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Sample records for plasma based inactivation

  1. Assessment of the roles of various inactivation agents in an argon-based direct current atmospheric pressure cold plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qian; Wang Ruixue; Sun Peng; Feng Hongqing; Liang Yongdong; Zhu Weidong; Becker, Kurt H.; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2012-06-15

    Three types of gases, pure argon (99.999%), argon with 2% oxygen, and argon with 2% oxygen and 10% nitrogen were used as operating gases of a direct current atmospheric pressure cold plasma jet to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) suspended in a liquid. The inactivation efficacies for the plasma jets operating in the three gases decrease from Ar/O{sub 2}(2%) to Ar/O{sub 2}(2%)/N{sub 2}(10%) to pure Ar. Optical emission spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry were employed to identify and monitor the reactive species in the plasma-liquid system for the three operating gases and revealed the presence of O, {sup 1}O{sub 2}, OH, NO, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} as well as Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+}. The S. aureus inactivation results indicate that atomic oxygen (O) is the key inactivation agent, while other species play a lesser role in the inactivation progress studied here.

  2. Inactivation of virus in solution by cold atmospheric pressure plasma: identification of chemical inactivation pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) inactivates bacteria and virus through in situ production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). While the bactericidal and virucidal efficiency of plasmas is well established, there is limited knowledge about the chemistry leading to the pathogen inactivation. This article describes a chemical analysis of the CAP reactive chemistry involved in the inactivation of feline calicivirus. We used a remote radio frequency CAP produced in varying gas mixtures leading to different plasma-induced chemistries. A study of the effects of selected scavengers complemented with positive control measurements of relevant RONS reveal two distinctive pathways based on singlet oxygen and peroxynitrous acid. The first mechanism is favored in the presence of oxygen and the second in the presence of air when a significant pH reduction is induced in the solution by the plasma. Additionally, smaller effects of the H2O2, O3 and \\text{NO}2- produced were also found. Identification of singlet oxygen-mediated 2-imidazolone/2-oxo-His (His  +14 Da)—an oxidative modification of His 262 comprising the capsid protein of feline calicivirus links the plasma induced singlet oxygen chemistry to viral inactivation.

  3. Cold plasma inactivation of chronic wound bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, N; Lee, B K; Yap, S S; Thong, K L; Yap, S L

    2016-09-01

    Cold plasma is partly ionized non-thermal plasma generated at atmospheric pressure. It has been recognized as an alternative approach in medicine for sterilization of wounds, promotion of wound healing, topical treatment of skin diseases with microbial involvement and treatment of cancer. Cold plasma used in wound therapy inhibits microbes in chronic wound due to its antiseptic effects, while promoting healing by stimulation of cell proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells. In this study, two types of plasma systems are employed to generate cold plasma: a parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge and a capillary-guided corona discharge. Parameters such as applied voltage, discharge frequency, treatment time and the flow of the carrier gas influence the cold plasma chemistry and therefore change the composition and concentration of plasma species that react with the target sample. Chronic wound that fails to heal often infected by multidrug resistant organisms makes them recalcitrant to healing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are two common bacteria in infected and clinically non-infected wounds. The efficacies of the cold plasma generated by the two designs on the inactivation of three different isolates of MRSA and four isolates of P. aeruginosa are reported here. PMID:27046340

  4. Plasma jet's shielding gas impact on bacterial inactivation.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Helena; Hänsch, Mareike A Ch; Dünnbier, Mario; Wende, Kristian; Hammer, Malte U; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan; Woedtke, Thomas von

    2015-01-01

    One of the most desired aims in plasma medicine is to inactivate prokaryotic cells and leave eukaryotic cells unharmed or even stimulate proliferation to promote wound healing. The method of choice is to precisely control the plasma component composition. Here the authors investigate the inactivation of bacteria (Escherichia coli) by a plasma jet treatment. The reactive species composition created by the plasma in liquids is tuned by the use of a shielding gas device to achieve a reactive nitrogen species dominated condition or a reactive oxygen species dominated condition. A strong correlation between composition of the reactive components and the inactivation of the bacteria is observed. The authors compare the results to earlier investigations on eukaryotic cells and show that it is possible to find a plasma composition where bacterial inactivation is strongest and adverse effects on eukaryotic cells are minimized. PMID:25832438

  5. Inactivation of the biofilm by the air plasma containing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi; Yasuoka Takeuchi lab Team

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factory and medical facilities. Inactivation of biofilm has the method of making it react to chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. Although inactivation by chemicals has the problem that hazardous property of a residual substance and hydrogen peroxide have slow reaction velocity. We achieved advanced oxidation process (AOP) with air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were able to be generated selectively by adjusting the amount of water supplied to the plasma. We inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in five minutes with OH radicals generated by using hydrogen peroxide and ozone.

  6. Non-thermal plasma for inactivated-vaccine preparation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guomin; Zhu, Ruihao; Yang, Licong; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Qian; Su, Xia; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-17

    Vaccines are of great importance in controlling the spread of infectious diseases in poultry farming. The safety and efficacy of vaccines are also essential. To explore the feasibility of a novel technology (non-thermal plasma) in inactivated vaccine preparation, an alternating current atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) jet with Ar/O2/N2 as the operating gas was used to inactivate a Newcastle disease virus (NDV, LaSota) strain and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV, A/Chicken/Hebei/WD/98) for vaccine preparation. The results showed that complete inactivation could be achieved with 2 min of NTP treatment for both NDV and AIV. Moreover, a proper NTP treatment time is needed for inactivation of a virus without destruction of the antigenic determinants. Compared to traditional formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine, the vaccine made from NDV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine) could induce a higher NDV-specific antibody titer in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the results of a chicken challenge experiment showed that NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine could protect SPF chickens from a lethal NDV challenge. Vaccines made from AIV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-AIV-vaccine) also showed a similar AIV-specific antibody titer compared with traditional AIV vaccines prepared using formaldehyde inactivation. Studies of the morphological changes of the virus, chemical analysis of NDV allantoic fluid and optical emission spectrum analysis of NTP suggested that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by NTP played an important role in the virus inactivation process. All of these results demonstrated that it could be feasible to use non-thermal NTP as an alternative strategy to prepare inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza. PMID:26529075

  7. Surface-dependent inactivation of model microorganisms with shielded sliding plasma discharges and applied air flow.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Malik, Muhammad A; Heller, Loree C

