Sample records for plaque rupture current

  1. Histopathology of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Ravn, H B; Falk, E

    1999-05-01

    Plaque disruption occurs during the development of atherosclerotic lesions. During certain circumstances it may result in thrombosis and subsequent development of acute coronary syndromes. Several characteristics of the plaque appear to be associated with plaque disruption, including a large lipid rich core, superficial plaque inflammation, and a thin fibrous cap. The importance of these and other plaque components are discussed in this article. PMID:10384825

  2. Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

    2014-06-01

    Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

  3. Biomechanics of Plaque Rupture: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Richardson

    2002-01-01

    Plaque rupture has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet ruptured. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as

  4. Plaque Rupture Complications in Murine Atherosclerotic Vein Grafts Can Be Prevented by TIMP-1 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Margreet R.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study describes the incidence and phenotype of plaque rupture complications in murine vein grafts. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are highly involved in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and plaque rupture, we hypothesized that this model can be validated by overexpression of the MMP inhibitor TIMP-1. First we studied 47 vein grafts in hypercholesterolemic ApoE3*Leiden mice for the incidence of plaque complications. In 79% of these grafts, extensive lesions with plaque rupture complications like dissections, intraplaque hemorrhages or erosions with intramural thrombi were found. Next, in vivo Near-InfraRed-Fluorescence imaging demonstrated that electroporation mediated TIMP-1-overexpression reduced local MMP activity in vein grafts by 73% (p<0.01). This led to a 40% reduction in lesion-size after 28d (p?=?0.01) and a more stable lesion phenotype with significant more smooth muscle cells (135%), collagen (47%) and significant less macrophages (44%) and fibrin (55%) than controls. More importantly, lesions in the TIMP-1 group showed a 90% reduction of plaque complications (10/18 of control mice showed plaque complications versus 1/18 in TIMP-1 treated mice). Murine vein grafts are a relevant spontaneous model to study plaque stability and subsequent hemorrhagic complications, resulting in plaque instability. Moreover, inhibition of MMPs by TIMP-1-overexpression resulted in decreased plaque progression, increased stabilization and decreased plaque rupture complications in murine vein grafts. PMID:23071737

  5. Plaque distribution and vascular remodeling of ruptured and nonruptured coronary plaques in the same vessel: an intravascular ultrasound study in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens von Birgelen; Wolfgang Klinkhart; Gary S Mintz; Alexandra Papatheodorou; Jörg Herrmann; Dietrich Baumgart; Michael Haude; Heinrich Wieneke; Junbo Ge; Raimund Erbel

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to identify potential differences between the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) characteristics of spontaneously ruptured and nonruptured coronary plaques.BACKGROUNDThe identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo may allow targeted prevention of acute coronary events and more effective evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches.METHODSIntravascular ultrasound was used to identify 29 ruptured plaques in arteries containing another nonruptured plaque in an adjacent

  6. Localization of Apoptotic Macrophages at the Site of Plaque Rupture in Sudden Coronary Death

    PubMed Central

    Kolodgie, Frank D.; Narula, Jagat; Burke, Allen P.; Haider, Nezam; Farb, Andrew; Hui-Liang, You; Smialek, John; Virmani, Renu

    2000-01-01

    Although apoptosis is a well-recognized phenomenon in chronic atherosclerotic disease, its role in sudden coronary death, in particular, acute plaque rupture is unknown. Culprit lesions from 40 cases of sudden coronary death were evaluated. Cases were divided into two mechanisms of death: ruptured plaques with acute thrombosis (n = 25) and stable plaques with and without healed myocardial infarction (n = 15). Apoptotic cells were identified by staining of fragmented DNA and confirmed in select cases by gold conjugate labeling combined with ultrastructural analysis. Additional studies were performed to examine the expression and activation of two inducers of apoptosis, caspases-1 and -3. Ruptured plaques showed extensive macrophage infiltration of the fibrous cap, in particular at rupture sites contrary to stable lesions, which contained fewer inflammatory cells. Among the culprit lesions, the overall incidence of apoptosis in fibrous caps was significantly greater in ruptured plaques (P < 0.001) and was predominantly localized to the CD68-positive macrophages. Furthermore, apoptosis at plaque rupture sites was more frequent than in areas of intact fibrous cap (P = 0.028). Plaque rupture sites demonstrated a strong immunoreactivity to caspase-1 within the apoptotic macrophages; staining for caspase-3 was weak. Immunoblot analysis of ruptured plaques demonstrated caspase-1 up-regulation and the presence of its active p20 subunit whereas stable lesions showed only the precursor; nonatherosclerotic control segments were negative for both precursor and active enzyme. These findings demonstrate extensive apoptosis of macrophages limited to the site of plaque rupture. The proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1 in ruptured plaques suggests activation of this apoptotic precursor. Whether macrophage apoptosis is essential to acute plaque rupture or is a response to the rupture itself remains to be determined. PMID:11021830

  7. Multi-slice computed tomography with N1177 identifies ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef Leo Van Herck; Guido R. Y. De Meyer; Wim Martinet; Rodrigo A. Salgado; Bharati Shivalkar; Roel De Mondt; Helene Van De Ven; Annick Ludwig; Pieter Van Der Veken; Luc Van Vaeck; Hidde Bult; Arnold G. Herman; Christiaan J. Vrints

    2010-01-01

    Rupture-prone and ruptured plaques are characterized by the presence of large numbers of macrophages. N1177 is a contrast\\u000a agent consisting of iodinated nanoparticles that are selectively phagocytosed by macrophages. The aim of this study was to\\u000a investigate the effect of N1177 on the CT attenuation of rupture-prone and ruptured plaques in rabbits. In addition, we examined\\u000a in vitro whether uptake

  8. Identification of Genes Potentially Involved in Rupture of Human Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit C. G. Faber; Kitty B. J. M. Cleutjens; Ron L. J. Niessen; Petra L. J. W. Aarts; Wendy Boon; Andrew S. Greenberg; Jan H. M. Tordoir; Mat J. A. P. Daemen

    2010-01-01

    Although rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the major cause of acute vascular occlusion, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization to make an inventory of genes that are differentially expressed in whole-mount human stable and ruptured plaques. Two libraries were generated, one containing 3000 clones upregulated and

  9. Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and leptin in resident macrophages characterises atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.; Santibanez-Koref, M.; Polvikoski, T.; Birchall, D.; Mendelow, A.D.; Keavney, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Resident macrophages play an important role in atheromatous plaque rupture. The macrophage gene expression signature associated with plaque rupture is incompletely defined due to the complex cellular heterogeneity in the plaque. We aimed to characterise differential gene expression in resident plaque macrophages from ruptured and stable human atheromatous lesions. Methods and results We performed genome-wide expression analyses of isolated macrophage-rich regions of stable and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. Plaques present in carotid endarterectomy specimens were designated as stable or ruptured using clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Macrophage-rich regions were excised from 5 ruptured and 6 stable plaques by laser micro-dissection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The profiles were characteristic of activated macrophages. At a false discovery rate of 10%, 914 genes were differentially expressed between stable and ruptured plaques. The findings were confirmed in fourteen further stable and ruptured samples for a subset of eleven genes with the highest expression differences (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis revealed that components of the PPAR/Adipocytokine signaling pathway were the most significantly upregulated in ruptured compared to stable plaques (p = 5.4 × 10?7). Two key components of the pathway, fatty-acid binding-protein 4 (FABP4) and leptin, showed nine-fold (p = 0.0086) and five-fold (p = 0.0012) greater expression respectively in macrophages from ruptured plaques. Conclusions We found differences in gene expression signatures between macrophages isolated from stable and ruptured human atheromatous plaques. Our findings indicate the involvement of FABP4 and leptin in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, and suggest that down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling within plaques may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23122912

  10. Mechanical, biological and structural characterization of in vitro ruptured human carotid plaque tissue.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, J J; Cunnane, E M; McHugh, S M; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, S R; Walsh, M T

    2013-11-01

    Recent experimental studies performed on human carotid plaques have focused on mechanical characterization for the purpose of developing material models for finite-element analysis without quantifying the tissue composition or relating mechanical behaviour to preoperative classification. This study characterizes the mechanical and biological properties of 25 human carotid plaques and also investigates the common features that lead to plaque rupture during mechanical testing by performing circumferential uniaxial tests, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on each specimen to relate plaque composition to mechanical behaviour. Mechanical results revealed large variations between plaque specimen behaviour with no correlation to preoperative ultrasound prediction. However, FTIR classification demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between stress and stretch values at rupture and the level of calcification (P=0.002 and P=0.009). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was carried out to confirm that the calcium levels observed using FTIR analysis were accurate. This work demonstrates the potential of FTIR as an alternative method to ultrasound forpredicting plaque mechanical behaviour. SEM imaging at the rupture sites of each specimen highlighted voids created by the nodes of calcifications in the tissue structure which could lead to increased vulnerability of the plaque. PMID:23871944

  11. Multiple Atherosclerotic Plaque Rupture in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Three-Vessel Intravascular Ultrasound Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Rioufol; G. Finet; I. Ginon; X. André-Fouët; R. Rossi; E. Vialle; E. Desjoyaux; G. Convert; J. F. Huret; A. Tabib

    2002-01-01

    Background—To test the hypothesis of general atherosclerotic plaque destabilization during acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the present study sought to analyze the 3 coronary arteries by systematic intravascular ultrasound scan (IVUS). Methods and Results—Seventy-two arteries were explored in 24 patients referred for percutaneous coronary intervention after a first ACS with troponin I elevation. Fifty plaque ruptures (mean, 2.08 per patient; range,

  12. Introduction to the biomechanics of carotid plaque pathogenesis and rupture: review of the clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Makris, G C; Nicolaides, A N; Xu, X Y; Geroulakos, G

    2010-01-01

    The management of patients with asymptomatic carotid disease is currently under debate and new methods are warranted for better risk stratification. The role of the biomechanical properties of the atherosclerotic arterial wall together with the effect of different stress types in plaque destabilisation has only been recently investigated. PubMed and Scopus databases were reviewed. There is preliminary clinical evidence demonstrating that the analysis of the combined effect of the various types of biomechanical stress acting on the carotid plaque may help us to identify the vulnerable plaque. At present, MRI and two-dimensional ultrasound are combined with fluid–structure interaction techniques to produce maps of the stress variation within the carotid wall, with increased cost and complexity. Stress wall analysis can be a useful tool for carotid plaque evaluation; however, further research and a multidisciplinary approach are deemed as necessary for further development in this direction. PMID:20647514

  13. A mechanistic analysis of the role of microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaque stability: potential implications for plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Natalia; Kelly-Arnold, Adreanne; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Laudier, Damien; Fallon, John T.; Virmani, Renu; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The role of microcalcifications (?Calcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that ?Calcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries containing 62 fibroatheroma were examined using high-resolution microcomputed tomography at 6.7-?m resolution and undecalcified histology with special emphasis on calcified particles <50 ?m in diameter. Our results reveal the presence of thousands of ?Calcs, the vast majority in lipid pools where they are not dangerous. However, 81 ?Calcs were also observed in the fibrous caps of nine of the fibroatheroma. All 81 of these ?Calcs were analyzed using three-dimensional finite-element analysis, and the results were used to develop important new clinical criteria for cap stability. These criteria include variation of the Young's modulus of the ?Calc and surrounding tissue, ?Calc size, and clustering. We found that local tissue stress could be increased fivefold when ?Calcs were closely spaced, and the peak circumferential stress in the thinnest nonruptured cap (66 ?m) if no ?Calcs were present was only 107 kPa, far less than the proposed minimum rupture threshold of 300 kPa. These results and histology suggest that there are numerous ?Calcs < 15 ?m in the caps, not visible at 6.7-?m resolution, and that our failure to find any nonruptured caps between 30 and 66 ?m is a strong indication that many of these caps contained ?Calcs. PMID:22777419

  14. Carotid Plaque Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Harloff, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) plaques constitute one major source of retinal and cerebral brain embolism. Current guidelines recommend optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and recanalization based on the degree of ICA stenosis. However, ICA plaque composition, motion, vascularization, and local hemodynamics have only received limited attention as potential and independent risk factors for plaque rupture. The European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST) showed an increased risk of stroke recurrence even in moderate stenosis if the plaque surface was ulcerated in angiography. Further indicators of plaque instability and thus vulnerability were established by native or contrast-enhanced two-dimensional duplex ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Due to high soft tissue contrast, multi-contrast MRI seems to be ideally suited to identify plaque compositions that are prone to rupture, although data from large clinical trials proving the independent predictive value of plaque morphology are lacking. The role of cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis of the common carotid artery is well established. Nevertheless, little is known concerning the impact of local hemodynamics on plaque development, progression, and rupture. Wall shear stress, the friction force acting on the endothelium of the vessel wall, was shown to be able to induce local atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaques in animal models. Plaque movement and deformation was limited to investigations using ultrasound in order to identify plaques at risk. Similarly, models to calculate tensile plaque stress seem to be able to identify peak mechanical stress acting on plaque surfaces that make such regions susceptible to rupture. In this review, current evidence regarding the correlation of plaque location, composition, and local hemodynamics at the carotid artery bifurcation will be presented. Moreover, the potential benefit of a future comprehensive and individual risk assessment will be discussed. PMID:25187766

  15. Bacteria Present in Carotid Arterial Plaques Are Found as Biofilm Deposits Which May Contribute to Enhanced Risk of Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lanter, Bernard B.; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis, a disease condition resulting from the buildup of fatty plaque deposits within arterial walls, is the major underlying cause of ischemia (restriction of the blood), leading to obstruction of peripheral arteries, congestive heart failure, heart attack, and stroke in humans. Emerging research indicates that factors including inflammation and infection may play a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In the current work, atherosclerotic carotid artery explants from 15 patients were all shown to test positive for the presence of eubacterial 16S rRNA genes. Density gradient gel electrophoresis of 5 of these samples revealed that each contained 10 or more distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences. Direct microscopic observation of transverse sections from 5 diseased carotid arteries analyzed with a eubacterium-specific peptide nucleic acid probe revealed these to have formed biofilm deposits, with from 1 to 6 deposits per thin section of plaque analyzed. A majority, 93%, of deposits was located proximal to the internal elastic lamina and associated with fibrous tissue. In 6 of the 15 plaques analyzed, 16S rRNA genes from Pseudomonas spp. were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms have been shown in our lab to undergo a dispersion response when challenged with free iron in vitro. Iron is known to be released into the blood by transferrin following interaction with catecholamine hormones, such as norepinephrine. Experiments performed in vitro showed that addition of physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine induced dispersion of P. aeruginosa biofilms when grown under low iron conditions in the presence but not in the absence of physiological levels of transferrin. PMID:24917599

  16. Necrotic core thickness and positive arterial remodeling index: emergent biomechanical factors for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Jacques; Finet, Gérard; Gharib, Ahmed M; Herzka, Daniel A; Tracqui, Philippe; Heroux, Julie; Rioufol, Gilles; Kotys, Melanie S; Elagha, Abdalla; Pettigrew, Roderic I

    2008-08-01

    Fibrous cap thickness is often considered as diagnostic of the degree of plaque instability. Necrotic core area (Core(area)) and the arterial remodeling index (Remod(index)), on the other hand, are difficult to use as clinical morphological indexes: literature data show a wide dispersion of Core(area) thresholds above which plaque becomes unstable. Although histopathology shows a strong correlation between Core(area) and Remod(index), it remains unclear how these interact and affect peak cap stress (Cap(stress)), a known predictor of rupture. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in plaque vulnerability as a function of necrotic core size and plaque morphology. Cap(stress) value was calculated on 5,500 idealized atherosclerotic vessel models that had the original feature of mimicking the positive arterial remodeling process described by Glagov. Twenty-four nonruptured plaques acquired by intravascular ultrasound on patients were used to test the performance of the associated idealized morphological models. Taking advantage of the extensive simulations, we investigated the effects of anatomical plaque features on Cap(stress). It was found that: 1) at the early stages of positive remodeling, lesions were more prone to rupture, which could explain the progression and growth of clinically silent plaques and 2) in addition to cap thickness, necrotic core thickness, rather than area, was critical in determining plaque stability. This study demonstrates that plaque instability is to be viewed not as a consequence of fibrous cap thickness alone but rather as a combination of cap thickness, necrotic core thickness, and the arterial remodeling index. PMID:18586893

  17. Sealing a ruptured non-culprit coronary plaque in a patient with acute myocardial infarction with bioresorbable vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Javier; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Benedicto, Amparo; Diego, Guillermo; Alfonso, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A 49-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department suffering from a large anterior myocardial infarction that was treated by rescue PCI. The patient also had a moderate but complex lesion in the proximal segment of the right coronary artery. Optical coherence tomography showed striking images of a ruptured and ulcerated plaque with significant thrombus content. Although the lumen was not compromised, these unique findings prompted us to treat this non-culprit lesion. We selected a bioresorbable vascular scaffold with the aim of sealing and passivating this complicated and high-risk plaque. PMID:25707734

  18. Size of emptied plaque cavity following spontaneous rupture is related to coronary dimensions, not to the degree of lumen narrowing. A study with intravascular ultrasound in vivo

    PubMed Central

    von Birgelen, C; Klinkhart, W; Mintz, G; Wieneke, H; Baumgart, D; Haude, M; Bartel, T; Sack, S; Ge, J; Erbel, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify any potential relations between the size of an emptied plaque cavity and the remodelling pattern, plaque or vessel dimensions, lumen narrowing, and other ultrasonic lesion characteristics.?DESIGN—Intravascular ultrasound was used to examine prospectively 51 ruptured ulcerated coronary plaques. Cross sectional area measurements comprised lumen, vessel, plaque, and emptied plaque cavity. Lumen narrowing was calculated as 1 ? (lesion lumen area/reference lumen area) × 100%. A remodelling index was calculated as lesion vessel area/reference vessel area, and plaques were divided into those with values > 1.05 (group A) and ? 1.05 (group B).?RESULTS—Of the total of 51 plaques, 36 (71%) were assigned to group A and 15 (29%) to group B. In neither group was there a significant difference in reference dimensions and lumen narrowing. However, lesion vessel (mean (SD): 22.6 (8.1) mm2 v 17.5 (4.3) mm2; p = 0.006) and plaque areas (15.8 (6.2) mm2 v 12.8 (3.2) mm2; p = 0.03) were greater in group A than in group B. The cavity inside the plaque was larger in group A than in group B (2.8 (1.6) mm2 v 1.8 (0.9) mm2; p = 0.007) and showed a positive linear relation with lesion and reference vessel size (r = 0.58 and 0.56, respectively; p < 0.001), but not with lumen narrowing.?CONCLUSIONS—The size of the emptied cavity inside ruptured plaques is on average larger in lesions with adaptive vascular remodelling, and shows a linear relation with lesion plaque and vessel size and with the reference dimensions, but not with the degree of lumen narrowing.???Keywords: intravascular ultrasound; ultrasonic scanning; plaque rupture; remodelling PMID:11040004

  19. Endothelial shear stress in the evolution of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and vascular remodelling: current understanding and remaining questions.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, Jolanda J; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Gijsen, Frank J H; Giannoglou, George D; Feldman, Charles L; Stone, Peter H

    2012-11-01

    The heterogeneity of plaque formation, the vascular remodelling response to plaque formation, and the consequent phenotype of plaque instability attest to the extraordinarily complex pathobiology of plaque development and progression, culminating in different clinical coronary syndromes. Atherosclerotic plaques predominantly form in regions of low endothelial shear stress (ESS), whereas regions of moderate/physiological and high ESS are generally protected. Low ESS-induced compensatory expansive remodelling plays an important role in preserving lumen dimensions during plaque progression, but when the expansive remodelling becomes excessive promotes continued influx of lipids into the vessel wall, vulnerable plaque formation and potential precipitation of an acute coronary syndrome. Advanced plaques which start to encroach into the lumen experience high ESS at their most stenotic region, which appears to promote plaque destabilization. This review describes the role of ESS from early atherogenesis to early plaque formation, plaque progression to advanced high-risk stenotic or non-stenotic plaque, and plaque destabilization. The critical implication of the vascular remodelling response to plaque growth is also discussed. Current developments in technology to characterize local ESS and vascular remodelling in vivo may provide a rationale for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for coronary patients that aim to prevent clinical coronary syndromes. PMID:22752349

  20. Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Method and Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression Simulation Using Multi-Year MRI Patient-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Kerwin, William; Liu, Fei; Canton, Gador; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Atluri, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and progression have been the focus of intensive investigations in recent years. Plaque rupture is closely related to most severe cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke. A computational procedure based on meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was introduced to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Participating patients were scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Vessel wall thickness (WT) changes were used as the measure for plaque progression. Since there was insufficient data with the current technology to quantify individual plaque component growth, the whole plaque was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, hyperelastic, isotropic and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 2D plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the solid model and adjusting wall thickness using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with actual plaque geometry at T3 given by MRI data. We believe this is the first time plaque progression simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression simulation adds time dimension to plaque vulnerability assessment and will improve prediction accuracy for potential plaque rupture risk. PMID:19774222

  1. A case of myocardial infarction caused by coronary vasospasm: efficacy of soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 for distinguishing between vasospasm and plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Hata, Noritake; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Shinada, Takuro; Tomita, Kazunori; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2009-10-01

    This case illustrates the benefits of using plasma levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) to distinguish between myocardial injuries caused by coronary vasospasm or coronary plaque rupture. A 62-year-old woman with a history of dyslipidemia was admitted due to chest pain of 1 hour's duration. Electrocardiography demonstrated mild ST segment elevation in leads V1-6, and blood chemistry studies on admission showed a slight increase in the serum level of troponin T; therefore, acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed. However, the plasma level of sLOX-1, a marker of plaque rupture, did not increase during hospitalization. Coronary angiography demonstrated normal coronary arteries, and intracoronary acetylcholine infusion provoked coronary artery vasospasm. We could therefore diagnose myocardial injury caused by coronary vasospasm. We propose that the cause of myocardial injury cannot be predicted with electrocardiography and measurement of troponin T but can be clarified by measuring plasma levels of sLOX-1 in the early stage of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:19915312

  2. A hypothesis for vulnerable plaque rupture due to stress-induced debonding around cellular microcalcifications in thin fibrous caps

    PubMed Central

    Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Carlier, Stéphane; Xanthos, Savvas; Cardoso, Luis; Ganatos, Peter; Virmani, Renu; Einav, Shmuel; Gilchrist, Lane; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we advance a hypothesis for the rupture of thin fibrous cap atheroma, namely that minute (10-?m-diameter) cellular-level microcalcifications in the cap, which heretofore have gone undetected because they lie below the visibility of current in vivo imaging techniques, cause local stress concentrations that lead to interfacial debonding. New theoretical solutions are presented for the local stress concentration around these minute spherical inclusions that predict a nearly 2-fold increase in interfacial stress that is relatively insensitive to the location of the hypothesized microinclusions in the cap. To experimentally confirm the existence of the hypothesized cellular-level microcalcifications, we examined autopsy specimens of coronary atheromatous lesions using in vitro imaging techniques whose resolution far exceeds conventional magnetic resonance imaging, intravascular ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography approaches. These high-resolution imaging modalities, which include confocal microscopy with calcium-specific staining and micro-computed tomography imaging, provide images of cellular-level calcifications within the cap proper. As anticipated, the minute inclusions in the cap are very rare compared with the numerous calcified macrophages observed in the necrotic core. Our mathematical model predicts that inclusions located in an area of high circumferential stress (>300 kPa) in the cap can intensify this stress to nearly 600 kPa when the cap thickness is <65 ?m. The most likely candidates for the inclusions are either calcified macrophages or smooth muscle cells that have undergone apoptosis. PMID:17003118

  3. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  4. Microribonucleic acids for prevention of plaque rupture and in-stent restenosis: "a finger in the dam".

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John F; Martin, Kenneth; Caplice, Noel M

    2011-01-25

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which make up the arterial medial layer, possess a phenotype switching capability. This modulation of VSMCs is important in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. It has been recognized that VSMCs may also have a stabilizing role in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, reduction of the proliferative capacity of these cells may be of benefit in reducing neointimal hyperplasia following therapeutic percutaneous intervention. The biology of microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) and their ability to modify smooth muscle biology has recently emerged in a number of investigations. These studies elucidated the key role of miRNAs, miR-143 and miR-145, in particular, in the regulation of SMC homeostasis in vitro, in murine models of targeted gene deletion, and also in human vascular pathology. This review places this burgeoning knowledge within the wider context of atherosclerosis and restenosis and explores the therapeutic potential of miRNAs to change the fate of VSMCs within the plaque. PMID:21251577

  5. A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting. PMID:23999817

  6. Impaired gait pattern as a sensitive tool to assess hypoxic brain damage in a novel mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lynn; Van Dam, Debby; Van der Donckt, Carole; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Lemmens, Katrien; Van Brussel, Ilse; De Deyn, Peter P; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with a heterozygous mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene (Fbn1(C1039G+/-)) show spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, disturbances in cerebral flow and sudden death when fed a Western-type diet (WD). The present study focused on motor coordination and spatial learning of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD for 20 weeks (n=21). ApoE(-/-) mice on WD (n=24) and ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on normal diet (ND, n=21) served as controls. Starting from 10 weeks of diet, coordination was assessed every two weeks by the following tests: gait analysis, stationary beam, wire suspension and accelerating rotarod. The Morris water maze test was performed after 13 weeks of diet to study spatial learning. At the end of the experiment (20 weeks of WD), the mice were sacrificed and the brachiocephalic artery and brain were isolated. From 12 weeks onward, gait analysis of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD revealed a progressive increase in track width as compared to ApoE(-/-) mice on WD and ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on ND (at 20 weeks: 29.8±0.6 mm vs. 25.8±0.4 mm and 26.0±0.5 mm). Moreover, the stationary beam test showed a decrease in motor coordination of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD at 18 and 20 weeks. The wire suspension test and accelerating rotarod could not detect signs of motor impairment. Spatial learning was also not affected. Histological analysis of the brachiocephalic artery showed larger and more stenotic plaques in ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD. Furthermore, the parietal cortex of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD showed pyknotic nuclei as a sign of hypoxia and the percentage of pyknosis correlated with track width. In conclusion, gait analysis may be an efficient method for analyzing hypoxic brain damage in the ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mouse model. This test could be of value to assess the effect of potential anti-atherosclerotic therapies in mice. PMID:25449385

  7. Local critical stress correlates better than global maximum stress with plaque morphological features linked to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability: an in vivo multi-patient study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalin Tang; Zhongzhao Teng; Gador Canton; Thomas S Hatsukami; Li Dong; Xueying Huang; Chun Yuan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that mechanical stresses play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture process and may be used for better plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture risk predictions. Image-based plaque models have been introduced in recent years to perform mechanical stress analysis and identify critical stress indicators which may be linked to rupture risk. However, large-scale studies based on

  8. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Scepanovic, Obrad R.

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman ...

  9. Do Plaques Rapidly Progress Prior to Myocardial Infarction? The Interplay Between Plaque Vulnerability and Progression.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amir; Leipsic, Jonathon; Blankstein, Ron; Taylor, Carolyn; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2015-06-19

    There is a common misperception in the cardiology community that most acute coronary events arise from ruptures of mildly stenotic plaques. This notion has emanated from multiple studies that had measured the degree of angiographic luminal narrowing in culprit plaques months to years before myocardial infarction. However, angiographic studies within 3 months before myocardial infarction, immediately after myocardial infarction with thrombus aspiration or fibrinolytic therapy, and postmortem pathological observations have all shown that culprit plaques in acute myocardial infarction are severely stenotic. Serial angiographic studies also have demonstrated a sudden rapid lesion progression before most cases of acute coronary syndromes. The possible mechanisms for such rapid plaque progression and consequent luminal obstruction include recurrent plaque rupture and healing and intraplaque neovascularization and hemorrhage with deposition of erythrocyte-derived free cholesterol. Moreover, recent intravascular and noninvasive imaging studies have demonstrated that plaques which result in coronary events have larger plaque volume and necrotic core size with greater positive vessel remodeling compared with plaques, which remain asymptomatic during several years follow-up, although these large atheromatous vulnerable plaques may angiographically seem mild. As such, it is these vulnerable plaques which are more prone to rapid plaque progression or are those in which plaque progression is more likely to become clinically evident. Therefore, in addition to characterizing plaque morphology, inflammatory activity, and severity, detection of the rate of plaque progression might identify vulnerable plaques with an increased potential for adverse outcomes. PMID:26089367

  10. Image-Based Modeling and Precision Medicine: Patient-Specific Carotid and Coronary Plaque Assessment and Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Canton, Gador; Bach, Richard; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Wang, Liang; Yang, Deshan; Billiar, Kristen L.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning and cause acute cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. Current clinical screening tools are insufficient to identify those patients with risks early and prevent the adverse events from happening. Medical imaging and image-based modeling have made considerable progress in recent years in identifying plaque morphological and mechanical risk factors which may be used in developing improved patient screening strategies. The key steps and factors in image-based models for human carotid and coronary plaques were illustrated, as well as grand challenges facing the researchers in the field to develop more accurate screening tools. PMID:23362245

  11. Update on aneurysm disease: current insights and controversies: peripheral aneurysms: when to intervene - is rupture really a danger?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Joe; Fitridge, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral artery aneurysms are rarer than abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), although the true prevalence is not well known. They often coexist with aortic and other peripheral artery aneurysms. In contrast to AAA, where the principal risk is that of rupture, thromboembolism is more common, contributing a bigger risk in the more common lesions. Although rupture does occur, with incidence related to anatomical site, aneurysm diameter cannot be used to guide management with the same confidence as in AAA. In addition, the rarity of these lesions results in a paucity of evidence with which to guide intervention. Consequently they are difficult lesions to manage, and numerous aneurysm and patient factors must be considered to provide treatment individualised for each case. We discuss popliteal, femoral, carotid, subclavian, upper limb, visceral and false aneurysms, focussing on the risk of rupture and thromboembolism, and current thresholds for intervention, based on the available published literature. PMID:23993236

  12. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique opportunities for the early detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25950760

  13. Quantifying Effects of Plaque Structure and Material Properties on Stress Distributions in Human Atherosclerotic Plaques Using 3D FSI Models

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.; Sicard, Gregorio A.; Pilgram, Thomas K.; Yuan, Chun

    2006-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning and cause acute cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke. Methods to assess plaque vulnerability noninvasively and predict possible plaque rupture are urgently needed. Method MRI-based three-dimensional unsteady models for human atherosclerotic plaques with multi-component plaque structure and fluid-structure interactions are introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human atherosclerotic plaques. Results Stress variations on critical sites such as a thin cap in the plaque can be 300% higher than that at other normal sites. Large calcification block considerably changes stress/strain distributions. Stiffness variations of plaque components (50% reduction or 100% increase) may affect maximal stress values by 20–50 %. Plaque cap erosion causes almost no change on maximal stress level at the cap, but leads to 50% increase in maximal strain value. Conclusions Effects caused by atherosclerotic plaque structure, cap thickness and erosion, material properties, and pulsating pressure conditions on stress/strain distributions in the plaque are quantified by extensive computational case studies and parameter evaluations. Computational mechanical analysis has good potential to improve accuracy of plaque vulnerability assessment. PMID:16502661

  14. Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radj A. Baldewsing; Johannes A. Schaar; Frits Mastik; Cees. W. J. Oomens; Antonius F. W. van der Steen

    2005-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially

  15. The Impact of Calcification on the Biomechanical Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayden Huang; Renu Virmani; Hesham Younis; Allen P. Burke; Roger D. Kamm; Richard T. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Background—Increased biomechanical stresses in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques contribute to plaque rupture and, consequently, to thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Thin fibrous caps and large lipid pools are important determinants of increased plaque stresses. Although coronary calcification is associated with worse cardiovascular prognosis, the relationship between atheroma calcification and stresses is incompletely described. Methods and Results—To test the hypothesis

  16. Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

    2003-05-01

    Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

  17. Effect of Transmural Transport Properties on Atheroma Plaque Formation and Development.

    PubMed

    Cilla, M; Martínez, M A; Peña, E

    2015-07-01

    We propose a mathematical model of atheroma plaque initiation and early development in coronary arteries using anisotropic transmural diffusion properties. Our current approach is on the process on plaque initiation and intimal thickening rather than in severe plaque progression and rupture phenomena. The effect of transport properties, in particular the anisotropy of diffusion properties of the artery, on plaque formation and development is investigated using the proposed mathematical model. There is not a strong influence of the anisotropic transmural properties on LDL, SMCs and collagen distribution and concentrations along the artery. On the contrary, foam cells distribution strongly depends on the value of the radial diffusion coefficient of the substances [Formula: see text] and the ratio [Formula: see text]. Decreasing [Formula: see text] or diffusion coefficients ratio means a higher concentration of the foam cells close to the intima. Due to the fact that foam cells concentration is associated to the necrotic core formation, the final distribution of foam cells is critical to evolve into a vulnerable or fibrotic plaque. PMID:25814436

  18. Salt in the wound: 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography for identification of vulnerable coronary plaques

    PubMed Central

    Vesey, Alex T.; Joshi, Nik V.; Newby, David E.; Dweck, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Ischaemic vascular events occur in relation to an underlying vulnerable plaque. The pathological hallmarks of high-risk plaques are well described and include inflammation and microcalcification. To date, non-invasive imaging modalities have lacked the spatial resolution to detect these processes with the necessary precision to facilitate clinical utility. Positron emission tomography (PET) using targeted radiopharmaceuticals affords a highly sensitive tool for identifying features of interest and has been in use for several decades in oncological practice. Recent developments have created hybrid scanning platforms which add the detailed spatial resolution of computed tomography (CT) and, for the first time, made imaging of individual coronary plaques feasible. In this study we compared the utility of PET-CT using 18F-fluoride and 18F-fluorodeoxglucose (18F-FDG) to detect high-risk or ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. 18F-fluoride localized to culprit and vulnerable plaques as determined by a combination of invasive imaging and histological tissue examination. In contradistinction, 18F-FDG analysis was compromised by non-specific myocardial uptake that obscured the coronary arteries. We discuss the findings of this study, the limitations of the current approach of vulnerable plaque assessment and some on-going developments in cardiovascular imaging with 18F-fluoride. PMID:25984456

  19. Salt in the wound: (18)F-fluoride positron emission tomography for identification of vulnerable coronary plaques.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Philip D; Vesey, Alex T; Joshi, Nik V; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2015-04-01

    Ischaemic vascular events occur in relation to an underlying vulnerable plaque. The pathological hallmarks of high-risk plaques are well described and include inflammation and microcalcification. To date, non-invasive imaging modalities have lacked the spatial resolution to detect these processes with the necessary precision to facilitate clinical utility. Positron emission tomography (PET) using targeted radiopharmaceuticals affords a highly sensitive tool for identifying features of interest and has been in use for several decades in oncological practice. Recent developments have created hybrid scanning platforms which add the detailed spatial resolution of computed tomography (CT) and, for the first time, made imaging of individual coronary plaques feasible. In this study we compared the utility of PET-CT using (18)F-fluoride and (18)F-fluorodeoxglucose ((18)F-FDG) to detect high-risk or ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. (18)F-fluoride localized to culprit and vulnerable plaques as determined by a combination of invasive imaging and histological tissue examination. In contradistinction, (18)F-FDG analysis was compromised by non-specific myocardial uptake that obscured the coronary arteries. We discuss the findings of this study, the limitations of the current approach of vulnerable plaque assessment and some on-going developments in cardiovascular imaging with (18)F-fluoride. PMID:25984456

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis of Attenuated Plaques Detected by Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takashi; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ino, Yasushi; Tanimoto, Takashi; Ishibashi, Kohei; Komukai, Kenichi; Kitabata, Hironori; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kimura, Keizo; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Recent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have demonstrated that hypoechoic plaque with deep ultrasound attenuation despite absence of bright calcium is common in acute coronary syndrome. Such “attenuated plaque” may be an IVUS characteristic of unstable lesion. Methods. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 104 patients with unstable angina to compare lesion characteristics between IVUS-detected attenuated plaque and nonattenuated plaque. Results. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque was observed in 41 (39%) patients. OCT-detected lipidic plaque (88% versus 49%, P < 0.001), thin-cap fibroatheroma (48% versus 16%, P < 0.001), plaque rupture (44% versus 11%, P < 0.001), and intracoronary thrombus (54% versus 17%, P < 0.001) were more often seen in IVUS-detected attenuated plaques compared with nonattenuated plaques. Conclusions. IVUS-detected attenuated plaque has many characteristics of unstable coronary lesion. The presence of attended plaque might be an important marker of lesion instability. PMID:21941667

  1. Evaluation of collagen in atherosclerotic plaques: the use of two coherent laser-based imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; de Boer, Johannes; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Acute coronary events such as myocardial infarction are frequently caused by the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Collagen plays a key role in determining plaque stability. Methods to measure plaque collagen content are invaluable in detecting unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, novel coherent laser-based imaging techniques, such as polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) and laser speckle imaging (LSI) have been investigated, and they provide a wealth of information related to collagen content and plaque stability. Additionally, given their potential for intravascular use, these technologies will be invaluable for improving our understanding of the natural history of plaque development and rupture and, hence, enable the detection of unstable plaques. In this article we review recent developments in these techniques and potential challenges in translating these methods into intra-arterial use in patients. PMID:18386093

  2. Clinical classification of plaque morphology in coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Joner, Michael; Prati, Francesco; Virmani, Renu; Narula, Jagat

    2014-07-01

    In published post-mortem pathological studies, more than two-thirds of acute coronary events are associated with the rupture of lipid-rich, voluminous, and outwardly remodelled plaques covered by attenuated and inflamed fibrous caps in the proximal part of coronary arteries. Superficial erosion of the plaques is responsible for most of the remaining events; the eroded plaques usually do not demonstrate much lipid burden, do not have thin fibrous caps, are not positively remodelled, and are not critically occlusive. Both noninvasive and invasive imaging studies have been performed to clinically define the plaque characteristics in acute coronary syndromes in an attempt to identify the high-risk plaque substrate susceptible to development of an acute coronary event. Optical coherence tomography (OCT)--an intravascular imaging modality with high resolution--can be used to define various stages of plaque morphology, which might allow its use for the identification of high-risk plaques vulnerable to rupture, and their amenability to pre-emptive interventional treatment. OCT might also be employed to characterize plaque pathology at the time of intervention, to provide a priori knowledge of the mechanism of the acute coronary syndrome and, therefore, to enable improved management of the condition. PMID:24776706

  3. In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque

    E-print Network

    Motz, Jason T.

    The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque accounts for the majority of clinically significant acute cardiovascular events. Because stability of these culprit lesions is directly related to chemical and morphological ...

  4. Positron emission tomography of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in man – a contemporary review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sune F; Hag, Anne Mette F; Klausen, Thomas L; Ripa, Rasmus S; Bodholdt, Rasmus P; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the primary underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world today and is set to become the prevailing disease and major cause of death worldwide by 2020. In the 1950s surgical intervention was introduced to treat symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis – a procedure known as carotid endarterectomy (CEA). By removing the atherosclerotic plaque from the affected carotid artery of these patients, CEA is beneficial by preventing subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke. However, it is known that patients with low to intermediate artery stenosis may still experience ischemic events, leading clinicians to consider plaque composition as an important feature of atherosclerosis. Today molecular imaging can be used for characterization, visualization and quantification of cellular and subcellular physiological processes as they take place in vivo; using this technology we can obtain valuable information on atherosclerostic plaque composition. Applying molecular imaging clinically to atherosclerotic disease therefore has the potential to identify atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable to rupture. This could prove to be an important tool for the selection of patients for CEA surgery in a health system increasingly focused on individualized treatment. This review focuses on current advances and future developments of in vivo atherosclerosis PET imaging in man. PMID:24289282

  5. Multimodal characterization of compositional, structural and functional features of human atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Lam, Matthew; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Phipps, Jennifer; Liu, Jing; Fishbein, Michael C.; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Shung, K. Kirk; Marcu, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Detection of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability has critical clinical implications for avoiding sudden death in patients with high risk of plaque rupture. We report on multimodality imaging of ex-vivo human carotid plaque samples using a system that integrates fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), ultrasonic backscatter microscopy (UBM), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Biochemical composition is differentiated with a high temporal resolution and sensitivity at the surface of the plaque by the FLIM subsystem. 3D microanatomy of the whole plaque is reconstructed by the UBM. Functional imaging associated with optical absorption contrast is evaluated from the PAI component. Simultaneous recordings of the optical, ultrasonic, and photoacoustic data present a wealth of complementary information concerning the plaque composition, structure, and function that are related to plaque vulnerability. This approach is expected to improve our ability to study atherosclerotic plaques. The multimodal system presented here can be translated into a catheter based intraluminal system for future clinical studies. PMID:21833365

  6. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Persistently elevated circulating low-density lipoprotein, or hypercholesterolemia, and deposition of low-density lipoprotein in the vascular wall are the main inducers of atherosclerosis, which manifests itself as arterial lesions or plaques. Some plaques become thrombosis-prone and rupture, causing acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Lowering plasma cholesterol through the use of statins is the primary intervention against atherosclerosis. Treatment with statins slows progression of atherosclerosis but can only support limited plaque regression. Partially regressed plaques continue to pose a serious threat due to their remaining potential to rupture. Thus, new interventions inducing complete reversal of atherosclerosis are being sought. Implementation of new therapies will require clear understanding of the mechanisms driving plaque resolution. In this Commentary, we highlight the role of bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque regression and discuss how regenerative cell-based interventions could be used in combination with plasma lipid-lowering to induce plaque reversal in order to prevent and/or reduce adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:23538778

  7. Carotid Atheroma Rupture Observed In Vivo and FSI-Predicted Stress Distribution Based on Pre-rupture Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Soares, Bruno; Wintermark, Max; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Saloner, David

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation is a major risk factor for stroke. As mechanical forces may impact lesion stability, finite element studies have been conducted on models of diseased vessels to elucidate the effects of lesion characteristics on the stresses within plaque materials. It is hoped that patient-specific biomechanical analyses may serve clinically to assess the rupture potential for any particular lesion, allowing better stratification of patients into the most appropriate treatments. Due to a sparsity of in vivo plaque rupture data, the relationship between various mechanical descriptors such as stresses or strains and rupture vulnerability is incompletely known, and the patient-specific utility of biomechanical analyses is unclear. In this article, we present a comparison between carotid atheroma rupture observed in vivo and the plaque stress distribution from fluid–structure interaction analysis based on pre-rupture medical imaging. The effects of image resolution are explored and the calculated stress fields are shown to vary by as much as 50% with sub-pixel geometric uncertainty. Within these bounds, we find a region of pronounced elevation in stress within the fibrous plaque layer of the lesion with a location and extent corresponding to that of the observed site of plaque rupture. PMID:20232151

  8. Segmentation of wall and plaque in in vitro vascular MR images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuxing Yang; Gerhard Holzapfel; Christian Schulze-Bauer; Rudolf Stollberger; Daniel Thedens; Lizann Bolinger; Alan Stolpen; Milan Sonka

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis leads to heart attack and stroke, which are major killers in the western world. These cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non- invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability would dramatically change the way in which atherosclerotic disease is diagnosed, monitored, and treated. In this paper, we report a computerized method for seg- mentation of arterial

  9. A Catheter-Based Intravascular Radiation Detector ofVulnerablePlaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryohei Hosokawa; Naoshige Kambara; Muneo Ohba; Takahiro Mukai; Mikako Ogawa; Hiroshi Motomura; Noriaki Kume; Hideo Saji; Toru Kit; Ryuji Nohara

    Detection of vulnerable plaques before rupture is important in preventing acute coronary events such as myocardial infarction. Althoughtherapeuticstrategiessuchaspercutaneoustranslumi- nal coronary angioplasty appear to prevent coronary occlusion and consequently may lead to improved prognosis in these pa- tients, a method of detecting vulnerable plaques has not been established. A nuclear method that uses an intravascular radia- tion detector (IVRD) with the

  10. Structure-dependent dynamic mechanical behavior of fibrous caps from human atherosclerotic plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Lee; Alan J. Grodzinsky; Eliot H. Frank; Roger D. Kamm; Fj Schoen

    2010-01-01

    Background. Although thrombosis associated witha fissured atherosclerotic plaque is believed tobethemostcommon causeofacute coronarysyndromes, theunderlying factors that trigger plaque rupture arecurrently unknown. However, themechanical behavior oftheplaque isprobably ofcritical importance. Methods andResults. Totestthehypothesis thatthemechanical properties ofa plaque are dependent on itscomposition and,inparticular, thatthestiffness offibrous capschanges within therangeoffrequencies carried bya physiological pressurewave,thestress-strain relation was studied in27fibrous capsandrelated totheunderlying histological structure of thefibrous cap.Fibrous

  11. Uterine Rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy

    \\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

  12. [Diet and plaque].

    PubMed

    Banoczy, J

    1989-06-01

    In summary, many sugar substitutes have a direct effect on dental plaque formation and, therefore, also an indirect effect on hard tooth substance. Short-and long-term clinical studies have shown that xylitol reduces dental plaque. Short-term clinical tests have also demonstrated that sorbitol reduces plaque formation, probably due to retardation of acid formation. With time, this effect, however, diminishes due to adaptation of the microorganisms. Streptococcus mutans count and acid formation in dental plaque are favourably influenced by sugar substitutes, especially by the consumption of xylitol. The effect of sugar substitutes on dental plaque plays an important role for the anticariogenic and caries-reducing mode of action. The development of both caries and periodontal diseases can be favourably influenced by reduced plaque formation. PMID:2635961

  13. Intravascular palpography for high-risk vulnerable plaque assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes A. Schaar; Korte de C. L; Frits Mastik; Radj Baldewsing; Evelyn Regar; Steen van der A. F. W; P. W. J. C. Serruys; Feyter de P. J; C. J. Slager

    2003-01-01

    Background: The composition of an atherosclerotic plaque is considered more important than the degree of stenosis. An unstable lesion may rupture and cause an acute thrombotic reaction. Most of these lesions contain a large lipid pool cov- ered by an inflamed thin fibrous cap. The stress in the cap in- creases with decreasing cap thickness and increasing macrophage infiltration. Intravascular

  14. Preliminary in vivo atherosclerotic carotid plaque characterization using the accumulated axial strain and relative lateral shift strain indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hairong; Mitchell, Carol C.; McCormick, Matthew; Kliewer, Mark A.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we explore two parameters or strain indices related to plaque deformation during the cardiac cycle, namely, the maximum accumulated axial strain in plaque and the relative lateral shifts between plaque and vessel wall under in vivo clinical ultrasound imaging conditions for possible identification of vulnerable plaque. These strain indices enable differentiation between calcified and lipidic plaque tissue utilizing a new perspective based on the stiffness and mobility of the plaque. In addition, they also provide the ability to distinguish between softer plaques that undergo large deformations during the cardiac cycle when compared to stiffer plaque tissue. Soft plaques that undergo large deformations over the cardiac cycle are more prone to rupture and to release micro-emboli into the cerebral bloodstream. The ability to identify vulnerable plaque, prone to rupture, would significantly enhance the clinical utility of this method for screening patients. We present preliminary in vivo results obtained from ultrasound radio frequency data collected over 16 atherosclerotic plaque patients before these patients undergo a carotid endarterectomy procedure. Our preliminary in vivo results indicate that the maximum accumulated axial strain over a cardiac cycle and the maximum relative lateral shift or displacement of the plaque are useful strain indices that provide differentiation between soft and calcified plaques.

  15. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul HA; Bot, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE?/? mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25124749

  16. Repeated episodes of thrombosis as a potential mechanism of plaque progression in cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yoshiki; Cassar, Andrew; Li, Jing; Flammer, Andreas J.; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Herrmann, Joerg; Gulati, Rajiv; Lennon, Ryan J.; Kang, Soo-Jin; Maehara, Akiko; Kitabata, Hironori; Akasaka, Takashi; Lerman, Lilach O.; Kushwaha, Sudhir S.; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Aims The pathogenesis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains complex and may involve multiple mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the multilayer (ML) appearance, an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) finding suggestive of repetitive thrombosis, is associated with plaque progression in heart transplant (HTx) recipients. Methods and results Our study population consisted of 132 HTx recipients undergoing at least two grayscale and virtual histology (VH)-IVUS examinations. A retrospective serial analysis was performed between the first (baseline) and the last (follow-up) IVUS data during a median follow-up of 3.0 years. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence of the ML appearance on the baseline IVUS. At baseline, subjects with ML appearance (n = 38) had a longer time elapsed since transplant, larger vessel volume, and larger plaque volume than those without (n = 94) (all P < 0.01). Intraluminal thrombi and plaque ruptures were identified only in subjects with ML appearance (P < 0.01 vs. those without). More subjects with ML appearance at baseline developed subsequent ML formation compared with those without [21 (55%) vs. 22 (23%), P < 0.01] during follow-up. There was an increase in plaque volume, necrotic core volume, and dense calcium volume in subjects with ML appearance (all P < 0.01 vs. those without). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that ML appearance was a potential predictor of plaque progression (regression coefficient 0.28, 95% CI 0.10–0.45, P < 0.01). Conclusions The current study demonstrates that a finding of ML appearance, indicative of repeated episodes of mural thrombosis, is not infrequent in asymptomatic HTx recipients and possibly contributes to progression of CAV. PMID:23782648

  17. Correlation between plaque vulnerability of aorta and coronary artery: an evaluation of plaque activity by direct visualization with angioscopy.

