observer variability was quantified using both weighted and unweighted Kappa statistics. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the cross-sectional areas of the vessel and lumen. Agreement using necrotic core percentage as the criterion was evaluated using the unweighted Kappa statistic. Agreement between classifications of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> type was evaluated using the weighted Kappa statistic. There was substantial agreement between the observers based on necrotic core percentage (? = 0.63), while the agreement was moderate (?quadratic = 0.60) based on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> classification. Due to the time-consuming nature of manual border detection, an improved automatic border detection algorithm is necessary for using VH IVUS as a diagnostic tool for assessing the suitability of patients with carotid artery occlusive disease for CAS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siewiorek, Gail M.; Loghmanpour, Natasha A.; Winston, Brion M.; Wholey, Mark H.; Finol, Ender A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1875905"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptomatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterus: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the gravid uterus is a serious obstetric emergency that threatens maternal and fetal life. In certain cases the classic clinical picture may be absent. Most asymptomatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are in the lower segment and of minor extent or are really dehiscences of scars. This paper presents a case of massive spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> involving the entire corpus diagnosed at elective postpartum sterilization. This unusual event stimulated a review of the causes and clinical presentations of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alper, M. M.; Dudley, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29662996"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased Overnight Fluoride Concentrations in Saliva, <span class="hlt">Plaque</span>, and <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Fluid after a Novel Two-solution Rinse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies showed that salivary, <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-fluid, and whole-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluoride were significantly higher 120 min after subjects rinsed with a novel two-solution rinse than after they rinsed with a NaF rinse of the same fluoride concentration. In this study, the persistence of these increases was investigated overnight, a period of time that is more clinically relevant. Improved analytical techniques for the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. L. Vogel; Y. Mao; C. M. Carey; L. C. Chow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A. Kelleher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48926202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruth A. Harris; Steven M. Day</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p5jgh1b0vgnvnq9a.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell membrane destabilizes progressively during repetitive mechanical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The postfusion oscillation cycle method of electrofused cells was applied to red blood cell membranes to induce repetitive membrane <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and test the mechanical membrane resistance against sequential events of membrane strain and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After producing doublets from pairs of electrofused cells, they entered the oscillation cycle, providing a sequence of at least four consecutive colloidosmotic-driven <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events. Different gradations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Baumann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27099758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quartz Crystal Microbalance Induced Bond <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Sensing for Medical Diagnostics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disease detection at the point of care could be performed using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of antibody-antigen bonds. An integrated digital solution for smart sensing is proposed where the QCM is driven and its resonant frequency change is captured as an indication of bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After reviewing the principle of QCM induced bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a digital transceiver system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. J. van der Werff; Y. J. Yuan; E. R. Hirst; W. L. Xu; H. Chen; J. E. Bronlund</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55435941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Split Nodes and Fault Zone Models for Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accuracy of numerical calculation of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of earthquakes mainly depends on the fault boundary condition on the fault where friction is taking place. During <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the slip is calculated via the equation of motion while the shear stress is controlled by frictional sliding. Such <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models generally lead to nonlinear, mixed-boundary value problems. The boundary treatment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. A. Dalguer; S. M. Day</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28656194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on 7 cases of partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon. The mean patient age was 52 years (range, 38-58 years). There were 5 men and 2 women. The dominant arm was affected in all 7 patients. Pain was the chief complaint in all patients. Immobilization and physiotherapy were attempted in all patients, and 4 had at least</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dimitris G. Vardakas; Douglas S. Musgrave; Sokratis E. Varitimidis; Felix Goebel; Dean G. Sotereanos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19585785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a paratrooper.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A paratrooper presents after a parachuting accident with the inability to urinate. Initial emergency bedside ultrasound, followed by confirmatory abdominal CT, is carried out and demonstrates an intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The patient is taken to the operating room and a 3-layer closure with omental buttressing is carried out. PMID:19585785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ford, David; Palma, James; Robinson, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pectear.com/faq/when%20to%20operate.