    2015-06-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma inactivates bacteria through reactive species produced from the applied gas. The use of cold plasma clinically has gained recent interest, as the need for alternative or supplementary strategies are necessary for preventing multi-drug resistant infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of a novel shielded sliding discharge based cold plasma reactor operated by nanosecond voltage pulses in atmospheric air on both biotic and inanimate surfaces. Bacterial inactivation was determined by direct quantification of colony forming units. The plasma activated air (afterglow) was bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis seeded on culture media, laminate, and linoleum vinyl. In general, E. coli was more susceptible to plasma exposure. A bacterial reduction was observed with the application of air alone on a laminate surface. Whole-cell real-time PCR revealed a decrease in the presence of E. coli genomic DNA on exposed samples. These findings suggest that plasma-induced bacterial inactivation is surface-dependent. PMID:25200988

  8. Contribution a l'etude de l'inactivation de micro-organismes par plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhacene-Boudam, Mustafa-Karim

    The present work is a deepening of some specific research aspects concerning medical device sterilization by ionized gases, that were initiated almost ten years ago and pursued since then by the "Sterilization team" of the Groupe de physique des plasmas. Initially, the thesis was directed at spore inactivation by atmospheric-pressure plasmas with the intent of showing that it was possible to reach sterility mainly by the action of UV photons, therefore minimizing damage to materials (in contrast to using chemically reactive species from the plasma) and, at the same time, achieving a greater control of the process through its better understanding. We actually succeeded in demonstrating the possibility of spore inactivation based on the dominant action of UV photons issued from an atmospheric-pressure plasma. However, the low inactivation efficiency and the practical difficulty of the atmospheric-pressure plasma used made us turn to low-pressure post-discharge sterilization systems. To comply with this new goal, we first characterized, essentially through emission spectroscopy, the flowing afterglow of a N2-O2 low-pressure discharge, concentrating on the properties and effects of the early and late post-discharges as far as sterilization is concerned. We demonstrated that the early afterglow is responsible for heavy damage to processed polymers but that it is possible to reduce its influence provided a minimum percentage of O2 is added in the N2-O2 mixture and also by moving away the plasma source from the sterilization chamber entrance. We then studied the combined effects, on the kinetics of spore inactivation, of the species (UV photons, radicals) issued from the plasma and of the heating of the petri dish, using B. atrophaeus spores as reference microorganisms. We clearly proved the existence of synergy between UV photons and heating in inactivating spores, provided UV photons and heating act simultaneously. Whatever the O2% in the mixture, and thus the UV

  9. Radiation inactivation target size of rat adipocyte glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and intracellular pools

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, D.B.; Berenski, C.J.; Spangler, R.A.; Jung, C.Y.

    1987-06-15

    The in situ assembly states of the glucose transport carrier protein in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular (microsomal) storage pool of rat adipocytes were assessed by studying radiation-induced inactivation of the D-glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding activities. High energy radiation inactivated the glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding of each of these membrane preparations by reducing the total number of the binding sites without affecting the dissociation constant. The reduction in total number of binding sites was analyzed as a function of radiation dose based on target theory, from which a radiation-sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When the plasma membranes of insulin-treated adipocytes were used, a target size of approximately 58,000 daltons was obtained. For adipocyte microsomal membranes, we obtained target sizes of approximately 112,000 and 109,000 daltons prior to and after insulin treatment, respectively. In the case of microsomal membranes, however, inactivation data showed anomalously low radiation sensitivities at low radiation doses, which may be interpreted as indicating the presence of a radiation-sensitive inhibitor. These results suggest that the adipocyte glucose transporter occurs as a monomer in the plasma membrane while existing in the intracellular reserve pool either as a homodimer or as a stoichiometric complex with a protein of an approximately equal size.

  10. Inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa using dielectric barrier discharge low-temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Sichuan; Chen, Jierong; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaoyong; Ma, Yun

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of Microcystis aeruginosa plasma inactivation was investigated using dielectric barrier discharge low-temperature plasma. The inactivation efficiency was characterized in terms of optical density. The influence of electrical and physicochemical parameters on M. aeruginosa inactivation was studied to determine the optimal experimental conditions. The influence of active species was studied. The proliferation of the M. aeruginosa cells was significantly decreased under plasma exposure. The morphologic changes in M. aeruginosa were characterized under scanning electron microscopy. These results suggest that the low-temperature plasma technology is a promising method for water pollution control.

  11. Inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa using dielectric barrier discharge low-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Sichuan; Chen, Jierong; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaoyong; Ma, Yun

    2013-05-13

    The efficiency of Microcystis aeruginosa plasma inactivation was investigated using dielectric barrier discharge low-temperature plasma. The inactivation efficiency was characterized in terms of optical density. The influence of electrical and physicochemical parameters on M. aeruginosa inactivation was studied to determine the optimal experimental conditions. The influence of active species was studied. The proliferation of the M. aeruginosa cells was significantly decreased under plasma exposure. The morphologic changes in M. aeruginosa were characterized under scanning electron microscopy. These results suggest that the low-temperature plasma technology is a promising method for water pollution control.

  12. Impact of surface structure and feed gas composition on Bacillus subtilis endospore inactivation during direct plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Christian; Steins, Veronika; Reineke, Kai; Rademacher, Antje; Klocke, Michael; Rauh, Cornelia; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the inactivation efficiency of cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on Bacillus subtilis endospores dependent on the used feed gas composition and on the surface, the endospores were attached on. Glass petri-dishes, glass beads, and peppercorns were inoculated with the same endospore density and treated with a radio frequency plasma jet. Generated reactive species were detected using optical emission spectroscopy. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based ratio detection system was established to monitor the DNA damage during the plasma treatment. Argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen as feed gas emitted the highest amounts of UV-C photons and considerable amount of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Plasma generated with argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen was characterized by the highest emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas the UV-C emission was negligible. The use of pure argon showed a negligible emission of UV photons and atomic oxygen, however, the emission of vacuum (V)UV photons was assumed. Similar maximum inactivation results were achieved for the three feed gas compositions. The surface structure had a significant impact on the inactivation efficiency of the plasma treatment. The maximum inactivation achieved was between 2.4 and 2.8 log10 on glass petri-dishes and 3.9 to 4.6 log10 on glass beads. The treatment of peppercorns resulted in an inactivation lower than 1.0 log10. qPCR results showed a significant DNA damage for all gas compositions. Pure argon showed the highest results for the DNA damage ratio values, followed by argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen. In case of argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen the inactivation seems to be dominated by the action of ROS. These findings indicate the significant role of VUV and UV photons in the inactivation process of B. subtilis endospores. PMID:26300855