    PubMed

    Aono, Jun; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Katsumata, Yuriko; Higashi, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Kousei; Ishibashi, Ken; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kouki; Hamada, Mareomi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the degree of atherosclerotic changes in the descending thoracic aorta (TA) and the coronary artery using angioscopy. Twenty-five consecutive patients undergoing angioscopy of the TA and coronary angiography were enrolled in this study. Participants were divided into three groups according to the angioscopic grading of the TA: white plaque group (W-group), yellow plaque group (Y-group) and intensive yellow, ruptured plaque with ulceration and/or thrombus group (RP-group). The maximum plaque grade, plaque score, number of yellow plaques, frequency of yellow-plaque grades by coronary angioscopy, and SYNTAX score by coronary angiography were evaluated. Brachial-artery pulse wave velocity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level tended to be higher in the RP-group than in the other groups, although the differences were not statistically significant. The SYNTAX score was significantly higher in the RP-group than in the W-group (W-group 4.0 ± 3.6 vs. RP-group 17.5 ± 10.0, P = 0.045). In addition, the angioscopic maximum plaque grade, plaque score, and number of yellow plaques in the RP-group were significantly higher than in the W-group (maximum plaque grade W-group 0.8 ± 0.4 vs. RP-group 1.8 ± 0.8, P = 0.026; plaque score W-group 1.0 ± 1.2 vs. RP-group 4.0 ± 1.4, P = 0.014; and number of yellow plaques W-group 1.0 ± 1.2 vs. RP-group 2.5 ± 0.5, P = 0.023). The yellow-plaque grade in the coronary artery was correlated significantly with the plaque grading of TA (P = 0.043). Our study suggests that the angioscopic progression of aortic atherosclerosis is closely associated with vulnerability to and the extent of coronary stenosis, indicating that vulnerability toward atherosclerotic plaque development occurs simultaneously in the coronary tree and systemic arteries. PMID:25916323

  18. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  19. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

  20. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . The significance of arterial calcification in unstable plaques].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Mayumi; Ueda, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    Plaque rupture or erosion with subsequent thrombus formation is the principal mechanism underlying the sudden onset of acute coronary syndromes. Plaque inflammation and increased oxidative stress play important roles in the pathogenesis of plaque destabilization. Macrophages, T lymphocytes, and neutrophils are the dominant types of inflammatory cells at human coronary unstable plaques, such as ruptured plaques or eroded plaques. Calcification is a common finding in human atherosclerotic lesions, and arterial calcification is generally classified into calcification within an atherosclerotic plaque, and Mönckeberg's medial calcific sclerosis characterized by calcific deposits within the media of small and medium-sized muscular arteries. It has been reported that a spotty pattern of calcification is associated with coronary unstable ruptured plaques in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) have a high prevalence of arterial calcification and cardiovascular events. We recently demonstrated that plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels significantly increased after a single HD session. This HD session-related increase in plasma oxidized LDL levels could contribute to the progression and acceleration of atherosclerosis and arterial calcification, leading to the development of cardiovascular events in HD patients. PMID:25926571

  1. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides.

    PubMed

    Sun Yoo, Jung; Lee, Jonghwan; Ho Jung, Jae; Seok Moon, Byung; Kim, Soonhag; Chul Lee, Byung; Eun Kim, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin ?v?3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an ?v?3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe (123)I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that (99m)Tc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization. PMID:26123253

  2. SPECT/CT Imaging of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaques using Integrin-Binding RGD Dimer Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sun Yoo, Jung; Lee, Jonghwan; Ho Jung, Jae; Seok Moon, Byung; Kim, Soonhag; Chul Lee, Byung; Eun Kim, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with unique biological signatures are responsible for most major cardiovascular events including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. However, current clinical diagnostic approaches for atherosclerosis focus on anatomical measurements such as the degree of luminal stenosis and wall thickness. An abundance of neovessels with elevated expression of integrin ?v?3 is closely associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. Herein we evaluated the potential of an ?v?3 integrin-targeting radiotracer, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, for SPECT/CT imaging of high-risk plaque in murine atherosclerosis models. In vivo uptake of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 was significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas than in relatively normal aortas. Comparison with the negative-control peptide, 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RADfK)]2, proved specific binding of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 for plaque lesions in in vivo SPECT/CT and ex vivo autoradiographic imaging. Histopathological characterization revealed that a prominent SPECT signal of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 corresponded to the presence of high-risk plaques with a large necrotic core, a thin fibrous cap, and vibrant neoangiogenic events. Notably, the RGD dimer based 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 showed better imaging performance in comparison with the common monomeric RGD peptide probe 123I-c(RGDyV) and fluorescence tissue assay corroborated this. Our preclinical data demonstrated that 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2 SPECT/CT is a sensitive tool to noninvasively gauge atherosclerosis beyond vascular anatomy by assessing culprit plaque neovascularization. PMID:26123253

  3. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large discrepancies, future studies should seek to employ vessel-appropriate material models to simulate the response of diseased femoral tissue in order to obtain the most accurate numerical results. PMID:25602515

  4. Characterization of Atherosclerotic Plaques by Laser Speckle Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Bouma, Brett E.; Helg, Tina; Chan, Raymond; Halpern, Elkan; Chau, Alexandra; Minsky, Milan Singh; Motz, Jason T.; Houser, Stuart L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Background A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide valuable insight into intrinsic features associated with plaque rupture and can enable the identification of high-risk lesions. In this article, we describe a new optical technique, laser speckle imaging (LSI), that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity. We evaluate the potential of LSI for characterizing atherosclerotic plaque. Methods and Results Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images were acquired from 118 aortic plaque specimens from 14 human cadavers under static and deforming conditions (0 to 200 ?m/s). Temporal fluctuations in the speckle patterns were quantified by exponential fitting of the normalized cross-correlation of sequential frames in each image series of speckle patterns to obtain the exponential decay time constant, ?. The decorrelation time constants of thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA) (?=47.5±19.2 ms) were significantly lower than those of other atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.001), and the sensitivity and specificity of the LSI technique for identifying TCFAs were >90%. Speckle decorrelation time constants demonstrated strong correlation with histological measurements of plaque collagen (R=0.73, P<0.0001), fibrous cap thickness (R=0.87, P<0.0001), and necrotic core area (R=?0.81, P<0.0001). Under deforming conditions (10 to 200 ?m/s), ? correlated well with cap thickness in necrotic core fibroatheromas (P>0.05). Conclusions The measurement of speckle decorrelation time constant from laser speckle images provides an index of plaque viscoelasticity and facilitates the characterization of plaque type. Our results demonstrate that LSI is a highly sensitive technique for characterizing plaque and identifying thin-cap fibroatheromas. PMID:16061738

  5. Differential Inhibition of Human Atherosclerotic Plaque–Induced Platelet Activation by Dimeric GPVI-Fc and Anti-GPVI Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Jamasbi, Janina; Megens, Remco T.A.; Bianchini, Mariaelvy; Münch, Götz; Ungerer, Martin; Faussner, Alexander; Sherman, Shachar; Walker, Adam; Goyal, Pankaj; Jung, Stephanie; Brandl, Richard; Weber, Christian; Lorenz, Reinhard; Farndale, Richard; Elia, Natalie; Siess, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is the essential platelet collagen receptor in atherothrombosis, but its inhibition causes only a mild bleeding tendency. Thus, targeting this receptor has selective antithrombotic potential. Objectives This study sought to compare compounds interfering with platelet GPVI–atherosclerotic plaque interaction to improve current antiatherothrombotic therapy. Methods Human atherosclerotic plaque–induced platelet aggregation was measured in anticoagulated blood under static and arterial flow conditions (550/s, 1,100/s, and 1,500/s). Inhibition by dimeric GPVI fragment crystallizable region of IgG (Fc) masking GPVI binding sites on collagen was compared with that of 3 anti-GPVI antibodies: BLO8-1, a human domain antibody; 5C4, a fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment) of monoclonal rat immunoglobulin G; and m-Fab-F, a human recombinant sFab against GPVI dimers. Results GPVI-Fc reduced plaque-triggered platelet aggregation in static blood by 51%, BLO8-1 by 88%, and 5C4 by 93%. Under arterial flow conditions, BLO8-1 and 5C4 almost completely inhibited platelet aggregation while preserving platelet adhesion on plaque. Inhibition by GPVI-Fc, even at high concentrations, was less marked but increased with shear rate. Advanced optical imaging revealed rapid persistent GPVI-Fc binding to collagen under low and high shear flow, upstream and downstream of plaque fragments. At low shear particularly, platelets adhered in plaque flow niches to GPVI-Fc–free segments of collagen fibers and recruited other platelets onto aggregates via ADP and TxA2 release. Conclusions Anti-GPVI antibodies inhibit atherosclerotic plaque-induced platelet aggregation under static and flow conditions more effectively than GPVI-Fc. However, potent platelet inhibition by GPVI-Fc at a higher shear rate (1,500/s) suggests localized antithrombotic efficacy at denuded or fissured stenotic high-risk lesions without systemic bleeding. The compound-specific differences have relevance for clinical trials targeting GPVI-collagen interaction combined with established antiplatelet therapies in patients with spontaneous plaque rupture or intervention-associated plaque injury. PMID:26046734

  6. In Vivo/Ex Vivo MRI-Based 3D Non-Newtonian FSI Models for Human Atherosclerotic Plaques Compared with Fluid/Wall-Only Models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Yuan, Chun; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that fluid-structure interactions (FSI) play an important role in cardiovascular disease initiation and development. However, in vivo MRI multi-component FSI models for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques with bifurcation and quantitative comparisons of FSI models with fluid-only or structure-only models are currently lacking in the literature. A 3D non-Newtonian multi-component FSI model based on in vivo/ex vivo MRI images for human atherosclerotic plaques was introduced to investigate flow and plaque stress/strain behaviors which may be related to plaque progression and rupture. Both artery wall and plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible and homogeneous. Blood flow was assumed to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. In vivo/ex vivo MRI images were acquired using histologically-validated multi-spectral MRI protocols. The 3D FSI models were solved and results were compared with those from a Newtonian FSI model and wall-only/fluid-only models. A 145% difference in maximum principal stresses (Stress-P1) between the FSI and wall-only models and 40% difference in flow maximum shear stress (MSS) between the FSI and fluid-only models were found at the throat of the plaque using a severe plaque sample (70% severity by diameter). Flow maximum shear stress (MSS) from the rigid wall model is much higher (20–40% in maximum MSS values, 100–150% in stagnation region) than those from FSI models. PMID:19784387

  7. Balance between Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 Is in Favor of Angiopoietin-2 in Atherosclerotic Plaques with High Microvessel Density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Post; Wouter Peeters; Els Busser; Dennis Lamers; Joost P. G. Sluijter; Marie-José Goumans; Roel A. de Weger; Frans L. Moll; Pieter A. Doevendans; Gerard Pasterkamp; Aryan Vink

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Atherosclerotic plaque microvessels are associated with plaque hemorrhage and rupture. The mechanisms underlying plaque angiogenesis are largely unknown. Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and -2 are ligands of the endothelial receptor Tie-2. Ang-1 induces formation of stable vessels, whereas Ang-2 destabilizes the interaction between endothelial cells and their support cells. We studied the expression patterns of Ang-1 and -2 in relation to

  8. Detection of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Teruo; Yamada, Naoaki; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of coronary plaque burden assessment is to detect vulnerable or high-risk atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture and to stabilize them through pharmacologic and other types of interventions before the development of acute coronary syndrome. In this regard, a reliable, reproducible, and less invasive imaging modality capable of identifying plaque characteristics associated with plaque vulnerability would be immensely useful for evaluating plaque status and predicting future cardiovascular events. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a novel modality for atherosclerotic plaque detection and characterization. This review will cover the developments in MRI for characterizing atherosclerosis in carotid and coronary arteries and its use in clinical diagnoses and longitudinal studies to understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. PMID:23877708

  9. HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission, Mode of Delivery, and Duration of Rupture of Membranes: Experience in the Current Era

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Siobhan; Murphy, Kellie E.; Read, Stanley; Bitnun, Ari; Yudin, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether the length of time of rupture of membranes (ROM) in optimally managed HIV-positive women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with low viral loads (VL) is predictive of the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Study Methods. A retrospective case series of all HIV-positive women who delivered at two academic tertiary centers in Toronto, Canada from January 2000 to November 2010 was completed. Results. Two hundred and ten HIV-positive women with viral loads <1,000 copies/ml delivered during the study period. VL was undetectable (<50 copies/mL) for the majority of the women (167, 80%), and <1,000 copies/mL for all women. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 107 (51%) and cesarean in 103 (49%). The median length of time of ROM was 0.63 hours (range 0 to 77.87 hours) for the entire group and 2.56 hours (range 0 to 53.90 hours) for those who had a vaginal birth. Among women with undetectable VL, 90 (54%) had a vaginal birth and 77 (46%) had a cesarean birth. Among the women in this cohort there were no cases of MTCT of HIV. Conclusions. There was no association between duration of ROM or mode of delivery and MTCT in this cohort of 210 virally suppressed HIV-positive pregnant women. PMID:22690108

  10. Genetic deletion or TWEAK blocking antibody administration reduce atherosclerosis and enhance plaque stability in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Cristina; Fernández-Laso, Valvanera; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Muñoz-García, Begoña; Moreno, Juan A; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Llamas-Granda, Patricia; Burkly, Linda C; Egido, Jesús; Martín-Ventura, Jose L; Blanco-Colio, Luis M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical complications associated with atherosclerotic plaques arise from luminal obstruction due to plaque growth or destabilization leading to rupture. Tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 12 (TNFSF12) also known as TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a proinflammatory cytokine that participates in atherosclerotic plaque development, but its role in plaque stability remains unclear. Using two different approaches, genetic deletion of TNFSF12 and treatment with a TWEAK blocking mAb in atherosclerosis-prone mice, we have analysed the effect of TWEAK inhibition on atherosclerotic plaques progression and stability. Mice lacking both TNFSF12 and Apolipoprotein E (TNFSF12?/?ApoE?/?) exhibited a diminished atherosclerotic burden and lesion size in their aorta. Advanced atherosclerotic plaques of TNFSF12?/?ApoE?/? or anti-TWEAK treated mice exhibited an increase collagen/lipid and vascular smooth muscle cell/macrophage ratios compared with TNFSF12+/+ApoE?/? control mice, reflecting a more stable plaque phenotype. These changes are related with two different mechanisms, reduction of the inflammatory response (chemokines expression and secretion and nuclear factor kappa B activation) and decrease of metalloproteinase activity in atherosclerotic plaques of TNFSF12?/?ApoE?/?. A similar phenotype was observed with anti-TWEAK mAb treatment in TNFSF12+/+ApoE?/? mice. Brachiocephalic arteries were also examined since they exhibit additional features akin to human atherosclerotic plaques associated with instability and rupture. Features of greater plaque stability including augmented collagen/lipid ratio, reduced macrophage content, and less presence of lateral xanthomas, buried caps, medial erosion, intraplaque haemorrhage and calcium content were present in TNFSF12?/?ApoE?/? or anti-TWEAK treatment in TNFSF12+/+ApoE?/? mice. Overall, our data indicate that anti-TWEAK treatment has the capacity to diminish proinflamatory response associated with atherosclerotic plaque progression and to alter plaque morphology towards a stable phenotype. PMID:24479820

  11. Active and Inactive Edges of Psoriatic Plaques: Identification by Tracing and Investigation by Laser-Doppler Flowmetry and Immunocytochemical Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Macdonald Hull; Mark Goodfield; Edward John Wood; D. Phil; William John Cunliffe

    1989-01-01

    In plaque psoriasis it is likely that biochemical and ultrastructural changes precede the appearance of the typical plaque that is recognizable clinically. Currently, no technique exists by which the very early changes in psoriasis can be investigated. We report a method in which plaques of psoriasis are serially traced to identify their advancing edge. Eighty-two untreated plaques from 15 patients

  12. Relationship of MMP-14 and TIMP-3 Expression with Macrophage Activation and Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason L.; Jenkins, Nicholas P.; Huang, Wei-Chun; Sala-Newby, Graciela B.; Scholtes, Vincent P. W.; Moll, Frans L.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Newby, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) promotes vulnerable plaque morphology in mice, whereas tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) overexpression is protective. MMP-14hi??TIMP-3lo rabbit foam cells are more invasive and more prone to apoptosis than MMP-14lo??TIMP-3hi cells. We investigated the implications of these findings for human atherosclerosis. In vitro generated macrophages and foam-cell macrophages, together with atherosclerotic plaques characterised as unstable or stable, were examined for expression of MMP-14, TIMP-3, and inflammatory markers. Proinflammatory stimuli increased MMP-14 and decreased TIMP-3 mRNA and protein expression in human macrophages. However, conversion to foam-cells with oxidized LDL increased MMP-14 and decreased TIMP-3 protein, independently of inflammatory mediators and partly through posttranscriptional mechanisms. Within atherosclerotic plaques, MMP-14 was prominent in foam-cells with either pro- or anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, whereas TIMP-3 was present in less foamy macrophages and colocalised with CD206. MMP-14 positive macrophages were more abundant whereas TIMP-3 positive macrophages were less abundant in plaques histologically designated as rupture prone. We conclude that foam-cells characterised by high MMP-14 and low TIMP-3 expression are prevalent in rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, independent of pro- or anti-inflammatory activation. Therefore reducing MMP-14 activity and increasing that of TIMP-3 could be valid therapeutic approaches to reduce plaque rupture and myocardial infarction. PMID:25301980

  13. Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization: mechanisms, models, and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; de Winther, Menno P; Weber, Christian; Daemen, Mat J; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of atherogenesis and the progression of atherosclerosis have been major goals of cardiovascular research during the previous decades. However, the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain largely obscure. Here, we review how lesional cells undergo cell death and how failed clearance exacerbates necrotic core formation. Advanced atherosclerotic lesions are further weakened by the pronounced local activity of matrix-degrading proteases as well as immature neovessels sprouting into the lesion. To stimulate translation of the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of plaque destabilization into clinical studies, we further summarize available animal models of plaque destabilization. Based on the molecular mechanisms leading to plaque instability, we outline the current status of clinical and preclinical trials to induce plaque stability with a focus on induction of dead cell clearance, inhibition of protease activity, and dampening of inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:24385514

  14. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (?X-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, ?X-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study demonstrates the need to fully characterise the calcification structure of the plaque tissue and that a combination of FTIR and ?X-CT provides the necessary information to fully understand the mechanical behaviour of the plaque tissue. PMID:25602176

  15. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  16. Update on the role of neutrophils in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Federico; Mach, Francois; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying acute cardiovascular diseases. Life-threatening conditions, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, are provoked by the sudden rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by thin, highly inflamed and collagen-poor fibrous cap. Whereas both innate and adaptive inflammation progressively emerged as driving force of this processes, less is known about the involvement of neutrophils (PMNs). Advances in laboratory techniques during the last two decades disclosed that PMNs play a crucial role in promoting plaque vulnerability by the release of different enzymes, such as gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases) collagenases, elastase and myeloperoxidase. Accordingly, circulating levels of PMNs and their products have been investigated as potential markers of plaque instability in both primary and secondary prevention on cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the development of different classes of drugs targeting PMNs activation is emerging as an interesting field of research. This narrative review will provide an update on the role of PMNs in promoting plaque vulnerability also discussing the potential effects of therapeutic strategies targeting PMN on plaque vulnerability. PMID:25382205

  17. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular spectrofluorimetry. It may also be possible to use macrophage-targeted PDT to therapeutically modify inflammatory cell-laden VPs leading to plaque stabilization and reduction of sudden cardiovascular death.

  18. Proteomic analysis of atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, B; Ciari, I; Felici, C; Pagani, R; Banfi, C; Brioschi, M; Giubbolini, M; de Donato, G; Setacci, C; Terzuoli, L

    2010-05-01

    Proteins play a fundamental role in the formation and progression of plaque, but proteomic analysis of plaque as a whole is difficult, due to its heterogeneous cellular composition and an abundance of plasma proteins. Several approaches to this problem are reported in the literature; they include proteomic analysis of vascular tissues, analysis of proteins released by normal and pathological arterial walls, proteomic analysis of vascular cells and proteomic analysis of blood. In a previous study, we proposed a new strategy for studying of proteome of plaque, which permits to select the proteins exclusive to plaque by the constructing of a reference synthetic gel. In the present work, we matched the spots of the reference synthetic gel with the spots of a pool of carotid plaque, in order to select only spots exclusive to plaque from the 2-dimensional electrophoresis of the pool of plaque. We selected some spots between those exclusive and identified them by mass spectrometry. Some proteins identified are involved in transport, others take part in elimination of toxic radicals, others are metabolic enzymes or structural proteins. This study represents an example of application of the new approach which we have proposed: the reference gel of proteome of plaque permits to select, on every sample of interest, only the spots exclusive to plaque; once selected, spots can be identified by mass spectrometry and, being typical of plaque composition, could represent novel markers of lesions and vascular risk. PMID:20005669

  19. Quantification of new structural features of coronary plaques by computational post-hoc analysis of virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Theodore G; Schizas, Dimitrios; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Katsarou, Ourania; Soulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease and complications are often mediated by the development and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Plaque composition is a major factor that determines plaque vulnerability. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and spectral analysis of the radio frequency signal provide an in vivo tissue characterisation of atherosclerotic plaques, known as virtual histology (VH-IVUS). In VH-IVUS analysis, four histological tissue components are classified: fibrous, fibro/fatty, necrotic core and calcium. Existing technology determines only the area of each component within the plaque. Quantitative, objective characterisation of other plaque components' patterns within the plaque is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine new compositional and structural indices which indicate spatial distribution, heterogeneity and dispersity of each VH-IVUS-derived component within the plaque area and also with respect to the plaque-lumen border. We developed an automated computational system in Java for the analysis of both single cross-sectional segments and the whole length of the examined plaque (volumetric analysis). The following parameters were computed: the number of different solid segments and the area of the largest solid segment of each component within the plaque, the per cent of the lumen border that is surrounded by each component, the number of different solid segments and the largest area of a solid segment of each component that adjoins the lumen border. Especially components' localisation in relation to the lumen border may significantly influence plaque vulnerability and plaque-stent interaction, which should be investigated in future clinical studies. PMID:22974224

  20. Supplementary taurine may stabilize atheromatous plaque by antagonizing the activation of metalloproteinases by hypochlorous acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F McCarty

    2004-01-01

    The rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, responsible for triggering the majority of myocardial infarctions, presumably requires proteolysis of collagen fibers and other protein components of the intercellular matrix. This is achieved by activated matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) secreted by intimal macrophages and foam cells. MMPs are synthesized as inactive pro-enzymes in which coordinate binding of the thiol group of a key cysteine

  1. RBMK pressure tube rupture assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Schmitt; G. V. Tsiklauri

    1994-01-01

    The Russian RBMK reactor core design consists of multiple parallel pressure tube channels that contain Zr clad, UOâ fuel pin bundles. These parallel channels are contained within graphite moderator blocks which are, in turn, contained within a sealed core cavity. Current safety evaluation efforts of the RBMK reactors have been concentrating in the area of tube ruptures within the core

  2. Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

  3. Histopathologic Characteristics of Atherosclerotic Coronary Disease and Implications of the Findings for the Invasive and Noninvasive Detection of Vulnerable Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Jagat; Nakano, Masataka; Virmani, Renu; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Petersen, Rita; Newcomb, Robert; Malik, Shaista; Fuster, Valentin; Finn, Aloke V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to identify histomorphologic characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and to determine the amenability of some of these components to be used as markers for invasive and noninvasive imaging. Background Rupture of the atherosclerotic plaques is responsible for the majority of acute coronary events, and the culprit lesions demonstrate distinct histopathologic features. It has been tacitly believed that plaque rupture (PR) is associated with angiographically minimally occlusive lesions. Methods We obtained 295 coronary atherosclerotic plaques, including stable (fibroatheroma [FA]; n = 105), vulnerable (thin-cap fibroatheroma [TCFA]; n = 88), and disrupted plaques (plaque rupture [PR]; n = 102) from the hearts of 181 men and 32 women who had died suddenly. The hierarchical importance of fibrous cap thickness, percent luminal stenosis, macrophage area, necrotic core area, and calcified plaque area was evaluated by using recursive partitioning analysis. Because clinical assessment of fibrous cap thickness is not possible by noninvasive imaging, it was excluded from the second set of partitioning analysis. Results Thickness of the fibrous cap emerged as the best discriminator of plaque type; the cap thickness measured <55 ?m in ruptured plaques, and all FA were associated with >84-?m cap thickness. Although the majority of TCFA were found in the 54- to 84-?m thickness group, those with <54-?m thickness were more likely to show <74% luminal stenosis (area under the curve: FA, 1.0; TCFA, 0.89; PR, 0.90). After exclusion of cap thickness, analysis of the plaque characteristics revealed macrophage infiltration and necrotic core to be the 2 best discriminators of plaque types (area under the curve: FA, 0.82; TCFA, 0.58; PR, 0.72). More than 75% cross-section area stenosis was seen in 70% of PR and 40% of TCFA; only 5% PR and 10% TCFA were <50% narrowed. Conclusions This postmortem study defines histomorphologic characteristics of vulnerable plaques, which may help develop imaging strategies for identification of such plaques in patients at a high risk of sustaining acute coronary events. PMID:23473409

  4. Proteomic analysis of atherosclerotic plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Porcelli; I. Ciari; C. Felici; R. Pagani; C. Banfi; M. Brioschi; M. Giubbolini; G. de Donato; C. Setacci; L. Terzuoli

    2010-01-01

    Proteins play a fundamental role in the formation and progression of plaque, but proteomic analysis of plaque as a whole is difficult, due to its heterogeneous cellular composition and an abundance of plasma proteins. Several approaches to this problem are reported in the literature; they include proteomic analysis of vascular tissues, analysis of proteins released by normal and pathological arterial

  5. Routes to chemical plaque control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cummins

    1991-01-01

    A logical approach to the prevention of periodontal disease is through excellent supragingival plaque control. Such control is not generally achieved by mechanical oral hygiene procedures alone. Thus, there is a clear rationale for the use of antiplaque agents to augment mechanical means. The principle routes to chemical plaque control are to prevent colonization of the tooth surface, to inhibit

  6. Glass rupture disk

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  7. Purine bases and atheromatous plaque.

    PubMed

    Terzuoli, L; Marinello, E; Felici, C; Frosi, B; Setacci, C; Giubbolini, M; Porcelli, B

    2004-01-01

    In this work we determined hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), allantoin (ALL) and free radicals in atheromatous plaques to improve the comprehension of oxidative stress, a phenomenon which characterizes the evolution of atherosclerotic lesions. Carotid artery plaque were obtained from subjects undergoing endoarterectomy. Pulverized plaque, extracted by water, was used for analysis of oxidative stress factors (allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, free radicals). The peroxidation UA-->ALL was very high in the plaque, as was the level of free radicals. The results show that oxidative degradation of nucleotides, such as LDL oxidation, plays a specific role not only in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions but also in the advanced plaque. PMID:16857104

  8. Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot

    PubMed Central

    Kastrup, Christian J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T.; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D.; Vegas, Arturo J.; Siegel, Cory D.; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R.; Coury, Arthur J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. PMID:23236189

  9. Asbestos related pleural plaques in retired boiler room workers.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, T M; Ho, C K; Su, W P; Hwang, J J; Tsai, M S; Chau, T T; Lu, S N; Chang, W Y

    1993-02-01

    Occupational disease is often underestimated and only a few formal reports have been published in Taiwan. This study reports of a group of workers with asbestos-induced-disease, pleural plaque in Taiwan. Pleural plaque is a marker of exposure to asbestos. The disease was found in chest radiographs of five boiler room workers in a sugar refining factory. The chest radiographs of 248 current workers in that plant were reviewed, and none of them was found to have pleural plaques. The storage of asbestos and the long-time use of mixed asbestos cement for insulation of the inner wall of the stove and pipes were found in the factory. The authors believe that the pleural plaques might be resulted from occupational exposure to asbestos. It is suggested that the use of asbestos should be prohibited, step by step, and regular follow-up of the workers with an asbestos exposure history is required. PMID:8492355

  10. Application of IR and NIR fiber optic imaging in thermographic and spectroscopic diagnosis of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques: preliminary experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghavi, Morteza; Khan, Tania; Gu, Bujin; Soller, Babs R.; Melling, Peter; Asif, Mohammed; Gul, Khawar; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, S. W.; Willerson, James T.

    2000-12-01

    Despite major advances in cardiovascular science and technology during the past three decades, approximately half of all myocardial infarctions and sudden deaths occur unexpectedly. It is widely accepted that coronary atherosclerotic plaques and thrombotic complications resulting from their rupture or erosion are the underlying causes of this major health problem. The majority of these vulnerable plaques exhibit active inflammation, a large necrotic lipid core, a thin fibrous cap, and confer a stenosis of less than 70%. These lesions are not detectable by stress testing or coronary angiography. Our group is exploring the possibility of a functional classification based on physiological variables such as plaque temperature, pH, oxygen consumption, lactate production etc. We have shown that heat accurately locates the inflamed plaques. We also demonstrated human atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous with regard to pH and hot plaques and are more likely to be acidic. To develop a nonsurgical method for locating the inflamed plaques, we are developing both IR fiber optic imaging and NIR spectroscopic systems in our laboratory to detect hot and acidic plaque in atherosclerotic arterial walls. Our findings introduce the possibility of an isolated/combined IR and NIR fiber optic catheter that can bring new insight into functional assessment of atherosclerotic plaque and thereby detection of active and inflamed lesions responsible for heart attacks and strokes.

  11. Computational approaches for analyzing the mechanics of atherosclerotic plaques: a review.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Vulnerable and stable atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous living materials with peculiar mechanical behaviors depending on geometry, composition, loading and boundary conditions. Computational approaches have the potential to characterize the three-dimensional stress/strain distributions in patient-specific diseased arteries of different types and sclerotic morphologies and to estimate the risk of plaque rupture which is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events. This review article attempts to summarize a few finite element (FE) studies for different vessel types, and how these studies were performed focusing on the used stress measure, inclusion of residual stress, used imaging modality and material model. In addition to histology the most used imaging modalities are described, the most common nonlinear material models and the limited number of models for plaque rupture used for such studies are provided in more detail. A critical discussion on stress measures and threshold stress values for plaque rupture used within the FE studies emphasizes the need to develop a more location and tissue-specific threshold value, and a more appropriate failure criterion. With this addition future FE studies should also consider more advanced strain-energy functions which then fit better to location and tissue-specific experimental data. PMID:24491496

  12. Carotid Atheroma Rupture Observed In Vivo and FSI-Predicted Stress Distribution Based on Pre-rupture Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Leach; Vitaliy L. Rayz; Bruno Soares; Max Wintermark; Mohammad R. K. Mofrad; David Saloner

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation is a major risk factor for stroke. As mechanical forces may impact lesion stability,\\u000a finite element studies have been conducted on models of diseased vessels to elucidate the effects of lesion characteristics\\u000a on the stresses within plaque materials. It is hoped that patient-specific biomechanical analyses may serve clinically to\\u000a assess the rupture potential for any

  13. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. El-Bahy; A. Kotb; A. Galal; A. EL-Hakim

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts (RICDC) is a rare phenomenon. The mechanism of rupture, pathophysiology of fat in the\\u000a ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, possible complications, and proper management of such conditions are proposed on the basis\\u000a of a review of the literature and experience with two cases of ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts (One was in the pineal\\u000a region, while another

  14. Disappearance of La Caille Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    A bronze plaque erected to the memory of N.-L. de La Caille near the site of his observatory in Central Cape Town, has been stolen by metal thieves. It was designed by the famous architect Sir Herbert Baker.

  15. Automatic plaque assay for the pharmaceutical industry using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tsai, Augustine; Festa, J. M.

    1995-10-01

    A crucial step in the manufacture of vaccines is the verification of their potency. An assay of the potency must be carried out on every batch produced to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Currently, human inspectors count the number of plaques (holes) in a cell layer in a petri dish to estimate the potency.They must determine whether nearby plaques that have overgrown each other's borders are single or multiple plaques and distinguish between plaques and small tears in the cell layer resulting from the processing operations (the edges of tears differ in appearance from the edges of plaques). Because of the judgments required to make these subtle distinctions, human inspectors are inconsistent. In cooperation with Merck & Co., Inc., the Rutgers University Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving consistent automatic counting of plaques by a prototype intelligent machine vision system. The David Sarnoff Research Center developed materials handling equipment and factory information system interfaces to enable this prototype system to be installed in a quality control facility at Merck. This paper describes the overall operation of the machine vision aspects of the system, including optics, illumination, sensing, preprocessing, feature extraction and shape recognition. Results of initial tests of the system are also reported.

  16. Doxycycline Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaque via Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinases and Attenuating Inflammation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Mei; Zhong, Lin; Chen, Wen Qiang; Ji, Xiao Ping; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yu Xia; Li, Li; Yao, Gui Hua; Zhang, Peng Fei; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is implicated in the process of atherosclerotic plaque instability. We hypothesized that doxycycline, a broad MMPs inhibitor, was as effective as simvastatin in reducing the incidence of plaque disruption. Thirty rabbits underwent aortic balloon injury and were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. At the end of week 8, the rabbits were divided into three groups for 12-week treatment: a doxycycline-treated group that received oral doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d, a simvastatin-treated group that received oral simvastatin at a dose of 5 mg/kg/d, and a control group that received no treatment. At the end of week 20, pharmacological triggering was performed to induce plaque rupture. Biochemical, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies were performed. The results showed that oral administration of doxycycline resulted in a significant increase in the thickness of the fibrous cap of the aortic plaque whereas there was a substantial reduction of MMPs expression, local and systemic inflammation, and aortic plaque vulnerability. The incidence of plaque rupture with either treatment (0% for both) was significantly lower than that for controls (56.0%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between doxycycline-treated group and simvastatin-treated group in any serological, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression measurement except for the serum lipid levels that were higher with doxycycline than with simvastatin treatment. In conclusion, doxycycline at a common antimicrobial dose stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions via inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases and attenuating inflammation in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque. These effects were similar to a large dose of simvastatin and independent of serum lipid levels. PMID:22737253

  17. Coronary artery atherectomy reduces plaque shear strains: an endovascular elastography imaging study.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Majdouline, Younes; Riou, Laurent; Ohayon, Jacques; Cloutier, Guy

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical response and properties of the arterial wall can be used to identify the biomechanical instability of plaques and predict their vulnerability to rupture. Shear strain elastography (SSE) is proposed to identify vulnerable plaque features attributed to mechanical structural heterogeneities. The aims of this study were: 1) to report on the potential of SSE to identify atherosclerotic plaques; and 2) to use SSE maps to highlight biomechanical changes in lesion characteristics after directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) interventions. For this purpose, SSE was imaged using in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radio-frequency data collected from 12 atherosclerotic patients before and after DCA intervention. Coronary atherosclerotic plaques (pre-DCA) showed high SSE magnitudes with large affected areas. There were good correlations between SSE levels and soft plaque content (i.e., cellular fibrosis, thrombosis and fibrin) (mean |SSE| vs. soft plaque content: r = 0.82, p < 0.01). Significant differences were noticed between SSE images before and after DCA. Stable arteries (post-DCA) exhibited lower values than pre-DCA vessels (e.g., pre-DCA: mean |SSE| = 3.9 ± 0.2% vs. 1.1 ± 0.2% post-DCA, p < 0.001). Furthermore, SSE magnitude was statistically higher in plaques with a high level of inflammation (e.g., mean |SSE| had values of 4.8 ± 0.4% in plaques with high inflammation, whereas it was reduced to 1.8 ± 0.2% with no inflammation, p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the potential of the IVUS-based SSE technique to detect vulnerable plaques in vivo. PMID:24835433

  18. Numerical analysis of the cooling effect of blood over inflamed atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehong; Ley, Obdulia

    2008-06-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques with high likelihood of rupture often show local temperature increase with respect to the surrounding arterial wall temperature. In this work, atherosclerotic plaque temperature was numerically determined during the different levels of blood flow reduction produced by the introduction of catheters at the vessel lumen. The temperature was calculated by solving the energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in 2D idealized arterial models. Arterial wall temperature depends on three basic factors: metabolic activity of the inflammatory cells embedded in the plaque, heat convection due to luminal blood flow, and heat conduction through the arterial wall and plaque. The calculations performed serve to simulate transient blood flow reduction produced by the presence of thermography catheters used to measure arterial wall temperature. The calculations estimate the spatial and temporal alterations in the cooling effect of blood flow and plaque temperature during the measurement process. The mathematical model developed provides a tool for analyzing the contribution of factors known to affect heat transfer at the plaque surface. Blood flow reduction leads to a nonuniform temperature increase ranging from 0.1 to 0.25 degrees Celsius in the plaque/lumen interface of the arterial geometries considered in this study. The temperature variation as well as the Nusselt number calculated along the plaque surface strongly depended on the arterial geometry and distribution of inflammatory cells. The calculations indicate that the minimum required time to obtain a steady temperature profile after arterial occlusion is 6 s. It was seen that in arteries with geometries involving bends, the temperature profiles appear asymmetrical and lean toward the downstream edge of the plaque. PMID:18532862

  19. Pioneer F Plaque Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  20. Achilles tendon rupture rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, R. S.; Parsons, N.; Underwood, M.; Costa, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The evidence base to inform the management of Achilles tendon rupture is sparse. The objectives of this research were to establish what current practice is in the United Kingdom and explore clinicians’ views on proposed further research in this area. This study was registered with the ISRCTN (ISRCTN68273773) as part of a larger programme of research. Methods We report an online survey of current practice in the United Kingdom, approved by the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and completed by 181 of its members. A total of ten of these respondents were invited for a subsequent one-to-one interview to explore clinician views on proposed further research in this area. Results The survey showed wide variations in practice, with patients being managed in plaster cast alone (13%), plaster cast followed by orthoses management (68%), and orthoses alone (19%). Within these categories, further variation existed regarding the individual rehabilitation facets, such as the length of time worn, the foot position within them and weight-bearing status. The subsequent interviews reflected this clinical uncertainty and the pressing need for definitive research. Conclusions The gap in evidence in this area has resulted in practice in the United Kingdom becoming varied and based on individual opinion. Future high-quality randomised trials on this subject are supported by the clinical community. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:65–9 PMID:25868938

  1. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

  2. Vulnerable plaque detection and quantification with gold particle-enhanced computed tomography in atherosclerotic mouse models.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, David; Trachet, Bram; Van der Donckt, Carole; Vandeghinste, Bert; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    AbstractRecently, an apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mouse model with a mutation (C1039G+/-) in the fibrillin-1 (Fbn1) gene (ApoE-/-Fbn1C1039G+/- mouse model) was developed showing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, prone to rupture, in contrast to the ApoE-/- mouse model, where mainly stable plaques are present. One indicator of plaque vulnerability is the level of macrophage infiltration. Therefore, this study aimed to measure and quantify in vivo the macrophage infiltration related to plaque development and progression. For this purpose, 5-weekly consecutive gold nanoparticle-enhanced micro-computed tomography (microCT) scans were acquired. Histology confirmed that the presence of contrast agent coincided with the presence of macrophages. Based on the microCT scans, regions of the artery wall with contrast agent present were calculated and visualized in three dimensions. From this information, the contrast-enhanced area and contrast-enhanced centerline length were calculated for the branches of the carotid bifurcation (common, external, and internal carotid arteries). Statistical analysis showed a more rapid development and a larger extent of plaques in the ApoE-/-Fbn1C1039G+/- compared to the ApoE-/- mice. Regional differences between the branches were also observable and quantifiable. We developed and applied a methodology based on gold particle-enhanced microCT to visualize the presence of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:26044776

  3. Imaging Plaques to Predict and Better Manage Patients with Acute Coronary Events

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Serruys, Patrick W.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Narula, Jagat; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Culprit lesions of patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome commonly are ruptured coronary plaques with superimposed thrombus. The precursor of such lesions is an inflamed thin-capped fibroatheroma. These plaques can be imaged by means of invasive techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (and derived techniques), optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy. Very often these patients exhibit similar (multiple) plaques beyond the culprit lesion. These remote plaques can be assessed non invasively by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging and also using invasive imaging. The detection of these remote plaques is not only feasible, but also in natural history studies have been associated with clinical coronary events. Different systemic pharmacological treatments have been studied (mostly statins) with modest success and therefore newer approaches are being tested. Local treatment for such lesions is in its infancy and larger, prospective and randomized trials are needed. This review will describe the pathological and imaging findings in culprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndrome and as well as the assessment of remote plaques. In addition, the pharmacological and local treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24902974

  4. Contribution of neovascularization and intraplaque haemorrhage to atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, D A; Orekhov, A N; Bobryshev, Y V

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a continuous pathological process that starts early in life and progresses frequently to unstable plaques. Plaque rupture leads to deleterious consequences such as acute coronary syndrome, stroke and atherothrombosis. The vulnerable lesion has several structural and functional hallmarks that distinguish it from the stable plaque. The unstable plaque has large necrotic core (over 40% plaque volume) composed of cholesterol crystals, cholesterol esters, oxidized lipids, fibrin, erythrocytes and their remnants (haeme, iron, haemoglobin), and dying macrophages. The fibrous cap is thin, depleted of smooth muscle cells and collagen, and is infiltrated with proinflammatory cells. In unstable lesion, formation of neomicrovessels is increased. These neovessels have weak integrity and leak thereby leading to recurrent haemorrhages. Haemorrhages deliver erythrocytes to the necrotic core where they degrade promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Inflammatory cells mostly presented by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells extravagate from bleeding neovessels and infiltrate adventitia where they support chronic inflammation. Plaque destabilization is an evolutionary process that could start at early atherosclerotic stages and whose progression is influenced by many factors including neovascularization, intraplaque haemorrhages, formation of cholesterol crystals, inflammation, oxidative stress and intraplaque protease activity. PMID:25515699

  5. Rupture Velocities of Small Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, J.; Houston, H.

    2006-12-01

    Whether the rupture process of small earthquakes differs from those of large earthquakes has been a long- standing question in seismology. Recent proposals as to whether and how the physics of rupture may change with earthquake size have sparked interest in the energy budget, which depends strongly on the rupture velocity (Vr). Small earthquake rupture velocities have proved difficult to determine due to the strong attenuation of high-frequency waves. We analyze P and S waves of small earthquakes to detect rupture directivity and constrain Vr. We apply the projected Landweber deconvolution (PLD) method to a data set of 30 earthquakes 3.6currently no consensus that such a change in this ratio truly occurs. The increase in the energy-to- moment ratio is controlled by the relation between moment and corner frequency, which has moment inversely proportional to corner frequency raised to the power (3 + ?). Data compiled in Kanamori and Rivera suggests ? of 0.5. Then Vr of 0.4 to 0.9? for M3 events require that ?? of M3 events range from 1 to 0.1 respectively, of that of M7 events. More constraints on rupture velocities of small earthquakes will help to resolve possible changes in the energy budget, and thus earthquake physics, with earthquake size.

  6. Human antimicrobial peptide LL37 is present in atherosclerotic plaques and induces death of vascular smooth muscle cells: a laboratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina D Ciornei; Hans Tapper; Anders Bjartell; Nils H Sternby; Mikael Bodelsson

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death of smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic plaques makes the plaques more prone to rupture, which can initiate an acute ischemic event. The development of atherosclerosis includes the migration of immune cells e.g. monocytes\\/macrophages and T lymphocytes into the lesions. Immune cells can release antimicrobial peptides. One of these, human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide hCAP-18, is cleaved by proteinase

  7. [Knee extensor mechanism ruptures].

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B; Fritschy, D

    2011-08-10

    Knee extensor mechanism is composed of the quadriceps and its tendon, patella and patellar tendon. Rupture of either the quadriceps or patellar tendon, or of the patella itself, lead to a disruption of the knee extensor mechanism. Clinical examination reveals an inability to actively extend the knee. Standard radiographs of the knee show a suprapatellar swelling of the soft tissues in case of quadriceps tendon rupture, or a displaced patellar fracture, or a patella alta in case of patellar tendon rupture. Echography and MRI confirm the diagnosis and may reveal associated injuries. In case of knee extensor mechanism rupture, early surgical reconstruction of quadriceps or patellar tendon, or patella osteosynthesis, are mandatory to achieve early functional recovery. PMID:21919393

  8. Spontaneous rupture of uterus.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Meraj; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2002-08-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency. Diagnosis may be delayed because of the bizarre presentation or absence of significant pain and tenderness, which could have been masked by the analgesic medications used during labor. We present a case of spontaneous rupture in a multigravid female who was undergoing oxytocin-augmented labor while receiving epidural analgesia. She had had no previous cesarean deliveries or uterine surgery. Half an hour after an initial complaint of left inguinal pain, which was thought to be related to a patchy epidural block, she presented with changes in vital signs and significant fetal decelerations. At emergent cesarean section, a uterine rupture was noted. The uterine rupture extended down to the left vaginal angle, was not reparable and a hysterectomy was performed. The fetus survived. PMID:12208442

  9. In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motz, Jason T.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Gandhi, Saumil J.; Haka, Abigail S.; Galindo, Luis; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R., Jr.; Feld, Michael S.

    2006-03-01

    The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque accounts for the majority of clinically significant acute cardiovascular events. Because stability of these culprit lesions is directly related to chemical and morphological composition, Raman spectroscopy may be a useful technique for their study. Recent developments in optical fiber probe technology have allowed for the real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopic characterization of human atherosclerotic plaque demonstrated in this work. We spectroscopically examine 74 sites during carotid endarterectomy and femoral artery bypass surgeries. Of these, 34 are surgically biopsied and examined histologically. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio spectra are obtained in only 1 s and fit with an established model, demonstrating accurate tissue characterization. We also report the first evidence that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to identify vulnerable plaque, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 79 and 85%, respectively. These initial findings indicate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be a clinically relevant diagnostic tool for studying cardiovascular disease.

  10. A Comparative Study of Aortic Wall Stress Using Finite Element Analysis for Ruptured and Non-ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Venkatasubramaniam; M. J Fagan; T Mehta; K. J Mylankal; B Ray; G Kuhan; I. C Chetter; P. T McCollum

    2004-01-01

    Background. The decision to repair an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently based on diameter (?5.5 cm) alone. However, aneurysms less than 5.5 cm do rupture while some reach greater than 5.5 cm without rupturing. Hence the need to predict the risk of rupture on an individual patient basis is important. This study aims to calculate and compare wall

  11. Optical detection of structural changes in human carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, R. M.; Canham, P. B.; Finlay, H. M.; Hammond, R. R.; Quantz, M.; Ferguson, G. G.; Liu, L. Y.; Lucas, A. R.

    2005-08-01

    Background: Arterial bifurcations are commonly the sites of developing atherosclerotic plaque that lead to arterial occlusions and plaque rupture (myocardial infarctions and strokes). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy provides an effective nondestructive method supplying spectral information on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition, specifically collagen and elastin. Purpose: To investigate regional differences in the ECM proteins -- collagen I, III and elastin in unstable plaque by analyzing data from laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Methods: Gels of ECM protein extracts (elastin, collagen types I & III) were measured as reference spectra and internal thoracic artery segments (extra tissue from bypass surgery) were used as tissue controls. Arterial segments and the endarterectomy specimens (n=21) were cut into 5mm cross-sectional rings. Ten fluorescence spectra per sampling area were then recorded at 5 sites per ring with argon laser excitation (357nm) with a penetration depth of 200 ?m. Spectra were normalized to maximum intensity and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Tissue rings were fixed in formalin (within 3 hours of surgery), sectioned and stained with H&E or Movat's Pentachrome for histological analysis. Spectroscopy data were correlated with immunohistology (staining for elastin, collagen types I, III and IV). Results: Quantitative fluorescence for the thoracic arteries revealed a dominant elastin component on the luminal side -- confirmed with immunohistology and known artery structure. Carotid endarterectomy specimens by comparison had a significant decrease in elastin signature and increased collagen type I and III. Arterial spectra were markedly different between the thoracic and carotid specimens. There was also a significant elevation (p<0.05) of collagen type I distal to the bifurcation compared to proximal tissue in the carotid specimens. Conclusion: Fluorescence spectroscopy is an effective method for evaluating ECM (collagen and elastin) associated with vascular remodeling despite the considerable variability in the plaque structure. Consistent regional differences were detected in the carotid specimens.