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: when to operate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> has been the subject of much debate. The classical history of the injury is forced abduction and external rotation. The cases of two patients (an amateur rugby union player and a recreational snowboarder) are reported. The diagnosis was made by clinical examination in both patients, and both were operated on more than two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J F Quinlan; M Molloy; B J Hurson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29928049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is the commonest visceral artery aneurysm. It is diagnosed more frequently in younger women, with up to 95% presenting during pregnancy. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> is associated with a disproportionately high maternal and fetal mortality.We performed a literature search on the patient and SAA characteristics, clinical presentations, management and outcome of this serious complication.There were 32 patients in total</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer Fong Ha; Michael Phillips; Kingsley Faulkner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3727204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Resection of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of fetal hydronephrosis: case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydronephrosis is the most common congenital anomaly observed with prenatal ultrasonography. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the most common cause of prenatal hydronephrosis. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been reported in adults with severe hydronephrosis. There is no reported spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case in the fetus in the literature. A spontaneous ureteral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to severe UPJO was reported in this case report. Prenatal ultrasound at 33 week gestation in a 21-year-old pregnant woman, revealed a female fetus with grade IV hydronephrosis of the right kidney, suggestive of a UPJO. During the follow-up at XXXVIII week, 5 cm cystic structure was not observed in right kidney. Mild ectasia was present in pelvicalyciel part which make us think about spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Ultrasonographic examination after a week post-delivery revealed 15 mm pelvicalyciel ectasia on right side which persisted during the second control after 1 month. Vesicoureteral reflux was not detected during voiding cystourethrogram. Diuretic renography revealed loss of right renal function completely. Because there was not any complain or any clinical sign, surgery was not thought. Spontaneous follow-up was recommended. PMID:21959707</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosus, A; Kosus, N; Duran, M; Turhan, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005shwa.book..295T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Active diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with laser beam irradiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We performed shock tube operations with a layer of diaphragm being <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> by laser beam irradiation. Mylar or Cellophane was examined as the diaphragm material. It has been demonstrated that shock tube can be operated with this new technique. The absorbed energy depends on the material and thickness of the diaphragm and is an important control parameter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takahashi, T.; Torikai, H.; Yang, Q. S.; Watanabe, K.; Sasoh, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3278820"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In two patient series including 809 and 327 patients, respectively, with acute myocardial infarction we have compared those who died in myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (verified at autopsy, Group A) with those who died without <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (autopsied, Group B), and those who survived hospitalization (Group C) with regard to previous history and clinical course in hospital. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> among autopsied patients was observed in 45% and 40% of the cases in the respective studies. Previous infarction was observed in each study as 0% and 0% in Group A compared with 25% and 31% in Group B, and 20% and 34% in Group C. Previous angina pectoris was observed in 26% and 22% in Group A compared with 50% and 54% in Group B and 52% and 54% in Group C. Maximum serum enzyme activity in Group A did not differ from Group B, but was higher than in Group C (p less than 0.001). Group A patients tended to have a higher initial pain score and a higher requirement of analgesics compared with other groups, whereas initial heart rate or systolic blood pressure did not differ in these patients compared to others. We thus conclude that patients with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have a very low occurrence of previous myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, and that their pain course appears to be particularly severe in the acute phase. PMID:3278820</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herlitz, J; Samuelsson, S O; Richter, A; Hjalmarson, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/65f652s5.pdf;origin=repeccitec"> <span id="translatedtitle">US Foreign Policy: Continuity or <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">James Mann refutes the idea that George W. Bush’s foreign policy was a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from previous administrations. He does find that it took previous policies much further but these trends had already been in place. He points to a number of military interventions to bolster his case including Haiti, Somalia, Panama, Iraq and Yugoslavia. He notes that previous administrations in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Mann; John Mueller; Ronald Steel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2425781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a renal angiomyolipoma (hamartoma)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 54-year-old woman with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of angiomyolipoma is presented. The literature on the 2 types of angiomyolipoma, witho