  13. Impact of surface structure and feed gas composition on Bacillus subtilis endospore inactivation during direct plasma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hertwig, Christian; Steins, Veronika; Reineke, Kai; Rademacher, Antje; Klocke, Michael; Rauh, Cornelia; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the inactivation efficiency of cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on Bacillus subtilis endospores dependent on the used feed gas composition and on the surface, the endospores were attached on. Glass petri-dishes, glass beads, and peppercorns were inoculated with the same endospore density and treated with a radio frequency plasma jet. Generated reactive species were detected using optical emission spectroscopy. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based ratio detection system was established to monitor the DNA damage during the plasma treatment. Argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen as feed gas emitted the highest amounts of UV-C photons and considerable amount of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Plasma generated with argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen was characterized by the highest emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas the UV-C emission was negligible. The use of pure argon showed a negligible emission of UV photons and atomic oxygen, however, the emission of vacuum (V)UV photons was assumed. Similar maximum inactivation results were achieved for the three feed gas compositions. The surface structure had a significant impact on the inactivation efficiency of the plasma treatment. The maximum inactivation achieved was between 2.4 and 2.8 log10 on glass petri-dishes and 3.9 to 4.6 log10 on glass beads. The treatment of peppercorns resulted in an inactivation lower than 1.0 log10. qPCR results showed a significant DNA damage for all gas compositions. Pure argon showed the highest results for the DNA damage ratio values, followed by argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen. In case of argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen the inactivation seems to be dominated by the action of ROS. These findings indicate the significant role of VUV and UV photons in the inactivation process of B. subtilis endospores. PMID:26300855

  14. Inactivation of Acanthamoeba spp. and Other Ocular Pathogens by Application of Cold Atmospheric Gas Plasma.

    PubMed

    Heaselgrave, Wayne; Shama, Gilbert; Andrew, Peter W; Kong, Michael G

    2016-05-15

    Currently there are estimated to be approximately 3.7 million contact lens wearers in the United Kingdom and 39.2 million in North America. Contact lens wear is a major risk factor for developing an infection of the cornea known as keratitis due to poor lens hygiene practices. While there is an international standard for testing disinfection methods against bacteria and fungi (ISO 14729), no such guidelines exist for the protozoan Acanthamoeba, which causes a potentially blinding keratitis most commonly seen in contact lens wearers, and as a result, many commercially available disinfecting solutions show incomplete disinfection after 6 and 24 h of exposure. Challenge test assays based on international standard ISO 14729 were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of cold atmospheric gas plasma (CAP) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Acanthamoeba castellanii P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were completely inactivated in 0.5 min and 2 min, respectively, and trophozoites of A. polyphaga and A. castellanii were completely inactivated in 1 min and 2 min, respectively. Furthermore, for the highly resistant cyst stage of both species, complete inactivation was achieved after 4 min of exposure to CAP. This study demonstrates that the CAP technology is highly effective against bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogens. The further development of this technology has enormous potential, as this approach is able to deliver the complete inactivation of ocular pathogens in minutes, in contrast to commercial multipurpose disinfecting solutions that require a minimum of 6 h. PMID:26994079

  15. Inactivation of Gram-positive biofilms by low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, F.; Robert, H.; Merbahi, N.; Fontagné-Faucher, C.; Yousfi, M.; Romain, C. E.; Eichwald, O.; Rondel, C.; Gabriel, B.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to the evaluation of the efficiency of a new low-temperature plasma jet driven in ambient air by a dc-corona discharge to inactivate adherent cells and biofilms of Gram-positive bacteria. The selected microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria, a Weissella confusa strain which has the particularity to excrete a polysaccharide polymer (dextran) when sucrose is present. Both adherent cells and biofilms were treated with the low-temperature plasma jet for different exposure times. The antimicrobial efficiency of the plasma was tested against adherent cells and 48 h-old biofilms grown with or without sucrose. Bacterial survival was estimated using both colony-forming unit counts and fluorescence-based assays for bacterial cell viability. The experiments show the ability of the low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure to inactivate the bacteria. An increased resistance of bacteria embedded within biofilms is clearly observed. The resistance is also significantly higher with biofilm in the presence of sucrose, which indicates that dextran could play a protective role.

  16. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Vladimír; Soušková, Hana; Hubka, Vit; Švarcová, Michaela; Julák, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) was tested as an in vitro deactivation method on four human pathogenic dermatophytes belonging to all ecological groups including anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale, zoophilic Arthroderma benhamiae, and geophilic Microsporum gypseum. The identification of all strains was confirmed by sequencing of ITS rDNA region (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA). Dermatophyte spores were suspended in water or inoculated on agar plates and exposed to NTP generated by a positive or negative corona discharge, or cometary discharge. After 15 min of exposure to NTP a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores in water suspensions was observed in all species. Complete spore inactivation and thus decontamination was observed in anthropophilic species after 25 min of exposure. Similarly, a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores was observed after 10-15 min of exposure to NTP on the surface of agar plates with full inhibition after 25 min in all tested species except of M. gypseum. Although the sensitivity of dermatophytes to the action of NTP appears to be lower than that of bacteria and yeast, our results suggest that NTP has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment strategy for dermatophytosis and could be useful for surface decontamination in clinical practice. PMID:26427826

  17. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro

    2010-04-12

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  18. The roles of the various plasma agents in the inactivation of bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Xinpei; Xiong Qing; Tang Zhiyuan; Xiong Zhilan; Hu Jing; Jiang Zhonghe; Pan Yuan; Ye Tao; Cao Yingguang; Sun Ziyong

    2008-09-01

    The roles of various plasma agents in the inactivation of bacteria have recently been investigated. However, up to now, the effect of the charged particles on the inactivation of bacteria is not well understood. In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet device, which generates a cold plasma plume carrying a peak current of 300 mA, is used to investigate the role of the charged particles in the inactivation process. It is found that the charged particles play a minor role in the inactivation process when He/N{sub 2}(3%) is used as working gas. On the other hand, when He/O{sub 2}(3%) is used, the charged particles are expected to play an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Further analysis shows that the negative ions O{sub 2}{sup -} might be the charged particles that are playing the role. Besides, it is found that the active species, including O, O{sub 3}, and metastable state O{sub 2}*, can play a crucial role in the inactivation of the bacteria. However, the excited He*, N{sub 2} C {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}, and N{sub 2}{sup +} B {sup 2}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} have no significant direct effect on the inactivation of bacteria. It is also concluded that heat and UV play no or minor role in the inactivation process.