  12. New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area, and Surface Displacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Wells; Kevin J. Coppersmith

    1994-01-01

    Source parameters for historical earthquakes worldwide are com- piled to develop a series of empirical relationships among moment magnitude (M), surface rupture length, subsurface rupture length, downdip rupture width, rupture area, and maximum and average displacement per event. The resulting data base is a significant update of previous compilations and includes the ad- ditional source parameters of seismic moment, moment

  13. Non-invasive molecular imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Marco; Ammirati, Enrico; Camici, Paolo G

    2015-04-01

    The growing discoveries coming from clinical and basic research during the past decades have revolutionized our knowledge regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the atherosclerotic process and its thrombotic complications. The traditional view focusing on the severity of stenosis of atherosclerotic plaque has given way to the evidence that the clinical complications of atherosclerotic vascular disease, particularly the propensity to develop thrombotic complications, are determined mainly by the biological composition of the plaque. This paradigm shift has reinforced the need to move from the sole anatomical assessment toward combined anatomic and functional imaging modalities enabling the molecular and cellular characterization of the disease on top of its structural properties. Together, the progress to identify molecular targets related to plaque vulnerability and the improvement of imaging techniques for the detection of such molecular targets have allowed us to obtain new important pathophysiological information. This might allow better patient stratification for the identification of subjects at high risk to develop premature atherosclerosis who might need an aggressive therapeutic approach. Nuclear techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound represent the currently available non-invasive imaging modalities for molecular imaging which can provide different and complementary insights into the biological features of the atherosclerotic process. This clinical review will discuss the evidence and potential translational applications of the individual imaging techniques particularly concerning their ability to detect the main atherosclerotic features related to plaque vulnerability, such as plaque inflammation and intertwined neovascularization. PMID:25702846

  14. Application of the gingival contour plaque index: six-month plaque and gingivitis study.

    PubMed

    Scherl, Dale S; Bork, Kim; Coffman, Lori; Lowry, Stephen R; VanCleave, Misty

    2009-01-01

    The Gingival Contour Plaque Index (GCPI) is a recently introduced and validated method of measuring plaque accumulation in dogs. It focuses on plaque accumulated along the gingival margin. Plaque accumulation in this area leads to gingival inflammation and, potentially, periodontitis. A 6-month plaque and gingivitis study was conducted to demonstrate the clinical research application of the GCPI, and to ensure that documented quantification of plaque-reducing efficacy could be related to a reduction in gingivitis. Advantages of the GCPI method are the ability to quantify plaque accumulation in an awake dog with fewer research personnel and more efficient time usage. PMID:19476084

  15. Purine Catabolism in Advanced Carotid Artery Plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Felici; I. Ciari; L. Terzuoli; B. Porcelli; C. Setacci; M. Giubbolini; E. Marinello

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out on carotid artery plaque and plasma of 50 patients. We analyzed uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and allantoin levels to verify if enzymatic purine degradation occurs in advanced carotid plaque; we also determined free radicals and sulphydryl groups to check if there is a correlation between oxidant status and purine catabolism. Comparing plaque and plasma we

  16. Human Carotid Plaque Calcification and Vulnerability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Magnus Wahlgren; Wei Zheng; Wael Shaalan; Jun Tang; Hisham S. Bassiouny

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key mechanism in human atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and disruption. The objective was to determine the differential gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors in the fibrous cap and shoulder region of noncalcified and calcified carotid endarterectomy plaques. Methods: Thirty carotid endarterectomy plaques were classified as type Va (noncalcified, n = 15) and type Vb (calcified, n

  17. Active and inactive edges of psoriatic plaques: identification by tracing and investigation by laser--Doppler flowmetry and immunocytochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Hull, S M; Goodfield, M; Wood, E J; Cunliffe, W J

    1989-06-01

    In plaque psoriasis it is likely that biochemical and ultrastructural changes precede the appearance of the typical plaque that is recognizable clinically. Currently, no technique exists by which the very early changes in psoriasis can be investigated. We report a method in which plaques of psoriasis are serially traced to identify their advancing edge. Eight-two untreated plaques from 15 patients and 38 treated plaques from 6 patients were traced over a three-week period; 65% of untreated and 57% of treated plaques showed consistent asymmetrical movement, allowing identification of an active and an inactive edge of each plaque. Using this technique, the active edge of two or more plaques was identified in each of ten patients. Blood flow measured by laser Doppler flowmetry indicated a 2.5-to-4.5-fold increase in cutaneous blood flow at the active edge compared with the inactive edge of each plaque. Punch biopsies from the sites investigated by laser Doppler flowmetry were examined by routine histology and monoclonal antibody immunohistology, but revealed no epidermal change and no T lymphocytic excess when the two areas were compared. We infer from these findings that the earliest change in a developing plaque is an increased blood flow, probably associated with a diffusable, and possibly humoral, initiating factor that accumulates at the active edge, stimulating transformation of normal skin to psoriatic plaque. PMID:2656871

  18. Neuropeptide Y Receptors in Carotid Plaques of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients: Effect of Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Jia, Guanghong; Pipinos, Iraklis; Tyndall, Steve H.; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-01-01

    Aims Cytokines released by the immune cells at the site of plaque milieu induce smooth muscle cell apoptosis to promote plaque instability. But, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a pleotropic factor, may modulate the effects of cytokines in atherosclerotic plaques of patients with carotid stenosis. Our aim was to investigate the relative expression of NPY-Y1, NPY-Y2 and NPY-Y5 receptors on carotid plaque vascular smooth muscle cells (pVSMCs) of symptomatic (S) and asymptomatic (AS) patients and examine the effect of inflammatory cytokines on the expression of NPY receptors, that may attenuate plaque rupture. Methods and Results In healthy carotid artery, there was significantly increased immunopositivity and increased mRNA transcripts of NPY-Y1 and NPY-Y5 receptors in thin sections and isolated VSMCs, respectively, compared to S and AS plaques. However, the NPY-Y2 expression was higher in S and AS pVSMCs than controls. Stimulation of the cells with TNF-?, IL-12 or IFN-? (50 ng/ml) decreased mRNA transcripts of NPY-Y1 and NPY-Y5 and increased NPY-Y2 mRNAs in VSMCs of healthy carotid artery. The effect of the cytokines on mRNA transcripts of NPY-Y5 and NPY-Y2 in pVSMCs of S and AS patients was similar to healthy VSMCs, but with variable effect on NPY-Y1. Conclusion Increased expression of NPY-Y2 receptors in symptomatic pVSMCs than in healthy and asymptomatic subjects suggests a potential role of NPY-Y2 in plaque instability. This is further supported by the pronounced effect of atheroma-associated cytokines to increase NPY-Y2 mRNA transcripts in pVSMCs of patients with carotid stenosis. PMID:21352822

  19. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity. PMID:23741559

  20. Shear wave elastography plaque characterization with mechanical testing validation: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widman, E.; Maksuti, E.; Larsson, D.; Urban, M. W.; Bjällmark, A.; Larsson, M.

    2015-04-01

    Determining plaque vulnerability is critical when selecting the most suitable treatment for patients with atherosclerotic plaque. Currently, clinical non-invasive ultrasound-based methods for plaque characterization are limited to visual assessment of plaque morphology and new quantitative methods are needed. In this study, shear wave elastography (SWE) was used to characterize hard and soft plaque mimicking inclusions in six common carotid artery phantoms by using phase velocity analysis in static and dynamic environments. The results were validated with mechanical tensile testing. In the static environment, SWE measured a mean shear modulus of 5.8? ± ?0.3?kPa and 106.2? ± ?17.2?kPa versus 3.3? ± ?0.5?kPa and 98.3? ± ?3.4?kPa measured by mechanical testing in the soft and hard plaques respectively. Furthermore, it was possible to measure the plaques’ shear moduli throughout a simulated cardiac cycle. The results show good agreement between SWE and mechanical testing and indicate the possibility for in vivo arterial plaque characterization using SWE.

  1. The influence of inaccuracies in carotid MRI segmentation on atherosclerotic plaque stress computations.

    PubMed

    Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Speelman, Lambert; Breeuwer, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Steen, Anton F W; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2014-02-01

    Biomechanical finite element analysis (FEA) based on in vivo carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to assess carotid plaque vulnerability noninvasively by computing peak cap stress. However, the accuracy of MRI plaque segmentation and the influence this has on FEA has remained unreported due to the lack of a reliable submillimeter ground truth. In this study, we quantify this influence using novel numerical simulations of carotid MRI. Histological sections from carotid plaques from 12 patients were used to create 33 ground truth plaque models. These models were subjected to numerical computer simulations of a currently used clinically applied 3.0?T T1-weighted black-blood carotid MRI protocol (in-plane acquisition voxel size of 0.62?×?0.62 mm2) to generate simulated in vivo MR images from a known underlying ground truth. The simulated images were manually segmented by three MRI readers. FEA models based on the MRI segmentations were compared with the FEA models based on the ground truth. MRI-based FEA model peak cap stress was consistently underestimated, but still correlated (R) moderately with the ground truth stress: R?=?0.71, R?=?0.47, and R?=?0.76 for the three MRI readers respectively (p?plaque stretch was underestimated as well. The peak cap stress in thick-cap, low stress plaques was substantially more accurately and precisely predicted (error of -12?±?44?kPa) than the peak cap stress in plaques with caps thinner than the acquisition voxel size (error of -177?±?168?kPa). For reliable MRI-based FEA to compute the peak cap stress of carotid plaques with thin caps, the current clinically used in-plane acquisition voxel size (?0.6?mm) is inadequate. FEA plaque stress computations would be considerably more reliable if they would be used to identify thick-cap carotid plaques with low stresses instead. PMID:24317274

  2. Leptin Locally Synthesized in Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques Could Be Associated With Lesion Instability and Cerebral Emboli

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Jacob; Schaefer, Katrin; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Savion, Naphtali; Kotev-Emeth, Shlomo; Dardik, Rima; Simon, Amos J.; Halak, Moshe; Pariente, Clara; Engelberg, Isaac; Konstantinides, Stavros; Virmani, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Background Unstable carotid plaques cause cerebral emboli. Leptin promotes atherosclerosis and vessel wall remodeling. We hypothesized that carotid atherosclerotic lesion instability is associated with local leptin synthesis. Methods and Results Carotid endarterectomy plaques from symptomatic (n=40) and asymptomatic patients with progressive stenosis (n=38) were analyzed for local expression of leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. All lesions exhibited advanced atherosclerosis inclusive of thick- and thin-cap fibroatheromas or lesion rupture. Symptomatic lesions exhibited more plaque ruptures and macrophage infiltration (P=0.001 and P=0.05, respectively). Symptomatic plaques showed preferential leptin, TNF-?, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 transcript (P=0.03, P=0.04, and P=0.05, respectively). Leptin mRNA and antigen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells were confirmed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Plasma leptin levels were not significantly different between groups (P=1.0), whereas TNF-? was significantly increased in symptomatic patients (P=0.006). Human aortic smooth muscle cell culture stimulated by TNF-?, lipopolysaccharide, or lipoteichoic acid revealed 6-, 6.7-, and 6-fold increased secreted leptin antigen, respectively, at 72 hours (P<0.05). Conclusions Neurologically symptomatic patients overexpress leptin mRNA and synthesize leptin protein in carotid plaque macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Local leptin induction, presumably by TNF-?, could exert paracrine or autocrine effects, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of lesion instability. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.Clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00449306. PMID:23316287

  3. Bilateral traumatic quadriceps tendon rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Holm

    1999-01-01

    Summary  Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare condition. In most cases the patients with bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture\\u000a have a general degenerative disease. This case story present a middle-aged male, who became a traumatic bilateral quadriceps\\u000a tendon rupture. Though treated acutely and trained intensively he did not achieve full range of motion.

  4. MR Imaging of Carotid Plaque Composition During Lipid-Lowering Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Dong, Li; Hatsukami, Tom; Phan, Binh An; Chu, Baocheng; Moore, Andrew; Lane, Trevor; Neradilek, Moni B.; Polissar, Nayak; Monick, Duane; Lee, Colin; Underhill, Hunter; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to test the lipid depletion hypothesis and to establish the time course of change in carotid plaque morphology and composition during lipid therapy using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND Lipid therapy is thought to improve plaque stability and reduce cardiovascular events by targeting the plaque rupture risk features such as large lipid core, thin fibrous cap, and high level of inflammatory infiltrates. However, the plaque stabilizing process during lipid therapy has not been clearly demonstrated in humans and in vivo. METHODS Subjects with coronary or carotid artery disease, apolipoprotein B ?120 mg/dl, and lipid treatment history <1 year, were randomly assigned to atorvastatin monotherapy or to atorvastatin-based combination therapies with appropriate placebos for 3 years. All subjects underwent high-resolution, multicontrast bilateral carotid MRI scans at baseline and annually for 3 years. All images were analyzed for quantification of wall area and plaque composition blinded to therapy, laboratory results, and clinical course. RESULTS After 3 years of lipid therapy, the 33 subjects with measurable lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) at baseline had a significant reduction in plaque lipid content: LRNC volume decreased from 60.4 ± 59.5 mm3 to 37.4 ± 69.5 mm3 (p < 0.001) and %LRNC (LRNC area/wall area in the lipid-rich regions) from 14.2 ± 7.0% to 7.4 ± 8.2% (p < 0.001). The time course showed that %LRNC decreased by 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the first year, by 3.0 (p = 0.005) in the second year, and by 0.91 (p = 0.2) in the third year. Changes in LRNC volume followed the same pattern. Percent wall volume (100 × wall/outer wall, a ratio of volumes) in the lipid-rich regions significantly decreased from 52.3 ± 8.5% to 48.6 ± 9.7% (p = 0.002). Slices containing LRNC had significantly more percent wall volume reduction than those without (?4.7% vs. ?1.4%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Intensive lipid therapy significantly depletes carotid plaque lipid. Statistically significant plaque lipid depletion is observed after 1 year of treatment and continues in the second year, and precedes plaque regression. (Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Carotid Artery Plaque Composition in People Receiving Cholesterol-Lowering Medications [The CPC Study]; NCT00715273). PMID:21920335

  5. Inhibition of a4 Integrin and ICAM-1 Markedly Attenuate Macrophage Homing to Atherosclerotic Plaques in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shilpesh S. Patel; Ram Thiagarajan; James T. Willerson; Edward T. H. Yeh

    Background—Monocytes\\/macrophages play a central role in many stages of development of atherosclerotic plaques, including the conversion to an unstable morphology with rupture and fissuring. A better understanding of the mechanism of attachment of monocytes to activated endothelial cells would prove useful in developing strategies aimed at blocking this initial step. Here we describe a novel in vivo model that directly

  6. Noninvasive diagnosis of ruptured peripheral atherosclerotic lesions and myocardial infarction by antibody profiling.

    PubMed

    Cleutjens, Kitty B J M; Faber, Birgit C G; Rousch, Mat; van Doorn, Ruben; Hackeng, Tilman M; Vink, Cornelis; Geusens, Piet; ten Cate, Hugo; Waltenberger, Johannes; Tchaikovski, Vadim; Lobbes, Marc; Somers, Veerle; Sijbers, Anneke; Black, Darcey; Kitslaar, Peter J E H M; Daemen, Mat J A P

    2008-08-01

    Novel biomarkers, such as circulating (auto)antibody signatures, may improve early detection and treatment of ruptured atherosclerotic lesions and accompanying cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction. Using a phage-display library derived from cDNAs preferentially expressed in ruptured peripheral human atherosclerotic plaques, we performed serological antigen selection to isolate displayed cDNA products specifically interacting with antibodies in sera from patients with proven ruptured peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. Two cDNA products were subsequently evaluated on a validation series of patients with peripheral atherosclerotic lesions, healthy controls, and patients with coronary artery disease at different stages. Our biomarker set was able to discriminate between patients with peripheral ruptured lesions and patients with peripheral stable plaques with 100% specificity and 76% sensitivity. Furthermore, 93% of patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) tested positive for our biomarkers, whereas all patients with stable angina pectoris tested negative. Moreover, 90% of AMI patients who initially tested negative for troponin T, for which a positive result is known to indicate myocardial infarction, tested positive for our biomarkers upon hospital admission. In conclusion, antibody profiling constitutes a promising approach for noninvasive diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions, because a positive serum response against a set of 2 cDNA products showed a strong association with the presence of ruptured peripheral atherosclerotic lesions and myocardial infarction. PMID:18654662

  7. Impact of Wall Shear Stress and Pressure Variation on the Stability of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taviani, V.; Li, Z. Y.; Sutcliffe, M.; Gillard, J.

    Rupture of vulnerable atheromatous plaque in the carotid and coronary arteries often leads to stroke and heart attack respectively. The mechanism of blood flow and plaque rupture in stenotic arteries is still not fully understood. A three dimensional rigid wall model was solved under steady and unsteady conditions assuming a time-varying inlet velocity profile to investigate the relative importance of axial forces and pressure drops in arteries with asymmetric stenosis. Flow-structure interactions were investigated for the same geometry and the results were compared with those retrieved with the corresponding one dimensional models. The Navier-Stokes equations were used as the governing equations for the fluid. The tube wall was assumed linearly elastic, homogeneous isotropic. The analysis showed that wall shear stress is small (less than 3.5%) with respect to pressure drop throughout the cycle even for severe stenosis. On the contrary, the three dimensional behavior of velocity, pressure and wall shear stress is in general very different from that predicted by one dimensional models. This suggests that the primary source of mistakes in one dimensional studies comes from neglecting the three dimensional geometry of the plaque. Neglecting axial forces only involves minor errors.

  8. The relevance of Randall's plaques

    PubMed Central

    Strakosha, Ruth; Monga, Manoj; Wong, Michael Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis is not fully understood. The pioneering work of Alexander Randall in the 1940s sought to clarify our understanding of stone formation. This review traces the inception of the theory of Randall's plaques and the refinement of the hypothesis in the early days of kidney stone research. It then reviews the contemporary findings utilizing sophisticated investigative techniques that shed additional light on the pathophysiology and redefine the seminal findings of Dr. Randall that were made 70 years ago. PMID:24497683

  9. [Symphysis rupture during partus].

    PubMed

    Nouta, Klaas-Auke; Van Rhee, Marina; Van Langelaan, Evert J

    2011-01-01

    A few hours after the birth of her first child a 36-year-old woman developed anterior pelvic pain. The pain worsened on walking. It proved that during the birth the patient had felt something 'give'. On X-ray a diastasis of 50 mm was seen in the symphysis and symphysis rupture was diagnosed. The patient was treated conservatively with bed rest and pelvic stabilisation. After 17 weeks she was symptom-free. Symphysis rupture during partus is rare. It is characterised by pain around the symphysis and/or the sacro-iliac joints during the first 24 hours post partum. Diagnosis can be made by X-ray. Treatment is predominantly conservative comprising pelvic stabilisation and bed rest. PMID:21426597

  10. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index Is the Adequate Criterion to Define Severity in Chronic Plaque-Type Psoriasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Schmitt; Gottfried Wozel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Chronic plaque-type psoriasis is a major dermatosis, but a significant question is still unanswered: What defines severity in chronic plaque-type psoriasis? While objective assessments like the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) have frequently been used in clinical trials, quality of life (QOL) questionnaires are currently becoming more and more popular. Objective: This article summarizes the most important objective

  11. Thrombus rupture via cavitation.

    PubMed

    Volokh, K Y

    2015-07-16

    Aneurysm growth is accompanied by formation of intraluminal thrombus. The onset of thrombus rupture via unstable void growth is studied in the present note. The experimentally calibrated constitutive model of thrombus developed by Wang et al. (2001) is enhanced with a failure description and used for analysis of cavitation. It is found that unstable cavity growth can start at hydrostatic tension of 0.18MPa which lies within the physiological range of stresses in the arterial wall. PMID:26001987

  12. Thermal study of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taehong

    2009-05-15

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Clinical significance of atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . 1 B. Vessel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. Arterial wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Blood and its constituents... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Process of Plaque Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Localization of atherosclerotic plaque . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Stages of atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Inflammation by macrophages...

  13. Thermal study of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taehong

    2009-05-15

    ranged from 0.1 to 0.25 oC in the plaque/lumen interface. In 3-D realistic model, the multiple measuring points must be considered to decrease the potential error in temperature measurement even within 1 or 2 mm at centerline region of plaque. The most...

  14. Purine catabolism in advanced carotid artery plaque.

    PubMed

    Felici, C; Ciari, I; Terzuoli, L; Porcelli, B; Setacci, C; Giubbolini, M; Marinello, E

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out on carotid artery plaque and plasma of 50 patients. We analyzed uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and allantoin levels to verify if enzymatic purine degradation occurs in advanced carotid plaque; we also determined free radicals and sulphydryl groups to check if there is a correlation between oxidant status and purine catabolism. Comparing plaque and plasma we found higher levels of free radicals, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and a decrease of some oxidant protectors, such as sulphydryl groups and uric acid, in plaque. We also observed a very important phenomenon in plaque, the presence of allantoin due to chemical oxidation of uric acid, since humans do not have the enzyme uricase. The hypothetical elevated activity of xanthine oxidase in atherosclerosis could be reduced by specific therapies using its inhibitors, such as oxypurinol or allopurinol. PMID:17065109

  15. Advanced Techniques for MRI of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, William S.; Canton, Gador

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the state of the art in vessel wall imaging by MRI with an emphasis on the biomechanical assessment of atherosclerotic plaque. Three areas of advanced techniques are discussed. First, alternative contrast mechanisms, including susceptibility, magnetization transfer, diffusion and perfusion, are presented in regards to how they facilitate accurate determination of plaque constituents underlying biomechanics. Second, imaging technologies, including hardware and sequences, are reviewed in regards to how they provide the resolution and SNR necessary for determining plaque structure. Finally, techniques for combining MRI data into an overall assessment of plaque biomechanical properties, including wall shear stress and internal plaque strain, are presented. The paper closes with a discussion of the extent to which these techniques have been applied to different arteries commonly targeted by vessel wall MRI. PMID:20805732

  16. Segmentation of wall and plaque in in vitro vascular MR images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

    2003-10-01

    Atherosclerosis leads to heart attack and stroke, which are major killers in the western world. These cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability would dramatically change the way in which atherosclerotic disease is diagnosed, monitored, and treated. In this paper, we report a computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from six vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.1 +/- 0.1, 0.0 +/- 0.1, and -0.1 +/- 0.1 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects. PMID:14609192

  17. Carotid plaque elasticity estimation using ultrasound elastography, MRI, and inverse FEA - A numerical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Nieuwstadt, H A; Fekkes, S; Hansen, H H G; de Korte, C L; van der Lugt, A; Wentzel, J J; van der Steen, A F W; Gijsen, F J H

    2015-08-01

    The material properties of atherosclerotic plaques govern the biomechanical environment, which is associated with rupture-risk. We investigated the feasibility of noninvasively estimating carotid plaque component material properties through simulating ultrasound (US) elastography and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and solving the inverse problem with finite element analysis. 2D plaque models were derived from endarterectomy specimens of nine patients. Nonlinear neo-Hookean models (tissue elasticity C1) were assigned to fibrous intima, wall (i.e., media/adventitia), and lipid-rich necrotic core. Finite element analysis was used to simulate clinical cross-sectional US strain imaging. Computer-simulated, single-slice in vivo MR images were segmented by two MR readers. We investigated multiple scenarios for plaque model elasticity, and consistently found clear separations between estimated tissue elasticity values. The intima C1 (160 kPa scenario) was estimated as 125.8 ± 19.4 kPa (reader 1) and 128.9 ± 24.8 kPa (reader 2). The lipid-rich necrotic core C1 (5 kPa) was estimated as 5.6 ± 2.0 kPa (reader 1) and 8.5 ± 4.5 kPa (reader 2). A scenario with a stiffer wall yielded similar results, while realistic US strain noise and rotating the models had little influence, thus demonstrating robustness of the procedure. The promising findings of this computer-simulation study stimulate applying the proposed methodology in a clinical setting. PMID:26130603

  18. Mechanical response of a calcified plaque model to fluid shear force.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiantian C; Tintut, Yin; Lyman, Althea; Mack, Wendy; Demer, Linda L; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2006-10-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with atherosclerosis, but whether it mechanically affects plaque stability remains controversial. To assess the effect of mineralization on plaque vulnerability to mechanical shear stress, we applied fluid shear to cultures of calcifying vascular cells (CVC), a subpopulation of smooth muscle cells that spontaneously mineralize. CVC cultures containing nodules were treated for 10 days with vehicle control or beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) to accelerate mineralization. Cultures were placed in a parallel-plate flow system and were subjected to increasing fluid shear stress (4.9 dyn/cm(2)/min up to 400 dyn/cm(2)). The number of nodules remaining attached was recorded every 10 min. Results showed that control cultures and BGP-treated cultures, which contained significantly greater calcium mineral than control cultures, had similar detachment thresholds (50-100 dyn/cm(2)), with linear portions of their stress/detachment curves from 100 to 275 dyn/cm(2). Based on repeated measure analysis of variance, BGP-treated nodules were no more likely to detach at a given shear than controls, although they showed a trend toward greater stability. Thus, calcification does not appear to increase plaque vulnerability to fluid shear stress, although it may contribute to a slight stabilization. This model may represent the first in vitro model of mechanical rupture of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:17006755

  19. [Delayed splenic rupture (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Alawneh, I

    1979-12-01

    Splenic rupture is a common injury associated with blunt abdominal trauma. In contrast, delayed splenic rupture is less frequent and comprises about 8--28% of cases of splenic rupture. The symptom free period can last for days or weeks. The mechanism is explained as follows. A rupture of the parenchyma occurs but the spleen capsula remains intact. A hematoma forms below the capsule and causes a strong overdistension of the capsule so that a bursting and release of blood into the abdominal cavity results. The mortality rate with splenic ruptures in 6--55% and with delayed splenic ruptures 14.6%. Our experiences are reviewed. After commencement of the hemorrhage therapy must consist of treatment for shock and immediate laparotomy and splenectomy. PMID:44648

  20. Traumatic bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Hansen; Søren Larsen; Troels Laulund

    2001-01-01

    Bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare event, with only an estimated 40 cases reported in the literature.\\u000a We report a case of bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture and review the literature. The reviewed literature recommends\\u000a early repair; therefore, early diagnosis is crucial. Reportedly, up to 50% of spontaneous bilateral quadriceps ruptures are\\u000a misdiagnosed at first, resulting in

  1. Impact of flow rates in a cardiac cycle on correlations between advanced human carotid plaque progression and mechanical flow shear stress and plaque wall stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mechanical stresses are known to play important roles in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression and rupture. It has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Method In vivo serial MRI data (patient follow-up) were acquired from 14 patients after informed consent. Each patient had 2-4 scans (scan interval: 18 months). Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. Each scan pair had 4-10 matched slices which gave 400-1000 data points for analysis (100 points per slice on lumen). Point-wise plaque progression was defined as the wall thickness increase (WTI) at each data point. 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions were constructed based on in vivo serial MRI data to extract flow shear stress and plaque wall stress (PWS) on all data points to quantify correlations between plaque progression and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS). FSS and PWS data corresponding to both maximum and minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle were used to investigate the impact of flow rates on those correlations. Results Using follow-up scans and maximum flow rates, 19 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance correlation ratio = 19/9/4), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (correlation ratio = 2/26/4). Corresponding to minimum flow rates, the correlation ratio for WTI vs. FSS and WTI vs. PWS were (20/7/5) and (2/26/4), respectively. Using baseline scans, the correlation ratios for WTI vs. FSS were (10/12/10) and (9/13/10) for maximum and minimum flow rates, respectively. The correlation ratios for WTI vs. PWS were the same (18/5/9), corresponding to maximum and minimum flow rates. Conclusion Flow shear stress corresponding to the minimum flow rates in a cardiac cycle had slightly better correlation with WTI, compared to FSS corresponding to maximum flow rates. Choice of maximum or minimum flow rates had no impact on PWS correlations. Advanced plaque progression correlated positively with flow shear stress and negatively with plaque wall stress using follow-up scans. Correlation results using FSS at the baseline scan were inconclusive. PMID:21771293

  2. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  3. Fibrillar amyloid plaque formation precedes microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian K E; Keppler, Kevin; Steinbach, Sonja; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Herms, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), hallmark ?-amyloid deposits are characterized by the presence of activated microglia around them. Despite an extensive characterization of the relation of amyloid plaques with microglia, little is known about the initiation of this interaction. In this study, the detailed investigation of very small plaques in brain slices in AD transgenic mice of the line APP-PS1(dE9) revealed different levels of microglia recruitment. Analysing plaques with a diameter of up to 10 ?m we find that only the half are associated with clear morphologically activated microglia. Utilizing in vivo imaging of new appearing amyloid plaques in double-transgenic APP-PS1(dE9)xCX3CR1+/- mice further characterized the dynamic of morphological microglia activation. We observed no correlation of morphological microglia activation and plaque volume or plaque lifetime. Taken together, our results demonstrate a very prominent variation in size as well as in lifetime of new plaques relative to the state of microglia reaction. These observations might question the existing view that amyloid deposits by themselves are sufficient to attract and activate microglia in vivo. PMID:25799372

  4. Carotid plaque characterization using CT and MRI scans for synergistic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzin, Matthew; Xu, Yiqin; Rao, Arhant; Madi, Saaussan; Bahadur, Ali; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    Noninvasive determination of plaque vulnerability has been a holy grail of medical imaging. Despite advances in tomographic technologies , there is currently no effective way to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with high sensitivity and specificity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used, but neither provides sufficient information of plaque properties. Thus, we are motivated to combine CT and MRI imaging to determine if the composite information can better reflect the histological determination of plaque vulnerability. Two human endarterectomy specimens (1 symptomatic carotid and 1 stable femoral) were imaged using Scanco Medical Viva CT40 and Bruker Pharmascan 16cm 7T Horizontal MRI / MRS systems. ?CT scans were done at 55 kVp and tube current of 70 mA. Samples underwent RARE-VTR and MSME pulse sequences to measure T1, T2 values, and proton density. The specimens were processed for histology and scored for vulnerability using the American Heart Association criteria. Single modality-based analyses were performed through segmentation of key imaging biomarkers (i.e. calcification and lumen), image registration, measurement of fibrous capsule, and multi-component T1 and T2 decay modeling. Feature differences were analyzed between the unstable and stable controls, symptomatic carotid and femoral plaque, respectively. By building on the techniques used in this study, synergistic CT+MRI analysis may provide a promising solution for plaque characterization in vivo.

  5. Evaluation of multicontrast MRI including fat suppression and inversion recovery spin echo for identification of intra-plaque hemorrhage and lipid core in human carotid plaque using the mahalanobis distance measure.

    PubMed

    te Boekhorst, Bernard C; van 't Klooster, Ronald; Bovens, Sandra M; van de Kolk, Kees W; Cramer, Maarten J; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F; Doevendans, Pieter A; van der Geest, Rob J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; van Echteld, Cees J

    2012-06-01

    Intra-plaque hemorrhage (IPH) and lipid core, characteristics of rupture prone carotid plaques, are often visualized in vivo with MRI using T1 weighted gradient and spin echo, respectively. Increasing magnetic field strength may help to identify IPH and lipid core better. As a proof of concept, automatic segmentation of plaque components was performed with the Mahalanobis distance (MD) measure derived from image contrast from multicontrast MR images including inversion recovery spin echo and T1 weighted gradient echo with fat suppression. After MRI of nine formaldehyde-fixated autopsy specimens, the MDs and Euclidean Distances between plaque component intensities were calculated for each MR weighting. The distances from the carotid bifurcation and the size and shape of calcification spots were used as landmarks for coregistration of MRI and histology. MD between collagen/cell-rich area and IPH was largest with inversion recovery spin echo (4.2/9.3, respectively), between collagen/cell-rich area/foam cells and lipid core with T1 weighted gradient echo with fat suppression (26.9/38.2/4.6, respectively). The accuracy of detection of IPH, cell-rich area, and collagen increased when the MD classifier was used compared with the Euclidean Distance classifier. The enhanced conspicuity of lipid core and IPH in human carotid artery plaque, using ex vivo T1 weighted gradient echo with fat suppression and inversion recovery spin echo MRI and MD classifiers, demands further in vivo evaluation in patients. PMID:21997890

  6. Outcomes following quadriceps tendon ruptures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K O'Shea; P Kenny; J Donovan; F Condon; J. P McElwain

    2002-01-01

    Complete rupture of the quadriceps femoris tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their ruptured quadriceps tendon at our institution over a seven year period-totalling 27 patients. Males were more commonly affected with

  7. Chronic rupture of tendo Achillis.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Ajis, Adam; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2007-12-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most commonly ruptured tendon in the human body. About 20% of complete ruptures of the Achilles tendon are diagnosed late. The management of chronic ruptures of tendo Achillis is usually different from that of acute rupture, as the tendon ends normally will have retracted. As clinical diagnosis of chronic ruptures can be problematic, imaging can be useful. Most investigators counsel operative management, and the possibility of undertaking a tendon transfer should be kept in mind. Local tendons, such as the flexor digitorum longus, the flexor hallucis longus, and the tendon of peroneus brevis, can be used, and some investigators have reported the use of a free gracilis tendon graft. Allografts and synthetic grafts are also employed. There are no comparative studies and no randomized controlled trials to guide clinicians toward an evidence-based approach to management. PMID:17996617

  8. Historical Plaque at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This plaque, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the Redstone Test Stand as an Alabama Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The site was desinated as such in 1979.

  9. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

  10. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-04-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs.

  11. Transient gravity perturbations induced by earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Barsuglia, M.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Montagner, J.-P.; Somala, S. N.; Whiting, B. F.

    2015-06-01

    The static and transient deformations produced by earthquakes cause density perturbations which, in turn, generate immediate, long-range perturbations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, an analytical solution is derived for gravity perturbations produced by a point double-couple source in homogeneous, infinite, non-self-gravitating elastic media. The solution features transient gravity perturbations that occur at any distance from the source between the rupture onset time and the arrival time of seismic P waves, which are of potential interest for real-time earthquake source studies and early warning. An analytical solution for such prompt gravity perturbations is presented in compact form. We show that it approximates adequately the prompt gravity perturbations generated by strike-slip and dip-slip finite fault ruptures in a half-space obtained by numerical simulations based on the spectral element method. Based on the analytical solution, we estimate that the observability of prompt gravity perturbations within 10 s after rupture onset by current instruments is severely challenged by the background microseism noise but may be achieved by high-precision gravity strainmeters currently under development. Our analytical results facilitate parametric studies of the expected prompt gravity signals that could be recorded by gravity strainmeters.

  12. Stevia and sucrose effect on plaque formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Maria Blauth de Slavutzky

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo study was done by measuring the accumulation of dental plaque after rinsing with a solution of 10% sucrose four times daily\\u000a during 5 days and comparing it with a rinsing of 10% solution of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni four times a day, during 5 days a week. The accumulation of dental plaque after rinsing with Stevia was 57, 82% less

  13. Detection of High-Risk Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.; Stone, Gregg W.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Granada, Juan F.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Ohayon, Jacques; Pettigrew, Roderic; Sabatine, Marc S.; Tearney, Guillermo; Waxman, Sergio; Domanski, Michael J.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Narula, Jagat

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of major morbidity and mortality in most countries around the world is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, most commonly caused by thrombotic occlusion of a high-risk coronary plaque resulting in myocardial infarction or cardiac death, or embolization from a high-risk carotid plaque resulting in stroke. The lesions prone to result in such clinical events are termed vulnerable or high-risk plaques, and their identification may lead to the development of pharmacological and mechanical intervention strategies to prevent such events. Autopsy studies from patients dying of acute myocardial infarction or sudden death have shown that such events typically arise from specific types of atherosclerotic plaques, most commonly the thin-cap fibroatheroma. However, the search in human beings for vulnerable plaques before their becoming symptomatic has been elusive. Recently, the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study demonstrated that coronary plaques that are likely to cause future cardiac events, regardless of angiographic severity, are characterized by large plaque burden and small lumen area and/or are thin-cap fibroatheromas verified by radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. This study opened the door to identifying additional invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities that may improve detection of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions and patients. Beyond classic risk factors, novel biomarkers and genetic profiling may identify those patients in whom noninvasive imaging for vulnerable plaque screening, followed by invasive imaging for risk confirmation is warranted, and in whom future pharmacological and/or device-based focal or regional therapies may be applied to improve long-term prognosis. PMID:22974808

  14. Penetration of fluoride into natural plaque biofilms.

    PubMed

    Watson, P S; Pontefract, H A; Devine, D A; Shore, R C; Nattress, B R; Kirkham, J; Robinson, C

    2005-05-01

    Caries occurs at inaccessible stagnation sites where plaque removal is difficult. Here, the penetration through plaque of protective components, such as fluoride, is likely to be crucial in caries inhibition. We hypothesized that topically applied fluoride would readily penetrate such plaque deposits. In this study, plaque biofilms generated in vivo on natural enamel surfaces were exposed to NaF (1000 ppm F-) for 30 or 120 sec (equivalent to toothbrushing) or for 30 min. Biofilms were then sectioned throughout their depth, and the fluoride content of each section was determined with the use of a fluoride electrode. Exposure to NaF for 30 or 120 sec increased plaque fluoride concentrations near the saliva interface, while concentrations near the enamel surface remained low. Fluoride penetration increased with duration of NaF exposure. Removal of exogenous fluoride resulted in fluoride loss and redistribution. Penetration of fluoride into plaque biofilms during brief topical exposure is restricted, which may limit anti-caries efficacy. PMID:15840782

  15. Carotid plaque assessment using fast 3D isotropic resolution black-blood MRI.

    PubMed

    Balu, Niranjan; Yarnykh, Vasily L; Chu, Baocheng; Wang, Jinnan; Hatsukami, Thomas; Yuan, Chun

    2011-03-01

    Black-blood MRI is a promising tool for carotid atherosclerotic plaque burden assessment and compositional analysis. However, current sequences are limited by large slice thickness. Accuracy of measurement can be improved by moving to isotropic imaging but can be challenging for patient compliance due to long scan times. We present a fast isotropic high spatial resolution (0.7×0.7×0.7 mm3) three-dimensional black-blood sequence (3D-MERGE) covering the entire cervical carotid arteries within 2 min thus ensuring patient compliance and diagnostic image quality. The sequence is optimized for vessel wall imaging of the carotid bifurcation based on its signal properties. The optimized sequence is validated on patients with significant carotid plaque. Quantitative plaque morphology measurements and signal-to-noise ratio measures show that 3D-MERGE provides good blood suppression and comparable plaque burden measurements to existing MRI protocols. 3D-MERGE is a promising new tool for fast and accurate plaque burden assessment in patients with atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:20941742

  16. A Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Classification Method to Investigate the Collagen to Lipid Ratio in Fibrous Caps of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Sun, Yinghua; Fishbein, Michael C.; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective This study describes a novel fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) classification method to determine the ratio of collagen to lipid content in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaques. Additionally, an analytical process to assess risk of plaque rupture based on this ratio is proposed. Collagen to lipid ratio has been shown to be an important parameter to evaluate structural integrity of the fibrous cap. FLIM and other time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently been applied to the study of atherosclerosis based on the ability to assess biochemical composition. Study Design/Materials and Methods Autofluorescence of specimens retrieved during carotid endarterectomy procedures was measured through three optical filters, F377: 377/50 nm, F460: 460/66 nm, and F510: 510/ 84 nm (center wavelength/bandwidth). A Laguerre deconvolution technique was used for the evaluation of fluorescence decay dynamics. The resulting decay parameters (average fluorescence lifetime and 4 Laguerre coefficients at each of the recorded bandwidths) were used for sample characterization. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to classify each image into collagen or lipid-rich regions based on these parameters. Ultimately, a risk-level was assigned based on the ratio of collagen to lipid on the surface of the fibrous cap. Results FLIM images were acquired in 18 carotid plaque specimens at 43 locations. Classification of collagen and lipid-rich regions within the fibrous cap was performed with sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 82%, respectively. Conclusions Results from this study show that an LDA method of classifying regions of FLIM images of carotid plaque into collagen and lipid-rich regions is capable of being automated and used to rate the risk of plaque rupture based on autofluorescence decay dynamics and without the need for fluorescence intensity or contrast agents. Lasers Surg. Med. 44:564–571, 2012. PMID:22886522

  17. PLAQUE:PLAQUE: What it is and how to get rid of it

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    . Red, puffy or bleeding gums can be the first signs of gum disease. If gum disease is not treated for keeping your teeth and gums ­healthy plus seeing your dentist regularly--you can have your teeth and stick to the teeth. · Some types of plaque cause tooth decay. · Other types of plaque cause gum disease

  18. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-print Network

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  19. [Ligament ruptures of the lower extremity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Herbort, M; Raschke, M J

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing incidence of ligament ruptures of the lower extremities in older patients. This higher incidence is caused by the typical current demographic changes in the population and the higher level of activity and athletic motivation of the older people in our society. In this review we address the most important ligament ruptures of the lower extremity in the old patient. Quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon ruptures are mostly the result of degenerative and abrasion changes. The ACL rupture on the other hand occurs spontaneously after adequate trauma and without former degenerative changes especially in highly active patients. For a differentiated treatment of the older patient with tendon ruptures, secondary diseases, an increased risk and complication profile and a potentially decreased compliance during rehabilitation must be taken into consideration before indicating operative or conservative therapy. There are no strict age-related limitations for indication of an operative treatment of tendon ruptures in the older patient. In this patient group a differentiated treatment decision is recommended. PMID:21766204

  20. [Uterine rupture in modern obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Grio, R; Piacentino, R; Zaccheo, F; Giobbe, C; Caccuri, D; Tamburrano, F; Marchino, G L; Fuda, G

    1990-10-01

    The paper reports 18 cases of womb rupture observed in the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University of Turin from April 1978 to June 1988. Following an analysis of the data relating to the above cases, the paper concludes that in order to reduce the incidence of womb rupture it is important to hospitalize high-risk patients preferably before the start of labour so as to intervent using caesarian section. PMID:2290596

  1. Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A.; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements.

  2. Integrated IVUS-OCT Imaging for Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Li, Jiawen; Jing, Joe; Ma, Teng; Liang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jun; Mohar, Dilbahar; Raney, Aidan; Mahon, Sari; Brenner, Matthew; Patel, Pranav; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis, biomedical imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed. The combined use of IVUS and OCT is hypothesized to remarkably increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. We have developed an integrated IVUS-OCT imaging apparatus, which includes the integrated catheter, motor drive unit, and imaging system. The dual-function imaging catheter has the same diameter of current clinical standard. The imaging system is capable for simultaneous IVUS and OCT imaging in real time. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments on rabbits with atherosclerosis were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the integrated intravascular imaging modality. PMID:24771992

  3. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per David Trobisch; Matthias Bauman; Kuno Weise; Fabian Stuby; David J. Hak

    2010-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition\\u000a for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred\\u000a most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the\\u000a rupture-zone was

  4. Detection of vulnerable atherosclerosis plaques with a dual-modal single-photon-emission computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging probe targeting apoptotic macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Chunfu; Tan, Hui; Wang, Cong; Pang, Lifang; Shi, Hongcheng

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS), especially the vulnerable AS plaque rupture-induced acute obstructive vascular disease, is a leading cause of death. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective method to draw accurate predictions about AS progression and plaque vulnerability. Herein we report on an approach to constructing a hybrid nanoparticle system using a single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multimodal probe, aiming for a comprehensive evaluation of AS progression by achieving high sensitivity along with high resolution. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was covered by aminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and carboxylated PEG simultaneously and then functionalized with diethylenetriaminepentacetate acid for (99m)Tc coordination and subsequently Annexin V for targeting apoptotic macrophages abundant in vulnerable plaques. The in vivo accumulations of imaging probe reflected by SPECT and MRI were consistent and accurate in highlighting lesions. Intense radioactive signals detected by SPECT facilitated focus recognization and quantification, while USPIO-based T2-weighted MRI improved the focal localization and volumetry of AS plaques. For subsequent ex vivo planar images, targeting effects were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, including CD-68 and TUNEL staining; meanwhile, the degree of concentration was proven to be statistically correlated with the Oil Red O staining results. In conclusion, these results indicated that the Annexin V-modified hybrid nanoparticle system specifically targeted the vulnerable AS plaques containing apoptotic macrophages and could be of great value in the invasively accurate detection of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25569777

  5. Blood flow characteristics in a terminal basilar tip aneurysm prior to its fatal rupture

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, D.M.; Putman, C.M.; Scrivano, E.; Lylyk, P.; Cebral, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The development and validation of methods to stratify the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms is highly desired since current treatment risks can exceed the natural risk of rupture. Because unruptured aneurysms are typically treated before they rupture, it is very difficult to connect the proposed risk indices to the rupture of an individual aneurysm. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the hemodynamic environment of a saccular aneurysm of the terminal morphology sub-type that was imaged just prior to its rupture and to test whether the hemodynamic characteristics would designate this particular aneurysm as at high risk. Methods A patient-specific computational fluid dynamics model was constructed from 3D rotational angiography images acquired just hours before the aneurysm ruptured. A pulsatile flow calculation was performed and hemodynamic characteristics previously connected to rupture were analyzed. Results It was found that the aneurysm had a concentrated inflow stream, small impingement region, complex intra-aneurysmal flow structure, asymmetric flow split from the parent vessel to the aneurysm and daughter branches, and high levels of aneurysmal wall shear stress near the impaction zone. Conclusions The hemodynamics characteristics observed in this aneurysm right before its rupture are consistent with previous studies correlating aneurysm rupture and hemodynamic patterns in saccular and terminal aneurysms. This study supports the notion that hemodynamic information may be used to help stratify the rupture risk of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:20150312

  6. Potential role of ixekizumab in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Vicky; Dao, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a debilitating autoimmune skin disease that affects 2%–3% of the world’s population. Patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis suffer from a decreased quality of life as well as comorbidities. Newer biological agents have been shown to be more effective than traditional therapies. In this article, we assess the potential role of ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin (IL)-17 antibody, in treating moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Method We reviewed PubMed for articles regarding ixekizumab and the epidemiology and management of plaque psoriasis. Results In a Phase I clinical trial, treatment with ixekizumab resulted in both clinical and histopathologic improvement of psoriasis, which suggests that IL-17 may be a key driver in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In a Phase II clinical trial, treatment with ixekizumab resulted in rapid clinical improvement of psoriasis, which lends further support to its role as an effective treatment for patients with chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Reductions in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score are comparable to those associated with currently marketed biologics. Conclusion Literature concerning the effects of ixekizumab on chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis is currently limited to two clinical trials. Results suggest that ixekizumab shows great therapeutic promise. However, more large-scale and long-term trials are needed to establish safety and efficacy. PMID:23515267

  7. The role of shear stress in the generation of rupture-prone vulnerable plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JJ Wentzel; FJH Gijsen; JCH Schuurbiers; AC van der Wal; AFW van der Steen; P. W. Serruys; CJ Slager

    2005-01-01

    Blood-flow-induced shear stress acting on the arterial wall is of paramount importance in vascular biology. Endothelial cells sense shear stress and largely control its value in a feedback-control loop by adapting the arterial dimensions to blood flow. Nevertheless, to allow for variations in arterial geometry, such as bifurcations, shear stress control is modified at certain eccentrically located sites to let

  8. The Role of Geometric and Biomechanical Factors in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Samarth S.; Chandra, Santanu; Shum, Judy; Finol, Ender A.

    2013-01-01

    The current clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is based to a great extent on measuring the aneurysm maximum diameter to decide when timely intervention is required. Decades of clinical evidence show that aneurysm diameter is positively associated with the risk of rupture, but other parameters may also play a role in causing or predisposing the AAA to rupture. Geometric factors such as vessel tortuosity, intraluminal thrombus volume, and wall surface area are implicated in the differentiation of ruptured and unruptured AAAs. Biomechanical factors identified by means of computational modeling techniques, such as peak wall stress, have been positively correlated with rupture risk with a higher accuracy and sensitivity than maximum diameter alone. The objective of this review is to examine these factors, which are found to influence AAA disease progression, clinical management and rupture potential, as well as to highlight on-going research by our group in aneurysm modeling and rupture risk assessment. PMID:23508633

  9. Effect of gum chewing on plaque accumulation.

    PubMed

    Hoerman, K C; Gasior, E J; Zibell, S E; Record, D; Flowerdew, G

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the effect of chewing gum sweetened with either sorbitol (LG) or sucrose (SG) on the growth of plaque on tooth enamel surfaces. Nineteen dental students, in a balanced crossover design, chewed the two gums for 5 days without normal oral hygiene practices. The control treatment was a 5-day non-chewing (NG) phase. A period of 9 days was allowed for normal hygiene between test phases. The chewing regimen required 20 minutes of use of one stick of chewing gum immediately after meals or snacks. The average number of sticks chewed was 3.8/day. Pre- and post-treatment plaque scores were recorded by two examiners using a Modified Navy Plaque Index (PLI) from 0 to 9 along each of four surfaces to assess six Ramfjord teeth. Pre-treatment mean PLI scores for the 3 test treatments were, NG = 2.0, LG = 1.9 and SG = 1.9. Post-treatment mean PLI scores were, NG = 3.6, LG = 3.3 and SG = 3.3. ANOVA of pre- and post-treatment scores revealed no significant differences between treatments. Post-treatment scores of the 2 chewing gums were then pooled, independent of sweetener. ANOVA of these data revealed chewing gum (LG + SG = 3.3) to cause significantly less plaque accumulation than no gum (NG = 3.6). In a no oral hygiene environment, plaque accumulation during use of sorbitol chewing gum or sucrose chewing gum was statistically the same. However, chewing gum, irrespective of sweetener, caused significantly less plaque accumulation than no chewing. PMID:2133390

  10. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

  11. Toward source characterization of local supershear ruptures in dip-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, C. F.; Dalguer, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The speed at which a rupture propagates is an important factor that contributes to determine the character of the ground motion. Rupture speeds are bounded at the upper end by the maximum speed at which stresses are transmitted through the rock. Most earthquake ruptures propagate with velocities slower than the S-wave speed, while studies of some earthquake data, lab and theoretical physical models reveal the occurrence of rupture velocities exceeding the S-wave speed, i.e. supershear. Most of the attention of those studies has been given to large strike slip faults, because earthquakes in long faults predominantly ruptures in mode II, in which super-shear rupture speed is most likely to occur (see for instance Dalguer et al in this session) Little attention has been given to evaluate the possibility and importance of the occurrence of supershear speed in dip-slip faults. Though rupture along the length of dipping faults predominantly rupture in mode III, there is also a portion of the rupture that propagate along the dip (mode II direction) in which supershear rupture speed may take place. Here we evaluate this possibility and quantitatively characterize the areas of supershear rupture speed in dip-slip faults. For such a purpose we develop suite of earthquake source physics-based dynamic rupture models. Stress distribution prior to earthquakes was assumed to be stochastic with heterogeneous stress consistent, in a statistical sense, with past earthquakes. We performed series of numerical simulations in 45° dipping normal faults with fault area between 30x20 Km, and 200x28 Km. The resulting earthquakes cover a range magnitude Mw = 5.29-7.89. Our dynamic rupture simulations reveal that in rupture propagating along heterogeneities stress fields, the stress waves ahead of the rupture front encounter patches of pre-stress close to the yielding criteria. If these waves have sufficient amplitude, they can trigger short-lived periods of secondary rupture that can trigger localized supershear propagation. In the current simulations, this localized area is limited to areas along the width of the fault at the hypocenter zone, and increases with the earthquake size. For magnitude in the range 6.3 <= Mw <= 7.5 this area increase respectively from 1% to 10% of the total rupture area. Our final goal is to identify signatures of this localized supershear rupture speed on seismograms to assess the level and variability of ground motion in a certain area for seismic hazard and risk mitigation.