  19. Impact of cold plasma on Citrobacter freundii in apple juice: inactivation kinetics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Surowsky, Björn; Fröhling, Antje; Gottschalk, Nathalie; Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich

    2014-03-17

    Various studies have shown that cold plasma is capable of inactivating microorganisms located on a variety of food surfaces, food packaging materials and process equipment under atmospheric pressure conditions; however, less attention has been paid to the impact of cold plasma on microorganisms in liquid foodstuffs. The present study investigates cold plasma's ability to inactivate Citrobacter freundii in apple juice. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and temperature measurements were performed to characterise the plasma source. The plasma-related impact on microbial loads was evaluated by traditional plate count methods, while morphological changes were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiological property changes were obtained through flow cytometric measurements (membrane integrity, esterase activity and membrane potential). In addition, mathematical modelling was performed in order to achieve a reliable prediction of microbial inactivation and to establish the basis for possible industrial implementation. C. freundii loads in apple juice were reduced by about 5 log cycles after a plasma exposure of 480s using argon and 0.1% oxygen plus a subsequent storage time of 24h. The results indicate that a direct contact between bacterial cells and plasma is not necessary for achieving successful inactivation. The plasma-generated compounds in the liquid, such as H2O2 and most likely hydroperoxy radicals, are particularly responsible for microbial inactivation. PMID:24462703

  20. Inactivation of factor XII active fragment in normal plasma. Predominant role of C-1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    de Agostini, A; Lijnen, H R; Pixley, R A; Colman, R W; Schapira, M

    1984-06-01

    To define the factors responsible for the inactivation of the active fragment derived from Factor XII (Factor XIIf ) in plasma, we studied the inactivation kinetics of Factor XIIf in various purified and plasma mixtures. We also analyzed the formation of 125I-Factor XIIf -inhibitor complexes by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In purified systems, the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of Factor XIIf with C-1-inhibitor, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and antithrombin III were 18.5, 0.91, and 0.32 X 10(4) M-1 min-1, respectively. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 1:1 stoichiometric complexes were formed between 125I-Factor XIIf and each of these three inhibitors. In contrast, kinetic and SDS-PAGE studies indicated that Factor XIIf did not react with alpha 1-antitrypsin or alpha 2-macroglobulin. The inactivation rate constant of Factor XIIf by prekallikrein-deficient plasma was 14.4 X 10(-2) min-1, a value that was essentially identical to the value predicted from the studies in purified systems (15.5 X 10(-2) min-1). This constant was reduced to 1.8 X 10(-2) min-1 when Factor XIIf was inactivated by prekallikrein-deficient plasma that had been immunodepleted (less than 5%) of C-1-inhibitor. In addition, after inactivation in normal plasma, 74% of the active 125I-Factor XIIf was found to form a complex with C-1-inhibitor, whereas 26% of the enzyme formed complexes with alpha 2-antiplasmin and antithrombin III. Furthermore, 42% of the labeled enzyme was still complexed with C-1-inhibitor when 125I-Factor XII was inactivated in hereditary angioedema plasma that contained 32% of functional C-1-inhibitor. This study quantitatively demonstrates the dominant role of C-1-inhibitor in the inactivation of Factor XIIf in the plasma milieu. PMID:6725552

  1. Development of High Hydrostatic Pressure Applied in Pathogen Inactivation for Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xinmin; Chen, Limin; Wang, Jingxing

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been used to inactivate pathogens in foods for decades. There is a great potential to adapt this technology to inactivate pathogens in plasma and derivatives. To better evaluate the potential of this method, pathogen inoculated plasma samples were pressurized under different pressure application modes and temperatures. The inactivation efficacy of pathogens and activities of plasma proteins were monitored after treatment. The CFUs of E.coli was examined as the indicator of the inactivation efficiency. The factor V and VIII were chosen as the indicator of the plasma function. Preliminary experiments identified optimized treatment conditions: 200-250MPa, with 5×1 minute multi-pulsed high pressure at near 0°C (ice-water bath). Under this conditions, the inactivation efficacy of EMCV was >8.5log. The CFUs of E. coli were reduced by 7.5log, B. cereus were 8log. However, PPV and S. aureus cannot be inactivated efficiently. The activities of factor II, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, fibrinogen, IgG, IgM stayed over 95% compared to untreated. Factor V and VIII activity was maintained at 46–63% and 77–82%, respectively. PMID:27561010

  2. Differential Inactivation of Fungal Spores in Water and on Seeds by Ozone and Arc Discharge Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Ho; Pengkit, Anchalee; Choi, Kihong; Jeon, Seong Sil; Choi, Hyo Won; Shin, Dong Bum; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon

    2015-01-01

    Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds). Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease) spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection. PMID:26406468

  3. Differential Inactivation of Fungal Spores in Water and on Seeds by Ozone and Arc Discharge Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Ho; Pengkit, Anchalee; Choi, Kihong; Jeon, Seong Sil; Choi, Hyo Won; Shin, Dong Bum; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon

    2015-01-01

    Seed sterilization is essential for preventing seed borne fungal diseases. Sterilization tools based on physical technologies have recently received much attention. However, available information is very limited in terms of efficiency, safety, and mode of action. In this study, we have examined antifungal activity of ozone and arc discharge plasma, potential tools for seed sterilization. In our results, ozone and arc discharge plasma have shown differential antifungal effects, depending on the environment associated with fungal spores (freely submerged in water or infected seeds). Ozone inactivates Fusarium fujikuroi (fungus causing rice bakanae disease) spores submerged in water more efficiently than arc discharge plasma. However, fungal spores associated with or infecting rice seeds are more effectively deactivated by arc discharge plasma. ROS generated in water by ozone may function as a powerful fungicidal factor. On the other hand, shockwave generated from arc discharge plasma may have greatly contributed to antifungal effects on fungus associated with rice seeds. In support of this notion, addition of ultrasonic wave in ozone generating water has greatly increased the efficiency of seed disinfection. PMID:26406468

  4. Reactive hydroxyl radical-driven oral bacterial inactivation by radio frequency atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Kil; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Koo, Il Gyo; Kim, Paul Y.; Kim, Yoonsun; Kim, Gon Jun; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H.; Collins, George J.; Lee, Jae Koo

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrated bacterial (Streptococcus mutans) inactivation by a radio frequency power driven atmospheric pressure plasma torch with H2O2 entrained in the feedstock gas. Optical emission spectroscopy identified substantial excited state •OH generation inside the plasma and relative •OH formation was verified by optical absorption. The bacterial inactivation rate increased with increasing •OH generation and reached a maximum 5-log10 reduction with 0.6% H2O2 vapor. Generation of large amounts of toxic ozone is drawback of plasma bacterial inactivation, thus it is significant that the ozone concentration falls within recommended safe allowable levels with addition of H2O2 vapor to the plasma.

  5. Reactive hydroxyl radical-driven oral bacterial inactivation by radio frequency atmospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sung Kil; Lee, Jae Koo; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Koo, Il Gyo; Kim, Paul Y.; Kim, Yoonsun; Kim, Gon Jun; Collins, George J.; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H.

    2011-04-04

    We demonstrated bacterial (Streptococcus mutans) inactivation by a radio frequency power driven atmospheric pressure plasma torch with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} entrained in the feedstock gas. Optical emission spectroscopy identified substantial excited state OH generation inside the plasma and relative OH formation was verified by optical absorption. The bacterial inactivation rate increased with increasing OH generation and reached a maximum 5-log{sub 10} reduction with 0.6%H{sub 2}O{sub 2} vapor. Generation of large amounts of toxic ozone is drawback of plasma bacterial inactivation, thus it is significant that the ozone concentration falls within recommended safe allowable levels with addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} vapor to the plasma.

  6. Highly effective fungal inactivation in He+O{sub 2} atmospheric-pressure nonequilibrium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Z.; Lu, X. P.; Pan, Y.; Feng, A.; Ostrikov, K.

    2010-12-15

    Highly effective (more than 99.9%) inactivation of a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans commonly found in oral, respiratory, digestive, and reproduction systems of a human body using atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained in He+O{sub 2} gas mixtures is reported. The inactivation is demonstrated in two fungal culture configurations with open (Petri dish without a cover) and restricted access to the atmosphere (Petri dish with a cover) under specific experimental conditions. It is shown that the fungal inactivation is remarkably more effective in the second configuration. This observation is supported by the scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the fungi before and after the plasma treatment. The inactivation mechanism explains the experimental observations under different experimental conditions and is consistent with the reports by other authors. The results are promising for the development of advanced health care applications.

  7. Highly effective fungal inactivation in He+O2 atmospheric-pressure nonequilibrium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Z.; Lu, X. P.; Feng, A.; Pan, Y.; Ostrikov, K.

    2010-12-01

    Highly effective (more than 99.9%) inactivation of a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans commonly found in oral, respiratory, digestive, and reproduction systems of a human body using atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained in He+O2 gas mixtures is reported. The inactivation is demonstrated in two fungal culture configurations with open (Petri dish without a cover) and restricted access to the atmosphere (Petri dish with a cover) under specific experimental conditions. It is shown that the fungal inactivation is remarkably more effective in the second configuration. This observation is supported by the scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the fungi before and after the plasma treatment. The inactivation mechanism explains the experimental observations under different experimental conditions and is consistent with the reports by other authors. The results are promising for the development of advanced health care applications.

  8. Is gas-discharge plasma a new solution to the old problem of biofilm inactivation?

    PubMed

    Joaquin, Jonathan C; Kwan, Calvin; Abramzon, Nina; Vandervoort, Kurt; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela

    2009-03-01

    Conventional disinfection and sterilization methods are often ineffective with biofilms, which are ubiquitous, hard-to-destroy microbial communities embedded in a matrix mostly composed of exopolysaccharides. The use of gas-discharge plasmas represents an alternative method, since plasmas contain a mixture of charged particles, chemically reactive species and UV radiation, whose decontamination potential for free-living, planktonic micro-organisms is well established. In this study, biofilms were produced using Chromobacterium violaceum, a Gram-negative bacterium present in soil and water and used in this study as a model organism. Biofilms were subjected to an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for different exposure times. Our results show that 99.6 % of culturable cells are inactivated after a 5 min treatment. The survivor curve shows double-slope kinetics with a rapid initial decline in c.f.u. ml(-1) followed by a much slower decline with D values that are longer than those for the inactivation of planktonic organisms, suggesting a more complex inactivation mechanism for biofilms. DNA and ATP determinations together with atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy show that non-culturable cells are still alive after short plasma exposure times. These results indicate the potential of plasma for biofilm inactivation and suggest that cells go through a sequential set of physiological and morphological changes before inactivation. PMID:19246743

  9. Inactivation of possible microorganism food contaminants on packaging foils using nonthermal plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, V.; Khun, J.; Soušková, H.; Čeřovský, M.

    2015-07-01

    The inactivation effect of nonthermal plasma generated in electric discharge burning in air atmosphere with water or hydrogen peroxide aerosol for the application to the microbial decontamination of packaging foils is studied. The microbial inactivation is studied on two bacterial, two yeasts, and two filamentous micromycete species. The inactivation of all contaminating microorganisms becomes on the area of full 8.5 cm in diameter circular sample after short times of several tens of seconds. Described apparatus may present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food packaging material or other thermolabile materials.

  10. Inactivation of possible microorganism food contaminants on packaging foils using nonthermal plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, V. Khun, J.; Soušková, H.; Čeřovský, M.

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation effect of nonthermal plasma generated in electric discharge burning in air atmosphere with water or hydrogen peroxide aerosol for the application to the microbial decontamination of packaging foils is studied. The microbial inactivation is studied on two bacterial, two yeasts, and two filamentous micromycete species. The inactivation of all contaminating microorganisms becomes on the area of full 8.5 cm in diameter circular sample after short times of several tens of seconds. Described apparatus may present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food packaging material or other thermolabile materials.

  11. Inactivation of microorganisms and endotoxins by low temperature nitrogen gas plasma exposure.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichiro; Sekiya, Takayuki; Tamazawa, Kahoru; Taniguchi, Akira; Kido, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    The plasma of several different gases has shown a sporicidal activity. From these gases, nitrogen gas was most difficult to produce atomic nitrogen radicals. However, these radicals have a high energy, indicating that nitrogen gas plasma could be used to sterilize microorganisms and inactivate endotoxins. The sterilization mechanism of nitrogen gas plasma is the synergistic effect of a high rising-up voltage pulse, UV irradiation and atomic nitrogen radicals. Thus, the target cells were damaged by degradation, which resulted in death. The biological indicator (BI) used in this study was Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 at a population of 1 x 10(6) CFU/sheet. Sterility assurance was confirmed by using the BI. Moreover, endotoxins were successfully inactivated. More than 5 log reduction of endotoxins could be attained with 30 minutes of nitrogen gas plasma exposure. Material functionality influenced by nitrogen gas plasma presented a satisfactory result. No deterioration of polymers could be observed by nitrogen gas plasma exposure. PMID:18198719

  12. Microbial Inactivation in the Liquid Phase Induced by Multigas Plasma Jet

    PubMed Central

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro; Uehara, Kodai; Sasaki, Yota; Hidekazu, Miyahara; Matsumura, Yuriko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Ito, Norihiko; Kohno, Masahiro; Azuma, Takeshi; Okino, Akitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Various gas atmospheric nonthermal plasmas were generated using a multigas plasma jet to treat microbial suspensions. Results indicated that carbon dioxide and nitrogen plasma had high sterilization effects. Carbon dioxide plasma, which generated the greatest amount of singlet oxygen than other gas plasmas, killed general bacteria and some fungi. On the other hand, nitrogen plasma, which generated the largest amount of OH radical, killed ≥6 log of 11 species of microorganisms, including general bacteria, fungi, acid-fast bacteria, spores, and viruses in 1–15 min. To identify reactive species responsible for bacterial inactivation, antioxidants were added to bacterial suspensions, which revealed that singlet oxygen and OH radicals had greatest inactivation effects. PMID:26173107