  12. The role of PGE 2 in human atherosclerotic plaque on platelet EP 3 and EP 4 receptor activation and platelet function in whole blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa J. SchoberAnna; Anna L. Khandoga; Suman Dwivedi; Sandra M. Penz; Takayuki Maruyama; Richard Brandl; Wolfgang Siess

    Atherosclerosis has an important inflammatory component. Macrophages accumulating in atherosclerotic arteries produce prostaglandin\\u000a E2 (PGE2), a main inflammatory mediator. Platelets express inhibitory receptors (EP2, EP4) and a stimulatory receptor (EP3) for this prostanoid. Recently, it has been reported in ApoE?\\/? mice that PGE2 accumulating in inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions might contribute to atherothrombosis after plaque rupture by activating\\u000a platelet EP3, and

  13. In vivo analysis of mechanical wall stress and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F. Fillinger; M. L. Raghavan; Steven P. Marra; Jack L. Cronenwett; Francis E. Kennedy

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to calculate abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall stresses in vivo for ruptured, symptomatic, and electively repaired AAAs with three-dimensional computer modeling techniques, computed tomographic scan data, and blood pressure and to compare wall stress with current clinical indices related to rupture risk. Methods: CT scans were analyzed for 48 patients with AAAs: 18

  14. Xylitol: a review of its action on mutans streptococci and dental plaque--its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Trahan, L

    1995-02-01

    Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the caries preventive effect of xylitol as a total or partial dietary sugar substitute. This article reviews the current knowledge of the effect of xylitol on the microbial population of dental plaque, particularly on mutans streptococci, in the light of an ecological concept of the oral environment and of the potential clinical significance. A noncariogenic commensal plaque flora constitutes the biotic component of a balanced ecosystem compatible with dental health. Dietary sugars, particularly sucrose, and sugar substitutes are abiotic environmental factors that can shift the delicate balance of the ecosystem towards a more or less cariogenic microbiota. Most dietary sugars are fermented by plaque microorganisms, favour the establishment of a cariogenic microflora and contribute to bacterial virulence. The vast majority of plaque bacteria, however, are incapable of fermenting xylitol into cariogenic acid end-products. There is no evidence that the plaque microbiota can adapt to metabolise xylitol or can be enriched with xylitol-metabolising cells even after long exposure to xylitol. Accumulated intracellularly as a non-metabolisable metabolite by mutans streptococci, xylitol inhibits its growth in vitro and reduces the amount of plaque and the number of mutans streptococci in both the plaque and saliva of xylitol consumers. When present in the oral environment xylitol not only prevents a shift of the bacterial community towards a more cariogenic microflora but also selects for a mutants population that was shown to have weakened virulence factors in preliminary in vitro experiments and in rats. Further research is needed to fully understand the clinical importance in the prevention of caries of this xylitol-selected population. PMID:7607748

  15. Polymeric nanoparticle PET/MR imaging allows macrophage detection in atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Majmudar, Maulik D.; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Keliher, Edmund J.; Truelove, Jessica; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Sena, Brena; Dutta, Partha; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Di Carli, Marcelo; Libby, Peter; Anderson, Daniel G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Myeloid cell content in atherosclerotic plaques associates with rupture and thrombosis. Thus, imaging of lesional monocyte and macrophages (Mo/M?) could serve as a biomarker of disease progression and therapeutic intervention. Objective To noninvasively assess plaque inflammation with dextran nanoparticle-facilitated hybrid PET/MR imaging. Methods and Results Using clinically approved building blocks, we systematically developed 13nm polymeric nanoparticles consisting of crosslinked short chain dextrans which were modified with desferoxamine for zirconium-89 radiolabeling (89Zr-DNP) and a near infrared fluorochrome (VT680) for microscopic and cellular validation. Flow cytometry of cells isolated from excised aortas showed DNP uptake predominantly in Mo/M? (76.7%) and lower signal originating from other leukocytes such as neutrophils and lymphocytes (11.8% and 0.7%, p<0.05 versus Mo/M?). DNP colocalized with the myeloid cell marker CD11b on immunohistochemistry. PET/MRI revealed high uptake of 89Zr-DNP in the aortic root of ApoE?/? mice (standard uptake value, ApoE?/? mice versus wild type controls, 1.9±0.28 versus 1.3±0.03, p<0.05), corroborated by ex vivo scintillation counting and autoradiography. Therapeutic silencing of the monocyte-recruiting receptor CCR2 with siRNA decreased 89Zr-DNP plaque signal (p<0.05) and inflammatory gene expression (p<0.05). Conclusions Hybrid PET/MR imaging with a 13nm DNP enables noninvasive assessment of inflammation in experimental atherosclerotic plaques and reports on therapeutic efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:23300273

  16. 18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 (original drawing in possession of City Engineer's Office Grand Rapids, Michigan) DEDICATION PLAQUE. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, Kent County, MI

  17. Estimation of nonlinear mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Ting F. (Ting Fredrick)

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques by combining genetic algorithm with finite element methods. Plaque images derived from optical coherence tomography ...

  18. Coronary CT Angiography in the Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010

  19. Requirements for imaging vulnerable plaque in the coronary artery using a coded aperture imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozian, Cynthia

    A coded aperture1 plate was employed on a conventional gamma camera for 3D single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging on small animal models. The coded aperture design was selected to improve the spatial resolution and decrease the minimum detectable activity (MDA) required to image plaque formation in the APoE (apolipoprotein E) gene deficient mouse model when compared to conventional SPECT techniques. The pattern that was tested was a no-two-holes-touching (NTHT) modified uniformly redundant array (MURA) having 1,920 pinholes. The number of pinholes combined with the thin sintered tungsten plate was designed to increase the efficiency of the imaging modality over conventional gamma camera imaging methods while improving spatial resolution and reducing noise in the image reconstruction. The MDA required to image the vulnerable plaque in a human cardiac-torso mathematical phantom was simulated with a Monte Carlo code and evaluated to determine the optimum plate thickness by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) yielding the lowest possible MDA and highest area under the curve (AUC). A partial 3D expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction was developed to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, and spatial resolution over the linear correlation method of reconstruction. This improvement was evaluated by imaging a mini hot rod phantom, simulating the dynamic range, and by performing a bone scan of the C-57 control mouse. Results of the experimental and simulated data as well as other plate designs were analyzed for use as a small animal and potentially human cardiac imaging modality for a radiopharmaceutical developed at Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging Company, North Billerica, MA, for diagnosing vulnerable plaques. If left untreated, these plaques may rupture causing sudden, unexpected coronary occlusion and death. The results of this research indicated that imaging and reconstructing with this new partial 3D algorithm improved the SNR, spatial resolution, dynamic range of 4:1 to 6:1, and decreased the MDA required at the site of a plaque by twofold in comparison with other nuclear medicine imaging methods. Recommendations to increase the field of view (FOV) along with a better imaging geometry would enable placement of larger objects (human heart included) within the fully encoded FOV while improving spatial resolution, magnification factors, and efficiency. Further improvements to the algorithm and imaging system may enable novel vulnerable plaque imaging and early detection of coronary artery disease. 1See definitions beginning on page xvii.

  20. ADAM-10 could mediate cleavage of N-cadherin promoting apoptosis in human atherosclerotic lesions leading to vulnerable plaque: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Coleman, Raymond; Imbesi, Rosa; Magro, Gaetano; Parenti, Rosalba; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Scuderi, Rosario; Cinà, Claudio Salvatore; Castorina, Sergio; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-09-01

    Atherosclerosis remains a major cause of mortality. Whereas the histopathological progression of atherosclerotic lesions is well documented, much less is known about the development of unstable or vulnerable plaque, which can rupture leading to thrombus, luminal occlusion and infarct. Apoptosis in the fibrous cap, which is rich in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages, and its subsequent weakening or erosion seems to be an important regulator of plaque stability. The aim of our study was to improve our knowledge on the biological mechanisms that cause plaque instability in order to develop new therapies to maintain atherosclerotic plaque stability and avoid its rupture. In our study, we collected surgical specimens from atherosclerotic plaques in the right or left internal carotid artery of 62 patients with evident clinical symptoms. Histopathology and histochemistry were performed on wax-embedded sections. Immunohistochemical localization of caspase-3, N-cadherin and ADAM-10 was undertaken in order to highlight links between apoptosis, as expressed by caspase-3 immunostaining, and possible roles of N-cadherin, a cell-cell junction protein in VSMCs and macrophages that provides a pro-survival signal reducing apoptosis, and ADAM-10, a "disintegrin and metalloproteases" that is able to cleave N-cadherin in glioblastomas. Our results showed that when apoptosis, expressed by caspase-3 immunostaining, increased in the fibrous cap, rich in VSMCs and macrophages, the expression of N-cadherin decreased. The decreased N-cadherin expression, in turn, was linked to increased ADAM-10 expression. This study shows that apoptotic events are probably involved in the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24985126

  1. Differential expression of oxidation-specific epitopes and apolipoprotein(a) in progressing and ruptured human coronary and carotid atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Rogier A.; Kolodgie, Frank; Ravandi, Amir; Leibundgut, Gregor; Hu, Patrick P.; Prasad, Anand; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Dennis, Edward; Curtiss, Linda K.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Wasserman, Bruce A.; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and progressive atherosclerosis and plaque rupture have not been determined. Coronary artery sections from sudden death victims and carotid endarterectomy specimens were immunostained for apoB-100, oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), apo(a), malondialdehyde-lysine (MDA), and MDA-related epitopes detected by antibody IK17 and macrophage markers. The presence of OxPL captured in carotid and saphenous vein graft distal protection devices was determined with LC-MS/MS. In coronary arteries, OSE and apo(a) were absent in normal coronary arteries and minimally present in early lesions. As lesions progressed, apoB and MDA epitopes did not increase, whereas macrophage, apo(a), OxPL, and IK17 epitopes increased proportionally, but they differed according to plaque type and plaque components. Apo(a) epitopes were present throughout early and late lesions, especially in macrophages and the necrotic core. IK17 and OxPL epitopes were strongest in late lesions in macrophage-rich areas, lipid pools, and the necrotic core, and they were most specifically associated with unstable and ruptured plaques. Specific OxPL were present in distal protection devices. Human atherosclerotic lesions manifest a differential expression of OSEs and apo(a) as they progress, rupture, and become clinically symptomatic. These findings provide a rationale for targeting OSE for biotheranostic applications in humans. PMID:22969153

  2. Microanalysis of Senile Plaques Using Nuclear Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Landsberg; Brendan McDonald; Geoff Grime; Frank Watt

    1993-01-01

    Silver-staining “senile” plaques occurring in the brain are a major part of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The elemental composition of these structures, and the possible presence of aluminum and silicon in these structures, has been the subject of an increasing research effort over the last decade. However, the results have often been contradictory.Using a scanning proton microprobe, the elemental

  3. In vivo imaging reveals sigmoidal growth kinetic of ?-amyloid plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease is the deposition of amyloid plaques in the brains of affected individuals. Amyloid plaques mainly consist of fibrillar ?-amyloid, which is a cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein. The amyloid-cascade-hypothesis postulates A? accumulation as the central event in initiating a toxic cascade leading to Alzheimer’s disease pathology and, ultimately, loss of cognitive function. We studied the kinetics of ?-amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice, which overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation. Utilizing long-term two-photon imaging we were able to observe the entire kinetics of plaque growth in vivo. Essentially, we observed that plaque growth follows a sigmoid-shaped curve comprising a cubic growth phase, followed by saturation. In contrast, plaque density kinetics exhibited an asymptotic progression. Taking into account the fact that a critical concentration of A? is required to seed new plaques, we can propose the following kinetic model of ?-amyloid deposition in vivo. In the early cubic phase, plaque growth is not limited by A? concentration and plaque density increases very fast. During the transition phase, plaque density stabilizes whereas plaque volume increases strongly reflecting a robust growth of the plaques. In the late asymptotic phase, A? peptide production becomes rate-limiting for plaque growth. In conclusion, the present study offers a direct link between in vitro and in vivo studies facilitating the translation of A?-lowering strategies from laboratory models to patients. PMID:24678659

  4. Keeping score in rupture disks

    SciTech Connect

    Brazier, G.

    1993-09-01

    At first glance it may seem that the world of rupture disks isn't one bursting with innovation--after all, some of the first designs of more than 60 years ago are still in use today. But take a closer look: Rupture disk technology is hardly standing still. Over the years, the disks have evolved from simple calibrated foils to highly-specialized devices that employ advanced designs and manufacturing techniques to ensure safety in critical applications. The new disks generally feature high accuracy, zero leakage, long service life, and non-fragmentation. Recent products use special metals and alloys to withstand corrosive process conditions and offer a much wider range of operating conditions than these of early devices. Manufacturers are also introducing rupture disks that are intrinsically fail-safe--i.e., the units burst at or below their rated burst pressure even if they are damaged during installation or are improperly installed.

  5. [Erionite-induced pleural plaques. Exposition to urban pollution in a female Turkish migrant in Germany].

    PubMed

    Gräsel, B; Kaya, A; Stahl, U; Rauber, K; Kuntz, C

    2008-06-01

    Erionite is a zeolite mineral of volcanic origin which contains no asbestos. It is found in different regions of the world, including southeast Turkey in ash and dust, from which it can cause inflammatory pleural plaques or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We report a female Turkish migrant exposed to urban pollution in her home country who decades later suffered from pleural plaques with a nonspecific chronic inflammatory disease. The differential diagnosis of inflammatory pleural plaques was assumed radiologically and confirmed by video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy. Short-term clinical and radiologic control of the patient will be necessary because of the risk of MPM. For epidemiologic considerations discussed referring to current literature, a growing incidence of this type of disease in migrants from high-risk areas must be reckoned with in Germany, even without exposition to asbestos. PMID:18506411

  6. Intraplaque haemorrhages as the trigger of plaque vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Virmani, Renu; Arbustini, Eloïsa; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the western countries. Human atherothrombotic disease begins early in life in relation to circulating lipid retention in the inner vascular wall. Risk factors enhance the progression towards clinical expression: dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, ageing, etc. The evolution from the initial lipid retention in the arterial wall to clinical events is a continuum of increasingly complex biological processes. Current strategies to fight the consequences of atherothrombosis are orientated either towards the promotion of a healthy life style1 and preventive treatment of risk factors, or towards late interventional strategies.2 Despite this therapeutic arsenal, the incidence of clinical events remains dramatically high,3 dependent, at least in part, on the increasing frequency of type 2 diabetes and ageing. But some medical treatments, focusing only on prevention of the metabolic risk, have failed to reduce cardiovascular mortality, thus illustrating that our understanding of the pathophysiology of human atherothrombosis leading to clinical events remain incomplete. New paradigms are now emerging which may give rise to novel experimental strategies to improve therapeutic efficacy and prediction of disease progression. Recent studies strengthen the concept that the intraplaque neovascularization and bleeding (Figure 1, upper panel) are events that could play a major role in plaque progression and leucocyte infiltration, and may also serve as a measure of risk for the development of future events. The recent advances in our understanding of IntraPlaque Hemorrhage as a critical event in triggering acute clinical events have important implications for clinical research and possibly future clinical practice. Figure 1Macroscopic view and schematic representation of the detrimental consequences of intraplaque haemorrhages on plaque biology and stability. PMID:21398643

  7. Spontaneous Forniceal Rupture in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Upputalla, Roshni; Moore, Robert M.; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Forniceal rupture is a rare event in pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old primigravid woman who experienced a forniceal rupture at 23 weeks of gestation with no inciting cause except for pregnancy. Pregnancy is associated with ureteral compression due to increase in pelvic vasculature with the right ureter more dilated due to anatomic reasons. Hormones such as prostaglandins and progesterone render the ureter more distensible to allow for pressure build-up and an obstructive picture at the collecting system. We will discuss physiologic changes in pregnancies that predispose to this uncommon phenomenon and the most up-to-date management strategies. PMID:25648411

  8. A rapid colorimetric AFP monoclonal antibody test for the diagnosis of preterm rupture of the membranes.

    PubMed

    Rochelson, B L; Rodke, G; White, R; Bracero, L; Baker, D A

    1987-02-01

    Premature rupture of the membranes is a common and serious complication of pregnancy. Despite the prevalence and severity of sequelae, current diagnostic techniques are less than ideal. We studied 48 women with preterm rupture of the membranes with a rapid, colorimetric monoclonal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) antibody test. Sensitivity was 98% for AFP testing compared to 77% for nitrazine and 62% for ferning. The differences in sensitivity were greater when membranes were ruptured for longer than 12 hours. In all 31 patients without rupture of the membranes, AFP testing was negative. Neither urine nor semen affected AFP testing, whereas blood did. Alpha-fetoprotein testing may be a significant addition to current methods in the diagnosis of preterm rupture of the membranes. PMID:2433650

  9. Chordal rupture. I: aetiology and natural history.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D B; Dawkins, K D; Kay, P H; Paneth, M

    1983-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1981, 12% of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery were found to have chordal rupture. Spontaneous or primary rupture accounted for 74.6% of patients (primary group); in the remainder (secondary group) chordal rupture complicated chronic rheumatic valvular disease (8.9%), bacterial endocarditis on both normal (8.5%) and rheumatic valves (4.7%), ischaemic heart disease (2.3%), acute rheumatic fever (0.5%), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.5%). Isolated posterior rupture was seen most frequently (54%), with anterior rupture in 36% and rupture of both mitral cusps in 10% of patients. A short symptomatic history of acute mitral regurgitation was rare, occurring in only 4% of patients in either the primary or secondary groups, suggesting that mitral regurgitation due to ruptured chordae is a progressive disease. In contrast to previous reports the clinical presentation did not help to differentiate the aetiology of the chordal rupture. PMID:6626391

  10. Rupture of inferior thyroid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Beal, S L; Dublin, A B; Stone, W K

    1987-08-01

    We report a case in which rupture of an aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery caused respiratory arrest. The aneurysm was embolized successfully by an angiographic technique. Published reports of rupture of thyroid artery aneurysms are reviewed. PMID:3612969

  11. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Combined with Conventional Intravascular Ultrasound for Enhanced Assessment of Atherosclerotic Plaques: an Ex Vivo Study in Human Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Fatakdawala, Hussain; Gorpas, Dimitris; Bishop, John W; Bec, Julien; Ma, Dinglong; Southard, Jeffrey A; Margulies, Kenneth B; Marcu, Laura

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluates the ability of label-free fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) to complement intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for concurrent visualization of human coronary vessel composition, structure, and pathology. Co-registered FLIm and IVUS data from 16 coronary segments were correlated to eight distinct pathological features including thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for combined FLIm-IVUS (89, 99, 89 %) were better than FLIm (70, 98, 88 %) and IVUS (45, 94, 62 %) alone in distinguishing between pathologies. FLIm can assess compositional changes in luminal surface through variations in fluorescence lifetime values (<3.5 ns for lipid-rich areas; >4 ns for collagen-rich areas) enabling detection of macrophages in fibrous caps (sensitivity, 86 %) and distinguishing between relatively stable thick-cap fibroatheromas and rupture-prone TCFA (sensitivity, 80 %) amongst other features. Current results demonstrate the potential of FLIm-IVUS as a new intravascular method for improved evaluation of plaques that may subsequently aid in guiding coronary intervention. PMID:25931307

  12. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion.

    PubMed

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  13. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  14. Numerical model of seismic rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan B. Nielsen; Albert Tarantola

    1992-01-01

    Simple numerical models of the cellular automaton type have been proposed recently, as an analogy for seismic faults. Those showed interesting features of spontaneous rupture evolution or even seismic recurrence. It is possible to incorporate realistic rheology and tensorial physics into this kind of model, to extend it to a portion of crust instead of a single fault-plane and to

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

  16. Variable land-level changes at a non-persistent megathrust rupture boundary, Sitkinak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R. W.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nelson, A. R.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Dura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Fault-rupture segmentation models require paleoseismic data to validate inferred rupture boundaries. We examined the southwestern end of the 1964 Mw 9.2 rupture along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust to test the prehistoric persistence of this historical rupture boundary. On Sitkinak Island in the Trinity Islands, 20 hand-collected cores and tidal outcrops beneath tidal and freshwater marshes reveal five abrupt lithologic contacts that record a mixed record of coseismic uplift (3 events) and subsidence (2 events) in the last ~1000 years. Diatom and foraminiferal assemblages in modern and core material obtained from the southwestern Sitkinak lagoon indicate rapid uplift ca. AD 1788 and just prior to 575 × 65 cal yr and 735 × 65 cal yr; and rapid subsidence in AD 1964 and soon after ~735 cal yr as constrained by 14C ages and tephra correlation. Because the northern coast of Sitkinak was reportedly uplifted in AD 1964 and the island is currently subsiding interseismically above a locked patch of the megathrust, we interpret coseismic subsidence as representing the along-strike transition from elastic uplift to subsidence at the rupture boundary; this implies that the AD 1964 zero uplift isobase crosses the island. Similar behavior has been observed during large megathrust ruptures in Indonesia and the Solomon Islands and is predicted by elastic dislocation models. A sand bed traced inland 1.5 km and bracketed with 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb ages was most likely deposited by a tsunami associated with megathrust rupture in 1788. Historical records suggest that the AD 1788 rupture extended from the southwest at least 100 km northeast to the Russian settlement at Three Saints Bay near Old Harbor, Kodiak Island. The complicated uplift and subsidence record we observe on Sitkinak Island, interpreted in the context of historical reports of the AD 1788 rupture, is consistent with at least three rupture segmentation models. In Model A, Sitkinak is located at a boundary for 1964- and 1788-type ruptures. A complication with Model A is that it requires 1788-type ruptures to extend at least 100 km into the AD 1964 rupture area. Model B assumes coseismic uplift for large megathrust events on Sitkinak, with subsidence accompanying only updip ruptures or upper-plate deformation. Model B is inconsistent with the observation of coseismic subsidence of the southwestern lagoon in AD 1964. At present we prefer Model C, where megathrust ruptures end or continue near Sitkinak in a complex, and as yet undetermined, pattern. An implication of our field evidence is that seismic hazard models should relax the assumption that the AD 1964 rupture endpoint is persistent.

  17. The generalized geometry of eye plaque therapy.

    PubMed

    Kepka, A G; Johnson, P M; Kline, R W

    1988-01-01

    A calculation is described that enables the rapid assessment of dose rate at various points of interest within the eye (lens, optic nerve, etc.) for the treatment of choroidal melanoma by plaque therapy. 125I seeds are used as the radiation source. The location of the plaque and its associated seeds relative to the eye (in a Cartesian coordinate system) is determined from the description of the tumor, as drawn and dimensioned on a fundus-view diagram by the ophthalmologist. This requires a computer to numerically solve an equation, which is derived in the framework of spherical geometry. Further results of this calculation yield data files that serve as the input to a conventional brachytherapy treatment planning program. This enables the visualization of the dose distribution within a plane that contains the major axis of the tumor in order to assess the adequacy of the treated volume. PMID:3405140

  18. Plaque formation of dietary isomaltulose in humans.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Takei, T; Fujiwara, T; Sobue, S

    1990-01-01

    The plaque formation of isomaltulose, a sucrose isomer, was examined in 15 human volunteers with both diet and oral hygiene under supervision. The subjects were requested to refrain from all oral hygiene procedures for 3 days and were provided between-meal snacks containing 157 g of 4 test sugars (100% isomaltulose, 70% isomaltulose + 30% sucrose, 50% isomaltulose + 50% sucrose, and 100% sucrose). The study was repeated 4 times over 4 weeks. The isomaltulose diet resulted in the lowest plaque index, while sucrose induced a significantly greater deposition. In the absence of sucrose-containing snacks, mutans streptococci in saliva decreased below the baseline level. These results suggest that isomaltulose may be a suitable substitute for sucrose in between meal snacks. PMID:2293892

  19. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

  20. The Association of Brachial Artery Diameter with Noncalcified Coronary Plaque Burden in Apparently Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G.; Yanek, Lisa R; Moy, Taryn F.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Coronary atherosclerosis has been associated with systemic arterial remodeling even in non-atherosclerotic vessels. However it is not known whether systemic remodeling is differentially associated with the cumulative atherosclerotic process, reflected by putatively quiescent calcified plaque (CP) or with active atherosclerosis consisting of non-calcified plaque (NCP). We thus examined the association of brachial artery diameter (BAD), an artery which does not suffer clinical atherosclerosis, with the presence and the extent of coronary CP and NCP. Methods We studied 688 apparently healthy, asymptomatic participants from 350 families with a history of early-onset coronary artery disease (<60 years of age) measuring CAD risk factors and coronary plaque using dual-source CT angiography. Plaque volumes were quantified using a validated automated method. BAD was measured during diastole using B-mode ultrasound. The association of resting BAD with any detectable plaque, and log-transformed CP and NCP volumes if detectable, was tested using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) adjusted for age, sex, race, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, non-HDL and HDL-cholesterol. Results Higher quintiles of BAD were associated with greater age and male sex (both p <0.001). In fully adjusted analysis, CP volume was not associated with BAD (p=0.65) but 1 ml greater NCP volume was associated with 0.65 mm larger BAD (p=0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest that systemic arterial remodeling of non-atherosclerotic arteries is a dynamic process that is correlated with the extent of putatively active atherosclerotic processes in distant beds, but not inactive accumulated plaque burden. PMID:24077324

  1. Lymphocyte Migration into Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to atherosclerotic lesions is not as well studied as that of monocytes. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of lymphocyte subsets in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and discuss chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in lymphocyte homing to atherosclerotic lesions. We review evidence for involvement of the chemokines CCL5, CCL19, CCL21, CXCL10, CXCL16 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in lymphocyte homing in atherosclerosis. Also, we review the role of their receptors CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR6, CXCR2/CXCR4 and the role of the L-selectin in mouse models of atherosclerosis. PMID:25301842

  2. Thrombogenic potential of human coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaela Fetiveau; Stefano Lucreziotti; Robert D. Rosenberg; Pier Mannuccio; Mannucci Diego Ardissino; Piera Angelica Merlini; Kenneth A. Bauer; Ezio Bramucci; Maurizio Ferrario; Pier Mannuccio Mannucci

    2001-01-01

    the procedure, plasma prothrombin frag- ment 1 1 2 levels were significantly in- creased across the lesion in patients with unstable, but not in those with stable, coronary disease (unstable, median in- crease, 0.37 nM; range, 20.35-1.16 nM) (stable, median increase, 20.065 nM; range, 20.58-1.06 nM) (P 5 .0021). After plaque removal, an increase in prothrom- bin fragment 1 1