  13. Atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet induced bacterial inactivation in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    An atmospheric pressure resistive barrier air plasma jet is designed to inactivate bacteria in aqueous media in direct and indirect exposure modes of treatment. The resistive barrier plasma jet is designed to operate at both dc and standard 50-60 Hz low frequency ac power input and the ambient air at 50% humidity level was used as the operating gas. The voltage-current characteristics of the plasma jet were analyzed and the operating frequency of the discharge was measured to be 20 kHz and the plasma power was measured to be 26 W. The plasma jet rotational temperatures (Trot) are obtained from the optical emission spectra, from the N2C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the Spectra Air (SPECAIR) simulation spectra. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were measured using optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzers, for direct and indirect treatment modes. The nitric oxides (NO) were observed to be the predominant long lived reactive nitrogen species produced by the plasma. Three different bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), and Neisseria meningitidis (Gram-negative) were suspended in an aqueous media and treated by the resistive barrier air plasma jet in direct and indirect exposure modes. The results show that a near complete bacterial inactivation was achieved within 120 s for both direct and indirect plasma treatment of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Conversely, a partial inactivation of N. meningitidis was observed by 120 s direct plasma exposure and insignificant inactivation was observed for the indirect plasma exposure treatment. Plasma induced shifts in N. meningitidis gene expression was analyzed using pilC gene expression as a representative gene and the results showed a reduction in the expression of the pilC gene compared to untreated samples suggesting that the observed protection against NO may be regulated by other genes.

  14. Plasma-Mediated Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Grown on Borosilicate Surfaces under Continuous Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Vandervoort, Kurt G.; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities attached to a surface and embedded in a matrix composed of exopolysaccharides and excreted nucleic acids. Bacterial biofilms are responsible for undesirable effects such as disease, prostheses colonization, biofouling, equipment damage, and pipe plugging. Biofilms are also more resilient than free-living cells to regular sterilization methods and therefore it is indispensable to develop better ways to control and remove them. The use of gas discharge plasmas is a good alternative since plasmas contain a mixture of reactive agents well-known for their decontamination potential against free microorganisms. We have previously reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were inactivated after a 1-min plasma exposure. We determined that the adhesiveness and the thickness of Pseudomonas biofilms grown on borosilicate were reduced. We also reported sequential morphological changes and loss of viability upon plasma treatment. However, the studies were carried out in batch cultures. The use of a continuous culture results in a more homogenous environment ensuring reproducible biofilm growth. The aim of this work was to study plasma-mediated inactivation of P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate in a continuous culture system. In this paper we show that biofilms grown on glass under continuous culture can be inactivated by using gas discharge plasma. Both biofilm architecture and cell culturabilty are impacted by the plasma treatment. The inactivation kinetics is similar to previously described ones and cells go through sequential changes ranging from minimal modification without loss of viability at short plasma exposure times, to major structure and viability loss at longer exposure times. We report that changes in biofilm structure leading to the loss of culturability and viability are related to a decrease of the biofilm matrix adhesiveness. To our knowledge, there has been no attempt to evaluate the inactivation

  15. Photons and particles emitted from cold atmospheric-pressure plasma inactivate bacteria and biomolecules independently and synergistically

    PubMed Central

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Edengeiser, Eugen; Jarzina, Fabian; Brinckmann, Steffen; Steinborn, Elena; Havenith, Martina; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas are currently in use in medicine as surgical tools and are being evaluated for new applications, including wound treatment and cosmetic care. The disinfecting properties of plasmas are of particular interest, given the threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. Plasma effluents comprise (V)UV photons and various reactive particles, such as accelerated ions and radicals, that modify biomolecules; however, a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie plasma-based disinfection has been lacking. Here, we investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of plasma, including the separate, additive and synergistic effects of plasma-generated (V)UV photons and particles at the cellular and molecular levels. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that plasma-emitted particles cause physical damage to the cell envelope, whereas UV radiation does not. The lethal effects of the plasma effluent exceed the zone of physical damage. We demonstrate that both plasma-generated particles and (V)UV photons modify DNA nucleobases. The particles also induce breaks in the DNA backbone. The plasma effluent, and particularly the plasma-generated particles, also rapidly inactivate proteins in the cellular milieu. Thus, in addition to physical damage to the cellular envelope, modifications to DNA and proteins contribute to the bactericidal properties of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. PMID:24068175

  16. Study of Inactivation Factors in Low Temperature Surface-wave Plasma Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mrityunjai Kumar; Xu, Lei; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    In this study we investigated the low temperature surface-wave plasma sterilization of directly and indirectly exposed Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with a large-volume microwave plasma device. The air-simulated gas mixture was used to produce the plasma. The water vapor addition to the gas mixture improved the sterilization efficiency significantly. The effect of ultraviolet photons produced along with plasma to inactivate the spores was studied using a separate chamber, which was evacuated to less than one mTorr and was observed that spores were sterilized within 60 min. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed no significant changes in the actual size of the spores with that of untreated spores despite the survival curve shown that the spores were inactivated.

  17. Inactivation of Spoilage Bacteria in Package by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Cold Plasma - Treatment Time Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of treatment time of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DBD-ACP) on inactivation of spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Macrococcus caseolyticus. P. fluorescens and M. caseolyticus were isolated from spoiled chicken carcasses ...

  18. An overview of X inactivation based on species differences.

    PubMed

    Migeon, Barbara R

    2016-08-01

    X inactivation, a developmental process that takes place in early stages of mammalian embryogenesis, balances the sex difference in dosage of X-linked genes. Although all mammals use this form of dosage compensation, the details differ from one species to another because of variations in the staging of embryogenesis and evolutionary tinkering with the DNA blueprint for development. Such differences provide a broader view of the process than that afforded by a single species. My overview of X inactivation is based on these species variations. PMID:26805440

  19. Inactivation of possible micromycete food contaminants using the low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čeřovský, M.; Khun, J.; Rusová, K.; Scholtz, V.; Soušková, H.

    2013-09-01

    The inhibition effect of hydrogen peroxide aerosol, low-temperature plasma and their combinations has been studied on several micromycetes spores. The low-temperature plasma was generated in corona discharges in the open air apparatus with hydrogen peroxide aerosol. Micromycete spores were inoculated on the surface of agar plates, exposed solely to the hydrogen peroxide aerosol, corona discharge or their combination. After incubation the diameter of inhibition zone was measured. The solely positive corona discharge exhibits no inactivation effect, the solely negative corona discharge and solely hydrogen peroxide aerosol exhibit the inactivation effect, however their combinations exhibit to be much more effective. Low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide aerosol present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food, food packages or other thermolabile materials.