  3. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

  4. Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. We test this model with 450 small earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation effects. Our approach avoids directly modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest directivity <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity model but suggest that directivity is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25553467"><span id="translatedtitle">Ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability and vascular inflammation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Min; Qu, Xinkai; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Yiqing; Xu, Lei; Dai, Jinjie; Wang, Weigang; Fei, Jian; Hou, Xumin; Fang, Weiyi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ghrelin has been found to be associated with anti-inflammatory effects, inhibition of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation, and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability in the cardiovascular system. We investigated whether ghrelin affected atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and inflammation found in atherosclerosis. We crossed ghrelin receptor knock out mice (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-/-) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-null (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-/-) mice. In this model, atherosclerotic lesions were promoted by administering a high-fat, high-cholesterol, Western-type diet for 18 weeks. Serum lipid levels, atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on the aortic arches, and expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were observed. Although serum lipid levels and atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in aortic arches were not significantly different between GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- and GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein expression in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were increased in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice compared with GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. T cells and macrophages were increased, while smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were less in GHSR -/-LDLR-/- mice than that in GHSR+/+/LDLR-/- mice. In conclusion, ghrelin receptor deficiency aggravates atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability and vascular inflammation but not the surface area of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. This information will provide novel avenues for the treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.  PMID:25553467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=95255"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial Diversity in Human Subgingival <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paster, Bruce J.; Boches, Susan K.; Galvin, Jamie L.; Ericson, Rebecca E.; Lau, Carol N.; Levanos, Valerie A.; Sahasrabudhe, Ashish; Dewhirst, Floyd E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in the human subgingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> by using culture-independent molecular methods as part of an ongoing effort to obtain full 16S rRNA sequences for all cultivable and not-yet-cultivated species of human oral bacteria. Subgingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was analyzed from healthy subjects and subjects with refractory periodontitis, adult periodontitis, human immunodeficiency virus periodontitis, and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial genes from DNA isolated from subgingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples were PCR amplified with all-bacterial or selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. The sequences of cloned 16S rDNA inserts were used to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species. A total of 2,522 clones were analyzed. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for putative new species. About 60% of the clones fell into 132 known species, 70 of which were identified from multiple subjects. About 40% of the clones were novel phylotypes. Of the 215 novel phylotypes, 75 were identified from multiple subjects. Known putative periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Treponema denticola were identified from multiple subjects, but typically as a minor component of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> as seen in cultivable studies. Several phylotypes fell into two recently described phyla previously associated with extreme natural environments, for which there are no cultivable species. A number of species or phylotypes were found only in subjects with disease, and a few were found only in healthy subjects. The organisms identified only from diseased sites deserve further study as potential pathogens. Based on the sequence data in this study, the predominant subgingival microbial community consisted of 347 species or phylotypes that fall into 9 bacterial phyla. Based on the 347 species seen in our sample of 2,522 clones, we estimate that there are 68 additional unseen species, for a total estimate of 415 species in the subgingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. When organisms found on other oral surfaces such as the cheek, tongue, and teeth are added to this number, the best estimate of the total species diversity in the oral cavity is approximately 500 species, as previously proposed. PMID:11371542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3090737"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of intima stiffness and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology on peak cap stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the cap of a vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> present in a coronary vessel may cause myocardial infarction and death. Cap <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when the peak cap stress exceeds the cap strength. The mechanical stress within a cap depends on the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology and the material characteristics of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components. A parametric study was conducted to assess the effect of intima stiffness and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology on peak cap stress. Methods Models with idealized geometries based on histology images of human coronary arteries were generated by varying geometric <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features. The constructed multi-layer models contained adventitia, media, intima, and necrotic core sections. For adventitia and media layers, anisotropic hyperelastic material models were used. For necrotic core and intima sections, isotropic hyperelastic material models were employed. Three different intima stiffness values were used to cover the wide range reported in literature. According to the intima stiffness, the models were classified as stiff, intermediate and soft intima models. Finite element method was used to compute peak cap stress. Results The intima stiffness was an essential determinant of cap stresses. The computed peak cap stresses for the soft intima models were much lower than for stiff and intermediate intima models. Intima stiffness also affected the influence of morphological parameters on cap stresses. For the stiff and intermediate intima models, the cap thickness and necrotic core thickness were the most important determinants of cap stresses. The peak cap stress increased three-fold when the cap thickness was reduced from 0.25 mm to 0.05 mm for both stiff and intermediate intima models. Doubling the thickness of the necrotic core elevated the peak cap stress by 60% for the stiff intima models and by 90% for the intermediate intima models. Two-fold increase in the intima thickness behind the necrotic core reduced the peak cap stress by approximately 25% for both intima models. For the soft intima models, cap thickness was less critical and changed the peak cap stress by 55%. However, the necrotic core thickness was more influential and changed the peak cap stress by 100%. The necrotic core angle emerged as a critical determinant of cap stresses where a larger angle lowered the cap stresses. Contrary to the stiff and intermediate intima models, a thicker intima behind the necrotic core increased the peak cap stress by approximately 25% for the soft intima models. Adventitia thickness and local media regression had limited effects for all three intima models. Conclusions For the stiff and intermediate intima models, the cap thickness was the most important morphological risk factor. However for soft intima models, the necrotic core thickness and necrotic core angle had a bigger impact on the peak cap stress. We therefore need to enhance our knowledge of intima material properties if we want to derive critical morphological <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features for risk evaluation. PMID:21477277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261242"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of axial image resolution on atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stress computations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nieuwstadt, H A; Akyildiz, A C; Speelman, L; Virmani, R; van der Lugt, A; van der Steen, A F W; Wentzel, J J; Gijsen, F J H</p> <p>2013-02-22</p> <p>Biomechanical models are used extensively to study risk factors, such as peak stresses, for vulnerable atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Typically, 3D patient-specific arterial models are reconstructed by interpolating between cross sectional contour data which have a certain axial sampling, or image, resolution. The influence of the axial sampling resolution on computed stresses, as well as the comparison of 3D with 2D simulations, is quantified in this study. A set of histological data of four atherosclerotic human coronary arteries was used which were reconstructed in 3D with a high sampling (HS) and low sampling (LS) axial resolution, and 4 slices were treated separately for 2D simulations. Stresses were calculated using finite element analysis (FEA). High stresses were found in thin cap regions and regions of thin vessel walls, low stresses were found inside the necrotic cores and media and adventitia layers. Axial sampling resolution was found to have a minor effect on general stress distributions, peak <span class="hlt">plaque</span>/cap stress locations and the relationship between peak cap stress and minimum cap thickness. Axial sampling resolution did have a profound influence on the error in computed magnitude of peak <span class="hlt">plaque</span>/cap stresses (±15.5% for HS vs. LS geometries and ±24.0% for HS vs. 2D geometries for cap stresses). The findings of this study show that axial under sampling does not influence the qualitative stress distribution significantly but that high axially sampled 3D models are needed when accurate computation of peak stress magnitudes is required. PMID:23261242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16281033"><span id="translatedtitle">The deterministic nature of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olson, Erik L; Allen, Richard M</p> <p>2005-11-10</p> <p>Understanding the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is central to our understanding of fault systems and earthquake hazards. Multiple hypotheses concerning the nature of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been proposed but no unifying theory has emerged. The conceptual hypothesis most commonly cited is the cascade model for fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In the cascade model, slip initiates on a small fault patch and continues to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> further across a fault plane as long as the conditions are favourable. Two fundamental implications of this domino-like theory are that small earthquakes begin in the same manner as large earthquakes and that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is not deterministic--that is, the size of the earthquake cannot be determined until the cessation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here we show that the frequency content of radiated seismic energy within the first few seconds of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scales with the final magnitude of the event. We infer that the magnitude of an earthquake can therefore be estimated before the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is complete. This finding implies that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is to some degree deterministic and has implications for the physics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. PMID:16281033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/65/2/85.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth of Microorganisms from Supragingival Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> on Saliva Agar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. H. De Jong; J. S. Van Der Hoeven; J. H. Van Os</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The role of saliva in supporting the growth of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has scarcely been investigated. We have studied the growth and recovery of micro-organisms from dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples on saliva-agar plates, prepared from filter-sterilized wax-stimulated whole saliva. Under optimal conditions, the mean recovery of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples on saliva agar was about 50% (range, 22-77) of the recovery on blood agar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4389920"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability Analysis of a Model of Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reddy, Sushruth; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Atherosclerosis, the formation of life-threatening <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in blood vessels, is a form of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we analyze a simplified model of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth to derive physically meaningful results about the growth of <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. In particular, the main results of this paper are two conditions, which express that the immune response increases as LDL cholesterol levels increase and that diffusion prevails over inflammation in a healthy artery. PMID:25883675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/43/3/513.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Assay for the Simian Rotavirus SA11</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>ERIC M. SMITH; MARY KOLB ESTES; DAVID Y. GRAHAM; CHARLES P. GERBA</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY A sensitive, quantitative and reproducible <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay for the measurement of the simian rotavirus SAII is described. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> formation required the presence of the facilitators pancreatin or trypsin and diethylaminoethyl-dextran in the agar overlay. SAII produced <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in three continuous primate cell lines: MA-Io4, CV-I and LLC-MK2. MA-Io 4 cells were the most sensitive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481804"><span id="translatedtitle">Dural metastasis masquerading as an en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kapoor, Ankur; Savardekar, Amey; Chaterjee, Debajyaoti; Salunke, Pravin; Vasishta, Rakesh K; Bhattacharya, Anish</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking meningioma is rare; and any metastatic lesion masquerading as an en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma is extremely rare. We report the case of a 50-year-old female, who presented with headache and left hemiparesis for 1 month and on imaging showed a dural-based enhancing mass along the right hemisphere. The patient was operated with a working diagnosis of en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> meningioma. Histopathology revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. This report highlights an unusual radiological presentation of a metastatic lesion as dural based en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> variety. Metastasis should be borne in mind for any en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesion with rapid clinical progression. PMID:26167033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3822790"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of NPP1 is regulated during atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calcification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nitschke, Yvonne; Hartmann, Simone; Torsello, Giovanni; Horstmann, Rüdiger; Seifarth, Harald; Weissen-Plenz, Gabriele; Rutsch, Frank</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Mutations of the ENPP1 gene encoding ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) are associated with medial calcification in infancy. While the inhibitory role of matrix proteins such as osteopontin (OPN) with respect to atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calcification has been established, the role of NPP1 in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calcification is not known. We assessed the degree of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calcification (computed tomography), NPP1 and OPN localization (immunohistochemistry) and expression (RT-PCR) in a cohort of 45 patients undergoing carotid endatherectomy for significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery and in normal arteries (N= 50). We correlated NPP1 and OPN expression levels to the degree of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calcification, to pro-atherogenic factors and statin therapy. NPP1 was demonstrated in the base and in the shoulder of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Compared to normal arteries and non-calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, in calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span> NPP1 mRNA was decreased (P < 0.0001). OPN mRNA levels were up-regulated in carotid atheroma. NPP1 and OPN expression levels positively correlated with the degree of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calcification (R= 0.54, P= 0.00019 and R= 0.46, P= 0.017, respectively) and with risk factors of atherosclerosis. Expression of the calcification inhibitor NPP1 is down-regulated in calcified atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Our correlation data point to a counter-active mechanism, which in the end turns out to be insufficient to prevent further progression of calcification. PMID:20015201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4505709"><span id="translatedtitle">Subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> using ultrafast laser pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21277846"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> control in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances: a clinical study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ousehal, Lahcen; Lazrak, Laila; Es-Said, Rabia; Hamdoune, Hind; Elquars, Farid; Khadija, Amine</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Multibracket orthodontic appliances increase dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> retention and make teethbrushing more difficult for patients. As a result, advice from the orthodontist on oral hygiene along with patient motivation regarding teethbrushing are particularly important. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electric toothbrushes with that of manual brushing associated with mouth-rinses comprising chlorhexidine (0.12%) and 0% alcohol. To this end, 84 patients receiving <span class="hlt">current</span> orthodontic treatment were randomly selected from patients treated at the Dento-Facial Orthopedics department in the Casablanca Dental Consultation and Treatment Center. Selected patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: manual teethbrushing; Group 2: electric teethbrushing; Group 3: manual brushing combined with mouth rinse. Oral hygiene was assessed using the Loe-Silness <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and gingival indices. Measurements were made before and 4 weeks after the observation period. Results were subjected to statistical comparison in order to determine the group showing greatest improvement and to deduce the best means of controlling bacterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The electric toothbrush and the chlorhexidine mouth rinse appear to control dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> more effectively than manual teethbrushing alone. Following this study, patients receiving multibracket treatment were invited to combine manual brushing with short clinical mouth-rinsing sessions or to use an electric toothbrush. PMID:21277846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.201...70P"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of initial stress and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation parameters on forbidden zone <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Payne, R. M.; Duan, B.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Well established theoretical and numerical results of 2-D <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have been accepted for years to limit the speed of mode II cracks to be below the Rayleigh velocity or above the shear wave speed. However, recent work has numerically produced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds in this so-called `forbidden zone', that is the region of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities between the Rayleigh wave speed and the shear wave speed, for 3-D simulations. We verify that finding here and further examine the dependence of that behaviour on initial stress and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation parameters. Using a 3-D finite element model for dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, numerical experiments were performed for different initial stress conditions as well as different size initiation patches and forced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities. It is shown that the initial stress on the fault has a strong influence on the resulting <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, specifically with regards to the distance at which the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> transitions to supershear speeds, the maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity attained on the fault, and how rapidly the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> passes through the forbidden zone. It is also demonstrated that for the same initial stress, increasing the size of the nucleation patch or the speed of forced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can artificially increase the gradient of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity within the forbidden zone. This suggests that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is uniquely predetermined by the stress state and material properties of the fault and surrounding medium in these models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19565279"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral biofilm models for mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verkaik, Martinus J; Busscher, Henk J; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>In vitro <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24-40%), while the manual brush as a control (5-11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2908450"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral biofilm models for mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In vitro <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24–40%), while the manual brush as a control (5–11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25657433"><span id="translatedtitle">Congenital milia en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on scalp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Milia en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316887"><span id="translatedtitle">Fibrous Pleural <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> Detected at Autopsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>TÜRKMEN, Nursel; EREN, Bülent; GÜNDO?MU?, Ümit Naci</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The reported case was a 84-year-old male, dead after a traffic accident. The death was considered to be suspicious by prosecutor and an autopsy was mandated. In macroscopic autopsy investigation left tibia, fibula and multiple rib fractures, widespread seborrheic keratoses, and hyperpigmented skin lesions were detected. In the left chest cavity blood content and white colored lesions spread on the left parietal pleura and chest surface of the thoracic diaphragm were observed. The histological examination of the pleural lesions revealed fibrotic hyalinized structures with calcified foci. Investigation of pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in forensic autopsy is important for scientific classification of this interesting entity. PMID:25705312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868152"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Plaque</span> surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16806048"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> biofilms: the effect of chemical environment on natural human <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biofilm architecture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, C; Strafford, S; Rees, G; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Shore, R C; Watson, P S; Wood, S</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The architecture of microbial biofilms especially the outer regions have an important influence on the interaction between biofilm and local environment particularly on the flux of materials into and out of biofilm compartments and as a consequence, biofilm metabolic behaviour. In the case of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biofilms, architecture will determine access of nutrients including acidogenic substrates and therapeutic materials to the microbial biomass and to the underlying tooth surface. Manipulation of this architecture may offer a means of altering mass transfer into the whole biofilm and biomass and raises the possibility of improving access of therapeutics. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> biofilms formed in vivo on human enamel were subjected to a number of different chemical conditions while under observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflection mode. In this way the outer 50-100 microm or so of the biofilms was examined. Density and distribution of biomass were recorded as degree of reflectance. The amount and density of biofilm biomass increased from the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> saliva interface towards the interior. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> biofilms were robust and little affected by mechanical manipulation, high ionic strength or low pH (2.5). Detergent (SLS), however, often appeared to either remove biomass and/or dramatically reduce its density. PMID:16806048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S52B..07R"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Observations of Crack-like and Pulse-like <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosakis, A. J.; Lu, X.; Lapusta, N.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Until relatively recently, it was widely accepted that shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagate in the crack-like mode, in which the duration of slip at each point on the interface is comparable to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration. However, observations show that <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on real faults may propagate differently, as pulses of slip (Heaton, 1990). In the pulse-like mode, the slip duration at a point is much shorter than the overall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration. Studies of pulse-like behavior have been mostly theoretical or numerical and three prevailing explanations for the occurrence of pulses have been proposed. These include strong weakening of the interface with sliding rate, interaction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with local heterogeneities, and normal stress variation for <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating at interfaces between two different elastic materials. However, it remains unclear which mechanism dominates in real earthquakes. Our goal is to study <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes experimentally. In our experiments, two identical Homalite plates are pressed together along an inclined interface (~ 150 mm long) by compression load applied on the edges of the plates. The resolved shear and normal stresses act on the interface, mimicking prestressed faults in the Earth. Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is initiated by exploding a small (0.1 mm in diameter) nickel wire which decreases normal stress in the center of the interface. Digital high-speed cameras are used to record photoelastic images which enable us to keep track of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tips and diagnose the evolution of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. In addition, two interferometry-based velocimeters are used to measure particle speeds at two points across the interface. By subtracting these two measurements, the relative sliding speed history at that location can be obtained, allowing us to easily identify the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mode. By varying the inclination angle and compression load, we have experimentally observed different modes of spontaneous dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including pulse-like, crack-like and mixed modes, and systematic transition between the modes. These observations indicate that pulse-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can exist in the absence of a bimaterial effect and local heterogeneities. Hence such slip pulses are likely caused by strong rate weakening of the interface. Our experiments confirm that rate weakening may play an important effect in the dynamic behavior of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and could also imply that expressing weakening in terms of slip only may not be enough. Our <span class="hlt">current</span> work, in collaboration with N. Beeler and B. Kilgore (USGS), C. Marone (Penn State), and G. Ravichandran (Caltech), focuses on quantifying frictional properties of Homalite to facilitate more conclusive comparison of experiments with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30822950"><span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> — A case report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>T. K. Kaar; M. O’Brien; P. Murray; G. B. Mullan</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Summary  The diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon is made relatively infrequently and bilateral simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a\\u000a rarity. We report a case of spontaneous bilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with documented chronic renal\\u000a insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. A predisposing cause to the condition as obtained in this case, has been\\u000a described in cases previously published</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730014827&hterms=Patent+search&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522Patent%2Bsearch%2522"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of cryogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1237870"><span id="translatedtitle">Tendon <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> Associated With Corticosteroid Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Halpern, Alan A.; Horowitz, Bruce G.; Nagel, Donald A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>In five patients, tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occurred in association with corticosteroid therapy, either systemic or local infiltration. The chronic nature of the pain in all of these patients suggests that what we often call tendinitis may in fact be early or partial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of tendons. Patients who receive local infiltration of corticosteroids should perhaps be advised of the risk of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendon. In addition, particularly when the Achilles tendon is involved, immobilization should be utilized initially for a presumed tendinitis or early <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, to protect the tendon from further injury. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:919538</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3255370"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic Kidney Disease and Coronary Artery Vulnerable <span class="hlt">Plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wada, Mitsuru; Higo, Tomoaki; Matsuo, Koshi; Nishio, Mayu; Hirata, Akio; Asai, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Takayoshi; Kashiyama, Toshikazu; Murakami, Ayaka; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Kodama, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background and objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The number of yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is a predictor of future cardiovascular events. We assumed that CKD might raise the risk of cardiovascular events by increasing the number of yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Therefore, we compared the number of yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> between patients with and without CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Consecutive 136 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and angioscopic examination were analyzed. The infarct-related artery was angioscopically examined. The number of yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, maximum yellow color grade of detected yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and prevalence of disrupted yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in nonculprit segments were compared between patients with and without CKD. Results The number of yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was significantly larger in CKD than in non-CKD patients (median [interquartile range]: 4.0 [2.0 to 6.0] versus 2.0 [1.0 to 4.0], P = 0.001). Maximum yellow color grade and prevalence of disrupted <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the nonculprit segments were not different between patients with and without CKD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed CKD as an independent risk of multiple yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> per vessel (odds ratio 3.49, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 11.10, P = 0.03). Conclusion CKD was an independent risk factor of multiple coronary yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, suggesting that patients with CKD would have a higher risk of coronary events because they had more yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> than patients without CKD. PMID:22157709</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12518488"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> removal efficacy of a new experimental battery-powered toothbrush relative to two advanced-design manual toothbrushes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haun, Jan; Williams, Karen; Friesen, Lynn; Ferrante, Anita; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D; Biesbrock, Aaron R</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">current</span> study was designed to assess the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal efficacy of a novel experimental powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush Pro) compared to two leading manual toothbrushes, the Oral-B CrossAction and the Colgate Navigator. In addition, this paper reports the results of two additional studies examining the relative <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal efficacy of the two control manual toothbrushes and a number of other manual toothbrushes. The comparative study was a randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, nine-period crossover design, conducted among 127 adult subjects over a two-month period, that examined <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal with a new battery-powered toothbrush and two advanced-design manual toothbrushes. During the course of this study, subjects brushed three times with the experimental powered toothbrush and three times with each control manual toothbrush. Study participation was on a voluntary basis following written informed consent of the subjects. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> was scored before and after brushing using the Turesky, et al. Modification of the Quigley-Hein Index. Average baseline <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores were 2.68 to 2.69 for the three treatment groups. The experimental toothbrush delivered an adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean difference between baseline and post-brushing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores (i.e., a <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal score) of 0.69, while the control toothbrushes delivered adjusted mean differences of 0.46 (Colgate Navigator) and 0.54 (Oral-B CrossAction). All group differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The experimental powered toothbrush group had, on average, 49% and 28% greater <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal scores than the Colgate Navigator and Oral-B CrossAction groups, respectively. In addition, the Oral-B CrossAction group had, on average, a 16% greater <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal score than the Colgate Navigator group. This result was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). Results on buccal and lingual surfaces also demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal for the experimental battery-powered toothbrush relative to the control manual toothbrushes. PMID:12518488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3766987"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifting the Silver Flakes: The Pathogenesis and Management of Chronic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Psoriasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chong, Heng T.; Cowin, Allison J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition in which patients suffer from mild to chronic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> skin <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The disease manifests through an excessive inflammatory response in the skin due to complex interactions between different genetic and environmental factors. Psoriasis can affect the physical, emotional, and psychosocial well-being of patients, and <span class="hlt">currently</span> there is no cure with treatments focusing primarily on the use of anti-inflammatory agents to control disease symptoms. Traditional anti-inflammatory agents can cause immunosuppression and adverse systemic effects. Further understanding of the disease has led to <span class="hlt">current</span> areas of research aiming at the development of selective molecular targets to suppress the pathogenic immune responses. PMID:24062996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23085307"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay methods for alphaviruses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed. PMID:23085307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8620348"><span id="translatedtitle">Relation of intima-media thickness to atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in carotid arteries. The Vascular Aging (EVA) Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonithon-Kopp, C; Touboul, P J; Berr, C; Leroux, C; Mainard, F; Courbon, D; Ducimetière, P</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>This study examined the relation between arterial wall thickness and local atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries (CAs) and their specific risk factors. B-mode ultrasonography of the CAs was performed in a cohort of 516 men and 756 women aged 59 to 71 years who had been recruited for the European Vascular Aging Study. Ultrasound examination included measurement of intima-media thickness of the common CA (CCA) and the sites of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in the internal CA and bifurcations. Significant associations between increases in CCA intima-media thickness and both the presence and severity of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> were found in men and women. Examination of specific risk factors for increases in CCA intima-media thickness in the presence of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> showed that, after adjustment for sex, both ultrasound measurements were independently related to age, body mass index, hypertension, and ever smoking (versus never smoking). Diabetes and <span class="hlt">current</span> smoking were associated with intima-media thickness only, whereas hypercholesterolemia was related to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> only. However, when subjects who were taking lipid-lowering drugs were excluded, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were more consistently related to intima-media thickness than to <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. In subjects free from any antihypertensive treatment, both intima-media thickness and <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were independently associated with systolic blood pressure. After adjustment for sex and other risk factors, the odds ratio for having at least one <span class="hlt">plaque</span> associated with a 0.10-mm increase in CCA intima-media thickness was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.32). In this relatively aged population, increases in intima-media thickness as measured in the CCAs were clearly related to locally detected atherosclerosis and known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the role of arterial wall thickening in the atherosclerotic process. PMID:8620348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/72/8/5211.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David R. Elliott; Michael Wilson; Catherine M. F. Buckley; David A. Spratt</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4104742"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-specific. There was a significant proportion of viral homologues shared between <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and salivary viromes within each subject, suggesting that some oral viruses were present in both sites. We also characterized Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) in oral streptococci, as their profiles provide clues to the viruses that oral bacteria may be able to counteract. While there were some CRISPR spacers specific to each sample type, many more were shared across sites and were highly subject specific. Many CRISPR spacers matched viruses present in <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, suggesting that the evolution of CRISPR loci may have been specific to <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-derived viruses. Conclusions Our findings of subject specificity to both <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-derived viruses and CRISPR profiles suggest that human viral ecology may be highly personalized. PMID:24981669</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.physics.miami.edu/optics/ken/RefPapers/055_VZ_AO_2006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Bidirectional reflectance of dry and submerged Labsphere Spectralon <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Kenneth J. Voss; Hao Zhang</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55°. The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.nature.com/reprints/reprints-forms/PlaqueOrder2014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">To order wood <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of ARTICLES or ISSUE COVERS,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cai, Long</p> <p></p> <p>://www.myplaques.com/plaquebuilder/?jobid=75716 Paid by: __ Check/Money Order enclosed __ Invoice under Purchase Order Number __ VAT Numbercm) $1,030 / £668 ______ ____________ <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> COLOR: __ Black Matte __ Cherry __Oak PLATE COLOR: __ Black on Brass __ Black on Silver __ Brass on Black <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> FONT: __Arial __ Times * Please add $100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApOpt..45.7924V"><span id="translatedtitle">Bidirectional reflectance of dry and submerged Labsphere Spectralon <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voss, Kenneth J.; Zhang, Hao</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55°. The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating underwater reflectance measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955186"><span id="translatedtitle">Quadriceps and patellar tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair. PMID:23955186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3966234"><span id="translatedtitle">MMP?1 and MMP?9 regulate epidermal growth factor?dependent collagen loss in human carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> smooth muscle cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rao, Velidi H.; Kansal, Vikash; Stoupa, Samantha; Agrawal, Devendra K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, a crucial factor in the development of myocardial infarction and stroke, are not well defined. Here, we examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF)?mediated matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) on the stability of interstitial collagens in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from carotid endarterectomy tissues of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. VSMCs isolated from the carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were treated with EGF. The MMP?9 activity was quantified by gelatin zymography and the analysis of mRNA transcripts and protein for MMP?9, MMP?1, EGFR and collagen types I, Col I(?1) and collagen type III, Col III(?1) were analyzed by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively. The effect of EGF treatment to increase MMP?9 activity and mRNA transcripts for MMP?9, MMP?1, and EGFR and to decrease mRNA transcripts for Col I(?1) and Col III(?1) was threefold to fourfold greater in VSMCs isolated from the carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of symptomatic than asymptomatic patients. Inhibitors of EGFR (AG1478) and a small molecule inhibitor of MMP?9 decreased the MMP9 expression and upregulated Col I(?1) and Col III(?1) in EGF?treated VSMCs of both groups. Additionally, the magnitude in decreased MMP?9 mRNA and increased Col I(?1) and Col III(?1) due to knockdown of MMP?9 gene with siRNA in EGF?treated VSMCs was significantly greater in the symptomatic group than the asymptomatic group. Thus, a selective blockade of both EGFR and MMP?9 may be a novel strategy and a promising target for stabilizing vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in patients with carotid stenosis. PMID:24744893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4471655"><span id="translatedtitle">Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein <span class="hlt">plaque</span> index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce <span class="hlt">plaque</span> level, especially in low socioeconomic strata.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2854144"><span id="translatedtitle">Aortic Arch <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> and Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Death</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Di Tullio, Marco R.; Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mohr, J.P.; Homma, Shunichi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Aortic arch <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although the stroke mechanism is conceivably thromboembolic, no randomized studies have evaluated the efficacy of antithrombotic therapies in preventing recurrent events. Methods and Results The relationship between arch <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and recurrent events was studied in 516 patients with ischemic stroke, double–blindly randomized to treatment with warfarin or aspirin as part of the Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS), based on the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS). <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> thickness and morphology was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography. End-points were recurrent ischemic stroke or death over a 2-year follow-up. Large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (?4mm) were present in 19.6% of patients, large complex <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (those with ulcerations or mobile components) in 8.5 %. During follow-up, large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were associated with a significantly increased risk of events (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.12, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-4.32), especially those with complex morphology (HR 2.55, CI 1.10-5.89). The risk was highest among cryptogenic stroke patients, both for large <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (HR 6.42, CI 1.62-25.46) and large-complex <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (HR 9.50, CI 1.92-47.10). Event rates were similar in the warfarin and aspirin groups in the overall study population (16.4% vs. 15.8%; p=0.43). Conclusions In patients with stroke, and especially cryptogenic stroke, large aortic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> remain associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke and death at two years despite treatment with warfarin or aspirin. Complex <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology confers a slight additional increase in risk. PMID:19380621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49567589"><span id="translatedtitle">Fatal lower extremity varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Garyfalia Ampanozi; Ulrich Preiss; Gary M. Hatch; Wolf Dieter Zech; Thomas Ketterer; Stephan Bolliger; Michael J. Thali; Thomas D. Ruder</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare cause of death, although varicosities are a common pathology. We present three cases of sudden death due to varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After a review of the literature, the case circumstances and the findings of imaging examination, performed in two cases, are presented. One of them had undergone a post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m8m84318h084v172.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic resonance imaging in acute tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Richard H. Daffner; Barry L. Riemer; Anthony R. Lupetin; Nilima Dash</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The diagnosis of acute tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the extensor mechanism of the knee or the Achilles tendon of the ankle may usually be made by clinical means. Massive soft tissue swelling accompanying these injuries often obscures the findings, however. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rapidly demonstrate these tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Examples of the use of MRI for quadriceps tendon, and Achilles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22561379"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Celik, Evrim Co?kun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30371419"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound Diagnosis of Quadriceps Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Brian G. LaRocco; George Zlupko; Paul Sierzenski</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are an uncommon knee injury. The diagnosis is often complicated by a limited examination secondary to edema and pain, the insensitivity of radiographs, and the unavailability of non-emergent magnetic resonance imaging. A delay in diagnosis and treatment has been shown to cause significant morbidity. A case report of bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is presented demonstrating the utility</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25728450"><span id="translatedtitle">Aortic valve <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during isometric muscle contraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Payne, Darrin M; Richards, Tammy; Hamilton, Andrew</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Aortic valve <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been previously reported in association with blunt chest trauma as well as spontaneously in the setting of abnormal valves. We present a case of a patient who required emergent aortic valve replacement following <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of his aortic valve during an isometric muscle contraction. PMID:25728450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/reprint/21/4/649.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Iatrogenic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the tracheobronchial tree</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>H. S. Hofmann; G. Rettig; J. Radke; H. Neef; R. E Silber</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Iatrogenic tracheobronchial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are seldom but severe complications after intubation or bronchoscopy. Therefore, we evaluated the reasons, the subsequent therapy and the outcome of patients with tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, who were admitted to our hospital. Methods: In a retrospective study we examined 19 patients (15 women, four men; 43–87 years) treated for acute tracheobronchial lesions. Eleven (58%) patients had a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468102"><span id="translatedtitle">Free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after arterial switch operation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; Aroca, Ángel; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón; Pita, Ana</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A neonate underwent arterial switch operation, supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 3 days. Two weeks later, a pseudoaneurysm was seen on an echocardiogram, and a free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was suggested. Prompt surgery was performed, a free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> assessed, and a patch with BioGlue was applied successfully. One year later, the child is in good condition. PMID:25468102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24812576"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of acute tendo Achillis <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Adam Ajis; Nicola Maffulli</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Acute <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the tendo Achillis are increasingly frequent, and affect mainly middle-aged adults. The optimal management of acute <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the tendo Achillis is widely debated. The contentious issues can be summarised into conservative versus operative management, early versus late mobilisation and, if operative management is selected, percutaneous versus open repair. In general, rerupture is more common after non-operative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054172"><span id="translatedtitle">[Idiopathic bilateral patellar tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choufani, C; Barthélemy, R; Danis, J; Demoures, Th; Rigal, S</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the absence of systemic disease, specific treatment or sport tendonitis, simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is rare. Often missed on the first glance, it represents a diagnostic difficulty that should not be overlooked at the initial medical visit. The loss of active extension of the lower limb and a radiographic patella alta, even in a bilateral context, should raise suspicion of this diagnosis. It is then necessary to search for predisposing causes and to evoke the differential, or frequently associated, diagnoses. The present report illustrates these diagnostic difficulties and summarizes some clinical considerations that might help to avoid neglecting these different elements at the first medical visit (positive diagnosis, associated lesions, favouring factors). PMID:26054172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4364260"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic review of pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and lung function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kerper, Laura E.; Lynch, Heather N.; Zu, Ke; Tao, Ge; Utell, Mark J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Context US EPA proposed a Reference Concentration for Libby amphibole asbestos based on the premise that pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are adverse and cause lung function deficits. Objective We conducted a systematic review to evaluate whether there is an association between pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and lung function and ascertain whether results were dependent on the method used to identify <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Methods Using the PubMed database, we identified studies that evaluated pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and lung function. We assessed each study for quality, then integrated evidence and assessed associations based on the Bradford Hill guidelines. We also compared the results of HRCT studies to those of X-ray studies. Results We identified 16 HRCT and 36 X-ray studies. We rated six HRCT and 16 X-ray studies as higher quality based on a risk-of-bias analysis. Half of the higher quality studies reported small but statistically significant mean lung function decrements associated with <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. None of the differences were clinically significant. Many studies had limitations, such as inappropriate controls and/or insufficient adjustment for confounders. There was little consistency in the direction of effect for the most commonly reported measurements. X-ray results were more variable than HRCT results. Pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were not associated with changes in lung function over time in longitudinal studies. Conclusion The weight of evidence indicates that pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> do not impact lung function. Observed associations are most likely due to unidentified abnormalities or other factors. PMID:25518994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024266"><span id="translatedtitle">Metal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on reeds from an Acid mine drainage site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Studies were conducted to investigate the interactions among rhizosphere microorganisms, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation, and metal accumulation in reeds [ (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.] grown in an acid mine drainage-contaminated field. We found that Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (Fe(II)OB] played a key role in Fe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and pH decrease. The kinetics of Fe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation were related to the abundance of rhizosphere Fe(II)OB, which mediated 66.0 to 93.3% Fe(II) oxidation. The Fe(II) concentration decreased from 14.24 to 0.94 mg L in nonsterile samples, with the most abundant Fe(II)OB activity (5.64 ± 3.83 × 10 colony-forming units g) after 2 d, and pH decreased from 2.91 to 2.50. The amount of metal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was also positively correlated with metal levels in soil. No significant correlations were found between Fe, Mn, and Al concentration in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Reeds sequestered Al in the aboveground tissues, and Mn and Al were stored in the roots and rhizomes. Metal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> did not affect the Mn uptake but inhibited the translocation of Fe and Al in reeds. To increase the phytoremediation efficiency of Fe, Mn, and Al from the acid mine drainage-contaminated site, further research may be needed to inhibit the Fe(II)OB growth and reduce the metal <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation, thereby increasing the metal accumulation in reeds. PMID:26024266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S13D..07U"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Interface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Extremely Heterogeneous Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials usually show the maximum speed of smooth <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at some 30 % of the relevant shear wave speed. This experimental maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed is by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms, and some seismic inversions (e.g., the 1979 Imperial Valley, 1992 Landers, 1999 Izmit, 2001 the central Kunlunshan and 2002 Denali earthquakes) even suggest the existence of supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds (i.e., <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagating faster than the relevant shear wave). Recently, Uenishi et al. ( SSJ Fall Meeting, 2004, 2005; AGU Fall Meeting, 2006) experimentally investigated dynamic fracture in monolithic hyperelastic materials under static mode-§ loading conditions with relatively high crack-parallel stresses. Using a high-speed digital video camera system, they showed that cracks may propagate supersonically even in homogeneous materials. However, the exact mechanism for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation and the transition of a nucleated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from sub-Rayleigh to super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed has not been identified yet. In this contribution, we further develop our experimental system and investigate dynamic fracture in extremely heterogeneous media, consisting of thin fluid and solid films: Inside a wire frame (50mm high, 50mm wide), a flat soap film contacts a flat thin solid plastic film (20mm high, 20mm wide), under static tensile loading conditions. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (crack), initiated at a point, propagates subsonically in the linear elastic fluid film (see e.g., Uenishi et al., SSJ Fall Meeting, 2006, for the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in monolithic fluid films). When the circular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front reaches the interface, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> advances along the interface and then it is "diffracted" at the two corners of the interface. We record the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation process utilizing our high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 20 ?s (20×10-6s). The observed results show that interface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation may accelerate (or even decelerate) and the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior is very sensitive to the geometry of the interface between the two films: (1) When the subsonic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front reaches the first rectangular corner, it accelerates around the corner and then advances supersonically along the interface; and (2) when the supersonic interface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front approaches the second corner (obtuse with respect to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front in fluid), it bifurcates for a short period (400 ?s): the first branch unexpectedly expands rather straight into the bulk and the second one propagates along the interface at a lower speed; At a later stage, again unexpectedly, the first branched crack decelerates significantly in the bulk and the two cracks eventually merge into a single crack. The overall behavior is - in some sense - similar to that of the oblique shock and Prandtl- Meyer expansion waves in fluid mechanics, and it might give new insights not only into the question of high <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds of natural earthquakes but also into the generation mechanism of tsunamis. u.ac.jp/~uenishi/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25748805"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> tiny middle cerebral artery aneurysm].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawahara, Ichiro; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hirose, Makoto; Shirakawa, Yasushi; Toba, Tamotsu</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>With new neuroimaging techniques, the detection rate of unruptured intracranial aneurysms has increased. While most detected aneurysms are small and left untreated because of the low risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, we still encounter many cases of small aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Middle cerebral artery(MCA)aneurysms have lower risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> compared to those in the anterior cerebral or internal carotid-posterior communicating arteries. Identification of small aneurysms with a high risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is important to improve management of these aneurysms. We report 10 cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tiny(<3mm)MCA aneurysms. All patients underwent clipping and nine had good outcomes. One patient had poor outcome due to the worsening of chronic heart failure and kidney failure. A tiny aneurysm can <span class="hlt">rupture</span> if the aneurysmal wall is fragile. Therefore, the fragility of the aneurysmal wall is an important predictive factor of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Presently, however, it is difficult to determine when an operation for an unruptured tiny aneurysm is indicated; new neuroimaging techniques that detect the fragility of the aneurysmal wall are needed. PMID:25748805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068973"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Madlazim [Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics and Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)</p> <p>2012-06-20</p> <p>Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other <span class="hlt">currently</span> used discriminants. We show more information which known from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations. The longer <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S51D1766T"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Through Branched Fault Configurations With Off-fault Inelastic Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Templeton, E. L.; Bhat, H. S.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We analyze the propagation of shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along branched fault paths, allowing for elastic-plastic deformation in damaged fault-bordering zones. Geometric complexities (step-overs, bends and branches) along faults can control earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and in many cases confine propagation extent. Multiple numerical investigations have focused on such complexities during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Harris and Day, 1991, 1993; Aochi et al., 2000; Kame et al., 2003) and, separately, on the role of inelastic off- fault material response during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Andrews, 2005, 2007; Shi and Ben-Zion, 2006; Templeton and Rice, 2008; Viesca et al., 2008; Duan, 2008). Those inelastic studies use pressure-dependent elastic-plastic material descriptions such as Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager, which are standard models for describing plastic deformation in granulated or cracked materials like expected in damaged fault-bordering zones. We first summarize <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> path selection at fault branching junctions, as supported by field and laboratory comparisons with modeling, including previous studies in our group based on boundary integral equation implementations of slip-weakening <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but with assumption of elastic off-fault response (Poliakov et al., 2002; Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007; Fliss et al., 2005). We then show through dynamic finite element modeling how inelastic deformation in damaged fault-bordering zones contributes to path selection, and how branch activation affects seismic radiation. We assess dynamic path selection for a variety of branch angles and pre-stress directions, considering both sub-Rayleigh and supershear propagation speeds at the branching junction, and compare results for incohesive elastic-plastic off-fault response with those for elastic response. In particular, we have modeled <span class="hlt">rupture</span> through possible fault branches along Solitario Canyon Fault (SCF) in the hanging wall, a normal fault bordering Yucca Mountain, NV. We find that (incohesive) inelastic response during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> slightly increases the range of branch angles activated during dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds, but decreases the range of angles for sub-Rayleigh speeds. The inelastic response significantly reduces seismically generated ground accelerations at the proposed repository site, approximately 300 m below the crest of Yucca Mountain. We also address the energy partitioning during <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and find that branch activation can decrease the plastic energy dissipation during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> compared with the no-branch case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5012634"><span id="translatedtitle">Dural lucent line: characteristic sign of hyperostosing meningioma en <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, K.S.; Rogers, L.F.; Lee, C.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>Hyperostosis of the skull associated with en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> form of meningioma may present a diagnostic challenge, since the intracranial part of the tumor is not visualized by skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), or other neuroradiologic methods. The authors report four cases of hyperostosing meningioma en <span class="hlt">plaque</span> demonstrating a characteristic feature: a subdural layer of ossification along the hyperostotic bone with a dural lucent interface. Polytomography or high-resolution CT at bone window settings is necessary to identify the dural lucent line. The absence of this sign does not exclude meningioma en <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h4644565528mk635.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Complement activation in amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer’s dementia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>P. Eikelenboom; C. E. Hack; J. M. Rozemuller; F. C. Stam</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Summary  Amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer’s dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement\\u000a activation in amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement\\u000a components and activated complement products. Amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but\\u000a no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669735"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of renal angiomyolipoma during childbirth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Orywal, Ann Kathrin; Zeile, Martin; Brüning, Roland; Gross, Andreas J; Netsch, Christopher</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor of the kidney, originating from perivascular epithelioid cells. Normally asymptomatic, symptoms that can occur are flank pain due to strong growth or spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with retroperitoneal hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock. The risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is higher during pregnancy and also growth can be enhanced, probably hormone mediated. We report a case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> renal angiomyolipoma during childbirth in a woman who presented with hypovolemic shock as a result of retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Emergency endovascular treatment was successful with sparing most of the affected kidney as demonstrated by angiography imaging and follow-up computed tomographic scan. PMID:25669735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4077554"><span id="translatedtitle">Human APOE4 increases microglia reactivity at A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in a mouse model of A? deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Having the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE-?4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accumulation of amyloid beta (A?) in the brain is influenced by APOE genotype. Transgenic mice co-expressing five familial AD mutations (5xFAD) in the presence of human APOE alleles (?2, ?3 or ?4) exhibit APOE genotype-specific differences in early A? accumulation, suggesting an interaction between APOE and AD pathology. Whether APOE genotype affects A?-<span class="hlt">plaque</span>-associated neuroinflammation remains unclear. In the <span class="hlt">current</span> study, we address the role of APOE genotype on A?-associated microglial reactivity in the EFAD transgenic mouse model. Methods We analyzed A?-induced glial activation in the brains of 6-month-old EFAD transgenic mice (E2FAD, E3FAD and E4FAD). Region-specific morphological profiles of A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in EFAD brain sections were compared using immunofluorescence staining. We then determined the degree of glial activation in sites of A? deposition while comparing levels of the inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) by ELISA. Finally, we quantified parameters of A?-associated microglial reactivity using double-stained EFAD brain sections. Results Characterization of A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> revealed there were larger and more intensely stained <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in E4FAD mice relative to E2FAD and E3FAD mice. E4FAD mice also had a greater percentage of compact <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the subiculum than E3FAD mice. Reactive microglia and dystrophic astrocytes were prominent in EFAD brains, and primarily localized to two sites of significant A? deposition: the subiculum and deep layers of the cortex. Cortical levels of IL-1? were nearly twofold greater in E4FAD mice relative to E3FAD mice. To control for differences in levels of A? in the different EFAD mice, we analyzed the microglia within domains of specific A? deposits. Morphometric analyses revealed increased measures of microglial reactivity in E4FAD mice, including greater dystrophy, increased fluorescence intensity and a higher density of reactive cells surrounding cortical <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, than in E3FAD mice. Conclusions In addition to altering morphological profiles of A? deposition, APOE genotype influences A?-induced glial activation in the adult EFAD cortex. These data support a role for APOE in modulating A?-induced neuroinflammatory responses in AD progression, and support the use of EFAD mice as a suitable model for mechanistic studies of A?-associated neuroinflammation. PMID:24948358</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S43C2285W"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fault Evolution Model Including the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamic Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Y.; Chen, X.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We perform a preliminary numerical simulation of seismicity and stress evolution along a strike-slip fault in a 3D elastic half space. Following work of Ben-Zion (1996), the fault geometry is devised as a vertical plane which is about 70 km long and 17 km wide, comparable to the size of San Andreas Fault around Parkfield. The loading mechanism is described by "backslip" method. The fault failure is governed by a static/kinetic friction law, and induced stress transfer is calculated with Okada's static solution. In order to track the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation in detail, we allow induced stress to propagate through the medium at the shear wave velocity by introducing a distance-dependent time delay to responses to stress changes. <span class="hlt">Current</span> simulation indicates small to moderate earthquakes following the Gutenberg-Richter law and quasi-periodical characteristic large earthquakes, which are consistent with previous work by others. Next we will consider introducing a more realistic friction law, namely, the laboratory-derived rate- and state- dependent law, which can simulate more realistic and complicated sliding behavior such as the stable and unstable slip, the aseismic sliding and the slip nucleation process. In addition, the long duration of aftershocks is expected to be reproduced due to this time-dependent friction law, which is not available in <span class="hlt">current</span> seismicity simulation. The other difference from previous work is that we are trying to include the dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in this study. Most previous study on seismicity simulation is based on the static solution when dealing with failure induced stress changes. However, studies of numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics have revealed lots of important details which are missing in the quasi-static/quasi- dynamic simulation. For example, dynamic simulations indicate that the slip on the ground surface becomes larger if the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process reaches the free surface. The concentration of stress on the propagating crack tip keeps the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continuing easily. Therefore, comparing with the <span class="hlt">current</span> simulation, we expect a different stress evolution after a large earthquake in a short time scale, which is very essential for the short-term prediction. Once the model is successfully constructed, we intend to apply it to the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield segment. We try to simulate the seismicity evolution and the distribution of coseismic and postseismic slip and interseismic creep in the past decades. We expect to reproduce some specific events and slip distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-08-8299"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, Patrick A.</p> <p>2010-10-12</p> <p>the potential of a FLIM angioscopy system to detect and differentiate coronary atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> ex-vivo into several groups including thin, fibrotic, lipid-laden, thick-cap fibroatheroma (FA), and fibrocalcified. Samples were extracted post-mortem weekly...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1390.photos.017139p/"><span id="translatedtitle">32. STUDIO VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>32. STUDIO VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2890.photos.193733p/"><span id="translatedtitle">26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>26. BOLLING MEMORIAL GROVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING E. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ia0309.photos.066864p/"><span id="translatedtitle">8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING COMPANY NAME <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AND ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING COMPANY NAME <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AND PARAPET. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Carr, Ryder & Adams Company, Powerhouse, Tenth & Jackson Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ia0289.photos.067228p/"><span id="translatedtitle">6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING COMPANY NAME <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AND UPPER ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. WEST FRONT DETAIL, SHOWING COMPANY NAME <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AND UPPER FLOOR FENESTRATION. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0703.photos.034868p/"><span id="translatedtitle">10. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>10. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> ON ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HEADQUARTERS GROUND, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS; NOW IN CUSTODY OF WARREN COUNTY HIGHWAY SUPERINTENDENT - Campbell Bridge, Spanning Cedar Creek at Sumner Township Road 22, Little York, Warren County, IL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ar0065.photos.010507p/"><span id="translatedtitle">6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span>, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320060"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteolytic enzymes and rotavirus SA-11 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ramia, S; Sattar, S A</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>In addition to trypsin, eight other proteolytic enzyme preparations were tested for their ability to assist simian rotavirus SA-11 <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation in MA-104 cells. When incorporated in the overlay (minimal essential medium and 0.7% Ionagar No. 2) in the concentrations per mL indicated, alpha-chymotrypsin (10 micrograms), elastase (0.5 micrograms), subtilisin (0.5 micrograms), pronase (2.5 micrograms) and pancreatin (25 micrograms) were as efficient as trypsin (5 micrograms) in helping SA-11 produce 3-4 mm diameter <span class="hlt">plaques</span> after five days of incubation at 37 degrees C. No <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were produced when pepsin (25 micrograms), papain (10 micrograms) or thermolysin (10 micrograms) was added to the overlay. Addition of soybean trypsin inhibitor to alpha-chymotrypsin-, pronase- or pancreatin-containing overlays completely inhibited virus <span class="hlt">plaque</span> production. A similar effect was not seen with elastase or subtilisin. PMID:6250685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143886"><span id="translatedtitle">Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction <span class="hlt">plaque</span> endoexocytosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Murray, Sandra A. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 324 South Biomedical Science Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)], E-mail: smurray@pitt.edu</p> <p>2008-10-03</p> <p>In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction <span class="hlt">plaque</span> membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction <span class="hlt">plaque</span> internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3596.photos.575953p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevation view of dedication <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on east wall of south ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Elevation view of dedication <span class="hlt">plaque</span> on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~steveday/PUBLISHED/Dalguer_etal_SurfSubsurf.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> and Buried Dynamic-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models Calibrated with Statistical Observations of Past Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Luis A. Dalguer; Hiroe Miyake; Steven M. Day; Kojiro Irikura</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the context of the slip-weakening friction model and simplified asper- ity models for stress state, we calibrate dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models for buried and surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span> earthquakes constrained with statistical observations of past earth- quakes. These observations are the kinematic source models derived from source in- versions of ground-motion and empirical source models of seismic moment and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area. The calibrated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca3452.photos.219560p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> beneath column on the south parapet at ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reads ?1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.? - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16253750"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-use <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal efficacy of three power toothbrushes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, N C; Goyal, C R; Qaqish, J G; Cugini, M A; Thompson, M C; Warren, P R</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES.: To compare the safety and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal efficacy of two oscillating/rotating/pulsating toothbrushes (Oral-B ProfessionalCaretrade mark 7000 [PC 7000] and Oral-B 3D Excel [3DE]) and a high-frequency toothbrush (Sonicare(R) Advance, Philips Oral Healthcare; SA) in a single-use, examiner-blind, three period crossover study. METHODS.: After refraining from all oral hygiene procedures for 23-25 hours, subjects received an oral tissue examination and those with pre-brushing whole mouth mean <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores 0.6 based on the Rustogi et al. Modified Navy <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Index were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. After brushing with the assigned toothbrush and a commercially available dentifrice for 2 minutes, oral tissues were then re-examined and post-brushing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> scores recorded. Following a brief washout period between two additional visits, the above procedures were repeated with the two alternate toothbrushes. One examiner, blinded to the treatment sequence, performed all clinical measurements. RESULTS.: A total of 79 subjects (28 males and 51 females) were enrolled and completed the study. Each toothbrush was found to be safe and significantly reduced <span class="hlt">plaque</span> levels after a single brushing. The PC 7000 and 3DE were equally more effective in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal than the SA, at all tooth areas, reducing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> by 59.0%, 59.7% and 51.8%, respectively on whole mouth surfaces, and by 67.5%, 67.8% and 59.4%, respectively on approximal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS.: The action of the oscillating/rotating/pulsating toothbrushes (Oral-B ProfessionalCare 7000 and Oral-B 3D Excel) was more effective in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> removal than the high-frequency toothbrush (Sonicare Advance). PMID:16253750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3615996"><span id="translatedtitle">Tryptase Promotes Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Haemorrhage in ApoE-/- Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tian, Dai; Li, Xiaobo; Ning, Yanxia; Yin, Lianhua</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tryptase, the most abundant mast cell (MC) granule protein, plays an important role in atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> development. To test the hypothesis that tryptase participates directly in atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage, the gene sequence and siRNA for tryptase were cloned into a lentivirus carrier and atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage models in ApoE-/- mice were constructed. After a cuffing-cervical artery operation, the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining showed that the cervical artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area was much larger in the tryptase overexpression group compared to the other groups, and there was greater artery stenosis. The artery stenosis from the cuff-side in all groups was more than 90%, except the siRNA group. Tryptase promotes <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage distinctively because 50% of the mice in the tryptase overexpression group had <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage, while only 10% in the siRNA group did. The immunohistochemistry of the cervical artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was the lowest while tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), CD31, CD34 and VEGF was the highest in the tryptase overexpression groups. This observation was completely contrary to what was observed in the siRNA group. Tryptase promoted bEnd.3 cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation, which suggests that tryptase can promote microvessel angiogenesis. PAI-1 expression was inhibited, while tPA expression was increased by tryptase in bEnd.3 cells. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that trypase can promote atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage by promoting angiogenesis and regulating the balance of PAI-1 and tPA. Thus, regulating tryptase expression in MCs may provide a potential target for atherosclerosis treatment. PMID:23573292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34566964"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of pancreatin on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation by influenza viruses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Paul E. Came; Andrea Pascale; Gerard Shimonaski</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Summary Pancreatin incorporated into the overlay medium of chick embryo monolayers infected with influenza A\\/Swine, A\\/PR8, A\\/NWS, A2\\/Jap. 305\\/57, B\\/Lee, and B\\/GL enhances the number and size of <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The influenza A2\\/RI\\/5+ and A2\\/RI\\/5- substrains were not affected. In general, the degree of enhancement and the efficiency of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation varies as the concentration of pancreatin is increased. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30253783"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrashort echo time cardiovascular magnetic resonance of atherosclerotic carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Cheuk F Chan; Niall G Keenan; Sonia Nielles-Vallespin; Peter Gatehouse; Mary N Sheppard; Joseph J Boyle; Dudley J Pennell; David N Firmin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Multi-contrast weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows detailed <span class="hlt">plaque</span> characterisation and assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability. The aim of this preliminary study was to show the potential of Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) subtraction MR in detecting calcification. METHODS: 14 ex-vivo human carotid arteries were scanned using CMR and CT, prior to histological slide preparation. Two images were acquired using a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33841825"><span id="translatedtitle">Tazarotene gel: Efficacy and safety in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Gerald D. Weinstein</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Tazarotene is the first of a new generation of acetylenic retinoids developed for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated that once-daily tazarotene 0.05% and 0.1% gels are effective in improving and reducing clinical signs and symptoms of psoriasis on trunk and limb lesions and difficult-to-treat elbow and knee <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Tazarotene has a rapid onset</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hk62v7540714rm85.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biofilm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Nicole Birgit Arweiler; Thorsten Mathias Auschill; Anton Sculean</p> <p></p> <p>Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections.\\u000a However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biofilm is unknown. To\\u000a evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique\\u000a and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17068529"><span id="translatedtitle">Bidirectional reflectance of dry and submerged Labsphere Spectralon <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voss, Kenneth J; Zhang, Hao</p> <p>2006-10-20</p> <p>We present the bidirectional reflectance of a Labsphere calibration <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, both dry and submerged in water, at normal illumination. The measurements indicate that when submerged in water, the Labsphere calibration <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has a higher reflectance value than when dry at viewing angles below 55 degrees . The results are presented in the form of a reflectance factor and are useful for calibrating underwater reflectance measurements. PMID:17068529</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29285122"><span id="translatedtitle">Patella baja following chronic quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Michael Hockings; John C. Cameron</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Patella baja is a complication of chronic quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In this case we present the treatment of this problem by the proximal transfer of the tibial tubercle allowing an environment in which the quadriceps tendon can heal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6752786"><span id="translatedtitle">Pregnancy-related <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of arterial aneurysms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>Over 50 per cent of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus. PMID:6752786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25697302"><span id="translatedtitle">Haemorrhagic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatic simple cysts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon, Tiarah; Bakker, Ilsalien S; Penninga, Luit; Nellensteijn, David R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Haemorrhagic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a life-threatening complication of a hepatic simple cyst. A 63-year-old man presented with severe acute abdominal pain and a massive haemoperitoneum resulting from haemorrhagic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a large hepatic cyst. The haemorrhagic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was aggravated by an overdose of vitamin K-antagonist treatment. CT scans revealed a large hepatic simple cyst. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with resuscitation, transfusion therapy and administration of coagulation agents. To date, there is no clear evidence regarding optimal treatment of haemorrhagic hepatic cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The risk of recurrent bleeding from the haemorrhagic hepatic simple cyst, and the need for final treatment to avoid rebleeding either by percutaneous sclerotherapy, endovascular embolisation, surgical cyst resection, or surgical deroofing, is discussed. PMID:25697302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6246"><span id="translatedtitle">FRP <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strains in FRP wrapped columns </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Li, Shiqing</p> <p>2012-06-25</p> <p>Applying lateral confinement to concrete columns using fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is a very promising technique. FRP <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is the typical failure mode of FRP wrapped columns under axial compression. numerous ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4499361"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of hepatocellular carcinoma <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the caudate lobe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hong, De-Fei; Liu, Ying-Bin; Peng, Shu-You; Pang, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Cheng, Jian; Shen, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Yuan-Biao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To demonstrate that caudate lobectomy is a valid treatment in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the caudate lobe based on our experience with the largest case series reported to date. METHODS: A retrospective study of eight patients presenting with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and hemorrhage of HCC in the caudate lobe was conducted. Two patients underwent ineffective transarterial embolization preoperatively. Caudate lobectomy was performed in all eight patients. Bilateral approach was taken in seven cases for isolated complete caudate lobectomy. Left-sided approach was employed in one case for isolated partial caudate lobectomy. Transarterial chemoembolization was performed postoperatively in all patients. RESULTS: Caudate lobectomy was successfully completed in all eight cases. The median time delay from the diagnosis to operation was 5 d (range: 0.25-9). Median operating time was 200 min (range: 120-310) with a median blood loss of 900 mL (range: 300-1500). Five patient remained in long-term follow-up, with one patient becoming lost to follow-up at 3 years and two patients <span class="hlt">currently</span> alive at 7 and 19 mo. One patient required reoperation due to recurrence. Gamma knife intervention was performed for brain metastasis in another case. Two patients survived for 10 and 84 mo postoperatively, ultimately succumbing to multiple organ metastases. CONCLUSION: Caudate lobectomy is the salvage choice for HCC <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the caudate lobe. Local anatomy and physiologic features of the disease render caudate lobectomy a technically difficult operation. Postponement of surgical intervention is thus recommended while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> remains hemodynamically stable until an experienced surgeon becomes available. Prognosis is confounded by numerous factors, but long-term survival can be expected in the majority of cases. PMID:26185390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18288729"><span id="translatedtitle">Vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> intervention: State of the art.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, John J; Phillips, Harry R; Marso, Steven P; Granada, Juan F; McPherson, John A; Waksman, Ron; Steinhubl, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert S; Stone, Gregg W</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>Progressive atherosclerotic disease is responsible for many of the late adverse clinical events that detract from the high procedural and clinical success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Despite recent advances in catheter based technology for the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease, the greater risk to the patient over time may in fact come from the significant rate of acute coronary events triggered by nonculprit and/or nonobstructive coronary artery lesions. These areas of vulnerability within the epicardial coronary tree have generated a great deal of interest surrounding the concepts of vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (VP), vulnerable blood and the vulnerable patient. This 'state of the art' review discusses the limitations of coronary angiography alone in providing risk assessment; reviews the underlying biological concepts of VP; discusses evolving noninvasive and invasive imaging technologies for the detection of VP; and finally provides a futuristic look at how the field of interventional cardiology may transcend the traditional angiogram and move toward a more comprehensive treatment approach that benefits the patients' overall coronary health. PMID:18288729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3266060"><span id="translatedtitle">Asbestos-related pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and lung function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliver, L C; Eisen, E A; Greene, R; Sprince, N L</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The present study examines the association between asbestos-related pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and lung function in a group of workers with occupational exposure to asbestos. Exposure, smoking, and respiratory histories, chest radiographs, flow-volume loops, and single breath DLCOs were obtained on 383 railroad workers. A score based on the ILO-1980 classification system was used to quantify the extent of plaquelike thickening. In order to eliminate potential confounders, we excluded from final analysis subjects with diffuse pleural thickening (n = 10) or small irregular opacities classified as profusion 0/1 or greater (n = 6) on chest radiograph. Definite pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were observed in 22.6%. The single breath DLCO was similar in the groups with and without <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (p = 0.0550). Decrement in FVC and the occurrence of pulmonary restriction were associated with the presence of definite <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (p = 0.0306 and 0.0431, respectively) and with quantitative pleural score (p = 0.0135 and 0.0126), controlling for duration of asbestos exposure and smoking. A test for trend revealed an association between level of diagnostic certainty (none, suspect, definite) for pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and these measures of lung function (p less than 0.02). Our findings reveal an association between asbestos-related pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and decrement in lung function as measured by FVC and criteria for pulmonary restriction. PMID:3266060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23585134"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Francis, Andrew A; Deniset, Justin F; Austria, Jose A; LaValleé, Renee K; Maddaford, Graham G; Hedley, Thomas E; Dibrov, Elena; Pierce, Grant N</p> <p>2013-06-15</p> <p>Dietary flaxseed can retard the progression of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. However, it remains unclear whether these antiatherogenic effects extend to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regression. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of dietary flaxseed on atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regression and vascular contractile function was evaluated using a novel rabbit model. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet for 12 wk (group I) or a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 wk followed by a regular diet for 8 wk (group II). The remaining experimental animals were treated as in group II but were fed for an additional 14 wk with either a regular diet (group III) or a 10% flaxseed-supplemented diet (group IV). Animals in group II showed clear evidence of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth stabilization. Their vessels also exhibited significantly lower norepinephrine-induced contraction and an impaired relaxation response to acetylcholine compared with animals in group I. Dietary flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant ?40% reduction in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation (P = 0.033). Animals in both groups II and III displayed improved contraction and endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation. Dietary flaxseed is a valuable strategy to accelerate the regression of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>; however, flaxseed intervention did not demonstrate a clear beneficial effect on the vessel contractile response and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:23585134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.2145D"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary study of the detectability of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with PET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delso, G.; Martinez-Möller, A.; Bundschuh, R. A.; Nekolla, S. G.; Ziegler, S. I.; Schwaiger, M.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The evaluation of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability could be of great diagnostic value in cardiology. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a good candidate due to its ability to quantify micromolar concentrations of targeted drugs. However, the detectability of sub-voxel targets such as coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is limited by partial volume effects and by cardiorespiratory motion. The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of these factors in the detectability of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> uptake. Radioactive markers were implanted on the epicardium of a pig and in vivo scans were performed. This was complemented with phantom measurements to determine the minimum detectable uptake as a function of background activity. Simulations were used to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory motion on the reconstructed lesions. Despite cardiorespiratory motion of up to 7 mm, the markers were detectable in the in vivo scans even after the injection of background. A lower limit of 250 Bq was found for a target to be detectable. Motion reduced the contrast of the reconstructed lesions to 23% of their static counterpart. Respiratory gating improved this to 49% of the static value. The results suggest that coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> evaluation with PET is possible, provided that sufficient <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-to-myocardium uptake contrast (50 to 100) can be achieved. This requirement increases exponentially for lesions with uptake below 250 Bq. The described experiments provide a means of estimating the minimum uptake and contrast required to ensure the detectability of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8497229"><span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetry for 125I seed (model 6711) in eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiu-Tsao, S T; Anderson, L L; O'Brien, K; Stabile, L; Liu, J C</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The effect of eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> materials (gold backing and silastic seed-carrier insert) on the dose distribution around a single 125I seed has been measured, using cubic lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) 1 mm on an edge, in a solid water eye phantom embedded in a solid water head phantom. With an 125I seed (model 6711) positioned in the center slot of the silastic insert for a 20-mm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> of the design used in the collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS), dose was measured at 2-mm intervals along the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> central axis (the seed's transverse axis) and at various off-axis points, both with and without the COMS gold backing placed over the insert. Monte Carlo calculations (MORSE code) were performed, as well, for these configurations and closely the same geometry but assuming a large natural water phantom. Additional Monte Carlo calculations treated the case, both for 20- and 12-mm gold <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, where the silastic insert is replaced by natural water. Relative to previous measurements taken in homogeneous medium of the same material (without the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>), the dose reduction found by both Monte Carlo and TLD methods was greater at points farther from the seed along the central axis and, for a given central-axis depth, at larger off-axis distances. Removal of the gold backing from the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> did not make measurable difference in the dose reduction results (10% at 1 cm). PMID:8497229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13894242"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of bacteria by explosive decompression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>FOSTER, J W; COWAN, R M; MAAG, T A</p> <p>1962-02-01</p> <p>Foster, John W. (University of Georgia, Athens), Robert M. Cowan, and Ted A. Maag. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of bacteria by explosive decompression. J. Bacteriol. 83:330-334. 1962.-A device is described for instantaneously <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> bacteria and other cells in a closed system under controlled conditions by explosive decompression. With this device, 31 to 59% of Serratia marcescens, ranging up to 20 mg (dry wt) of cells per ml, were <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> after nitrogen saturation at 1740 psi. Under similar conditions, 10 to 25% of Brucella abortus and Staphylococcus aureus were <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of these organisms produced readily separable cell walls. Centrifugation in linear glycerol gradients was applied to further separate cell walls from debris. Mycoplasma gallinarum, Leptospira pomona, and Eimeria tenella (avian coccidia) oöcysts were also broken up by the decompression chamber. Pressure and duration of saturation of cells with gas affected <span class="hlt">rupture</span> efficiency. Within the limits of this study, concentration of organisms and volume of suspensions did not have a definite effect. PMID:13894242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30740694"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon with contralateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the patellar tendon in an otherwise healthy athlete</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>N I Munshi; C E Mbubaegbu</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A case of a healthy athlete with simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of quadriceps tendon and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the contralateral patella tendon is reported. Both tendons <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> in the same patient is rare and this is the first reported case in a previously healthy person. Different mechanisms are implicated in the different <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. The rarity is because the simultaneous presence of contributory factors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4274101"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevated Uptake of Plasma Macromolecules by Regions of Arterial Wall Predisposed to <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Instability in a Mouse Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohri, Zahra; Rowland, Ethan M.; Clarke, Lindsey A.; De Luca, Amalia; Peiffer, Véronique; Krams, Rob; Sherwin, Spencer J.; Weinberg, Peter D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25531765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055584"><span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of unscarred uterus in a primigravida with preterm prelabour <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mourad, Wael Sayed; Bersano, Debbra J; Greenspan, Peter B; Harper, Diane Medved</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Intrapartum uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a true obstetrical emergency. Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is rare in the unscarred uterus of a primigravida. A 23-year-old primigravida with an unscarred uterus was admitted with preterm prelabour <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes at 36(+4)?weeks of gestation. Abnormal fetal heart monitoring, associated with acute onset of severe abdominopelvic pain, developed on admission. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> occurred prior to onset of regular uterine contractions and in the absence of any interventional oxytocin. The neonate had evidence of severe acidosis despite emergency caesarean delivery. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, even in the unlikely setting of a primigravida with an unscarred uterus. PMID:26055584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.444a2102P"><span id="translatedtitle">ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> dosimetry: commissioning and verification of an ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poder, J.; Annabell, N.; Geso, M.; Alqathami, M.; Corde, S.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In this study, the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> SimulatorTM eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy planning system was commissioned for ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and Amersham Health model 6711 Iodine 125 seeds, using TG43-UI data. The brachytherapy module of the RADCALC® independent checking program was configured to allow verification of the accuracy of the dose calculated by <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> SimulatorTM. Central axis depth dose distributions were compared and observed to agree to within 2% for all ROPES <span class="hlt">plaque</span> models and depths of interest. Experimental measurements were performed with a customized PRESAGEm 3-D type dosimeter to validate the calculated depth dose distributions. Preliminary results have shown the effect of the stainless steel <span class="hlt">plaque</span> backing decreases the measured fluorescence intensity by up to 25%, and 40% for the 15 mm and 10 mm diameter ROPES <span class="hlt">plaques</span> respectively. This effect, once fully quantified should be accounted for in the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> SimulatorTM eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy planning system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1880219"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of activated T lymphocytes in the human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hansson, G. K.; Holm, J.; Jonasson, L.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>It was recently shown that the human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> contains significant amounts of T lymphocytes, and also that smooth muscle cells in these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> express class II MHC (Ia) antigens. These antigens are not normally present on smooth muscle cells but are inducible by interferon-gamma, a secretory product of activated T cells. Therefore, T cell activation in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was analyzed by immunofluorescent detection of activation markers on T cells isolated from the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and in cryostat sections of carotid endarterectomy specimens. Of cells isolated from the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, 5% exhibited the E rosettes characteristic of T cells. One third of these cells expressed HLA-DR and VLA-1 (very late activation antigen-1), which in T cells are synthesized only in the activated state. T cells were also identified in sections using immunofluorescent detection of the T cell-specific surface protein, CD3 (Leu-4), with rhodamine labeled second-step antibodies. The frequency of activated T cells was then determined by staining the same, or serial, sections with antibodies to HLA-DR or to the interleukin-2 receptor, followed by biotin-avidin-FITC detection. Of the T cells in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, 34% and 6%, respectively, expressed these cell surface proteins. Taken together, these results indicated that a substantial proportion of the T cells in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> are in an activated state. The activation pattern, with a high frequency of HLA-DR and VLA-1 expression and a much lower frequency of interleukin-2 receptor expression, was similar to that reported to occur in chronic inflammatory conditions. Interferon-gamma could be detected in and around some of the lymphocytes, suggesting that paracrine secretion of this lymphokine may occur in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. T cells may be activated locally, presumably by antigen(s) presented in the context of class II MHC expressing smooth muscle cells and/or macrophages, in the atherosclerotic lesion. Such activated T cells may in turn modulate the functions of other cells in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2505620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15663050"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonoperative management of neonatal splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Karen; Benjamin, Louis C; Gilbert, James C; Chahine, A Alfred</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Neonatal injury of the spleen is an uncommon but serious condition. Although the standard management of children with splenic injury is nonoperative, there is scant evidence in the literature to support handling neonates in the same way. We report a case of neonatal splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that was managed nonoperatively. A 3.6-kg full-term female born vaginally became tachycardic and pale on the second day of life. She had a distended abdomen and a hemoglobin of 5.8 g/dL. Her blood pressure remained within normal limits. She was transfused 20 cc/kg packed red blood cells. CT scan showed a grade V splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Coagulopathy workup was negative. The assumption was that she had a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen secondary to a traumatic delivery. She remained stable after the transfusion. It took 32 weeks for a CT scan to show complete healing. Traditionally, neonatal splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been treated with splenectomy or splenorrhaphy. The first case of a neonate to be treated nonoperatively was reported in 2000. Our patient is only the second reported case. We chose to follow her with imaging to document healing and to rule out a tumor, as epidermoid cysts and hemangioendotheliomas can cause neonatal splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We also review the literature to try to gain some insight into the management of this rare problem. PMID:15663050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12623953"><span id="translatedtitle">Echogenic carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are associated with aortic arterial stiffness in subjects with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zureik, Mahmoud; Bureau, Jeanne-Marie; Temmar, Mohammed; Adamopoulos, Chris; Courbon, Dominique; Bean, Kathryn; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Benetos, Athanase; Ducimetière, Pierre</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>A better understanding of the interrelationships between the structure and function of the large arteries would lead to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention strategies. In this study, we investigated the relationships of aortic arterial stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV), with carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echogenicity assessed by B-mode ultrasound. We analyzed 561 subjects (without coronary heart disease or stroke) who were volunteers for free health examinations (age, 58.3+/-10.8 years; 32.6% women). Extracranial carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echogenicity was graded from 1 (<span class="hlt">plaque</span> appearing black or almost black) to 4 (<span class="hlt">plaque</span> appearing white or almost white) according to the Gray-Weale classification. <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> of grades 1 and 2 were defined as echolucent <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of grades 3 and 4 were defined as echogenic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Fifty-one subjects (9.1%) had echolucent carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, 109 (19.4%) had echogenic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and 401 (71.5%) had no <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Subjects with echogenic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> had higher PWV mean (12.9+/-2.8 m/s) compared with those without <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (11.1+/-2.3 m/s, P<0.001) and compared with those with echolucent <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (11.3+/-2.3 m/s, P<0.01). The PWV means in subjects without <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and those with echolucent <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were similar and not statistically different (P=0.55). When multivariate adjustment for major known cardiovascular risk factors was performed, these results were not markedly modified. Similar patterns of results were also observed in many subgroups according to age, gender, and hypertensive status. This study provides the first evidence that echogenic but not echolucent carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are associated with aortic arterial stiffness. This association applies to individuals with normal blood pressure and those with elevated blood pressure. Assessment of the joint and interaction effects of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology and arterial stiffness on the occurrence of cardiovascular events would permit a better identification of high-risk subjects. PMID:12623953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3640519"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein <span class="hlt">Plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19021396"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> through optical fiber bundles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nadkarni, Seemantini K; Bouma, Brett E; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048551"><span id="translatedtitle">Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion <span class="hlt">plaques</span> altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18412813"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span>-like dermatofibroma: A distinct and rare benign neoplasm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leow, Liang Joo; Sinclair, Peter A; Horton, Jeremy J</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Unusual large dermatofibromata are reported in a 40-year-old man and a 48-year-old man, who both presented with <span class="hlt">plaques</span> on a lower limb. The largest <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in each case was well-defined, reddish brown, indurated and measured 50 mm x 30 mm and 70 mm x 40 mm, respectively. Several satellite lesions were present around the large <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Dermoscopic examination showed diffuse homogenous pigmentation in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for dermatofibroma. Light microscopy of biopsies from each patient displayed similar features. There was a dermal proliferation of fibrohistiocytic cells that entrapped intervening thickened collagen fibres. The overlying epidermis was acanthotic, and in some instances this showed basal hyperpigmentation. There was no evidence of malignancy. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for Factor XIIIa and negative for CD34. Based on the histological findings, a diagnosis of dermatofibroma was made for each of these cases. Fewer than 20 adult cases of large dermatofibroma of this scale, designated giant dermatofibroma, have been reported to date; and only two have shown a <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-like appearance, the remainder being pedunculated. The authors propose <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-like dermatofibroma as a variety of large dermatofibroma distinct to pedunculated giant dermatofibroma. PMID:18412813</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18619522"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron in arterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sullivan, Jerome L</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>It has been proposed that iron depletion protects against cardiovascular disease. There is increasing evidence that one mechanism for this protection may involve a reduction in iron levels within atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Large increases in iron concentration are seen in human atherosclerotic lesions in comparison to levels in healthy arterial tissue. In animal models, depletion of lesion iron levels in vivo by phlebotomy, systemic iron chelation treatment or dietary iron restriction reduces lesion size and/or increases <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability. A number of factors associated with increased arterial disease or increased cardiovascular events is also associated with increased <span class="hlt">plaque</span> iron. In rats, infusion of angiotensin II increases ferritin levels and arterial thickness which are reversed by treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine. In humans, a polymorphism for haptoglobin associated with increased cardiovascular disease is also characterized by increased lesional iron. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is an important component of the system for mobilization of iron from macrophages. Human HO1 promoter polymorphisms causing weaker upregulation of the enzyme are associated with increased cardiovascular disease and increased serum ferritin. Increased cardiovascular disease associated with inflammation may be in part caused by elevated hepcidin levels that promote retention of iron within <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages. Defective retention of iron within arterial macrophages in genetic hemochromatosis may explain why there is little evidence of increased atherosclerosis in this disorder despite systemic iron overload. The reviewed findings support the concept that arterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> iron is a modifiable risk factor for atherogenesis. PMID:18619522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25577259"><span id="translatedtitle">Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Imaging findings of breast silicone implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. PMID:25577259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4473306"><span id="translatedtitle">Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The vasa vasorum of carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with CEUS. PMID:26120382</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.03207v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Capillary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of suspended polymer concentric rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zheng Zhang; G. C. Hilton; Ronggui Yang; Yifu Ding</p> <p>2015-02-11</p> <p>We present the first experimental study on the simultaneous capillary instability amongst viscous concentric rings suspended atop an immiscible medium. The rings <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> upon annealing, with three types of phase correlation between neighboring rings. In the case of weak substrate confinement, the rings <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> independently when they were sparsely distanced, but via an out-of-phase mode when packed closer. If the substrate confinement was strong, the rings would <span class="hlt">rupture</span> via an in-phase mode, resulting in radially aligned droplets. The concentric ring geometry caused a competition between the phase correlation of neighboring rings and the kinetically favorable wavelength, yielding an intriguing, recursive surface pattern. This frustrated pattern formation behavior was accounted for by a scaling analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142q4910M"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of DNA molecule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishra, R. K.; Modi, T.; Giri, D.; Kumar, S.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Using Langevin dynamics simulations, we study effects of the shear force on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a double stranded DNA molecule. The model studied here contains two single diblock copolymers interacting with each other. The elastic constants of individual segments of diblock copolymer are considered to be different. We showed that the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force depends on whether the force is applied at 3' - 3' - ends or 5' - 5' - ends. Distributions of extension in hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds along the chain show the striking differences. Motivated by recent experiments, we have also calculated the variation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force for different chain lengths. Results obtained from simulations have been validated with the analytical calculation based on the ladder model of DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.00114v1"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of DNA molecule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>R. K. Mishra; T. Modi; D. Giri; S. Kumar</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Using Langevin Dynamic simulations, we study effects of the shear force on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a double stranded DNA molecule. The model studied here contains two single diblock copolymers interacting with each other. The elastic constants of individual segments of the diblock copolymer are considered to be different. We showed that the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force depends on whether the force is applied at $3'-3'-$ends or $5'-5'-$ends. Distributions of extension in hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds along the chain show the striking differences. Motivated by recent experiments, we have also calculated the variation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force for different chain lengths. Results obtained from simulations have been validated with the analytical calculation based on the ladder model of DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139761"><span id="translatedtitle">Right ventricular hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> to pericardium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabzi, Feridoun; Vaziri, Siavoosh; Faraji, Reza</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including <span class="hlt">rupture</span> leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described. PMID:26139761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10140552"><span id="translatedtitle">Component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequency estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810030241&hterms=modeling+creep&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmodeling%2Bcreep"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of unidirectional advanced composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yeow, Y. T.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A 'material modeling' methodology for predicting the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of unidirectional advanced composites is proposed. In this approach the parameters (obtained from short-term tests) required to make the predictions are the three principal creep compliance master curves and their corresponding quasi-static strengths tested at room temperature (22 C). Using these parameters in conjunction with a failure criterion, creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> envelopes can be generated for any combination of in-plane loading conditions and ambient temperature. The analysis was validated experimentally for one composite system, the T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. This was done by performing short-term creep tests (to generate the principal creep compliance master curves with the time-temperature superposition principle) and relatively long-term creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tensile tests of off-axis specimens at 180 C. Good to reasonable agreement between experimental and analytical results is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743861"><span id="translatedtitle">Patellar ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in an adolescent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pires e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Sattamini; de Araújo, Gabriel Costa Serrão; Labronici, Pedro José; Gameiro, Vinícius Schott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the patellar tendon is a well-known injury in the orthopaedic literature. However, it is unusual and rarely reported in adolescent children. On the one hand, in the immature skeleton, the most frequent lesion above the kneecap is the sleeve fracture. On the other hand, in the distal region, avulsion of the tibial tuberosity is more common. Patellar tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in an adolescent is a rare lesion. We report a case in which an adolescent sustained a fall when jumping. No predisposing factors have been found. The injury was treated with surgical repair with transosseous suturing and reinforcement with semitendinosus tendon. The aim of this study is to present a case of traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the extensor mechanism of the knee in an adolescent and the therapy used. PMID:25743861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956123"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of DNA molecule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mishra, R K; Modi, T; Giri, D; Kumar, S</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Using Langevin dynamics simulations, we study effects of the shear force on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a double stranded DNA molecule. The model studied here contains two single diblock copolymers interacting with each other. The elastic constants of individual segments of diblock copolymer are considered to be different. We showed that the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force depends on whether the force is applied at 3' - 3' - ends or 5' - 5' - ends. Distributions of extension in hydrogen bonds and covalent bonds along the chain show the striking differences. Motivated by recent experiments, we have also calculated the variation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force for different chain lengths. Results obtained from simulations have been validated with the analytical calculation based on the ladder model of DNA. PMID:25956123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140016387&hterms=stress&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstress"><span id="translatedtitle">The Inclusion of Arbitrary Load Histories in the Strength Decay Model for Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reeder, James R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a failure mechanism where failures can occur after a period of time, even though the material has seen no increase in load. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have demonstrated the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failure mechanism. In a previous work, a model was proposed for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures based on strength degradation. However, the original model was limited to constant load periods (holds) at constant load. The model was expanded in this paper to address arbitrary loading histories and specifically the inclusions of ramp loadings up to holds and back down. The broadening of the model allows for failures on loading to be treated as any other failure that may occur during testing instead of having to be treated as a special case. The inclusion of ramps can also influence the length of the "safe period" following proof loading that was previously predicted by the model. No stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failures are predicted in a safe period because time is required for strength to decay from above the proof level to the lower level of loading. Although the model can predict failures during the ramp periods, no closed-form solution for the failure times could be derived. Therefore, two suggested solution techniques were proposed. Finally, the model was used to design an experiment that could detect the difference between the strength decay model and a commonly used model for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Although these types of models are necessary to help guide experiments for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, only experimental evidence will determine how well the model may predict actual material response. If the model can be shown to be accurate, <span class="hlt">current</span> proof loading requirements may result in predicted safe periods as long as 10(13) years. COPVs design requirements for stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may then be relaxed, allowing more efficient designs, while still maintaining an acceptable level of safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481443"><span id="translatedtitle">Prognostic factors of spontaneously <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Ying; Shao, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ke</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To evaluate the prognostic factors in patients with spontaneously <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Seventy-nine patients experiencing spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of HCC between April 2004 and August 2014 were enrolled in this study. The clinical features, treatment modalities and outcomes were reviewed. The statistical methods used in this work included univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests, and multivariate analysis using a Cox regression hazard model. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients with HCC <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, 17 (21.5%) underwent surgery, 32 (40.5%) underwent transarterial embolization (TAE), and 30 (38%) received conservative treatment. The median survival time was 125 d, and the mortality rate at 30 d was 27.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed that lesion length (HR = 1.46, P < 0.001), lesion number (HR = 1.37, P = 0.042), treatment before tumor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (HR = 4.36, P = 0.019), alanine transaminase levels (HR = 1.0, P = 0.011), bicarbonate levels (HR = 1.18, P < 0.001), age (HR = 0.96, P = 0.026), anti-tumor therapy during the follow-up period (HR = 0.21, P = 0.008), and albumin levels (HR = 0.89, P = 0.010) were independent prognostic factors of survival after HCC <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage was also an important prognostic factor; the median survival times for BCLC stages A, B and C were 251, 175 and 40 d, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Anti-tumor therapy during the follow-up period, without a history of anti-tumor therapy prior to HCC <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, small tumor length and number, and early BCLC stage are the most crucial predictors associated with satisfactory overall survival. Other factors play only a small role in overall survival. PMID:26139994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S53A0177S"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Processes Along the Philippine Trench</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sevilla, W. I.; Ammon, C. J.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Earthquakes along subduction zones exhibit spatial and temporal variations in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes. Recent studies have demonstrated a systematic decrease in the moment-normalized <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration of earthquakes with depth along the plate interface. Several shallow earthquakes were observed to exhibit anomalously long <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration, comparable with the durations of tsunami earthquakes. These observations were suggested to be manifestations of subduction faults with frictional properties capable of generating tsunami earthquakes. The cause of the duration variation was hypothesized to be related to physical changes in properties of subducted sediment. The Philippine trench is a setting where we can study the variations of earthquake source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes along the plate interface. The trench is young (< 5 Ma) with a poorly developed accretionary prism. Bathymetry, seismic reflection studies, and offshore drilling show little or no evidence of accretion of the materials from the subducting Philippine Sea plate. Eighty nine possible interplate earthquakes were selected from the Harvard CMT catalogue for the year 1989 to 2001. From these, about 30 events had adequate signal-to-noise ratios and well-constrained mechanisms to warrant further investigation. We used teleseismic broadband records of vertical component waveforms and applied multi-station deconvolution technique to extract the source time function and depth of each event. Our results showed no systematic trend of decreasing source duration with depth at the Philippine trench. The observed moment-normalized durations of all the shallow earthquakes are shorter than tsunami earthquakes. We observed a significant scatter in the relationship between source time and depth, which may reflect heterogeneity of the materials at the trench interface. The thickness of low-rigidity materials in the trench shallow region appears insufficient to affect the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations and produce anomalously slow <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. These null results for the sediment-starved Philippine Trench support the earlier hypothesis that the variations of earthquake duration with depth in other subduction zones is related to sediment properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18046941"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated system for the segmentation of atherosclerotic carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loizou, Christos P; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Pantziaris, Marios; Nicolaides, Andrew</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose and evaluate an integrated system for the segmentation of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery based on normalization, speckle reduction filtering, and four different snakes segmentation methods. These methods are the Williams and Shah, Balloon, Lai and Chin, and the gradient vector flow (GVF) snake. The performance of the four different <span class="hlt">plaque</span> snakes segmentation methods was tested on 80 longitudinal ultrasound images of the carotid artery using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the manual delineations of an expert. All four methods were very satisfactory and similar in all measures evaluated, with no significant differences between them; however, the Lai and Chin snakes segmentation method gave slightly better results. Concluding, it is proposed that the integrated system investigated in this study could be used successfully for the automated segmentation of the carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:18046941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47884627"><span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral synchronous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>P. Ellanti; N. Davarinos; S. Morris; J. Rice</p> <p></p> <p>Background  Bilateral simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes\\u000a of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in\\u000a patients of 40 years of age or older.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We describe a case of a 67-year-old man with simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25878942"><span id="translatedtitle">Thoracic outlet syndrome following breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mistry, Raakhi; Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We present a patient with bilateral breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19210943"><span id="translatedtitle">[Gastric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after ingestion of liquid nitrogen].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Nielsen, Casper; Christensen, Peter</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal distension and subcutaneous emphysema after ingesting 15 ml liquid nitrogen to produce an impressive burp. A <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the stomach at the lesser curvature was sutured by laparotomy. Peroperative gastroscopy showed no signs of cold-induced lesions. Liquid nitrogen boils at -196 degrees C. When heated to body temperature, it instantly expands 700 times, in this case predictably leading to gastric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Therefore, any oral intake of even small amounts of liquid nitrogen should be avoided. PMID:19210943</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4387153"><span id="translatedtitle">Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21377645"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency and healing of nonculprit coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruptions in patients with acute myocardial infarction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okada, Katsuki; Ueda, Yasunori; Matsuo, Koshi; Nishio, Mayu; Hirata, Akio; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Asai, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Takayoshi; Kodama, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>The pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruption and healing in nonculprit segments has not been clarified. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disruptions in nonculprit segments and whether those <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are stabilized during follow-ups in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by serial angioscopic observations. Analyzed were 13 consecutive patients with AMI in whom infarct-related arteries were serially observed by angioscopy immediately after reperfusion and at 1- and 6-month follow-ups. Color of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was graded as 0 (white), 1 (slight yellow), 2 (yellow), or 3 (intensive yellow). <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> with thrombus were defined as disrupted. Although number of nonculprit yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> did not change from immediately after reperfusion to 6 months, the maximum color grade of those <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and incidence of disrupted <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in nonculprit segments (immediate vs 1 month vs 6 months 31% vs 8% vs 0%) decreased significantly by 6 months. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> stabilization as shown by disappearance of thrombus was significantly associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> regression as shown by a decrease of maximum yellow color grade in nonculprit segments. In conclusion, patients with AMI frequently had disrupted and actively thrombogenic yellow <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in nonculprit segments of the culprit vessel, and those <span class="hlt">plaques</span> healed with decreases of yellow color grade and thrombogenicity during 6-months follow-up. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> disruption and healing occur not only at the culprit lesion but may be a pan-coronary process in patients with AMI. PMID:21377645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2681261"><span id="translatedtitle">Patient-Specific Artery Shrinkage and 3D Zero-Stress State in Multi-Component 3D FSI Models for Carotid Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> Based on In Vivo MRI Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Xueying; Yang, Chun; Yuan, Chun; Liu, Fei; Canton, Gador; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K.; Sicard, Gregorio A.; Tang, Dalin</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Image-based computational models for atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> have been developed to perform mechanical analysis to quantify critical flow and stress/strain conditions related to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which often leads directly to heart attack or stroke. An important modeling issue is how to determine zero stress state from in vivo <span class="hlt">plaque</span> geometries. This paper presents a method to quantify human carotid artery axial and inner circumferential shrinkages by using patient-specific ex vivo and in vivo MRI images. A shrink-stretch process based on patient-specific in vivo <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology and shrinkage data was introduced to shrink the in vivo geometry first to find the zero-stress state (opening angle was ignored to reduce the complexity), and then stretch and pressurize to recover the in vivo <span class="hlt">plaque</span> geometry with computed initial stress, strain, flow pressure and velocity conditions. Effects of the shrink-stretch process on <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stress/strain distributions were demonstrated based on patient-specific data using 3D models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI). The average artery axial and inner circumferential shrinkages were 25% and 7.9%, respectively, based on a data set obtained from 10 patients. Maximum values of maximum principal stress and strain increased 349.8% and 249% respectively with 33% axial stretch. Influence of inner circumferential shrinkage (7.9%) was not very noticeable under 33% axial stretch, but became more noticeable under smaller axial stretch. Our results indicated that accurate knowledge of artery shrinkages and the shrink-stretch process will considerably improve the accuracy of computational predictions made based on results from those in vivo MRI-based FSI models. PMID:19444328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4109112"><span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular and Surgical Options for <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: Review of the Literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santiago-Dieppa, David R.; Pannell, Jeffrey S.; Khalessi, Alexander A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are common entities, and those of the bifurcation are the most frequently encountered sublocation of MCA aneurysm. MCA bifurcation (MBIF) aneurysms commonly present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), are devastating, and are often lethal. At the present time, the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> MBIF aneurysms entails either endovascular or open microneurosurgical methods to permanently secure the aneurysm(s). The purpose of this report is to review the <span class="hlt">current</span> available data regarding the relative superiority of endovascular versus open microneurosurgical clipping for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms. PMID:25097795</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634525"><span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics and IFIC, University of Valencia-CSIC, Dr. Moliner 50, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); Medical Physics Section, University Hospital, Av. Ramon y Cajal 3, E47011 Valladolid (Spain)</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has been developed. The method uses eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15651616"><span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Ballester, F; Casal, E; de Frutos, J M</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> loaded with 125I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has been developed. The method uses eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye <span class="hlt">plaque</span> has a default value of T= 1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained. PMID:15651616</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862687"><span id="translatedtitle">Atypical neuropathological sCJD-MM phenotype with abundant white matter Kuru-type <span class="hlt">plaques</span> sparing the cerebellar cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gelpi, Ellen; Soler Insa, Josep Ma; Parchi, Piero; Saverioni, Daniela; Yagüe, Jordi; Nos, Carlos; Martínez-Saez, Elena; Ribalta, Teresa; Ferrer, Isidre; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We describe an atypical neuropatholgical phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 64-year-old man presenting with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia, comprising behavioral disturbances, memory complaints, disorientation and language alterations. MRI showed diffuse atrophy and hyperintensities in parietal, occipital, temporal and frontal cortices and left caudate nucleus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. No typical EEG alterations were observed. Repeated 14-3-3 assay was positive after a first negative test. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes with small cortical foci of large confluent vacuoles and relatively well-preserved cerebellar cortex. The most striking feature was the presence of abundant Kuru-type <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in both cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Sparse Kuru-type <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were also seen in cerebellum, although only in white matter. Immunohistochemistry showed, in addition to unicentric <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, diffuse synaptic and patchy perivacuolar, as well as <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-like and periaxonal pathological prion protein deposits (PrP(res) ). Western blot studies demonstrated the co-occurrence of PrP(res) types 1 and 2 in frontal cortex and a relatively weak type 2 signal in cerebellum. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 and excluded mutations. This case shows a previously undescribed combination of histopathological features which preclude its classification according to the <span class="hlt">current</span> phenotypic and molecular sCJD classification. The observation demonstrates that Kuru-type amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> mainly involving the cerebral white matter may also occur in sCJD cases with short clinical course and the co-existence of PrP(res) types 1 and 2. This case further highlights the complexity of the correlations between histopathological phenotype and PrP(res) isotype in prion diseases. PMID:22862687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4440999"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Coronary Artery <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Area is Associated with Myocardial Hypoperfusion in Women with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eskerud, Ingeborg; Gerdts, Eva; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Background: Women with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have similar extent of myocardial ischemia but less obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) than their male counterparts. We tested the impact of global coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area and artery tortuosity on myocardial perfusion in NSTEMI patients. Methods: Coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area was determined by quantitative angiography in 108 patients (32% women) with NSTEMI. Myocardial perfusion was assessed by contrast echocardiography in the 17 individual left ventricular segments. Artery tortuosity was defined as ?3 curves >45° in a main coronary artery. Results: Age, prevalence of hypertension, and diabetes did not differ between sexes (all nonsignificant). Women had lower prevalence of ?50% coronary artery stenosis (74% vs. 91%, p<0.05), while global coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area (35±22 vs. 43±21mm2) and the number of segments with hypoperfusion (6.9±3.7 vs. 7.2±3.4) did not differ between sexes (both p>0.07). In multivariate analysis, larger coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area was associated with a 35% higher risk for having severe myocardial hypoperfusion (odds ratio 1.35 [95% confidence interval 1.01–1.80], p<0.05) in the total study population, while no association between artery tortuosity and myocardial ischemia was found. Similar results were obtained in separate analysis among women and men. Conclusion: In women and men with NSTEMI, the global coronary artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area was an important determinant of the severity of myocardial hypoperfusion at rest independent of presence of significant coronary stenoses. These findings may expand <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of NSTEMI in patients with nonobstructive CAD. PMID:25692527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091896"><span id="translatedtitle">Human carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phosphatidylcholine specifically interacts with paraoxonase 1, increases its activity, and enhances its uptake by macrophage at the expense of its binding to HDL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Elad; Aviram, Michael; Khatib, Soliman; Artoul, Fadi; Rabin, Asaf; Mannheim, Dalit; Karmeli, Ron; Salamon, Tal; Vaya, Jacob</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Human carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is in direct contact with circulatory blood components. Thus, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and blood components may affect each other. The <span class="hlt">current</span> study presents the effects of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> chloroform:methanol (C:M) extract on the HDL-associated enzyme paraoxnase 1 (PON1). This study is part of our investigation on the mutual effects of the interactions between atherosclerotic lesions and blood components. Recombinant PON1 (rePON1) was incubated with the human carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> C:M extract and PON1 activities were analyzed. Lactonase and paraoxonase activities were elevated due to C:M treatment, by 140 and by 69%, respectively. Analytical chemistry analyses revealed specific phosphatidylcholines (PCs) as the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> active components. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching assay, together with molecular docking, shows that PON1 activity is enhanced in correlation with the level of PC affinity to PON1. Molecular docking revealed that PCs interact specifically with H2-PON1 ?-helix, which together with H1 enzyme ?-helix links the protein to the HDL surface. These findings are supported by additional results from the PON1 ?20 mutant that lack its H1-?-helix. Incubation of this mutant with the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> C:M extract increased PON1 activity by only 20%, much less than the wild-type PON1 that elevated PON1 activity at the same concentration by as much as 95%. Furthermore, as much as the affinity of the enzyme to the PC was augmented, the ability of PON1 to bind to the HDL particle decreased. Finally, PON1 interaction with PC enhance its uptake into the macrophage cytoplasm. In conclusions, Specific lesion phosphatidylcholines (PCs) present in the human carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> significantly enhance PON1 catalytic activities due to their interaction with the enzyme. Such a lesion?s PC-PON1 interaction, in turn, competes with HDL PCs and enhances PON1 uptake by macrophage at the expense of PON1 binding to the HDL. PMID:25091896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S11E..04L"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Experiments and Theoretical Studies of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Modes and Supershear Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, X.; Lapusta, N.; Rosakis, A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Theoretical studies have shown that the issue of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes has important implications for fault constitutive laws, stress conditions on faults, energy partition and heat generation during earthquakes, scaling laws, and spatio-temporal complexity of fault slip. Early theoretical models often treated earthquakes as crack-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but seismic inversions indicate that earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may propagate in a self-healing pulse-like mode. A number of explanations for the existence of slip pulses have been proposed, including strong weakening of the interface with sliding rate, interaction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with local heterogeneities, and normal stress variation due to a bimaterial effect. We observe pulse-like and crack-like <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes in the experimental configuration of a Homalite plate with inclined interface prestressed both in compression and in shear, similarly to faults in the Earth's crust. Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is initiated by exploding a 0.1 mm nickel wire. Digital high-speed cameras are used to record photoelastic images. Two interferometry-based velocimeters are used to determine the history of relative sliding velocity at one location along the interface. Our results indicate that pulse-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can exist on such interfaces in the absence of a bimaterial effect or local heterogeneities. For a set of experiments with increasing ratio of shear to normal prestress, which is achieved by increasing the inclination angle of the interface, we observe a change in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes from pulse-like to crack-like. This systematic variation is consistent with the theoretical study of velocity-weakening interfaces by Zheng and Rice (1998). We also establish experimentally, for the first time, that both pulse-like and crack-like <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes can transition to supershear speeds. After the supershear transition, both modes have speeds within the open interval \\sqrt{2} Cs to Cp, where Cs and Cp are the S- and P-wave speeds of Homalite, respectively. However, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed of pulse-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is lower. These supershear speeds are consistent with the analytical predictions of the velocity-weakening model of Samudrala et al. (2002). The agreement between our experimental observations and models of velocity-weakening faults suggests that velocity-weakening friction plays an important role in dynamic behavior of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and implies that expressing dynamic weakening of friction solely in terms of slip may not be a sufficiently general description. We will also present our <span class="hlt">current</span> efforts to further analyze the experiments, including the potential effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation procedure. Our preliminary experimental measurements of vertical motion of points close to the interface indicate that there is no opening of the interface during sliding at locations where we determine the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mode, although more analysis is need to determine whether there is any significant normal stress variation. We are in the process of including normal stress variations into our existing numerical code to investigate this issue, as well as to study which friction law is most consistent with the experimental observations. We are also working on quantifying the parameters of the explosion and determining the friction properties of Homalite (collaboration with N. Beeler and B. Kilgore (USGS), C. Marone (Penn State), and G. Ravichandran (Caltech)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25489894"><span id="translatedtitle">Intracranial venous hemodynamics and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of cerebral aneurysm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Kwo-Whei; Tsai, Fong-Y; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liu, Chi-Kuang; Kuo, Chen-Ling</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many uncertain and inconsistent etiologies of cerebral aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> including a wide spectrum of factors have been reported. Our recent observation discloses the potential new factor of cerebral aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with cerebral venous pressure gradient. We retrospectively reviewed 52 cases treated with coil embolization with or without cerebral aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Seventeen males and 30 females were recruited in this study. Quantitative color-coded cerebral angiography was performed during coil therapeutic procedures to measure cerebral venous circulation. <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> cases had shorter and symmetrical cerebral venous circulation time (P <0.05). In addition, an asymmetrical venous outflow pattern was critical for aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cases tended to have slower and asymmetrical cerebral venous circulation compared with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases. Symmetrical and shorter cerebral venous circulation in the dysplasia venous outlet may be a potential new factor for cerebral aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25489894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481490"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of hepatocellular adenoma: Solitary-uncomplicated, multiple and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tumors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Toso, Christian; Majno, Pietro; Andres, Axel; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Berney, Thierry; Buhler, Léo; Morel, Philippe; Mentha, Gilles</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>AIM: While hepatocellular adenomas (HAs) have often been studied as a unique entity, we aimed to better define <span class="hlt">current</span> management of the various forms of HAs. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients operated for solitary-uncomplicated (9), multiple (6), and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> (10) HAs were reviewed according to management strategies and outcomes. RESULTS: All solitary-uncomplicated HAs (ranged 2.2-14 cm in size) were removed. Out of 25 HAs, 2 (8%) included foci of carcinoma. In the multiple HA group, previously undiagnosed tumors were identified during surgery in 5/6 cases. In three cases with multiple spread HA, several lesions had to be left unresected. They remained unmodified after 4-, 6-, and 6-year radiological follow-up. Patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> HA (ranged 1.7-10 cm in size) were initially managed with hemodynamic support and angiography, allowing the embolization of actively bleeding tumors in two patients. All <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tumors were subsequently removed 5.5 d (range 4-70 d) after admission. CONCLUSION: Tumors suspected of HA, regardless of the size, should be resected, because of high chances of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> causing bleeding, and/or containing malignant foci. Although it is desirable to remove all lesions of multiple HA, this may not be possible in some patients, for whom long-term radiological follow-up is advised. <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> HA can be managed by hemodynamic support and angiography, allowing scheduled surgery. PMID:16237767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EP%26S...66..101T"><span id="translatedtitle">Source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults <span class="hlt">rupture</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> before the Yunodake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here, we estimated the source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starting point and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (?CFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in order to evaluate the effect of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the Yunodake fault. The ?CFF is positive at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was triggered by the Itozawa fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3621161"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of the vulnerability of carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: a comparative study between intraplaque neovascularization and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echogenicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echolucency as detected by Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) has been used as a potential marker of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has recently been shown to be a valuable method to evaluate the vulnerability and neovascularization within carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The aim of this study was to compare CEUS and CDUS in the assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vulnerability using transcranial color Doppler (TCD) monitoring of microembolic signals (MES) as a reference technique. Methods A total of 46 subjects with arterial stenosis (? 50%) underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound, TCD monitoring of MES and CEUS (SonoVue doses of 2.0 mL) within a span of 3 days. The agreement between the CEUS, CDUS, and MES findings was assessed with a chi-square test. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Neovascularization was observed in 30 lesions (44.4%). The vascular risk factors for stroke were similar and there were no age or gender differences between the 2 groups. Using CEUS, MES were identified in 2 patients (12.5%) within class 1 (non-neovascularization) as opposed to 15 patients (50.0%) within class 2 (neovascularization) (p?=?0.023). CDUS revealed no significant differences in the appearance of the MES between the 2 groups (hyperechoic and hypoechoic) (p?=?0.237). Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that intraplaque neovascularization detected by CEUS is associated with the presence of MESs, where as <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echogenicity on traditional CDUS does not. These findings argue that CEUS may better identify high-risk <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. PMID:23537052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2014&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2011&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2013&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2012&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec872-5580.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. 872.5580 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices...rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/64981"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of ceroid formation in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: in situ studies combination of Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Haka, Abigail S.</p> <p></p> <p>Accumulation of the lipid-protein complex ceroid is a characteristic of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The mechanism of ceroid formation has been extensively studied, because the complex is postulated to contribute to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealth/Topics/ToothDecay/Documents/Plaque_brochure.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span>: What It Is and How to Get Rid of It</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... for a fresh feeling! Rinse again. Remember: Food residues, especially sweets, provide nutrients for the germs that ... why it is important to remove all food residues, as well as <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, from teeth. Remove <span class="hlt">plaque</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/55/67/95/PDF/TB-CMBBM-13-orig.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries: effect of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deformability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p></p> <p>Modelling of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries: effect of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deformability of fluid structure interactions in stenosed arteries. Stenoses in arteries are usually induced the mechanical response of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the arteries [1]. This mechanical response is mainly induced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"><span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p>1987-08-03</p> <p>The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_28_2010_otk7Nay4LH_09_28_2010_1"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Northwest Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1285246"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Young, T B</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A case is reported of simultaneous traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of quadriceps tendons diagnosed in the accident and emergency department within 2 hours of injury. This is an extremely rare injury and diagnosis is often missed. Possible mechanism of the injury, predisposing factors, guidelines for diagnosis and results of surgical treatment are discussed, and the literature is reviewed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4015792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2425781"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a renal angiomyolipoma (hamartoma)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stavorovsky, M.; Irge, D.; Morag, B.; Schujman, E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A 54-year-old woman with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of angiomyolipoma is presented. The literature on the 2 types of angiomyolipoma, without and with association of tuberose sclerosis, their rarity and the difficulties in their diagnoses, is reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:523379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21675627"><span id="translatedtitle">Laparoscopic splenectomy for atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Amato, Gerardo; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina M C; Cavicchioni, Camillo; Bellantone, Rocco</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A traumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (ASR) is a rare clinical entity. Several underlying benign and malignant conditions have been described as a leading cause. We report on a case of ASR in a 41-year-old man treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. Considering ASR as a life-threatening condition, a prompt diagnosis can be life saving. PMID:21675627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15858563"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth science: microseismicity data forecast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schorlemmer, Danijel; Wiemer, Stefan</p> <p>2005-04-28</p> <p>On 28 September 2004 there was an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 at Parkfield, California. Here we show that the size distribution of the micro-earthquakes recorded in the decades before the main shock occurred allowed an accurate forecast of its eventual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area. Applying this approach to other well monitored faults should improve earthquake hazard assessment in future. PMID:15858563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29102331"><span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous intramural <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the oesophagus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>C Steadman; P Kerlin; F Crimmins; J Bell; D Robinson; L Dorrington; A McIntyre</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The clinical, endoscopic, and radiological features of seven patients with an uncommon oesophageal injury characterised by long lacerations of the oesophageal mucosa with haematoma formation but without perforation are reported. The injuries were not related to forceful vomiting or any other definable cause but were similar to those previously described as intramural oesophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy undertaken to identify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.icf11.com/proceeding/extended/3110.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">RECENT ADVANCES IN MODELLING DUCTILE <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. A. Benzerga; J. Besson; A. Pineau</p> <p></p> <p>A brief account of recent advances in modelling ductile <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is given. The importance of the inhomogeneity in the distribution of cavity nucleation sites is firstly emphasized. Then some recent extensions of the Gurson model to account for non spherical void shape are presented. Finally recent progress in modelling cavity coalescence is highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141p4907G"><span id="translatedtitle">Star polymers <span class="hlt">rupture</span> induced by constant forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25362341"><span id="translatedtitle">Star polymers <span class="hlt">rupture</span> induced by constant forces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A</p> <p>2014-10-28</p> <p>In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks. PMID:25362341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2975082"><span id="translatedtitle">Penile Fracture with Associated Urethral <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boncher, Nicholas A.; Vricella, Gino J.; Jankowski, Jason T.; Ponsky, Lee E.; Cherullo, Edward E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Penile fracture of the erect penis is an uncommon but emergent urological trauma. Potential outcomes include erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and urethral injury. Treatment is emergent surgical repair. We present the case of a 42-year-old man with a penile fracture complicated by a urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and subsequent repair. A discussion of the key aspects of this condition is presented. PMID:21076536</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268758"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD. PMID:25552833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>John A. Kelleher</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/25138777"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon following Closed Injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. G. SIMPSON</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the extensor pollicis longus tendon is most often seen following lower radial fractures, but is uncommon in the absence of fracture. Redden has recently described <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following rotational injury of the forearm.I wish to record three cases of closed delayed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following direct injury to the area of the tendon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100015408&hterms=defense+cascade+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddefense%2Bcascade%2Bmodel"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber Breakage Model for Carbon Composite Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Phenomenon: Theoretical Development and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failure of Carbon Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) is of serious concern to Science Mission and Constellation programs since there are a number of COPVs on board space vehicles with stored gases under high pressure for long durations of time. It has become customary to establish the reliability of these vessels using the so called classic models. The classical models are based on Weibull statistics fitted to observed stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data. These stochastic models cannot account for any additional damage due to the complex pressure-time histories characteristic of COPVs being supplied for NASA missions. In particular, it is suspected that the effects of proof test could significantly reduce the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lifetime of COPVs. The focus of this paper is to present an analytical appraisal of a model that incorporates damage due to proof test. The model examined in the <span class="hlt">current</span> paper is based on physical mechanisms such as micromechanics based load sharing concepts coupled with creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and Weibull statistics. For example, the classic model cannot accommodate for damage due to proof testing which every flight vessel undergoes. The paper compares <span class="hlt">current</span> model to the classic model with a number of examples. In addition, several applications of the model to <span class="hlt">current</span> ISS and Constellation program issues are also examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~steveday/PUBLISHED/Pitarka_et_al_2009_buried.