  20. Inactivation of possible micromycete food contaminants using the low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Čeřovský, M.; Khun, J.; Rusová, K.; Scholtz, V.; Soušková, H.

    2013-09-15

    The inhibition effect of hydrogen peroxide aerosol, low-temperature plasma and their combinations has been studied on several micromycetes spores. The low-temperature plasma was generated in corona discharges in the open air apparatus with hydrogen peroxide aerosol. Micromycete spores were inoculated on the surface of agar plates, exposed solely to the hydrogen peroxide aerosol, corona discharge or their combination. After incubation the diameter of inhibition zone was measured. The solely positive corona discharge exhibits no inactivation effect, the solely negative corona discharge and solely hydrogen peroxide aerosol exhibit the inactivation effect, however their combinations exhibit to be much more effective. Low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide aerosol present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food, food packages or other thermolabile materials.

  1. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  2. Contact-Free Inactivation of Candida albicans Biofilms by Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Isbary, Georg; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Klämpfl, Tobias G.; Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the main species able to form a biofilm on almost any surface, causing both skin and superficial mucosal infections. The worldwide increase in antifungal resistance has led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapies, prolonging treatment time and increasing health care costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of atmospheric plasma at room temperature for inactivating C. albicans growing in biofilms without thermally damaging heat-sensitive materials. This so-called cold atmospheric plasma is produced by applying high voltage to accelerate electrons, which ionize the surrounding air, leading to the production of charged particles, reactive species, and photons. A newly developed plasma device was used, which exhibits a large plasma-generating surface area of 9 by 13 cm (117 cm2). Different time points were selected to achieve an optimum inactivation efficacy range of ≥3 log10 to 5 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter, and the results were compared with those of 70% ethanol. The results obtained show that contact-free antifungal inactivation of Candida biofilms by cold atmospheric plasma is a promising tool for disinfection of surfaces (and items) in both health care settings and the food industry, where ethanol disinfection should be avoided. PMID:22467505

  3. Nitrogen Gas Plasma Generated by a Static Induction Thyristor as a Pulsed Power Supply Inactivates Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most important causative agents of iatrogenic infections derived from contaminated medical devices or finger contact. In this study, we investigated whether nitrogen gas plasma, generated by applying a short high-voltage pulse to nitrogen using a static induction thyristor power supply (1.5 kilo pulse per second), exhibited a virucidal effect against adenoviruses. Viral titer was reduced by one log within 0.94 min. Results from detection of viral capsid proteins, hexon and penton, by Western blotting and immunochromatography were unaffected by the plasma treatment. In contrast, analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that plasma treatment damages the viral genomic DNA. Reactive chemical products (hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and nitrite), ultraviolet light (UV-A) and slight temperature elevations were observed during the operation of the gas plasma device. Viral titer versus intensity of each potential virucidal factor were used to identify the primary mechanism of disinfection of adenovirus. Although exposure to equivalent levels of UV-A or heat treatment did not inactivate adenovirus, treatment with a relatively low concentration of hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivated the virus. Our results suggest the nitrogen gas plasma generates reactive chemical products that inactivate adenovirus by damaging the viral genomic DNA. PMID:27322066

  4. Effective bacterial inactivation using low temperature radio frequency plasma.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, A; Sankar, R; Mandal, Mahitosh; Neogi, Sudarsan

    2010-08-30

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections. In this study, S. aureus was exposed to 13.56MHz radiofrequency (RF) plasma generated by two different gases namely nitrogen and nitrogen-oxygen mixture and their sterilization efficacies were compared. Nitrogen plasma had a significant effect on sterilization due to generation of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, the addition of 2% oxygen showed enhanced effect on the sterilization of bacteria through nitric oxide (NO) emission and various reactive species. The presence of these reactive species was confirmed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was carried out to study the morphological changes of bacteria after plasma treatment. From the SEM results, it was observed that the bacterial cells treated by N(2)-O(2) mixture plasma were severely damaged. As a result, a log(10) reduction factor of 6 was achieved using N(2)-O(2) plasma after 5min treatment with 100W RF power. PMID:20609423

  5. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis by a direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet☆

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye; Sun, Peng; Wu, Haiyan; Bai, Na; Wang, Ruixue; Zhu, Weidong; Zhang, Jue; Liu, Fuxiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective A direct-current, cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) was performed to inactivate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in air. The process of sterilization and morphology of bacteria was observed. We wish to know the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ and explore a potential application in dental and other temperature sensitive treatment. Methods In this study, we employed a direct current, atmospheric pressure, cold air PMJ to inactivate bacterias. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to evaluate the morphology of S. aureus and showed rupture of cell walls after the plasma treatment and Optical emission spectrum (OES) were used to understand the possible inactivation mechanisms of PMJ. Results The inactivation rates could reach 100% in 5 min. When the distance between the exit nozzle of the PMJ device and Petri dish was extended from 1 cm to 3 cm, effective inactivation was also observed with a similar inactivation curve. Conclusion The inactivation of bacteria is attributed to the abundant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as ultroviolet radiation in the plasma. Different life spans and defensibilities of these killing agents may hold the key to understanding the different inactivation curves at different treatment distances. PMID:23554639

  6. Rapid inactivation of biological species in the air using atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongdong; Wu, Yan; Sun, Ke; Chen, Qi; Shen, Fangxia; Zhang, Jue; Yao, Maosheng; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Jing

    2012-03-20

    Here, nonthermal plasma generated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system was applied to inactivating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens as well as indoor and outdoor bioaerosols. The culturability, viability, and diversity losses of the microorganisms in air samples treated by the plasma for 0.06-0.12 s were studied using culturing, DNA stain as well as polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods. In addition, the viable fraction of bacterial aerosols with and without the plasma treatment was also quantified using qPCR coupled with ethidium monoazide (EMA). It was shown that less than 2% of B. subtilis aerosols survived the plasma treatment of 0.12 s, while none of the P. fluorescens aerosols survived. Viability tests, EMA-qPCR results, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated that both bacterial species suffered significant viability loss, membrane, and DNA damages. Exposure of environmental bacterial and fungal aerosols to the plasma for 0.06 s also resulted in their significant inactivations, more than 95% for bacteria and 85-98% for fungal species. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that plasma exposure of 0.06 s resulted in culturable bacterial aerosol diversity loss for both environments, especially pronounced for indoor environment. The results here demonstrate that nonthermal plasma exposure could offer a highly efficient air decontamination technology. PMID:22385302