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Study of Ground-Motion Differences between Buried-<span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> and Surface-<span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Arben Pitarka; Luis A. Dalguer; Steven M. Day; Paul G. Somerville; Kazuo Dan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Recent ground-motion observations suggest that surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span> earth- quakes generate weaker near-fault ground motion than buried earthquakes. This dif- ference is significant in the period range of 0.3-3 sec. Contributing factors to this phenomenon may include the effect of fault zone weakness at shallow depth on rup- ture dynamics and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity during earthquakes. We present results from numerical experiments of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33027646"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span>-Type Blue Nevus of the Oral Cavity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Susanna K. Fistarol; Peter H. Itin</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background: The blue nevus of the oral cavity is a rare lesion with important differential diagnoses. The <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-type blue nevus is an uncommon variant of the blue nevus. Because of its particular clinical appearance, it can easily be confused with satellite metastases from malignant melanoma. The diagnosis usually requires a biopsy. Objectives: To describe the clinical and histological features of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3550.photos.360870p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Manufacturer's <span class="hlt">plaque</span> located on north side of south parapet wall, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Manufacturer's <span class="hlt">plaque</span> located on north side of south parapet wall, bridge over little Pince Creek (S.R. 1026, section 002), looking south - Bridge over Little Pine Creek, State Route 1026 over Little Pine Creek, 2.01 kilometers (1.25 miles) East of Bendertown, Jonestown, Columbia County, PA</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52164074"><span id="translatedtitle">Aminomalonic Acid: Identification in Escherichia coli and Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>John J. van Buskirk; Wolff M. Kirsch; Don L. Kleyer; Robert M. Barkley; Tad H. Koch</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Aminomalonic acid (Ama) has been isolated from proteins of Escherichia coli and human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The presence of Ama has important biological implications because the malonic acid moiety potentially imparts calcium binding properties to protein. Ama was obtained by anaerobic alkaline hydrolysis and identified by chromatographic behavior, quantitative acid-mediated decarboxylation to glycine, and unambiguous gas chromatographic\\/mass spectral detection. The chromatographic,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14571118"><span id="translatedtitle">Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH <or=5.5, growth by an OD(660) of >or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14971668"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Formation in Agar by Single Antibody-Producing Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Niels K. Jerne; Albert A. Nordin</p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>Distinct <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, each of which is due to the release of hemolysin by a single antibody-forming cell, are revealed by complement after incubation, in an agar layer, of a mixture of sheep red cells and lymphoid cells from a rabbit immunized with sheep red cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6144..114J"><span id="translatedtitle">Variogram methods for texture classification of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> ultrasound images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeromin, Oliver M.; Pattichis, Marios S.; Pattichis, Constantinos; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Nicolaides, Andrew</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the western world and the major cause of disability in adults. The type and stenosis of extracranial carotid artery disease is often responsible for ischemic strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax (AF). The identification and grading of stenosis can be done using gray scale ultrasound scans. The appearance of B-scan pictures containing various granular structures makes the use of texture analysis techniques suitable for computer assisted tissue characterization purposes. The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of variogram analysis in the assessment of ultrasound plague morphology. The variogram estimates the variance of random fields, from arbitrary samples in space. We explore stationary random field models based on the variogram, which can be applied in ultrasound <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging leading to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the early detection of symptomatic atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Non-parametric tests on the variogram coefficients show that the cofficients coming from symptomatic versus asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> come from distinct distributions. Furthermore, we show significant improvement in class separation, when a log point-transformation is applied to the images, prior to variogram estimation. Model fitting using least squares is explored for anisotropic variograms along specific directions. Comparative classification results, show that variogram coefficients can be used for the early detection of symptomatic cases, and also exhibit the largest class distances between symptomatic and asymptomatic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> images, as compared to over 60 other texture features, used in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1921.photos.190822p/"><span id="translatedtitle">4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AT LEE VINING CANYON. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE <span class="hlt">PLAQUE</span> AT LEE VINING CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 30.3 / 119 13 44.8 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24256651"><span id="translatedtitle">[Optimization of black blood CINE for mobile <span class="hlt">plaque</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakagawa, Kenichi; Komaki, Shinsuke</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>For examining carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, black blood (BB) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can diagnose <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components based on MR signals. Dynamic images for evaluating the mobility of carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> may also be useful as an adjunct to the diagnosis of carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. The aim of this study was to find optimal parameters for dynamic images using the black blood technique (BB CINE). All experiments were acquired using electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated T1 turbo field echo (T1 TFE) combined with the regional saturation technique (REST) and improved motion-sensitized driven equilibrium (iMSDE) at 1.5 tesla (T). The following parameters were investigated. (1) Four fat suppression techniques: spectral presaturation with IR (SPIR), the principle of selective excitation technique (PROSET) with a binomial excitation of 1-1 (PROSET1-1), PROSET1-2-1 and PROSET1-3-3-1; (2) TFE factors 1 and 2; and (3) flow velocity encoding (venc) of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 cm/s for iMSDE. The results showed the optimal parameters for BB CINE to be PROSET1-2-1, TFE factor 2, and flow venc of 3-5 cm/s for iMSDE. PMID:24256651</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30274863"><span id="translatedtitle">Secretory group II phospholipase A2 in human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Mario Menschikowski; Michael Kasper; Peter Lattke; Andrea Schiering; Sigbert Schiefer; Hubertus Stockinger; Werner Jaross</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> exhibit a series of features that are similar to those of chronic inflammation. Based on the fact that during inflammation several cell types synthesize and secrete a group II phospholipase A2 (PLA2), an immunohistochemical study was undertaken to explore whether this enzyme can be identified in human atherosclerotic lesions. Tissue specimens obtained from 13 patients who had undergone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32281849"><span id="translatedtitle">Atherothrombosis and <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Heterology: Different Location or a Unique Disease?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Slevin; Q. Wang; A. Luque; Oriol Juan-Babot; J. Gaffney; P. Kumar; S. Kumar; L. Badimon; J. Krupinski</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Formation of unstable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> frequently results in atherothrombosis, the major cause for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Patients who have symptomatic thrombosis in one vascular bed are at increased risk of disease in other beds. However, the development of the disease in carotid, coronary and peripheral arteries may have different pathophysiology suggesting that more complex treatment protocols</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S13C1454H"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations Into Early Magnitude Estimation From Predominant Period, Using Synthetic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hildyard, M.; Rietbrock, A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Considerable interest has been shown in a method for estimating predominant period in the time domain (TpMax), first proposed by Nakamura (1988) and <span class="hlt">currently</span> being developed for other early warning systems (e.g. Lockman and Allen, BSSA, 2005). Issues still exist as to the causes of the scatter evident in empirical work, and how effective the method is for characterising large events whose time to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is longer than the few seconds desired to estimate the magnitude. Our work on applying this method to an aftershock dataset motivated us to investigate the method through the use of synthetic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model we use prescribes a stress-drop with a prescribed rise-time over a small patch of the fault surface. This stress-drop is propagated to other patches of the fault according to a prescribed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rate. The same finite difference model geometry and fault patch size was then used to model events ranging from magnitude 3.7 to 7.2. Moment Magnitude was calculated directly by integrating the resultant slip on the fault, and TpMax was calculated from seismograms recorded on surface 50 km from the centre of the fault. The initial modelling used a homogenous stress drop, rise-time, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rate. A dataset of 165 events, showed a significant increasing relationship between the TpMax calculation and magnitude. Isolating similar events initiating at the same point on the fault, gave a near straight-line trend. Scatter in the relationship is shown to result from variations in the position, initiation point, stress drop, rise time, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. Low frequency filtering was found to significantly affect the TpMax calculations and trends. Without filtering, the relationship saturated from just after magnitude 6, as the time to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> becomes longer than the window used to calculate TpMax. However, low frequency filtering actually reduces the time to reach a maximum in the calculation, and this can cause the increasing trend to continue into somewhat higher magnitudes. This mapping may explain some of the previously reported results that TpMax can often be calculated in less time than the time to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Olson and Allen, Nature, 2005). Extensions to this work are being made to look at whether these conclusions remain true for heterogenous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and whether any advantages can be gained by using either displacement or acceleration seismograms in the calculation rather than velocity seismograms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/reprint/20/5/897.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> at the Carotid Bifurcation: CT Angiographic Appearance with Histopathologic Correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>T. Barry Oliver; G. Alistair Lammie; Andrew R. Wright; Joanna Wardlaw; Sandi G. Patel; Russell Peek; C. Vaughan Ruckley; Donald A. Collie</p> <p></p> <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The likelihood that carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> will give rise to cerebral ischemia probably relates to the degree of arterial stenosis and to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology. The aim of this study was to assess whether features seen at CT angiography might be used to predict carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability by comparing CT angiograms with histopathologic examinations of the carotid artery bifurcation. METHODS:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35330155"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipid composition in atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: evaluation of the lipid three-phase percentage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Enrico Marinello; Carlo Setacci; Michele Giubbolini; Giuliano Cinci; Barbara Frosi; Brunetta Porcelli; Lucia Terzuoli</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>There is a renewed interest in the study of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lipid composition because it is recognized that it, rather than the luminal narrowing, influences the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability and determines patient symptoms.At this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated in the carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> of different categories of patients the expression of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, free cholesterol, esters of cholesterol, and the percentages of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28960782"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of shear stress in the destabilization of vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and related therapeutic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>JJ Wentzel; FJH Gijsen; A Thury; AC van der Wal; JA Schaar; PW Serruys; CJ Slager</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>American Heart Association type IV <span class="hlt">plaques</span> consist of a lipid core covered by a fibrous cap, and develop at locations of eccentric low shear stress. Vascular remodeling initially preserves the lumen diameter while maintaining the low shear stress conditions that encourage <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth. When these <span class="hlt">plaques</span> eventually start to intrude into the lumen, the shear stress in the area surrounding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57203342"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron Microscopic Study of the Effect of Water Jet Lavage Devices on Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>John M. Brady; Walter A. Gray; Surindar N. Bhaskar</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The maxillary posterior teeth of nine rhesus monkeys were treated with a pulsating water lavage instrument at 70 psi (high setting). Electron microscopic studies of pre- and post-lavage <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples showed that water jet devices as used in this experiment either removed the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> completely or caused irreversible damage to the microbial forms in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://musserlab.medicine.tamhsc.edu/PDFs%20of%20papers/Hamai%20et%20al%28BJ2007%29.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Giant Vesicle <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Events Reveal Multiple Mechanisms of Glass-Supported Bilayer Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Chiho Hamai; Paul S. Cremer; Siegfried M. Musser</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The formation of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on glass from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) was studied using fluorescence microscopy. We show that GUV <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs by at least four mechanisms, including 1), spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of isolated GUVs yielding almost heart-shaped bilayer patches (asymmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>); 2), spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of isolated GUVs yielding circular bilayer patches (symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>); 3), induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4259387"><span id="translatedtitle">Disruption of Amyloid <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is <span class="hlt">currently</span> accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta <span class="hlt">plaques</span> whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520098"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Positron Emission Tomography ?-Amyloid <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Imaging Agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mathis, Chester A.; Mason, N. Scott; Lopresti, Brian J.; Klunk, William E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>For 100 years, ?-amyloid (A?) <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been recognized as the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and their presence or absence could only be assessed postmortem using stains and dyes that identified these microscopic structures. Approximately 10 years ago, the first successful A? <span class="hlt">plaque</span>–specific positron emission tomography (PET) imaging study was conducted in a living human subject clinically diagnosed with probable AD using the 11C-labeled radiopharmaceutical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB). Laboratory studies and preclinical evaluations to design PiB began a decade earlier than the first human PiB PET study and involved chemical modifications of different well-known dyes that bound specifically to the extended ?-pleated sheets that comprise the fibrils of amyloid proteins such as A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, NFTs, ?-synuclein deposits, and prions. These preclinical studies were conducted in our laboratories at the University of Pittsburgh, starting with Congo red derivatives, followed by Chrysamine G derivatives, followed by X-series compounds, and finally with neutral derivatives of thioflavin-T. The in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the different derivatives as candidate PET radioligands for imaging A? <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and neurofibrillary tangles in human brain are described in this review, along with the specific evaluation criteria by which the candidate radioligands were judged. Out of these studies came PiB, a PET radioligand that binds selectively and with high affinity to only fibrillar forms of A?. PiB has been used in many different human research protocols throughout the world and has demonstrated the usefulness of assessing the A? <span class="hlt">plaque</span> status of subjects many years before the clinical diagnosis of probable AD. Recently, longer-lived 18F-radiolabeled A?-selective radiopharmaceuticals have been developed. It is likely that the full clinical impact of these imaging agents will be realized by identifying presymptomatic subjects who would benefit from early drug treatments with future disease-modifying AD therapeutics. PMID:23026364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21077973"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistance of a vaccinia virus A34R deletion mutant to spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the outer membrane of progeny virions on the surface of infected cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Husain, Matloob; Weisberg, Andrea S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov</p> <p>2007-09-30</p> <p>The extracellular form of vaccinia virus is referred to as an enveloped virion (EV) because it contains an additional lipoprotein membrane surrounding the infectious mature virion (MV) that must be discarded prior to cell fusion and entry. Most EVs adhere to the surface of the parent cell and mediate spread of the infection to adjacent cells. Here we show that some attached EVs have <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> envelopes. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> was detected by fluorescence microscopy of unfixed and unpermeabilized cells using antibodies to the F13 and L1 proteins, which line the inner side of the EV membrane and the outer side of the MV membrane, respectively. The presence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> EV membranes was confirmed by immunogold transmission electron microscopy. EVs with broken membranes were present on several cell lines examined including one deficient in glycosaminoglycans, which are thought to play a role in breakage of the EV membrane prior to fusion of the MV. No correlation was found between EVs with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> membranes and actin tail formation. Studies with several mutant viruses indicated that EV membranes lacking the A34 protein were unbroken. This result was consistent with other properties of A34R deletion mutants including resistance of the EV membrane to polyanions, small <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and low infectivity that can be increased by disruption of the EV membrane by freezing and thawing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4469860"><span id="translatedtitle">An unusual presentation of recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, Shu Qi; Thia, Edwin Wee Hong; Tee, Chee Seng John; Yeo, George Seow Heong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We describe a case of recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the site of a previous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Our patient had a history of right interstitial pregnancy with spontaneous uterine fundal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at 18 weeks of pregnancy. During her subsequent pregnancy, she was monitored closely by a senior consultant obstetrician. The patient presented at 34 weeks with right hypochondriac pain. She was clinically stable and fetal monitoring showed no signs of fetal distress. Ultrasonography revealed protrusion of the intact amniotic membranes in the abdominal cavity at the uterine fundus. Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare but hazardous obstetric complication. High levels of caution should be exercised in patients with a history of prior uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as they may present with atypical symptoms. Ultrasonography could provide valuable information in such cases where there is an elevated risk of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the previous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106245"><span id="translatedtitle">An unusual presentation of recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Shu Qi; Thia, Edwin Wee Hong; Tee, Chee Seng John; Yeo, George Seow Heong</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We describe a case of recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the site of a previous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Our patient had a history of right interstitial pregnancy with spontaneous uterine fundal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at 18 weeks of pregnancy. During her subsequent pregnancy, she was monitored closely by a senior consultant obstetrician. The patient presented at 34 weeks with right hypochondriac pain. She was clinically stable and fetal monitoring showed no signs of fetal distress. Ultrasonography revealed protrusion of the intact amniotic membranes in the abdominal cavity at the uterine fundus. Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare but hazardous obstetric complication. High levels of caution should be exercised in patients with a history of prior uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as they may present with atypical symptoms. Ultrasonography could provide valuable information in such cases where there is an elevated risk of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the previous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> site. PMID:26106245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2739847"><span id="translatedtitle">A review on delayed presentation of diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rashid, Farhan; Chakrabarty, Mallicka M; Singh, Rajeev; Iftikhar, Syed Y</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a life-threatening condition. Diaphragmatic injuries are quite uncommon and often result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are usually associated with abdominal trauma however, it can occur in isolation. Acute traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm may go unnoticed and there is often a delay between the injury and the diagnosis. A comprehensive literature search was performed using the terms "delayed presentation of post traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>" and "delayed diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>". The diagnostic and management challenges encountered are discussed, together with strategies for dealing with them. We have focussed on mechanism of injury, duration, presentation and site of injury, visceral herniation, investigations and different approaches for repair. We intend to stress on the importance of delay in presentation of diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and to provide a review on the available investigations and treatment methods. The enclosed case report also emphasizes on the delayed presentation, diagnostic challenges and the advantages of laparoscopic repair of delayed diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:19698091</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3076792"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic resonance imaging of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ryan; Wengenack, Thomas M.; Poduslo, Joseph F.; Garwood, Michael; Jack, Clifford R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A major objective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reduction. Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease provide a controlled and consistent environment for studying amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> deposition in Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging is an attractive tool for longitudinal studies because it offers non-invasive monitoring of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to detect individual <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in living mice. This review discusses the mouse models, MR pulse sequences, and parameters that have been used to image <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and how they can be optimized for future studies. PMID:21499442</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665513"><span id="translatedtitle">Patient-specific prediction of coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth from CTA angiography: a multiscale model for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parodi, Oberdan; Exarchos, Themis P; Marraccini, Paolo; Vozzi, Federico; Milosevic, Zarko; Nikolic, Dalibor; Sakellarios, Antonis; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Filipovic, Nenad</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Computational fluid dynamics methods based on in vivo 3-D vessel reconstructions have recently been identified the influence of wall shear stress on endothelial cells as well as on vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in different events such as flow mediated vasodilatation, atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. Development of image-based modeling technologies for simulating patient-specific local blood flows is introducing a novel approach to risk prediction for coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth and progression. In this study, we developed 3-D model of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression that was tested in a set of patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for anginal symptoms. The 3-D blood flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modeled by a convection-diffusion equation. The low density lipoprotein (LDL) transports in lumen of the vessel and through the vessel tissue (which has a mass consumption term) are coupled by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is modeled using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. A full 3-D model was created. It includes blood flow and LDL concentration, as well as <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression. Furthermore, features potentially affecting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth, such as patient risk score, circulating biomarkers, localization and composition of the initial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, and coronary vasodilating capability were also investigated. The proof of concept of the model effectiveness was assessed by repetition of CTA, six months after. PMID:22665513</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046006"><span id="translatedtitle">Low footwall accelerations and variable surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior on the Fort Sage Mountains fault, northeast California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Briggs, Richard W.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Brune, James N.; Purvance, Matthew D.; Mahan, Shannon A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Fort Sage Mountains fault zone is a normal fault in the Walker Lane of the western Basin and Range that produced a small surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (L 5.6 earthquake in 1950. We investigate the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault and find evidence for two paleoearthquakes with surface displacements much larger than those observed in 1950. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Fort Sage fault ?5.6??ka resulted in surface displacements of at least 0.8–1.5 m, implying earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) of 6.7–7.1. An older <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at ?20.5??ka displaced the ground at least 1.5 m, implying an earthquake of Mw 6.8–7.1. A field of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is located less than 1 km from the surface?<span class="hlt">rupture</span> trace of this Holocene?active normal fault. Ground?motion prediction equations (GMPEs) predict peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2–0.3g for the 1950 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and 0.3–0.5g for the ?5.6??ka paleoearthquake one kilometer from the fault?surface trace, yet field tests indicate that the Fort Sage PBRs will be toppled by PGAs between 0.1–0.3g. We discuss the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault in the context of the nearby PBRs, GMPEs, and probabilistic seismic hazard maps for extensional regimes. If the Fort Sage PBRs are older than the mid?Holocene <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the Fort Sage fault zone, this implies that <span class="hlt">current</span> GMPEs may overestimate near?fault footwall ground motions at this site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686622"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic variations in the ultrasound greyscale median of carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Several studies have found that the ultrasound greyscale median (GSM) of carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may be useful for predicting the risk of cerebrovascular events. However, measurements of GSM are typically performed on still ultrasound images ignoring any variations that may be observed on a frame-by-frame basis. The aim of this study was to establish the existence and investigate the nature and extent of these variations. Methods Employing a novel method that enabled <span class="hlt">plaque</span> boundaries to be tracked semi-automatically, variations in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> GSM and observed cross-sectional area were measured for 27 carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (19 consecutive patients, stenosis range 10%-80%) over image sequences of up to 10 seconds in length acquired with a mean frame rate of 32 frames per second. Results Our results showed a mean inter-frame coefficient of variation (CV) of 5.2% (s.d. 2.5%) for GSM and 4.2% (s.d. 2.9%) for the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area. Thirteen of the 27 <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (48%) exhibited CV in GSM greater than 5% whereas only six <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (22%) had CV in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area of greater than 5%. There was no significant correlation between the CV of GSM and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area. Conclusions Inter-frame variations in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> GSM such as those found in this study have implications on the reproducibility of GSM measurements and their clinical utility. Studies assessing the GSM of carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> should consider these variations. PMID:23767988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860005910&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Internal%2BCombustion%2529%2BEngine%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of Stirling engine materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3277969"><span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> ICA during Transsphenoidal Surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghatge, S.B.; Modi, D.B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summary <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the internal carotid artery (ICA) during transsphenoidal surgery is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Direct surgical repair of the ICA may be difficult and time-consuming in an acute setting. Urgent endovascular treatments with vascular plug or stent-graft have been the feasible options to date. We desrcibe two cases of iatrogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of ICA during transsphenoidal surgery. In the first case we occluded the ICA with a vascular plug at the site of tear where cross circulation was adequate. In the second case we had to preserve the ICA with stent-graft since there was no adequate cross circulation. These two strategies are discussed below. PMID:20377977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17867573"><span id="translatedtitle">Pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>: a review of diagnostic issues and possible nonasbestos factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clarke, Chester C; Mowat, Fionna S; Kelsh, Michael A; Roberts, Mark A</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The authors reviewed nonasbestos etiologies and diagnostic issues related to pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Through searches of PUBMED and DIALOG using the term pleural <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, they identified 125 articles. The authors found additional references by reviewing citations of these 125 articles. Exposure to nonasbestos agents (eg, erionite, silicates, manmade fibers) was cited as a possible factor in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> development, although this association was based on limited data; empyema, tuberculosis, rib fractures, and hemothorax also were cited as potential etiologies. Rib companion shadows, fat, intercostal vessels, and muscles can appear as <span class="hlt">plaques</span>; thus, radiographic diagnosis requires careful evaluation. Chest x-rays show large false negative and varying false positive rates. The terms calcification and thickening often were used as synonymous with <span class="hlt">plaques</span>; however, these terms have different meanings. The authors concluded that <span class="hlt">plaques</span> may be associated with nonasbestos exposures and certain medical conditions. Without a thorough exposure/medical history, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> reports can be misleading. PMID:17867573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25308946"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound speckle tracking strain estimation of in vivo carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with in vitro sonomicrometry validation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Widman, Erik; Caidahl, Kenneth; Heyde, Brecht; D'hooge, Jan; Larsson, Matilda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Our objective was to validate a previously developed speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to assess strain in common carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Radial and longitudinal strain was measured in common carotid artery gel phantoms with a <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-mimicking inclusion using an in-house ST algorithm and sonomicrometry. Moreover, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> strain by ST for seven patients (77 ± 6 y) with carotid atherosclerosis was compared with a quantitative visual assessment by two experienced physicians. In vitro, good correlation existed between ST and sonomicrometry peak strains, both radially (r = 0.96, p < 0.001) and longitudinally (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). In vivo, greater pulse pressure-adjusted radial and longitudinal strains were found in echolucent <span class="hlt">plaques</span> than in echogenic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. This illustrates the feasibility of ultrasound ST strain estimation in <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and the possibility of characterizing <span class="hlt">plaques</span> using ST strain in vivo. PMID:25308946</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3189976"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the characterization of the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Phipps, Jennifer; Sun, Yinghua; Saroufeem, Ramez; Hatami, Nisa; Fishbein, Michael C.; Marcu, Laura</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the ability of a flexible fiberoptic-based fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) technique to resolve biochemical features in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fibrotic cap associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability and based solely on fluorescence decay characteristics. Autofluorescence of atherosclerotic human aorta (11 autopsy samples) was measured at 48 locations through two filters, F377: 377/50 and F460: 460/60 nm (center wavelength/bandwidth). The fluorescence decay dynamic was described by average lifetime (?) and four Laguerre coefficients (LECs) retrieved through a Laguerre deconvolution technique. FLIM-derived parameters discriminated between four groups [elastin-rich (ER), elastin and macrophage-rich (E+M), collagen-rich (CR), and lipid-rich (LR)]. For example, ?F377 discriminated ER from CR (R = 0.84); ?F460 discriminated E+M from CR and ER (R = 0.60 and 0.54, respectively); LEC-1F377 discriminated CR from LR and E+M (R = 0.69 and 0.77, respectively); P < 0.05 for all correlations. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify this data set with specificity >87% (all cases) and sensitivity as high as 86%. <span class="hlt">Current</span> results demonstrate for the first time that clinically relevant features (e.g., ratios of lipid versus collagen versus elastin) can be evaluated with a flexible-fiber based FLIM technique without the need for fluorescence intensity information or contrast agents. PMID:21950932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423844"><span id="translatedtitle">[Pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization induced by PM2.5 exposure and coping strategies].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yu-Jie; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ya-Jie; Yao, Hong-Mei; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Li, Han-Qing; Liu, Xu-Cen; Zhou, Bing-Bing; Guo, Yan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>With the increasingly more serious environmental pollution in China in recent years, effective intervention with PM25-induced health risks has become a major scientific issue to be addressed urgently in medical research field in China. NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a family of cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors that have critical roles in innate immunity. On the basis of study progresses in international cardiovascular disease research "Fine particulate matter exposure is a modifiable risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases", and with reference to the <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in PM2.5-induced acute coronary syndrome, this study intended to investigate whether intracellular pattern recognition NL-RP3 plays a important role in the inital event of PM2.5 induced vessel inflammation as a foreign matter in the process of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization and to thoroughly explore the underlying mechanisms responsible for PM2.5-induced acute cardiovascular events. On the other hand, it also studies the feasibility of using traditional Chinese medicine to treat <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization cause by PM2.5 exposure and discuss it's pathogenesis and intervention strategy based on TCM theory. This paper in order to provide scientific basis for social focal issues in public health proactively and offers the references for relevant research. PMID:25423844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1773295"><span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the corpus cavernosum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, L B; Chiang, C P; Huang, C H; Chou, Y H; Wang, C J</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>Twelve patients with fracture of the penis have been treated in this department during the last 18 years. Their mean age was 41.5 years (range 25-55) and two-thirds of the injuries resulted from coitus. Eleven patients underwent immediate exploration and repair of the tunica albuginea and only 1 still has sexual dysfunction. One patient was treated conservatively and remains impotent. Immediate surgical treatment is recommended, since it avoids the formation of penile <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, penile fibrosis and angulation and accelerates restoration of normal penile function. PMID:1773295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30167395"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of human dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microcosm biofilms grown in an undefined medium and a chemically defined artificial saliva</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>L. Wong; C. H. Sissions</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The growth and pathogenic properties of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> result from interactions between the microbiota and the oral environment and have been studied in laboratory experimental systems ranging from single or a few species (such as in chemostats) to dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microcosms. Microcosm <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is an in vitro version of natural <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and has been explored as a microflora model because</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138460"><span id="translatedtitle">Circulating and platelet-derived microparticles in human blood enhance thrombosis on atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> followed by thrombosis is the underlying cause of the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Circulating microparticles (cMPs), membrane blebs released into blood by activated cells, have been associated to vascular diseases. Specifically, high levels of platelet-derived microparticles (pMPs) have been found in patients with coronary disease. However, it is unknown whether microparticles have a contributing role to the development of damaged vessel wall-induced arterial thrombi. The aim of this proof of concept study was to investigate whether an increased number of cMPs and pMPs could functionally contribute to blood thrombogenicity on areas of arterial damage. Microparticles were isolated from blood of healthy volunteers and were characterised by flow cytometry. Effects of microparticles on platelet deposition were assessed under controlled flow conditions exposing damaged arterial wall in the Badimon perfusion chamber and collagen type-I in the flat perfusion chamber to human blood. Platelet deposition on damaged arteries was significantly increased in cMP- and pMP-enriched bloods (p<0.05). pMPs also induced increase in platelet (p<0.05) and fibrin (p<0.05) deposition on human atherosclerotic arteries and in platelet adhesion to purified collagen surfaces. pMP-enriched blood induced a dose-dependent shortening of epinephrine/collagen closure time evaluated by PFA-100 (p<0.001), increased low-dose ADP-induced platelet aggregation by LTA (p<0.05), and decreased clotting time by thromboelastography (p<0.01). In conclusion, an increased content of cMPs and pMPs, even in normal blood conditions, enhance platelet deposition and thrombus formation. This study shows for the first time that, beyond biomarkers of cell activation, blood microparticles have functional effects on cardiovascular atherothrombotic disease. PMID:23138460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33B4526W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocities of Intermediate- and Deep-Focus Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warren, L. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes --- how they vary between subduction zones, how they vary with depth, and what their maximum values are --- may help constrain the mechanism(s) of the earthquakes. As part of a global study of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes, I have used <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity to estimate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> vector (speed and orientation) for 422 earthquakes >70 km depth with MW ?5.7 since 1990. I estimate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity relative to the local P-wave velocity (vr/?). Since the same method is used for all earthquakes, the results can be readily compared across study areas. The study areas --- Middle America, South America, Tonga-Kermadec, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, and Japan-Kurils-Kamchatka --- include some of the warmest and coldest subduction zones: subducting plate ages range from 9-150 Myr and descent rates range from 1-13 cm/yr. Across all subduction zones and depth ranges, for the 193 earthquakes with observable directivity and well-constrained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> vectors, most earthquakes <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the more horizontal of the two possible nodal planes. However, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> vectors appear to be randomly-oriented relative to the slip vector, so the earthquakes span the continuum from Mode II (i.e., parallel slip and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> vectors) to Mode III <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (i.e., perpendicular slip and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> vectors). For this earthquake population, the mean <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is 0.43 vr/? ± 0.14 vr/?. The mean earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities are similar between all subduction zones. Since the local seismic wavespeed is faster in colder subduction zones, absolute <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities are faster in colder subduction zones. Overall, the fastest <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities exceed the local S-wave speed. The supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are associated with earthquakes closer to Mode II than Mode III faulting. This is consistent with theoretical calculations, which limit the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity to the S-wave speed for Mode III <span class="hlt">rupture</span> but the P-wave speed for Mode II <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150010395&hterms=student+stress&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstudent%2Bstress"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Durability and Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of EBC/CMCs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This research focuses on the strength and creep performance of SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems under complex simulated engine environments. Tensile-strength and stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> testing was conducted to illustrate the material properties under isothermal and thermal gradient conditions. To determine material durability, further testing was conducted under exposure to thermal cycling, thermal gradients and simulated combustion environments. Emphasis is placed on experimental techniques as well as implementation of non-destructive evaluation, including modal acoustic emission and electrical resistivity monitoring, to characterize strength degradation and damage mechanisms. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, little is known about the behavior of EBC-CMCs under these conditions; consequently, this work will prove invaluable in the development of structural components for use in high temperature applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10553246"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbiologic aspects of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and dental caries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marsh, P D</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is an example of a microbial biofilm with a diverse microbial composition; it is found naturally on teeth and confers advantages to the host, for example, by preventing colonization by exogenous, and often pathogenic, micro-organisms. In individuals with a high frequency sugar diet, or with a severely compromised saliva flow, the levels of potentially cariogenic bacteria (acid-producing and acid-tolerating species) can increase beyond those compatible with enamel health. This article discusses antimicrobial strategies to control dental caries, including; reducing <span class="hlt">plaque</span> levels, in general or specific cariogenic bacteria in particular, by antiplaque or antimicrobial agents; reducing bacterial acid production by replacing fermentable carbohydrates in the diet with sugar substitutes, or by interfering with bacterial metabolism with fluoride or antimicrobial agents. PMID:10553246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-7562397&hterms=Armstrong&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DArmstrong"><span id="translatedtitle">Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative <span class="hlt">Plaque</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this <span class="hlt">plaque</span> which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35345672"><span id="translatedtitle">Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's disease senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. A Lovell; J. D Robertson; W. J Teesdale; J. L Campbell; W. R Markesbery</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the rims and cores of senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (SP) and in the neuropil of the amygdala of nine Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in the neuropil of the amygdala of five neurologically normal control subjects using micro particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Comparison of SP rim and core values revealed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25222509"><span id="translatedtitle">Perforin expression in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis: an immunohistochemical study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samaka, Rehab Monir; Gaber, Mohamed A; Metwe, Nermin A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Psoriasis (PsO) is T-cell-mediated disease resulting from aberrant activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Perforin is a multi-domain, pore-forming protein. It is located within the cytoplasm of CD 8 cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of perforin in lesional and perilesional skin of chronic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriatic patient and correlate its expression with the standard clinico-pathological variables. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 PsO patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group. There were high-significant differences between lesional and perilesional skin of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> PsO patients as regards to IHC perforin status and localization (p?<?0.001 for both). There was a high-significant difference between positive and negative perforin cases as regards to psoriasis area severity index (PASI) (p?<?0.000). There were significant differences between mild and moderate-to-severe intensity of IHC perforin expression as regards to triggering factors and PASI (p?=?0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Localization of IHC perforin positive lymphocytes in both epidermis and dermis was significantly associated with higher degree of acanthosis and higher degree of inflammatory infiltrates in comparison with positive cells located in dermis (p?=?0.001 for both). Perforin might have a putative signaling in early and late <span class="hlt">plaque</span> PsO. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> psoriatic patients with positive perforin expression could be a candidate for a future target therapy to stop the proposed scenario and achieve a therapeutic response. PMID:25222509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-08-8299"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Atherosclerotic Coronary <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Angioscopy </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, Patrick A.</p> <p>2010-10-12</p> <p>waves. This presents a problem by masking any features behind the calcium deposit (11). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) presents another way to scan the physical tomography of a surface, giving similar information as IVUS. OCT has received a... technique for intravascular detection of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is Intravascular Ultrasound, or IVUS. IVUS is the adaption of ultrasonography to intravascular applications and returns A-line scans (A-line scans are lines of spatially resolved information...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33841755"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical safety of tazarotene in the treatment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ronald Marks</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Oral retinoids are effective in the treatment of psoriasis, but their use is limited by concerns for teratogenic potential and systemic side effects. Tazarotene is a novel acetylenic retinoid undergoing clinical trials for the topical treatment of mild-to-moderate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. The safety and tolerability of tazarotene 0.1% and 0.05% gels were examined in a series of preclinical and clinical trials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23366529"><span id="translatedtitle">Patient specific multiscale modelling for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Exarchos, T P; Sakellarios, A; Siogkas, P K; Fotiadis, D I; Milosevic, Z; Nikolic, D; Filipovic, N; Marraccini, P; Vozzi, F; Parodi, O</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present a three-dimensional model of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and progression that was tested in a set of patients who underwent coronary Computed Tomography angiography (CTA) for anginal symptoms. The 3D blood flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the continuity equation. Mass transfer within the blood lumen and through the arterial wall is coupled with the blood flow and is modeled by a convection-diffusion equation. The Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) transports in lumen of the vessel and through the vessel tissue (which has a mass consumption term) are coupled by Kedem-Katchalsky equations. The inflammatory process is modeled using three additional reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. A full three-dimensional model was created. Furthermore, features potentially affecting <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth, such as patient risk score, circulating biomarkers, localization and composition of the initial <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, and coronary vasodilating capability were also investigated. The proof of concept of the model effectiveness was assessed 6 months after the baseline evaluation. PMID:23366529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11504440"><span id="translatedtitle">Adherence of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components to different restorative materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawai, K; Urano, M</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This study compared the amount of artificial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> synthesized in vitro by Streptococcus sobrinus on various dental materials using radioisotopes. In particular, <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-retaining capacities of new types of ceramics were the focus of this study. Specimens were fabricated from the following materials (one amalgam alloy [Spherical-D], one casting gold alloy [Casting Gold TYPE I], one resin composite [Herculite XR] and three ceramics [Vita Celay Blanks, IPS Empress and Dicor MGC]). The amount of bacteria and glucans adhered on the specimens was measured after incubation for 24 hours at 37 degrees C with radio-labeled cariogenic bacteria and sucrose. This adhesion test was performed using two different surfaces with 600-grit roughness and clinical smoothness. Irrespective of the surface roughness, the least amount of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> adhered to the ceramics. However, in the case of the resin composite and amalgam, the amount of bacteria and glucan adhesion decreased dramatically by polishing, though there were no statistically different changes in the amount of bacteria and glucans that adhered to the ceramics even after polishing. In general, the amount of adhered bacteria showed almost the same tendency as that of glucans. Although no statistical differences in the amount of bacteria and glucan adhesion were detected among the three ceramics investigated in this study, a lesser amount of bacteria and glucans adhered to them compared to the other materials. PMID:11504440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650634"><span id="translatedtitle">HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M</p> <p>2015-03-18</p> <p>High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, which colocalized with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers. PMID:25650634</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726799"><span id="translatedtitle">Reproducibility of two 3-D ultrasound carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> quantification methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Græbe, Martin; Entrekin, Robert; Collet-Billon, Antoine; Harrison, Gerard; Sillesen, Henrik</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Compared with single 2-D images, emerging 3-D ultrasound technologies hold the promise of reducing variability and increasing sensitivity in the quantification of carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> for individual cardiovascular risk stratification. Inter- and intra-observer agreement between a manual, cross-sectional, 2-D freehand sweep and a mechanical 3-D ultrasound investigation of 62 carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span> is reported with intra-class correlation coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals). Inter-observer agreement was 0.60 (0.29-0.77) for the freehand method and 0.89 (0.83-0.93) for the mechanical 3-D acquisition. The use of semi-automated computerized planimetric measurements of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> burden has high intra-observer repeatability, but is vulnerable to systematic inter-observer differences. For the 2-D freehand sweep, a considerable contribution to variation is introduced by the scanning procedure itself, that is, the lack of controlled motion along the third dimension. Future implementation of 3-D ultrasound quantification in large-scale studies of inter-individual cardiovascular risk assessment seems justified using the methods described. PMID:24726799</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/62762"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of food colourants as <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disclosing agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kieser, J B; Wade, A B</p> <p>1976-11-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> disclosure by several liquid food colourants and disclosing agents was compared in a group of eight subjects. The subjects refrained from all forms of oral hygiene for a 48-hour period prior to rinsing with 5 ml of each dye in turn at weekly intervals. Kodachrome film records were taken and projected for the assessment at weekly intervals. Kodachrome film records were taken and projected for the assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> staining efficacy by a panel of 38 assessors. Acceptability with respect to taste, extent and duration of mucosal staining and any side effects was also evaluated. The food colourants were as effective as the disclosing agents. Ability to stain <span class="hlt">plaque</span> appears to be related not only to the constituents of each dye, but also to their concentrations and relative proportions. Other desirable properties of an ideal disclosing agent tended to be fulfilled to a level equivalent to, or better than, that reached by the proprietery disclosing agents. Difficulty in obtaining proprietary disclosing agents should not act as a handicap to achieving better levels of oral cleanliness as inexpensive food colourants of equal effectiveness to the best proprietary agent are readily available. PMID:62762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11221076"><span id="translatedtitle">[Ultrasound-guided ESWT in Peyronie's disease <span class="hlt">plaques</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mirone, V; Palmieri, A; Granata, A M; Piscopo, A; Verze, P; Ranavolo, R</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to check the efficiency of shock waves in the treatment of Peyronie's disease. The instrument, because of its lithotriptic power, already used in the treatment of orthopedic disease and salivary stones, can be used to break <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in induratio penis plastica. A total of 481 patients affected with Peyronie's disease were entered into a prospective trial. Patients with big <span class="hlt">plaques</span> or with an initial stage of degeneration were excluded. We divided the patients into three treatment groups: a) shock waves alone in 56 patients; b) a combination of shock waves and calcioantagonist (perilesional injection) in 324 patients; c) calcioantagonist alone in 101 patients. The group of 101 patients (group C) treated during the previous 2 years with a medical therapy based only on the injection of calcioantagonist, was used as a control group. Ultrasound evaluation of the treated <span class="hlt">plaques</span> showed a reduction of size in 27/56 patients of the group A, in 159/324 patients of the group B and in 39/101 patients of group C. Painful erection improved in the 91.5% of group B, against the 45.7% of group C. Furthermore, we pointed out, with interviews to the patients, a considerable improvement of the pain and of the sexual performances. The therapeutic association of shock waves with calcioantagonist injections is an effective non-operative treatment for the stabilization of Peyronie's disease. PMID:11221076</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19801854"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of positron-emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography imaging probes for in vivo detection of beta-amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer's brains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ono, Masahiro</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Currently</span>, the development of radiotracers for in vivo imaging of beta-amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains is an important, active area of molecular imaging. Postmortem brains of AD patients reveal neuropathologic features: the presence of beta-amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and neurofibrillary tangles, which contain beta-amyloid peptides and highly phosphorylated tau proteins. Increases in the concentration of beta-amyloid in the course of the disease lead to changes in AD brains. Thus, when used in combination with positron-emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT), beta-amyloid imaging agents could serve as surrogate markers for the early diagnosis and neuropathogenetic studies of AD. Furthermore, quantitative evaluation of beta-amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in the brain could facilitate the evaluation of the efficacy of antiamyloid therapies that are <span class="hlt">currently</span> being investigated. This paper reviews our research on the development of PET/SPECT imaging agents for in vivo detection of beta-amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in Alzheimer's brains. PMID:19801854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/103/7/926.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Pravastatin Treatment Increases Collagen Content and Decreases Lipid Content, Inflammation, Metalloproteinases, and Cell Death in Human Carotid <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> Implications for <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Stabilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Milita Crisby; Gunilla Nordin-Fredriksson; Prediman K. Shah; Juliana Yano; Jenny Zhu; Jan Nilsson</p> <p></p> <p>Background—The clinical benefits of lipid lowering with statins are attributed to changes in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> composition leading to lesion stability, but supporting clinical data from human studies are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 3 months of pravastatin treatment on composition of human carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> removed during carotid endarterectomy. Methods and Results—Consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis received 40</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24604883"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of the biochemical markers of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with the use of Raman, IR and AFM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marzec, Katarzyna M; Wrobel, Tomasz P; Rygula, Anna; Maslak, Edyta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Fedorowicz, Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this work, we describe a methodology to visualize the biochemical markers of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in cross sections of brachiocephalic arteries (BCA) taken from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice. The approach of the visualization of the same area of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with the use of Raman, IR and AFM imaging enables the parallel characterisation of various features of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. This support to the histochemical staining is utilized mainly in studies on mice models of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, where micro and sub-micro resolutions are required. This work presents the methodology of the measurement and visualization of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features important for atherosclerosis development and <span class="hlt">plaques</span> vulnerability analysis. Label-free imaging of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, remodeled media, heme, internal elastic lamina, fibrous cap and calcification provides additional knowledge to previously presented quantitative measurements of average <span class="hlt">plaque</span> features. AFM imaging enhanced the results obtained with the use of vibrational microspectroscopies with additional topographical information of the sample. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work which demonstrates that co-localized measurement of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> with Raman, IR and AFM imaging provides a comprehensive insight into the biochemical markers of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, and can be used as an integrated approach to assess vulnerability of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:24604883</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21732090"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term consumption of probiotic lactobacilli has no effect on acid production of supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marttinen, Aino; Haukioja, Anna; Karjalainen, Sára; Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Öhman, Carina; Holgerson, Pernilla; Twetman, Svante; Söderling, Eva</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Acidogenicity and the levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> after the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus reuteri were determined. The study had a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Thirteen volunteers used tablets containing LGG or a combination of L. reuteri SD2112 and PTA 5289 for 2 weeks. At baseline and at the end of each tablet period, all available supragingival <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was collected. Lactic acid production was determined from a fixed volume (8 ?l) of fresh <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and the rest of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was used for culturing MS and lactobacilli. The retention of probiotics to the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was assessed using PCR techniques. No probiotic-induced changes were found in the acidogenicity of <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Also, MS counts remained at the original level. The number of subjects with lactobacilli in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> increased in the L. reuteri group (p = 0.011) but not in the LGG group. PCR analysis of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> revealed the presence of LGG in four and L. reuteri in six subjects after the use of the probiotic. The use of the lactobacilli did not affect the acidogenicity or MS levels of <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. Short-term consumption of LGG and L. reuteri appeared not to influence the acidogenicity of <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:21732090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051948"><span id="translatedtitle">Carotid intima-media thickness and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in cardiovascular risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naqvi, Tasneem Z; Lee, Ming-Sum</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) risk in multiple large studies. Careful evaluation of CIMT studies reveals discrepancies in the comprehensiveness with which CIMT is assessed-the number of carotid segments evaluated (common carotid artery [CCA], internal carotid artery [ICA], or the carotid bulb), the type of measurements made (mean or maximum of single measurements, mean of the mean, or mean of the maximum for multiple measurements), the number of imaging angles used, whether <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were included in the intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement, the report of adjusted or unadjusted models, risk association versus risk prediction, and the arbitrary cutoff points for CIMT and for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> to predict risk. Measuring the far wall of the CCA was shown to be the least variable method for assessing IMT. However, meta-analyses suggest that CCA-IMT alone only minimally improves predictive power beyond traditional risk factors, whereas inclusion of the carotid bulb and ICA-IMT improves prediction of both cardiac risk and stroke risk. Carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> appears to be a more powerful predictor of CV risk compared with CIMT alone. Quantitative measures of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> such as <span class="hlt">plaque</span> number, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area, and 3-dimensional assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> volume appear to be progressively more sensitive in predicting CV risk than mere assessment of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> presence. Limited data show that <span class="hlt">plaque</span> characteristics including <span class="hlt">plaque</span> vascularity may improve CV disease risk stratification further. IMT measurement at the CCA, carotid bulb, and ICA that allows inclusion of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in the IMT measurement or CCA-IMT measurement along with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> assessment in all carotid segments is emerging as the focus of carotid artery ultrasound imaging for CV risk prediction. PMID:25051948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19710322"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the appearance and growth of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in APP/PS1 mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Ping; Bero, Adam W; Cirrito, John R; Xiao, Qingli; Hu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yan; Gonzales, Ernesto; Holtzman, David M; Lee, Jin-Moo</p> <p>2009-08-26</p> <p>Amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> are primarily composed of extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide and are a pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease. However, the factors that influence the dynamics of amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and growth in vivo are largely unknown. Using serial intravital multiphoton microscopy through a thinned-skull cranial window in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, we found that amyloid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> appear and grow over a period of weeks before reaching a mature size. Growth was more prominent early after initial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation: <span class="hlt">plaques</span> grew faster in 6-month-old compared with 10-month-old mice. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> growth rate was also size-related, as smaller <span class="hlt">plaques</span> exhibited more rapid growth relative to larger <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Alterations in interstitial Abeta concentrations were associated with changes in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth. Parallel studies using multiphoton microscopy and in vivo microdialysis revealed that pharmacological reduction of soluble extracellular Abeta by as little as 20-25% was associated with a dramatic decrease in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> formation and growth. Furthermore, this small reduction in Abeta synthesis was sufficient to reduce amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> load in 6-month-old but not 10-month-old mice, suggesting that treatment early in disease pathogenesis may be more effective than later treatment. In contrast to thinned-skull windows, no significant <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth was observed under open-skull windows, which demonstrated extensive microglial and astrocytic activation. Together, these findings indicate that individual amyloid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> growth in vivo occurs over a period of weeks and may be influenced by interstitial Abeta concentration as well as reactive gliosis. PMID:19710322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23039655"><span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetry of (125)I and (103)Pd COMS eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span> for intraocular tumors: report of Task Group 129 by the AAPM and ABS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Astrahan, Melvin A; Finger, Paul T; Followill, David S; Meigooni, Ali S; Melhus, Christopher S; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Rogers, D W O; Thomson, Rowan M</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Dosimetry of eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span> for ocular tumors presents unique challenges in brachytherapy. The challenges in accurate dosimetry are in part related to the steep dose gradient in the tumor and critical structures that are within millimeters of radioactive sources. In most clinical applications, calculations of dose distributions around eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span> assume a homogenous water medium and full scatter conditions. Recent Monte Carlo (MC)-based eye-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> dosimetry simulations have demonstrated that the perturbation effects of heterogeneous materials in eye <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, including the gold-alloy backing and Silastic insert, can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. Even additional levels of complexity introduced through the use of gold foil "seed-guides" and custom-designed <span class="hlt">plaques</span> can be calculated accurately using modern MC techniques. Simulations accounting for the aforementioned complexities indicate dose discrepancies exceeding a factor of ten to selected critical structures compared to conventional dose calculations. Task Group 129 was formed to review the literature; re-examine the <span class="hlt">current</span> dosimetry calculation formalism; and make recommendations for eye-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> dosimetry, including evaluation of brachytherapy source dosimetry parameters and heterogeneity correction factors. A literature review identified modern assessments of dose calculations for Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) design <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, including MC analyses and an intercomparison of treatment planning systems (TPS) detailing differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> calculations using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-43U1 brachytherapy dosimetry formalism and MC techniques. This review identified that a commonly used prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth in homogeneous medium delivers about 75 Gy and 69 Gy at the same 5 mm depth for specific (125)I and (103)Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS <span class="hlt">plaque</span> heterogeneities. Thus, the adoption of heterogeneous dose calculation methods in clinical practice would result in dose differences >10% and warrant a careful evaluation of the corresponding changes in prescription doses. Doses to normal ocular structures vary with choice of radionuclide, <span class="hlt">plaque</span> location, and prescription depth, such that further dosimetric evaluations of the adoption of MC-based dosimetry methods are needed. The AAPM and American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommend that clinical medical physicists should make concurrent estimates of heterogeneity-corrected delivered dose using the information in this report's tables to prepare for brachytherapy TPS that can account for material heterogeneities and for a transition to heterogeneity-corrected prescriptive goals. It is recommended that brachytherapy TPS vendors include material heterogeneity corrections in their systems and take steps to integrate planned <span class="hlt">plaque</span> localization and image guidance. In the interim, before the availability of commercial MC-based brachytherapy TPS, it is recommended that clinical medical physicists use the line-source approximation in homogeneous water medium and the 2D AAPM TG-43U1 dosimetry formalism and brachytherapy source dosimetry parameter datasets for treatment planning calculations. Furthermore, this report includes quality management program recommendations for eye-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> brachytherapy. PMID:23039655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/99/3/348.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Shed Membrane Microparticles With Procoagulant Potential in Human Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> A Role for Apoptosis in <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Thrombogenicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ziad Mallat; Benedicte Hugel; Jeanny Ohan; Guy Leseche; Jean-Marie Freyssinet; Alain Tedgui</p> <p></p> <p>Background—The specific role of apoptosis in human atherosclerosis remains unknown. During apoptotic cell death, phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface confers a high tissue-factor (TF)- dependent procoagulant activity. Methods and Results—In this study, we examined the role of apoptotic cell death in the promotion of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thrombogenicity. TF expression and its relation to apoptosis was analyzed in 16 human atherosclerotic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4400530"><span id="translatedtitle">Femoral pseudoaneurysm <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> into urinary bladder: A rare presentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Luitel, Bhoj Raj; Shrestha, Ujma; Shrestha, Uttam Krishna</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Femoral pseudoaneurysm is a common occurrence in intravenous drug abuser due to repeated trauma to the femoral artery causing arterial leak contained by the surrounding tissue and does not contain all the layers of arterial wall. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of these aneurysm to exterior is a common presentation while <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into surrounding structure deemed an emergency surgical attention. Hence, we report an unusual case of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of femoral pseudoaneurysm into urinary bladder who presented us with history of hematuria and was successfully managed. PMID:25887167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397006"><span id="translatedtitle">A Rare Case of Adductor Longus Muscle <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van de Kimmenade, R. J. L. L.; van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Deurzen, P. J. E.; Verhagen, R. A. W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An adductor longus muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare injury. This case report describes a 32-year-old patient with an adductor longus <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The trauma mechanism was a hyperabduction movement during a soccer game. Nonoperative treatment was initiated. After a follow-up of 4 years, the patient was without pain but a small swelling was still visible. This report describes the anatomy, pathophysiology, and evidence-based treatment of adductor longus <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25918663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4448101"><span id="translatedtitle">Right Hemi-Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: An Injury Missed or Masked?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dhua, Anjan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Right sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in children is uncommon and may escape early detection. Missed injuries are associated with high mortality and morbidity due to incarceration and strangulation of abdominal viscera. We report a 15-month-old child with blunt trauma chest and abdomen, who presented with bilateral hemothoraces and liver laceration seven days after the incident. Diagnosis of right diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was confirmed after another week. The surgical repair of diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was undertaken successfully.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3981329"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed diagnosis of a right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ku?era, Alexandr; Rygl, Michal; Šnajdauf, Ji?í; Kavalcová, Lucie; Petr?, Ond?ej; Ritschelová, Vlasta; Kyn?l, Martin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in childhood is a very rare injury. Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> often manifests itself later, after an organ progressively herniates into the pleural cavity. When the patient is tubed, the ventilation pressure does not allow herniation of an organ, which occurs when the patient is ex-tubed. We present a patient with a delayed diagnose of right sided diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with a complicated post-operation state. PMID:24765402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11881313"><span id="translatedtitle">[Pregnancy-related, rarely-seen spontaneous lumbar artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iskender, Serkan; Ergün, Alper; Ipekçi, Fuat; Ekinci, Ozgür; Yener, Oktay</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Some arterial aneurysm <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can be seen during pregnancy. However, spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the lumbar artery in pregnancy are very rare. In that manuscript we present a 22 year old female who is 8 months pregnant, seen at a peripheral hospital for suspicion of placenta decolmant. When the fetal heart sounds were missed, the patient was transported to our hospital. We reoperated on her as an emergency. We found that a spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the lumbar artery. PMID:11881313</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25863875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> anterior mediastinal teratoma with radiologic, pathologic, and bronchoscopic correlation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escalon, Joanna G; Arkin, Jordan; Chaump, Michael; Harkin, Timothy J; Wolf, Andrea S; Legasto, Alan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While most teratomas are asymptomatic, intrathoracic teratomas can rarely <span class="hlt">rupture</span> spontaneously causing more alarming symptoms. <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> teratoma is a serious clinical entity, and early recognition is crucial for avoidance of further complications and preparation of proper surgical approach. We present a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> anterior mediastinal teratoma with radiologic, pathologic, and bronchoscopic correlation. This case uniquely illustrates a patient presenting with signs of infection and progressively worsening symptoms, thus emphasizing the need for early diagnosis and the importance of imaging. PMID:25863875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S11C4351F"><span id="translatedtitle">Cohesive Zone Length of Gabbro at Supershear <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The strain data was obtained during large-scale biaxial friction experiments conducted at NIED in March 2013. We conducted friction experiments using a pair of meter-scale gabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5m x 0.1m. We applied 2.6MPa normal stress and loading velocity of 0.1mm/s. At the long side of the fault edge, which is parallel to the slip direction, 32 2-component semi-conductor strain gauges were installed at an interval of 50mm and 10mm off the fault. The data are conditioned by high frequency strain amplifiers (<0.5MHz) and continuously recorded at an interval of 1MHz with 16-bit resolution. Many stick slip events were observed and a unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event was chosen in this analysis that propagated with supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. One of the reasons for this selection was that the strain field ahead of the supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was not contaminated by elastic waves. Focusing on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We found that the stress concentration becomes mild as the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates and length of the stress concentration area becomes longer. This observation is quite interesting because in this experiment the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated at a constant speed close to root two times the shear wave velocity and thus a longer stress concentration region suggests more energy dissipation. We could speculate that such longer stress concentration area suggests longer plastic region ahead of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (or longer cohesive distance). I.e. the cohesive zone length becomes longer as the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates to maintain constant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity propagation. We empirically obtained the relation Lc = 1.8x10^-5 L for 0.1<L<1.4[m] where Lc is cohesive zone length and L is <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> length.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/981760"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Behavior and Recrystallization in Cold-Bent Boiler Tubing for USC Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shingledecker, John P [ORNL] [ORNL</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments were conducted on candidate Ultrasupercritical (USC) alloy tubes to evaluate the effects of cold-work and recrystallization during high-temperature service. These creep tests were performed by internally pressurizing cold-bent boiler tubes at 775 C for times up to 8000 hours. The bends were fabricated with cold-work levels beyond the <span class="hlt">current</span> ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (ASME B&PV) Code Section I limits for austenitic stainless steels. Destructive metallographic evaluation of the crept tube bends was used to determine the effects of cold-work and the degree of recrystallization. The metallographic analysis combined with an evaluation of the creep and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data suggest that solid-solution strengthened nickel-based alloys can be fabricated for high-temperature service at USC conditions utilizing levels of cold-work higher than the <span class="hlt">current</span> allowed levels for austenitic stainless steels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act02.html"><span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Analogies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.199.1709C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocity inferred from near-field shear strain analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Causse, M.; Cornou, C.; Bécasse, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We propose a new technique to determine the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of large strike slip earthquakes. By means of simple numerical ground motion simulations, we show that when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> penetrates a shallow layer of sediment or fractured rock, shock waves propagate along the surface fault trace in the forward <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. Such shock waves, which are insensitive to the complexity of slip over the fault plane, propagate at a phase velocity equal to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed. We show that those shock waves can be easily isolated in the frequency domain, and that phase velocity can then be simply obtained from shear strain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2632D"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Directivity of Large Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Forecasting the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679079"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2423576"><span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Bile Duct <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Liechty, R. Dale</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Spontaneous bile duct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration, T-tube placement, and Roux-En-Y ductal anastomosis if disruption is extensive. PMID:2152327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024680"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and local tsunamis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, E.L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0602371v2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> processes in fiber bundle models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Per C. Hemmer; Alex Hansen; Srutarshi Pradhan</p> <p>2006-03-23</p> <p>Fiber bundles with statistically distributed thresholds for breakdown of individual fibers are interesting models of the static and dynamics of failures in materials under stress. They can be analyzed to an extent that is not possible for more complex materials. During the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process in a fiber bundle avalanches, in which several fibers fail simultaneously, occur. We study by analytic and numerical methods the statistics of such avalanches, and the breakdown process for several models of fiber bundles. The models differ primarily in the way the extra stress caused by a fiber failure is redistributed among the surviving fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18657385"><span id="translatedtitle">Anatomic suitability of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms for endovascular repair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Slater, Bethany J; Harris, E John; Lee, Jason T</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Mortality from <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) remains high despite improvements in anesthesia, postoperative intensive care, and surgical techniques. Recent small series and single-center experiences suggest that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for rAAAs is feasible and may improve short-term survival. However, the applicability of EVAR to all cases of rAAA is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical suitability of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms for EVAR as determined by preoperative cross-sectional imaging. A contemporary consecutive series of rAAAs presenting to a tertiary academic center was retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative radiographic imaging was reviewed and assessed for endovascular compatibility based on <span class="hlt">currently</span> available EVAR devices. Patients with aneurysm morphology demonstrating neck diameter >32 mm, neck length <10 mm, neck angulation >60 degrees, severe iliac tortuosity, or external iliac diameter <6 mm were deemed noncandidates for EVAR. Forty-seven rAAAs were treated over a 10-year period, with 47% of patients presenting with free <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and 60% of patients transferred from outside hospitals. Five (11%) patients were treated with EVAR, all over the past 2 years, while the remaining 42 patients underwent open repair. Preoperative imaging was available for review in 43 (91%) patients, and morphological measurements indicated that 49% would have been candidates for EVAR with <span class="hlt">currently</span> available devices. Criteria precluding EVAR in this cohort were inadequate neck length in 73%, unsuitable iliac access in 23%, large neck diameter in 18%, and severe neck angulation in 14%. Overall 30-day mortality was 34%, and 1-year mortality was 42%. Candidates for EVAR were more likely than non-EVAR candidates to be male (95% vs. 68%, p = 0.046) and to have smaller sac diameters (7.0 vs. 8.5 cm, p = 0.02) and longer neck lengths (24.1 vs. 8.6 mm, p < 0.0001); less likely to have a >60 degree angulated neck (10% vs. 45%, p = 0.0002), larger external iliac diameter (8.9 vs. 7.3 mm, p = 0.015), and less blood loss during surgical repair (2.4 vs. 6.0 L, p = 0.02); and more likely to be discharged home (71% vs. 25%, p = 0.05). There were no differences in 30-day, 1-year, or overall mortality between candidates for EVAR and noncandidates. Only 49% of patients with rAAAs in this consecutive series were found to be candidates for EVAR with conventional stent-graft devices. Differences in demographics, aneurysm morphology, and outcomes between candidates and noncandidates undergoing open repair suggest that differential risks apply to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm patients. Protocols and future reports of EVAR for rAAAs should be tailored to these results. Device and technique modifications are necessary to increase the applicability of EVAR for rAAAs. PMID:18657385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k805363463l40368.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased expression of endothelial lipase in symptomatic and unstable carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Matias Trbuši?; Monika Riederer; Majda Vu?i?; Ivo Lovri?evi?; Božo Krušlin; Martin Gauster; Sonja Mohrenz; Andrea Berghold; Beate Tiran; Vesna Degoricija; Saša Frank</p> <p></p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate endothelial lipase (EL) protein expression in advanced human carotid artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span>\\u000a (HCAP) with regard to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (in)stability and the incidence of symptoms. HCAP were collected from 66 patients undergoing\\u000a carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The degree of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (in)stability was estimated by ultrasound and histology. In HCAP sections,\\u000a EL expression was determined by immunostaining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/24/1/129.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a Proinflammatory and Proteolytic Environment in <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> From Endarterectomy Segments of Human Carotid Arteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Marilena Formato; Miriam Farina; Rita Spirito; Marco Maggioni; Anna Guarino; Gian Mario Cherchi; Paolo Biglioli; Celina Edelstein; Angelo M. Scanu</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Objectives—Based on previous observations on apolipoprotein(a), apo(a), in human unstable carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, we explored whether in the inflammatory environment of human atheroma, proteolytic events affect other hepatic and topically generated proteins in relation to the issue of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability. Methods and Results—Forty unstable and 24 stable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> from endarterectomy segments of affected human carotid arteries were extracted with buffered saline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/73/4/2710.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the Genetic Determinants of Pathogenicity and <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Phenotype in Swine Vesicular Disease Virus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>TORU KANNO; DAVID MACKAY; TORU INOUE; GINETTE WILSDEN; MAKOTO YAMAKAWA; REIKO YAMAZOE; SHIGEO YAMAGUCHI; JUNSUKE SHIRAI; PAUL KITCHING; YOSUKE MURAKAMI</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A series of recombinant viruses were constructed using infectious cDNA clones of the virulent J1'73 (large <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phenotype) and the avirulent H\\/3'76 (small <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phenotype) strains of swine vesicular disease virus to identify the genetic determinants of pathogenicity and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> phenotype. Both traits could be mapped to the region between nucleotides (nt) 2233 and 3368 corresponding to the C terminus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483810"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased ADRP expression in human atherosclerotic lesions correlates with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Bin; Zhao, Huiying; Wang, Shengnan; Sun, Xiwei; Qin, Xiujiao</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) is intrinsically associated with the surface of lipid droplets implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. We analyzed expression of ADRP in human popliteal artery <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> tissue from the popliteal artery was obtained from 18 patients undergoing lower extremity amputation for arteriosclerosis obliterans, and with either stable (n = 6) or unstable (n = 12) atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> were histologically classified as either unstable (? 40% lipid core <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area) or stable (< 40% lipid core <span class="hlt">plaque</span> area). Control tissues consisted of sections of mesenteric arteries obtained from 10 patients without a history of atherosclerosis, but undergoing a subtotal gastrectomy. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> tissues were analyzed for expression of ADRP and protein kinase C (PKC) protein by immunohistochemical methods, and ADRP mRNA expression was measured using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical analyses showed that ADRP expression was higher in samples of unstable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> when compared with expression in stable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (gray intensities 103.56 ± 1.187 vs 106.95 ± 1.389, respectively, P < 0.05) and that ADRP expression was associated with increased PKC expression (gray intensities 102.32 ± 1.730 vs 104.70 ± 0.959, respectively, P < 0.01). Consistent with ADRP protein expression, expression of ADRP mRNA was also higher in unstable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> compared to expression in stable <span class="hlt">plaque</span> (relative expression 1.17 ± 0.15 vs 0.81 ± 0.03, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion: this study demonstrated that increased expression of ADRP in human atherosclerosis was associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/63/2/265.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Murine Coronaviruses: Isolation and Characterization of Two <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Morphology Variants of the JHM Neurotropic Strain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>STEPHEN A. STOHLMAN; PETER R. BRAYTON; JOHN O. FLEMING; LESLIE P. WEINER; MICHAEL M. C. LAI</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY Two <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-size variants of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus have been isolated from the virus stock after eight serial passages in suckling mouse brain. One variant, JHM-DL, produces large <span class="hlt">plaques</span>, while the other, JHM-DS, produces small <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in tissue culture. DS replicates more slowly, has a lower virus yield in vitro, and is less virulent for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33F4900B"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Scanned features of the right-lateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of <span class="hlt">current</span> debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21B4439K"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive, High-Order, and Scalable Software Elements for Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Simulations in Complex Geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozdon, J. E.; Wilcox, L.; Aranda, A. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The goal of this work is to develop a new set of simulation tools for earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics based on state-of-the-art high-order, adaptive numerical methods capable of handling complex geometries. High-order methods are ideal for earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations as the problems are wave-dominated and the waves excited in simulations propagate over distance much larger than their fundamental wavelength. When high-order methods are used for such problems significantly fewer degrees of freedom are required as compared with low-order methods. The base numerical method in our new software elements is a discontinuous Galerkin method based on curved, Kronecker product hexahedral elements. We <span class="hlt">currently</span> use MPI for off-node parallelism and are in the process of exploring strategies for on-node parallelism. Spatial mesh adaptivity is handled using the p4est library and temporal adaptivity is achieved through an Adams-Bashforth based local time stepping method; we are presently in the process of including dynamic spatial adaptivity which we believe will be valuable for capturing the small-scale features around the propagating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front. One of the key features of our software elements is that the method is provably stable, even after the inclusion of the nonlinear frictions laws which govern <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics. In this presentation we will both outline the structure of the software elements as well as validate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics with SCEC benchmark test problems. We are also presently developing several realistic simulation geometries which may also be reported on. Finally, the software elements that we have designed are fully public domain and have been designed with tightly coupled, wave dominated multiphysics applications in mind. This latter design decisions means the software elements are applicable to many other geophysical and non-geophysical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23118397"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of extensor mechanism <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after TKA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenberg, A G</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Disruption of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty may occur by tubercle avulsion, patellar or quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, or patella fracture, and whether occurring intra-operatively or post-operatively can be difficult to manage and is associated with a significant rate of failure and associated complications. This surgery is frequently performed in compromised tissues, and repairs must frequently be protected with cerclage wiring and/or augmentation with local tendon (semi-tendinosis, gracilis) which may also be used to treat soft-tissue loss in the face of chronic disruption. Quadriceps <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may be treated with conservative therapy if the patient retains active extension. Component loosening or loss of active extension of 20° or greater are clear indications for surgical treatment of patellar fracture. Acute patellar tendon disruption may be treated by primary repair. Chronic extensor failure is often complicated by tissue loss and retraction can be treated with medial gastrocnemius flaps, achilles tendon allografts, and complete extensor mechanism allografts. Attention to fixing the graft in full extension is mandatory to prevent severe extensor lag as the graft stretches out over time. PMID:23118397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6188768"><span id="translatedtitle">TMI-2 lower head creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thinnes, G.L.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat transfer analyses of the relocated core debris and lower head have been made based upon assumed core melting scenarios and core material debris formations while in contact with the lower head. This report describes the structural finite element creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> analysis of the lower head using a temperature transient judged most likely to challenge the structural capacity of the vessel. This evaluation of vessel response to this transient has provided insight into the creep mechanisms of the vessel wall, a realistic mode of failure, and a means by which margin to failure can be evaluated once examination provides estimated maximum wall temperatures. Suggestions for more extensive research in this area are also provided. 6 refs., 15 figs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279443"><span id="translatedtitle">False vs True <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohain, J S</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>New medical nomenclature: False <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes or False ROM and Double <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4180267"><span id="translatedtitle">Poxvirus membrane biogenesis: <span class="hlt">rupture</span> not disruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Locker, Jacomine Krijnse; Chlanda, Petr; Sachsenheimer, Timo; Brügger, Britta</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary Enveloped viruses acquire their membrane from the host by budding at, or wrapping by, cellular membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, however, suggested that the prototype member of the poxviridae, vaccinia virus (VACV), may create its membrane ‘de novo’ with free open ends exposed in the cytosol. Within the frame of the German-wide priority programme we re-addressed the biogenesis and origin of the VACV membrane using electron tomography (ET), cryo-EM and lipid analysis of purified VACV using mass spectrometry (MS). This review discussed how our data led to a model of unconventional membrane biogenesis involving membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the generation of a single open membrane from open membrane intermediates. Lipid analyses of purified virus by MS suggest an ER origin with a relatively low cholesterol content compared with whole cells, confirming published data. Unlike previous reports using thin-layer chromatography, no depletion of phosphatidylethanolamine was detected. We did detect, however, an enrichment for phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol in the virion. Our data are discussed in the light of other pathogens that may require cellular membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during their intracellular life cycle. PMID:23168015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26096457"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-infrared spectroscopy for intracoronary detection of lipid-rich <span class="hlt">plaques</span> to understand atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biology in man and guide clinical therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erlinge, D</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The common denominator for <span class="hlt">plaques</span> causing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is lipid accumulation, either as a lipid core or lipid pools. An intracoronary imaging device to detect lipid-rich <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (LRPs) could therefore identify most of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> causing ACS and sudden death. Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with intravascular ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) is a promising new intracoronary imaging method that is able to specifically quantify lipid accumulation measured as the lipid core burden index (LCBI). NIRS-IVUS is highly specific for the identification of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) culprit <span class="hlt">plaques</span> usually in the form of a circular LRP. NIRS-IVUS may assist in defining the aetiology of coronary events. The effect of cholesterol-lowering therapy on the lipid core can be measured in coronary <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in patients, and NIRS-IVUS may be a useful tool for drug development in phase II studies as a surrogate end-point for future ACS. <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> with a high LCBI have an increased risk of peri-procedural events. NIRS-IVUS can help to define the diameter and length of stents to avoid procedure-related complications. Increased coronary LCBI predicts a higher risk of future cardiovascular events. Lipid core detection using NIRS may help to identify vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaques</span> to treat them before they cause ACS or sudden death. PMID:26096457</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24974760"><span id="translatedtitle">[Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), new intracoronary imaging technique of unstable coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ondrúš, Tomáš; Ka?ovský, Jan; Poloczek, Martin; Miklík, Roman; Bo?ek, Otakar; Je?ábek, Petr; Kala, Petr</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Acute coronary syndrome may develop in the background of hemodynamically non-significant coronary artery disease. It may be caused by the presence of "vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span>", which is characterized by the lipid rich core and thin fibrous cap content. NIRS - near infrared spectroscopy - is a morphological imaging method allowing determining atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> cholesterol burden. Information about the chemical composition may contribute to "high risk" <span class="hlt">plaque</span> early identification and subsequent optimal interventional strategy. The first experience with the clinical implementation of this novel method is demonstrated in a case report. Key words: acute coronary syndrome - chemogram - intravascular imaging - NIRS - vulnerable <span class="hlt">plaque</span>. PMID:24974760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6372873"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of strain rates of dart impacted <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and pendulum impacted bumpers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scammell, K.L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The difference in strain rates prevailing during pendulum impact of bumpers versus high speed dart impact of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> was investigated. Uni-axial strain gages were applied to the tension side of the <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and bumpers directly opposite the point of impact. The <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were impacted with an instrumented high rate dart impact tester and the bumpers impacted with a full scale bumper pendulum impact tester. Theoretical calculations and actual strain rate data support the conclusion that the strain rate of a <span class="hlt">plaque</span> during dart impact significantly exceeds that of bumper strain rate during pendulum impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9015571"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical comparison of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid on tooth and acrylic surfaces during a sucrose challenge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rankine, C A; Smith, S L; Schneider, P E; Gardiner, D M</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Previous studies have investigated variations in dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid composition within a single mouth after a sucrose exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine a potential source of calcium and phosphorus in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> by comparing the pH, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid obtained from an acrylic appliance with samples taken from supragingival tooth surfaces within the same individual after a sucrose challenge. Separate <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples from 14 individuals were collected from an acrylic appliance or tooth surfaces within same individual before and 15 min after a 20% sucrose rinse. Each <span class="hlt">plaque</span> sample was centrifuged and nanolitre samples of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> fluid were analysed for pH with a pH microelectrode, for total calcium concentration by atomic absorption in a graphite furnace, and for phosphorus concentration by spectrophotometry. There was an increase in the calcium and phosphorus concentration in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> after the sucrose challenge and a significant increase in calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> taken from the teeth compared to the acrylic surfaces. The results indicate that the increased total calcium and phosphorus in <span class="hlt">plaque</span> during a sucrose challenge is probably derived from the demineralization of enamel or extracellular demineralized components. PMID:9015571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T33C2644F"><span id="translatedtitle">How is a stick slip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Kawakata, H.; Takizawa, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We investigated the initiation process of stick slip events that occurred during large scale rock friction experiments conducted on the large scale shaking table at NIED (Fukuyama et al., 2012, AGU Fall meeting). We used a pair of Indian gabbro rock samples stacked vertically and applied normal and shear forces. The sliding area between the samples is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width. We conducted a sequence of experiments using the same rock sample, and before each experiment we removed gouge particles created during the previous experiment by a brush and a cleaner. Here, we show the experiments under constant slip velocity of 0.1mm/s with constant normal stress of 2.7MPa (LB04-003) or 6.7MPa (LB04-005); the final displacement reached 0.04m. We used 44 acoustic sensors (PZT, vertical mode, 0.5MHz resonance frequency), 32 2-comp strain gouges (SGs) for shear strain and 16 1-comp SGs for normal strain measurements, with 48 0.5MHz dynamic SG amplifiers. We also used a 2MN load cell for shear force measurement and three 0.4MN load cells for vertical forces. Data are recorded continuously at an interval of 10MHz for PZT and 1MHz for other sensors. Just after the shear force applied, many stick slip events (SEs) occurred at an interval of a few seconds. By looking carefully at the PZT and SG array data during an SE, we found that one SE consists of many micro stick slip events (MSEs), which can be grouped into two (the former and the latter). These two groups correspond to the acceleration and deceleration stage of the SE. In LB04-005 (6.7MPa normal stress), a clear nucleation phase can be detected that initiated at a narrow area, propagate slowly (~20m/s) and accelerated. Then, a seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> started to propagate at a velocity of ~3km/s (subshear) or ~6.5km/s (supershear). Detailed features are shown in Mizoguchi et al. (this meeting). It should be noted that this seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated at a narrow area inside the nucleation zone and sometimes after a certain amount of time; it does not seem a smooth transition process from the acceleration to the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as proposed in Ohnaka and Shen (1999, JGR). In contrast, under low normal stress case (LB04-003, 2.7MPa), there were no visible nucleation phases but a sequence of foreshocks was observed, which was not dominant in LB04-005. The foreshock slip area was typically around 10cm long. Again, we could not see any visible correlation between the location and preceding time of foreshocks and that of seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation. By looking at the fault surface topography that was recorded as photograph images before and after the experiment, in the nucleation zone, grooves are not developed, while outside the nucleation area, grooves are well developed. Grooves are caused by the creation of gouge particles during the sliding. It could be interesting to note that outside the groove, the sliding surface looks very smooth and shiny, indicating that this area was polished but did not create gouge particles. Therefore, we might speculate that this shiny fault area is responsible for the initiation phase and when the stress state becomes critical, seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starts around one of the grooves. And in LB04-003, the shiny area might not support the shear stress so that the foreshock releases the strain around the grooves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4461033"><span id="translatedtitle">Thiocyanate supplementation decreases atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in mice expressing human myeloperoxidase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morgan, P. E.; Laura, R. P.; Maki, R. A.; Reynolds, W. F.; Davies, M. J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elevated levels of the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. MPO predominantly catalyzes formation of the oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from Cl?, and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) from SCN?, with these anions acting as competitive substrates. HOSCN is a less powerful and more specific oxidant than HOCl, and selectively targets thiols; such damage is largely reversible, unlike much HOCl-induced damage. We hypothesized that increased plasma SCN?, and hence HOSCN formation instead of HOCl, may decrease artery wall damage. This was examined using high-fat fed atherosclerosis-prone LDLR?/? mice transgenic for human MPO, with and without SCN? (10 mM) added to drinking water. Serum samples, collected fortnightly, were analyzed for cholesterol, triglycerides, thiols, MPO and SCN?; study-long exposure was calculated by area under the curve (AUC). Mean serum SCN? concentrations were elevated in the supplemented mice (200-320 ?M) relative to controls (<120 ?M). Normalized aortic root <span class="hlt">plaque</span> areas at sacrifice were 26% lower in the SCN?-supplemented mice compared to controls (P=0.0417), but <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology was not appreciably altered. Serum MPO levels steadily increased in mice on the high-fat diet, however, comparison of SCN?- supplemented vs. control mice showed no significant changes in MPO protein, cholesterol or triglyceride levels; thiol levels were decreased in supplemented mice at one time-point. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> areas increased with higher cholesterol AUC (r=0.4742; P=0.0468), and decreased with increasing SCN? AUC (r=?0.5693; P=0.0134). These data suggest that increased serum SCN? levels, which can be achieved in humans by dietary manipulation, may decrease atherosclerosis burden. PMID:25812586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25812586"><span id="translatedtitle">Thiocyanate supplementation decreases atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> in mice expressing human myeloperoxidase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morgan, P E; Laura, R P; Maki, R A; Reynolds, W F; Davies, M J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Elevated levels of the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. MPO predominantly catalyzes formation of the oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from Cl(-), and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) from SCN(-), with these anions acting as competitive substrates. HOSCN is a less powerful and more specific oxidant than HOCl, and selectively targets thiols; such damage is largely reversible, unlike much HOCl-induced damage. We hypothesized that increased plasma SCN(-), and hence HOSCN formation instead of HOCl, may decrease artery wall damage. This was examined using high-fat fed atherosclerosis-prone LDLR(-/-) mice transgenic for human MPO, with and without SCN(-) (10 mM) added to drinking water. Serum samples, collected fortnightly, were analyzed for cholesterol, triglycerides, thiols, MPO, and SCN(-); study-long exposure was calculated by area under the curve (AUC). Mean serum SCN(-) concentrations were elevated in the supplemented mice (200-320 ?M) relative to controls (< 120 ?M). Normalized aortic root <span class="hlt">plaque</span> areas at sacrifice were 26% lower in the SCN(-)-supplemented mice compared with controls (P = 0.0417), but <span class="hlt">plaque</span> morphology was not appreciably altered. Serum MPO levels steadily increased in mice on the high-fat diet, however, comparison of SCN(-)-supplemented versus control mice showed no significant changes in MPO protein, cholesterol, or triglyceride levels; thiol levels were decreased in supplemented mice at one time-point. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> areas increased with higher cholesterol AUC (r = 0.4742; P = 0.0468), and decreased with increasing SCN(-) AUC (r = - 0.5693; P = 0.0134). These data suggest that increased serum SCN(-) levels, which can be achieved in humans by dietary manipulation, may decrease atherosclerosis burden. PMID:25812586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~ampuero/docs/AmpBZ07.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophys. J. Int. (2007) 000, 000000 Cracks, pulses and macroscopic asymmetry of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ampuero, Jean Paul</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>with a preferred propagation direction, that of slip of the more compliant material. Such <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have macroscopic, crack-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> show macroscopic asymmetry under restrictive conditions. The discussed mechanism ­ earthquake source mechanism ­ faulting ­ lateral heterogeneity ­ <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation 1 INTRODUCTION</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://rohan.sdsu.edu/~steveday/PUBLISHED/HarrisDay05GRL.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation Ruth A. Harris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Day, Steven M.</p> <p></p> <p>Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction Ruth A. Harris U) earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake (2005), Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction, Geophys. Res. Lett</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2056343"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> pH modulations of children's favourite snacks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gauba, K; Goyal, A; Tewari, A</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Cariogenic potential of a few children's favourite snacks, assessed by evaluation of pH modulations on their respective consumption after 2,5,10,20,30 and 40 minutes compared to 10 percent sucrose control using pooled <span class="hlt">plaque</span> method, in 8-12 years old children revealed lollipop (hard sucking candy) to be the most cariogenic and samosa without chutney to be the least cariogenic. The cariogenic potential of ice creams were similar, however, low as compared to sucrose solution of 10 percent. PMID:2056343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980228107&hterms=care&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcare"><span id="translatedtitle">Deterministic Multiaxial Creep and Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Enhancements for CARES/Creep Integrated Design Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jadaan, Osama M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>High temperature and long duration applications of monolithic ceramics can place their failure mode in the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> regime. A previous model advanced by the authors described a methodology by which the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life of a loaded component can be predicted. That model was based on the life fraction damage accumulation rule in association with the modified Monkman-Grant creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> criterion. However, that model did not take into account the deteriorating state of the material due to creep damage (e.g., cavitation) as time elapsed. In addition, the material creep parameters used in that life prediction methodology, were based on uniaxial creep curves displaying primary and secondary creep behavior, with no tertiary regime. The objective of this paper is to present a creep life prediction methodology based on a modified form of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. In this theory, the uniaxial creep rate is described in terms of sum, temperature, time, and the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of material damage. This scalar damage state parameter is basically an abstract measure of the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of material damage due to creep deformation. The damage rate is assumed to vary with stress, temperature, time, and the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of damage itself. Multiaxial creep and creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> formulations of the CDM approach are presented in this paper. Parameter estimation methodologies based on nonlinear regression analysis are also described for both, isothermal constant stress states and anisothermal variable stress conditions This creep life prediction methodology was preliminarily added to the integrated design code CARES/Creep (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Creep), which is a postprocessor program to commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) packages. Two examples, showing comparisons between experimental and predicted creep lives of ceramic specimens, are used to demonstrate the viability of Ns methodology and the CARES/Creep program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2967677"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> After Statin Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26023494"><span id="translatedtitle">An epigastric heteropagus twin with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> giant omphalocele.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dar, Sajid Hameed; Liaqat, Naeem; Iqbal, Javaid; Latif, Tariq; Iqbal, Asif</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a case of heteropagus twins attached to the epigastric region. The neonate also had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> giant omphalocoele with most of gut and liver lying outside the abdominal cavity. Patient had uneventful surgery for separation of twins and repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> omphalocoele. PMID:26023494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4420321"><span id="translatedtitle">An Epigastric Heteropagus Twin with <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Giant Omphalocele</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dar, Sajid Hameed; Iqbal, Javaid; Latif, Tariq; Iqbal, Asif</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a case of heteropagus twins attached to the epigastric region. The neonate also had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> giant omphalocoele with most of gut and liver lying outside the abdominal cavity. Patient had uneventful surgery for separation of twins and repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> omphalocoele. PMID:26023494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2670885"><span id="translatedtitle">Pictorial essay. Roentgenologic appearance of traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horvath, M; Verschakelen, J; Ponette, E; Baert, A L</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>The difficulties in recognizing a diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are well known and mostly due to a lack of typical clinical findings and an aspecific chest X-ray. This paper gives a brief review of the radiological techniques which can be helpful in the early diagnosis of traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm. PMID:2670885</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w585748305725427.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral synchronous quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: a case report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Varatharaj Mounasamy; Robert C. Chadderdon; Candice McDaniel; Mark C. Willis</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Bilateral spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of quadriceps tendons is rare and is usually associated with predisposing comorbid conditions.\\u000a We report an uncommon case of bilateral synchronous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon after a ground level fall in a 51-year-old\\u000a male, 8 years after renal transplant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30505369"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Renato Viola; Nicola Marzano; Roberto Vianello</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We report a case of complete quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that occured a few days after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy. Complications following arthroscopy are rare; there have been many reports of quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the literature, but none by this kind of mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30500642"><span id="translatedtitle">Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic patellar tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>PD McNally; EA Marcelli</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Chronic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the patellar tendon are uncommon injuries. They are technically difficult to repair because of scar formation, poor quality of the remaining tendon, and quadriceps muscle atrophy and contracture. We report the reconstruction of a chronic patellar tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with an interesting complication, a tibial stress fracture. The reconstruction was performed 3 months after the injury using an</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59275619"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> while playing basketball</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M Shah; N Jooma</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49692160"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a uremic patient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Yu-Cheng Pei; Po-Ching Hsieh; Li-Zen Huang; Cheng-Kuen Chiang</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Quadriceps is a part of extensor mechanism, and it is a strong muscle bundle for knee joint movement. It rarely <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the general population. We present a case with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and discuss the causes. A 45-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 12 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30510857"><span id="translatedtitle">Repair of quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> using suture anchors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David P. Richards; F. Alan Barber</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> quadriceps tendon is commonly performed by weaving sutures through the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendon and then attaching the tendon to the bone by passing these sutures through tunnels in the superior patella. This technical note is the first report we are aware of in the English language literature of a technique that uses suture anchors to attach the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2299153"><span id="translatedtitle">Dorsal dislocation of the lunate with multiple extensor tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwartz, M G; Green, S M; Coville, F A</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>An old dorsal lunate dislocation with associated multiple extensor tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is described. Treatment consisted of proximal row carpectomy and transfer of the extensor indicis proprius to the distal stumps of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extensor tendons to the long, ring, and small fingers. PMID:2299153</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23627342"><span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous posterior capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with lens dislocation in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takkar, Brijesh; Mahajan, Deepankur; Azad, Shorya; Sharma, Yog; Azad, Rajvardhan</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Spontaneous posterior capsule <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a very rare entity and its association with lens-nucleus dislocation even more. Herein we report such a case of spontaneous posterior capsule <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with lens dislocation in a case of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome. PMID:23627342</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2490-6-22.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> renal artery aneurysm during pregnancy, a clinical dilemma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Khaled B Soliman; Yaser Shawky; Mohamed M Abbas; Mohamed Ammary; Allaa Shaaban</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a renal artery aneurysm (RAA) during pregnancy is a rare event, with a high mortality rate for both mother and fetus. Increased blood flow and intra-abdominal pressure, and vascular changes secondary to increased steroid production are postulated as contributory to the increased risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present here a case report of total</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52223894"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics With Energy Loss Outside the Slip Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. J. Andrews</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone contributes to fracture energy. Because the thickness of the damage zone increases with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation distance, fracture energy increases with earthquake size. A <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagating near its limiting velocity has a stress concentration with large shear components at orientations different from that of the slip zone. These components can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ag8p5j9ajdgwc0xj.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergent endovascular treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>K. Sugiu; K. Tokunaga; K. Watanabe; W. Sasahara; S. Ono; T. Tamiya; I. Date</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of endovascular and surgical treatments for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to determine which treatment is preferable. We evaluated the cases of 25 consecutive patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> VADAs treated in our institution. From 1992 to 1997, five patients were treated surgically. Since 1998, 20 patients with VADAs have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/reports/reprints/Parsons_GRL39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleoseismic interevent times interpreted for an unsegmented earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> forecast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Paleoseismic interevent times interpreted for an unsegmented earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> forecast Tom] Forecasters want to consider an increasingly rich variety of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Past occurrence is captured. This has not been a problem before, because forecasts have assumed that faults are segmented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32875810"><span id="translatedtitle">Monochorionic Twins with <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Vasa Previa: Double Trouble!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. Papathanasiou; R. Witlox; D. Oepkes; F. J. Walther; K. W. M. Bloemenkamp; E. Lopriore</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Velamentous cord insertion and vasa previa occur more frequently in monochorionic twin pregnancies than in singleton pregnancies. Both have been linked with poor perinatal outcome due to the increased risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the velamentous vessels. We present a case of acute fetal distress in 2 fetuses in a monochorionic twin pregnancy caused by <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> vasa previa that was not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23D..02S"><span id="translatedtitle">Relaxing Segmentation: Does It Improve Characterization of Fault <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Behavior?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwartz, D. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Most faults have not <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> once historically, let alone repeatedly. Estimating future <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length of an earthquake source has been a challenge since the 1970s when concepts of full and half fault lengths were employed. In the 1980s paleoseismic event timing and observations of slip, coupled with geometric and other physical fault changes, led to concepts of fault segmentation and it's modeling for hazard. The Uniform California Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Forecast 3 (UCERF 3, Field et al., 2014) relaxed segmentation, guided by rules in which a separation distance of ?5km and orientation to Coulomb stress changes at fault junctions are prime factors for allowing fault-to-fault jumps. A set of ~350 fault sections produced ~250K <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> ranging in length from 15 km-1200 km. An inversion provided the rates of these, which range from 102-108 years. Many of the long <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have exceedingly low individual rates within the UCERF 3 geologic model but are sufficient in number to release cumulative moment that brings the long-term (Myr) and historical (since 1850) MFDs for the California region into close agreement. Does UCERF 3 have too many multi-fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>? Since 1850 there have been ~260 surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> worldwide in shallow continental crust. 77% are 0-49km; 6% exceed 150km, and the longest is 1906 San Francisco (435-470 km). In California since 1857 there have been 31 surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. 77% are shorter than 49 km. The longest are 1906, 1857 Fort Tejon (297km), and 1872 Owens Valley (108 km). Most long historical strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are continuous and geomorphically well-defined traces with limited geometric changes. In contrast, UCERF3 modeling of the south Hayward, as an example, allows it to participate in <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> that extend to the south ends of the San Andreas or San Jacinto faults (900 km). These include branching (Hayward-Calaveras, San Andreas-San Jacinto) and jumps (Calaveras-San Andreas) on creeping sections of these faults. 5km is the connectivity threshold in UCERF 3 but only 40% of historical <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have negotiated this distance. There are other controls of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation: frictional properties, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics, creep, and, as shown by the 2002 Denali-Totschunda <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the timing of the prior event and level of stress accumulation on adjacent fault sections. Time will be the tester.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17580250"><span id="translatedtitle">Who should we operate on and how do we decide: predicting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and survival in patients with aortic aneurysm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fillinger, Mark</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The decision to operate on a patient with an aortic aneurysm is based on the risk of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> versus the risk of aneurysm repair, within the context of the patient's overall life expectancy. Risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is still primarily based on the maximum aneurysm diameter, with some allowances made for factors that modify <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk, such as gender and <span class="hlt">current</span> smoking. Newer methods for determining <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk, such as aneurysm-wall stress analysis, appear promising, but are not yet broadly available. Until then, diameter-based prediction rules for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk will "fail" 10% to 25% of patients with both small and large abdominal aortic aneurysms. With regard to predicting operative mortality and life expectancy after open or endovascular aneurysm repair, multiple risk-stratification algorithms have been created. The best of these algorithms are accurate in 75% to 80% of patients, meaning that they fail in 20% to 25% of cases. Prediction algorithms provide significant guidance, but cannot take the place of an experienced clinician at this point. Somehow, experienced surgeons are able to sift through a massive amount of information and properly select patients who are appropriate for surgery, with quite reasonable perioperative and long-term mortality rates. PMID:17580250</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670960"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> primary flexor tendon repairs in Zones I and II of the fingers in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Qattan, M M</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The aetiology, management, and results of acute <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of primary flexor tendon repairs in Zones I and II of the fingers in children have not been previously investigated. The author reports on a personal series of 10 children treated over a period of 13 years. The aetiology is different when compared with adults: children less than 5 years of age usually <span class="hlt">rupture</span> their primary repairs whilst the hand is completely immobilized in a cast; whereas teenagers usually <span class="hlt">rupture</span> their tendons when falling down while playing. In the <span class="hlt">current</span> series, direct re-repair was performed without lengthening at the musculo-tendinous junction, and no free tendon grafts were used. The results were worse than other paediatric series of primary flexor tendon repairs. Using the Strickland-Glogovac criteria, there was only one excellent outcome, the remaining nine being either a good (n = 5) or fair (n = 4) outcome. PMID:24670960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4285579"><span id="translatedtitle">Symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease: correlations between <span class="hlt">plaque</span> composition and ipsilateral stroke risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rothwell, Peter M; Redgrave, Jessica N; Moll, Frans L; de Vries, Jean-Paul PM; de Kleijn, Dominique PV; den Ruijter, Hester M; de Borst, Gert Jan; Pasterkamp, Gerard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE For symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis the risk-benefit for surgical intervention may vary among patient groups. Various modalities of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging have been promoted as potential tools for additional risk stratification, particularly in patients with moderate stenosis. However, it remains uncertain to what extent carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> components predict risk of future ipsilateral ischaemic stroke. METHODS In two large atherosclerotic carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> biobank studies, we related histological characteristics of 1640 carotid <span class="hlt">plaques</span> with a validated risk model for the prediction of individual 1- and 5-year stroke risk. RESULTS No significant heterogeneity between the studies was found. Predicted 5-year stroke risk (top versus bottom quartile) was related to <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thrombus (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.11-1.89, p=0.02), fibrous content (0.65, 0.49-0.87, p=0.004), macrophage infiltration (1.41, 1.05-1.90, p=0.02), high micro-vessel density (1.49, 1.05-2.11, p=0.03), and overall <span class="hlt">plaque</span> instability (1.40, 1.05-1.87,p=0.02). This association was not observed for cap thickness, calcification, intra-<span class="hlt">plaque</span> haemorrhage, or lymphocyte infiltration. <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> removed within 30-days of most recent symptomatic event were most strongly correlated with predicted stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS Features of ‘the vulnerable carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span>’ including <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thrombus, low fibrous content, macrophage infiltration and microvessel density correlate with predicted stroke risk. This study provides a basis for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> imaging studies focused on stroke risk stratification. PMID:25477221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40851860"><span id="translatedtitle">Subducted seafloor relief stops <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in South American great earthquakes: Implications for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behaviour in the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Robert Sparkes; Frederik Tilmann; Niels Hovius; John Hillier</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Great subduction earthquakes cause destructive surface deformation and ground shaking over hundreds of kilometres. Their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length is limited by the characteristic strength of the subduction plate interface, and by lateral variations in its mechanical properties. It has been proposed that subduction of topographic features such as ridges and seamounts can affect these properties and stop <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, but the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5630...77H"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of digital RGB reflectance color extraction for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hashim, Hadzli; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Jailani, Rozita; Sulaiman, Saadiah; Baba, Roshidah</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Several clinical psoriasis lesion groups are been studied for digital RGB color features extraction. Previous works have used samples size that included all the outliers lying beyond the standard deviation factors from the peak histograms. This paper described the statistical performances of the RGB model with and without removing these outliers. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> lesion is experimented with other types of psoriasis. The statistical tests are compared with respect to three samples size; the original 90 samples, the first size reduction by removing outliers from 2 standard deviation distances (2SD) and the second size reduction by removing outliers from 1 standard deviation distance (1SD). Quantification of data images through the normal/direct and differential of the conventional reflectance method is considered. Results performances are concluded by observing the error plots with 95% confidence interval and findings of the inference T-tests applied. The statistical tests outcomes have shown that B component for conventional differential method can be used to distinctively classify <span class="hlt">plaque</span> from the other psoriasis groups in consistent with the error plots finding with an improvement in p-value greater than 0.5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3824333"><span id="translatedtitle">Carotid <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Hemorrhage on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Strongly Predicts Recurrent Ischemia and Stroke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hosseini, Akram A; Kandiyil, Neghal; MacSweeney, Shane T S; Altaf, Nishath; Auer, Dorothee P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective There is a recognized need to improve selection of patients with carotid artery stenosis for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). We assessed the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> hemorrhage (MRIPH) to predict recurrent ipsilateral cerebral ischemic events, and stroke in symptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods One hundred seventy-nine symptomatic patients with ?50% stenosis were prospectively recruited, underwent carotid MRI, and were clinically followed up until CEA, death, or ischemic event. MRIPH was diagnosed if the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> signal intensity was >150% that of the adjacent muscle. Event-free survival analysis was done using Kaplan–Meier plots and Cox regression models controlling for known vascular risk factors. We also undertook a meta-analysis of reported data on MRIPH and recurrent events. Results One hundred fourteen patients (63.7%) showed MRIPH, suffering 92% (57 of 62) of all recurrent ipsilateral events and all but 1 (25 of 26) future strokes. Patients without MRIPH had an estimated annual absolute stroke risk of only 0.6%. Cox multivariate regression analysis proved MRIPH as a strong predictor of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio [HR] = 12.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8–30.1, p < 0.001) and stroke alone (HR = 35.0, 95% CI = 4.7–261.6, p = 0.001). Meta-analysis of published data confirmed this association between MRIPH and recurrent cerebral ischemic events in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (odds ratio = 12.2, 95% CI = 5.5–27.1, p < 0.00001). Interpretation MRIPH independently and strongly predicts recurrent ipsilateral ischemic events, and stroke alone, in symptomatic ?50% carotid artery stenosis. The very low stroke risk in patients without MRIPH puts into question <span class="hlt">current</span> risk–benefit assessment for CEA in this subgroup. ANN NEUROL 2013;73:774–784 PMID:23463579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377497"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet Phototherapy Management of Moderate-to-Severe <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Psoriasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence based analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ultraviolet phototherapy for moderate-to-severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. Research Questions The specific research questions for the evidence review were as follows: What is the safety of ultraviolet phototherapy for moderate-to-severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis? What is the effectiveness of ultraviolet phototherapy for moderate-to-severe <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis? Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Psoriasis is a common chronic, systemic inflammatory disease affecting the skin, nails and occasionally the joints and has a lifelong waning and waxing course. It has a worldwide occurrence with a prevalence of at least 2% of the general population, making it one of the most common systemic inflammatory diseases. The immune-mediated disease has several clinical presentations with the most common (85% - 90%) being <span class="hlt">plaque</span> psoriasis. Characteristic features of psoriasis include scaling, redness, and elevation of the skin. Patients with psoriasis may also present with a range of disabling symptoms such as pruritus (itching), pain, bleeding, or burning associated with <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lesions and up to 30% are classified as having moderate-to-severe disease. Further, some psoriasis patients can be complex medical cases in which diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and hypertension are more likely to be present than in control populations and 10% also suffer from arthritis (psoriatic arthritis). The etiology of psoriasis is unknown but is thought to result from complex interactions between the environment and predisposing genes. Management of psoriasis is related to the extent of the skin involvement, although its presence on the hands, feet, face or genitalia can present challenges. Moderate-to-severe psoriasis is managed by phototherapy and a range of systemic agents including traditional immunosuppressants such as methotrexate and cyclospsorin. Treatment with modern immunosuppressant agents known as biologicals, which more specifically target the immune defects of the disease, is usually reserved for patients with contraindications and those failing or unresponsive to treatments with traditional immunosuppressants or phototherapy. Treatment plans are based on a long-term approach to managing the disease, patient’s expectations, individual responses and risk of complications. The treatment goals are several fold but primarily to: 1) improve physical signs and secondary psychological effects, 2) reduce inflammation and control skin shedding, 3) control physical signs as long as possible, and to 4) avoid factors that can aggravate the condition. Approaches are generally individualized because of the variable presentation, quality of life implications, co-existent medical conditions, and triggering factors (e.g. stress, infections and medications). Individual responses and commitments to therapy also present possible limitations. Phototherapy Ultraviolet phototherapy units have been licensed since February 1993 as a class 2 device in Canada. Units are available as hand held devices, hand and foot devices, full-body panel, and booth styles for institutional and home use. Units are also available with a range of ultraviolet A, broad and narrow band ultraviolet B (BB-UVB and NB-UVB) lamps. After establishing appropriate ultraviolet doses, three-times weekly treatment schedules for 20 to 25 treatments are generally needed to control symptoms. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods The literature search strategy employed keywords and subject headings to capture the concepts of 1) phototherapy and 2) psoriasis. The search involved runs in the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1996 to March Week 3 2009), OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE (1980 to 2009 Week 13), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination/International Agency for Health Technology Assessment. Parallel search strategies were developed for the remaining databases. Search results were limited to human and English-language </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532877"><span id="translatedtitle">Cigarette Smoke and Inflammation: Role in Cerebral Aneurysm Formation and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chalouhi, Nohra; Ali, Muhammad S.; Starke, Robert M.; Jabbour, Pascal M.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I.; Gonzalez, L. Fernando; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Koch, Walter J.; Dumont, Aaron S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Smoking is an established risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recent data has implicated a role of inflammation in the development of cerebral aneurysms. Inflammation accompanying cigarette smoke exposure may thus be a critical pathway underlying the development, progression, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of cerebral aneurysms. Various constituents of the inflammatory response appear to be involved including adhesion molecules, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, leukocytes, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Characterization of the molecular basis of the inflammatory response accompanying cigarette smoke exposure will provide a rational approach for future targeted therapy. In this paper, we review the <span class="hlt">current</span> body of knowledge implicating cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in cerebral aneurysm formation/<span class="hlt">rupture</span> and attempt to highlight important avenues for future investigation. PMID:23316103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3752875"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of post-intubation tracheal membrane <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: A practical approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Suveer; Gurney, Stefan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an infrequent, severe complication of endotracheal intubation, which can be difficult to diagnose. Post-intubation tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (PiTR) is distinct from non-iatrogenic causes of tracheobronchial trauma and often requires different treatment. The increasing adoption of pre-hospital emergency services increases the likelihood of such complications from emergency intubations. Effective management strategies for PiTR outside specialist cardiothoracic units are possible. Two cases of severe PiTR, successfully managed non-operatively on a general medical-surgical intensive care unit, illustrate a modified approach to <span class="hlt">current</span> standards. The evidence base for PiTR is reviewed and a pragmatic management algorithm presented. PMID:23983415</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25440788"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes: what is the <span class="hlt">current</span> status and what does the future hold?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Lopez Sendon, Jose Luis; Tubaro, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by <span class="hlt">plaque</span> erosion or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies <span class="hlt">currently</span> explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio. PMID:25440788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15698332"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal scaling of thermally activated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sornette, D; Ouillon, G</p> <p>2005-01-28</p> <p>We propose a "multifractal stress activation" model combining thermally activated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and long memory stress relaxation, which predicts that seismic decay rates after mainshocks follow the Omori law approximately 1/t(p) with exponents p linearly increasing with the magnitude M(L) of the mainshock. We carefully test this prediction on earthquake sequences in the Southern California earthquake catalog: we find power law relaxations of seismic sequences triggered by mainshocks with exponents p increasing with the mainshock magnitude by approximately 0.1-0.15 for each magnitude unit increase, from p(M(L) = 3) approximately 0.6 to p(M(L) = 7) approximately 1.1, in good agreement with the prediction of the multifractal model. PMID:15698332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23696292"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Rathke cleft cyst mimicking pituitary apoplexy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neidert, Marian Christoph; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Leske, Henning; Möller-Goede, Diane; Pangalu, Athina; Schmid, Christoph; Bernays, René-Ludwig</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) are benign cystic lesions of the sellar and suprasellar region that are asymptomatic in most cases. Occasionally, compression of the optic pathway and hypothalamo-pituitary structures may cause clinical symptoms, such as headaches, visual deficits and endocrinopathies. Acute presentation caused by hemorrhage into an RCC have been described in the literature, and the term "Rathke cleft cyst apoplexy" has been coined. We present the case of a 32-year-old man with acute onset of meningitis-type symptoms and imaging findings resembling hemorrhagic pituitary tumor apoplexy. In retrospect, clinical symptoms, intraoperative appearance, and histologic examination were compatible with the diagnosis of nonhemorrhagic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an RCC. Thus, the clinical presentation of "Rathke cleft cyst apoplexy" is not necessarily caused by hemorrhage. PMID:23696292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820056800&hterms=yttrium+oxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dyttrium%2Boxide"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an ODS alloy with high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The creep and stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38464024"><span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral Embolism during Carotid Artery Stenting: Role of Carotid <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Echolucency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Michael Rosenkranz; Oliver Wittkugel; Christian Waiblinger; Götz Thomalla; Anna Krützelmann; Stefanie Havemeister; Hermann Zeumer; Christian Gerloff; Jens Fiehler</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is associated with the risk of intraprocedural stroke. A better understanding of specific risk factors could help to improve the procedure and to reduce the overall risk of CAS. We addressed the role of carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echolucency as potential risk factor for cerebral embolism during CAS. Methods: We prospectively evaluated carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> echolucency by use</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33143462"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Root Caries: Microbiota in <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Covering Sound, Carious and Arrested Carious Root Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>P. Schüpbach; V. Osterwalder; B. Guggenheim</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">plaque</span> microbiota covering sound or carious root surfaces were studied and compared with that covering arrested root caries lesions. From each of these categories five extracted teeth were examined. The experimental design of the study allowed us to relate the qualitative and quantitative microbial composition to the degree of integrity of the root surface. <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> was sampled by a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1384615"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> of the carotid bifurcation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peltomaa, M; Mattila, K; Wolf, J; Hyvönen-Dabek, M</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>The trace elements of both calcified atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> and <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-free vessel walls of the carotid bifurcation from 31 autopsies were investigated using the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The trace elements studied were phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), chrome (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), strontium (Sr), and rubidium (Rb). All samples contained Fe and Zn. Mercury (Hg) was not detected in any of the samples studied. All <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-free samples contained Cu and almost all Br and Ca, none Sr. All calcified atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> contained Ca and almost all Br and Sr. The relative levels of Ca were higher in the calcified <span class="hlt">plaques</span> than in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-free vessel walls. The relative value of Ca in calcified and uncalcified samples was greatest in the group who had died because of cardiovascular disorders and smallest in the group who had died from other causes. There was a strong positive correlation between the Ca and Sr of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> samples and between the P and Br of the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>-free samples. PMID:1384615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27047336"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Electrode Position on the Characterization of Artery Stenotic <span class="hlt">Plaques</span> by Using Impedance Catheter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Sungbo Cho; Hagen Thielecke</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Use of balloon impedance catheters (BIC) for the characterization of <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in vessels can support an optimal medical treatment of <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. The sensitivity of impedance diagnoses with BIC is related with the distribution of electric fields determined by the electrode configuration. Using the three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation, it was estimated how the relative positions of electrode array to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32928201"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Preoperative Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Culture for Predicting Postoperative Pneumonia in Esophageal Cancer Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Yasunori Akutsu; Hisahiro Matsubara; Shinichi Okazumi; Hideaki Shimada; Kiyohiko Shuto; Toru Shiratori; Takenori Ochiai</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background\\/Aims: In esophageal cancer patients, postoperative pneumonia frequently occurs. In the oral cavity, dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is a major reservoir of bacteria, and it is possible that oral bacteria are aspirated into the upper respiratory tract after esophagectomy. We evaluated the interaction between preoperative dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing esophagectomy. Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine patients with thoracic esophageal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29112372"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> antiseptic decontamination on bacterial colonization and nosocomial infections in critically ill patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>F. Fourrier; E. Cau-Pottier; H. Boutigny; M. Roussel-Delvallez; M. Jourdain; C. Chopin</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To document in intensive care unit (ICU) patients the effect of dental <span class="hlt">plaque</span> antiseptic decontamination on the occurrence of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> colonization by aerobic nosocomial pathogens and nosocomial infections. Design: Single-blind randomized comparative study. Setting: A 16-bed adult intensive care unit in a university hospital. Patients: Patients consecutively admitted in the ICU with a medical condition suggesting an ICU stay</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24761748"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of density and calcium in human atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and implications for arterial brachytherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David A. Rahdert; William L. Sweet; Fermin O. Tio; Christian Janicki; Dennis M. Duggan</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Purpose. To measure density of arterial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> specimens for purposes of improving calculation of intravascular radiation dose.Methods and Materials. In the described technique, the mass of the specimen submerged in water is compared with its mass in air. Thirty-three <span class="hlt">plaque</span> specimens harvested from cadavers and subsequently histologically classified (18 coronary, 15 noncoronary) were subjected to density measurement, and were also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q70580816481jn21.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Determinants of the fluorescence emission spectrum of atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> treated with haematoporphyrin in vitro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David Kessel; Ramon Berguer</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Studies were carried out on atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaques</span> which had been incubated with the fluorescent dye haematoporphyrin. By varying the wavelength of excitation, it was possible to obtain fluorescence signals from different depths in <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, since enhanced tissue penetration occurs when the wavelength of exciting light is increased. Moreover, the presence of ulcerated regions altered both excitation and emission spectra. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35777730"><span id="translatedtitle">Senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> stimulate microglia to release a neurotoxin found in Alzheimer brain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Dana Giulian; Lanny J. Haverkamp; Jun Li; William L. Karshin; Jenny Yu; Donald Tom; Xia Li; Joel B. Kirkpatrick</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Senile <span class="hlt">plaques</span> found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are surrounded by clusters of reactive microglia. Isolated human microglia placed in contact with <span class="hlt">plaques</span> in vitro are activated to release a factor which is toxic to neurons. This same neurotoxin is found in AD brain tissue and causes damage to pyramidal neurons in vivo when infused into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57204895"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Two Antibacterial Mouth Sprays and Dentifrices on Dental <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> and Gingivitis in Beagle Dogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>F. H. Compton; G. S. Beagrie; Robert Chernecky; Kirsten Glasser</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Plaque</span> inhibition by dilute mouth sprays and dentifrices containing benzethonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate was compared in beagle dogs. Agents with chlorhexidine gluconate produced less <span class="hlt">plaque</span> than their benzethonium chloride or placebo counterparts, but the differences were not significant when compared to mean control scores registered during interexperimental recovery periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263625"><span id="translatedtitle">Intracranial <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Enhancement in Patients with Cerebrovascular Events on High-Spatial-Resolution MR Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qiao, Ye; Zeiler, Steven R.; Mirbagheri, Saeedeh; Leigh, Richard; Urrutia, Victor; Wityk, Robert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To characterize intracranial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inflammation in vivo by using three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution contrast material–enhanced black-blood (BB) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to investigate the relationship between intracranial <span class="hlt">plaque</span> inflammation and cerebrovascular ischemic events. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. Twenty-seven patients (19 men; mean age, 56.8 years ± 12.4 [standard deviation]) with cerebrovascular ischemic events (acute stroke, n = 20; subacute stroke, n = 2; chronic stroke, n = 3; transient ischemic attack, n = 2) underwent 3D time-of-flight MR angiography and contrast-enhanced BB 3-T MR imaging for intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Each identified <span class="hlt">plaque</span> was classified as either culprit (the only or most stenotic lesion upstream from a stroke), probably culprit (not the most stenotic lesion upstream from a stroke), or nonculprit (not within the vascular territory of a stroke). <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> contrast enhancement was categorized on BB MR images (grade 0, enhancement less than or equal to that of normal arterial walls seen elsewhere; grade 1, enhancement greater than grade 0 but less than that of the pituitary infundibulum; grade 2, enhancement greater than or equal to that of the pituitary infundibulum), and degree of contrast enhancement was calculated. Associations of the likelihood of being a culprit lesion with both <span class="hlt">plaque</span> contrast enhancement and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness were estimated with ordinal logistic regression. Results Seventy-eight <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were identified in 20 patients with acute stroke (21 [27%] culprit, 12 [15%] probably culprit, and 45 [58%] nonculprit <span class="hlt">plaques</span>). In these patients, grade 2 contrast enhancement was associated with culprit <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (odds ratio 34.6; 95% confidence interval: 4.5, 266.5 compared with grade 0) when adjusted for <span class="hlt">plaque</span> thickness. Grade 0 was observed in only nonculprit <span class="hlt">plaques</span>. Culprit <span class="hlt">plaques</span> had a higher degree of contrast enhancement than did nonculprit <span class="hlt">plaques</span> (25.9% ± 13.4 vs 13.6% ± 12.3, P = .003). Conclusion Contrast enhancement of intracranial atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> is associated with its likelihood to have caused a recent ischemic event and may serve as a marker of its stability, thereby providing important insight into stroke risk. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24475850</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2291514"><span id="translatedtitle">A Negative Correlation between Human Carotid Atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Progression and <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Wall Stress: In Vivo MRI-Based 2D/3D FSI Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Mondal, Sayan; Liu, Fei; Canton, Gador; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Yuan, Chun</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>It is well accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and progression correlate positively with low and oscillating flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, this mechanism cannot explain why advanced <span class="hlt">plaques</span> continue to grow under elevated FSS conditions. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based 2D/3D multi-component models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI, 3D only) for human carotid atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaques</span> were introduced to quantify correlations between <span class="hlt">plaque</span> progression measured by wall thickness increase (WTI) and <span class="hlt">plaque</span> wall (structure) stress (PWS) conditions. A histologically validated multi-contrast MRI protocol was used to acquire multi-year in vivo MRI images. Our results using 2D models (200–700 data points/patient) indicated that 18 out of 21 patients studied showed significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS at time 2 (T2). The 95% confidence interval for the Pearson correlation coefficient is (?0.443, ?0.246), p < 0.0001. Our 3D FSI model supported the 2D correlation results and further indicated that combining both <span class="hlt">plaque</span> structure stress and flow shear stress gave better approximation results (PWS, T2: R2 = 0.279; FSS, T1: R2 = 0.276; Combining both: R2 = 0.637). These pilot studies suggest that both lower PWS and lower FSS may contribute to continued <span class="hlt">plaque</span> progression and should be taken into consideration in future investigations of diseases related to atherosclerosis. PMID:18191138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/28403"><span id="translatedtitle">Age differentiation of rat smooth muscle cells : altered proliferation profile, cellular changes, and implications for atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Huang, Chen-Wen, 1979-</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Clinical evidence has shown that the elderly are at a higher risk for atherosclerotic <span class="hlt">plaque</span> destabilization. The effect of aging on smooth muscle cells, a major cell type in the <span class="hlt">plaque</span>, is central to the process of disease ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12679186"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipid composition in atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaque</span>: evaluation of the lipid three-phase percentage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marinello, Enrico; Setacci, Carlo; Giubbolini, Michele; Cinci, Giuliano; Frosi, Barbara; Porcelli, Brunetta; Terzuoli, Lucia</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>There is a renewed interest in the study of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> lipid composition because it is recognized that it, rather than the luminal narrowing, influences the <span class="hlt">plaque</span> stability and determines patient symptoms. At this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated in the carotid <span class="hlt">plaque</span> of different categories of patients the expression of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, free cholesterol, esters of cholesterol, and the percentages of the three-phases (cholesterol, esters of cholesterol, phospholipids) by using the "Roozeboom triangle". Significant differences in the content of specific lipid and the percentage of the three-phases were detected among the different types of <span class="hlt">plaque</span> evaluated in this study. The analysis of the three-phases by "Roozeboom triangle" may open a new approach in the study of atheromatous <span class="hlt">plaque</span> and give new information on development of the disease. PMID:12679186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4259135"><span id="translatedtitle">Coronary <span class="hlt">Plaque</span> Boundary Enhancement in IVUS Image by Using a Modified Perona-Malik Diffusion Filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anam, S.; Uchino, E.; Suetake, N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We propose a modified Perona-Malik diffusion (PMD) filter to enhance a coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> boundary by considering the conditions peculiar to an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image. The IVUS image is commonly used for a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The IVUS image is however very grainy due to heavy speckle noise. When the normal PMD filter is applied for speckle noise reduction in the IVUS image, the coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> boundary becomes vague. For this problem, we propose a modified PMD filter which is designed in special reference to the coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> boundary detection. It can then not only reduce the speckle noise but also enhance clearly the coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> boundary. After applying the modified PMD filter to the IVUS image, the coronary <span class="hlt">plaque</span> boundaries are successfully detected further by applying the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The accuracy of the proposed method has been confirmed numerically by the experiments. PMID:25506357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S23D..04L"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nucleation and Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Laboratory Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Latour, S.; Schubnel, A.; Nielsen, S. B.; Madariaga, R. I.; Ampuero, J. P.; Vinciguerra, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present the results of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments intended to mimic seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of faults.The experimental device consists of a plate of polycarbonate in which a fault is cut at a critical angle, such that it produces stick-slip when it is submitted to uniaxal stress loading. The <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are visualized by photo-elasticity recorded with a high velocity camera. The radiated wavefield is studied with a network of acoustic sensors. In a first part, we study the slow initiation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We show that this stage actually consists of two phases, a long exponential growth followed by a catastrophic acceleration. The critical length and critical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of the transition scale depend inversely on the normal stress; while the characteristic time is independent of the normal stress. We discuss these results with respect to recent observations of earthquake nucleation in natural faults. In a second part, we will show that this experiment can be used to study the effect of barriers on a fault, as well as the effect on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation of a kink on a fault. We provide detailed observation of the wavefield radiated by the barrier, and compare it to the wavefield radiated by a kink. We compare the observations with theoretical results for the radiation of a barrier in a 2D in-plane geometry, and with 2D numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics by the spectral element method.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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