  7. A H2 very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma inactivates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GapDH) more efficiently than UV photons and heat combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelmann, Katharina; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Buerger, Ines; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to commonly used sterilization techniques, because the conventional methods suffer from certain limitations, e.g. incompatibility with heat-sensitive materials, or use of toxic agents. However, plasma-based sterilization mechanisms are not fully understood yet. A low-pressure very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma is used to investigate the impact of a hydrogen discharge on the protein glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapDH). GapDH is an enzyme of glycolysis. As a part of the central metabolism, it occurs in nearly all organisms from bacteria to humans. The plasma is investigated with absolutely calibrated optical emission spectroscopy in order to identify and to quantify plasma components that can contribute to enzyme inactivation. The contribution of UV photons and heat to GapDH inactivation is investigated separately, and neither seems to be a major factor. In order to investigate the mechanisms of GapDH inactivation by the hydrogen discharge, samples are investigated for etching, induction of amino acid backbone breaks, and chemical modifications. While neither etching nor strand breaks are observed, chemical modifications occur at different amino acid residues of GapDH. Deamidations of asparagines as well as methionine and cysteine oxidations are detected after VHF-CCP treatment. In particular, oxidation of the cysteine in the active centre is known to lead to GapDH inactivation.

  8. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by gamma radiation and its effect on plasma and coagulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, H.; Tersmette, M.; Vos, A.H.; Over, J.; van Berkel, M.P.; de Bree, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The inactivation of HIV by gamma-radiation was studied in frozen and liquid plasma; a reduction of the virus titer of 5 to 6 logs was achieved at doses of 5 to 10 Mrad at -80 degrees C and 2.5 Mrad at 15 degrees C. The effect of irradiation on the biologic activity of a number of coagulation factors in plasma and in lyophilized concentrates of factor VIII (FVIII) and prothrombin complex was examined. A recovery of 85 percent of the biologic activity of therapeutic components present in frozen plasma and in lyophilized coagulation factor concentrates was reached at radiation doses as low as 1.5 and 0.5 Mrad, respectively. As derived from the first-order radiation inactivation curves, the radiosensitive target size of HIV was estimated to be 1 to 3 MDa; the target size of FVIII was estimated to be 130 to 160 kDa. Gamma radiation must be disregarded as a method for the sterilization of plasma and plasma-derived products, because of the low reduction of virus infectivity at radiation doses that still give acceptable recovery of biologic activity of plasma components.

  9. Gas discharge plasmas are effective in inactivating Bacillus and Clostridium spores.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shawn; Abramzon, Nina; Jackson, James O; Lin, Wei-Jen

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial spores are the most resistant form of life and have been a major threat to public health and food safety. Nonthermal atmospheric gas discharge plasma is a novel sterilization method that leaves no chemical residue. In our study, a helium radio-frequency cold plasma jet was used to examine its sporicidal effect on selected strains of Bacillus and Clostridium. The species tested included Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium botulinum type A and type E. The plasmas were effective in inactivating selected Bacillus and Clostridia spores with D values (decimal reduction time) ranging from 2 to 8 min. Among all spores tested, C. botulinum type A and C. sporogenes were significantly more resistant to plasma inactivation than other species. Observations by phase contrast microscopy showed that B. subtilis spores were severely damaged by plasmas and the majority of the treated spores were unable to initiate the germination process. There was no detectable fragmentation of the DNA when the spores were treated for up to 20 min. The release of dipicolinic acid was observed almost immediately after the plasma treatment, indicating the spore envelope damage could occur quickly resulting in dipicolinic acid release and the reduction of spore resistance. PMID:22075631

  10. Evaluation of pathogen inactivation on sliced cheese induced by encapsulated atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Alahakoon, Amali U; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    Pathogen inactivation induced by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) (250 W, 15 kHz, air discharge) produced in a rectangular plastic container and the effect of post-treatment storage time on inactivation were evaluated using agar plates and cheese slices. When agar plates were treated with plasma, populations of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes showed 3.57, 6.69, and 6.53 decimal reductions at 60 s, 45 s, and 7 min, respectively. When the pathogens tested were inoculated on cheese slices, 2.67, 3.10, and 1.65 decimal reductions were achieved at the same respective treatment times. The post-treatment storage duration following plasma treatment potently affected further reduction in pathogen populations. Therefore, the newly developed encapsulated DBD-plasma system for use in a container can be applied to improve the safety of sliced cheese, and increasing post-treatment storage time can greatly enhance the system's pathogen-inactivation efficiency. PMID:25475265

  11. Pulsed Discharge Effects on Bacteria Inactivation in Low-Pressure Radio-Frequency Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicoveanu, Dragos; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Fujita, Hiroharu

    2008-02-01

    The sporicidal effects of low-pressure radio frequency (RF) discharges in oxygen, produced by the application of continuous and pulsed RF power, were evaluated. For all cases, the survival curves showed a biphasic evolution. The maximum efficiency for bacteria sterilization was obtained when the RF power was injected in the continuous wave mode, while in the pulsed mode the lowest treatment temperature was ensured. The inactivation rates were calculated from the microorganism survival curves and their dependencies on the pulse characteristics (i.e., pulse frequency and duty cycle) were compared with those of the plasma parameters. The results indicated that the inactivation rate corresponding to the first phase of the survival curves is related to the time-averaged intensity of the light emission by the excited neutral atoms in the pulsed plasma, whereas the inactivation rate calculated from the second slope of the survival curves and the time-averaged plasma density have similar behaviors, when the pulse parameters were modified.

  12. Low power gas discharge plasma mediated inactivation and removal of biofilms formed on biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Traba, Christian; Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F.

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of gas discharge plasma has been studied for quiet some time. However, high biofilm inactivation activity of plasma was only recently reported. Studies indicate that the etching effect associated with plasmas generated represent an undesired effect, which may cause live bacteria relocation and thus contamination spreading. Meanwhile, the strong etching effects from these high power plasmas may also alter the surface chemistry and affect the biocompatibility of biomaterials. In this study, we examined the efficiency and effectiveness of low power gas discharge plasma for biofilm inactivation and removal. Among the three tested gases, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, discharge oxygen demonstrated the best anti-biofilm activity because of its excellent ability in killing bacteria in biofilms and mild etching effects. Low power discharge oxygen completely killed and then removed the dead bacteria from attached surface but had negligible effects on the biocompatibility of materials. DNA left on the regenerated surface after removal of biofilms did not have any negative impact on tissue cell growth. On the contrary, dramatically increased growth was found for these cells seeded on regenerated surfaces. These results demonstrate the potential applications of low power discharge oxygen in biofilm treatments of biomaterials and indwelling device decontaminations. PMID:23894232

  13. Effects of Background Fluid on the Efficiency of Inactivating Yeast with Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Young-Hyo; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jin-Young; Shim, Gun-Bo; Uhm, Han-Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media) on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose) were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH.) produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment) can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media. PMID:23799081

  14. Inactivation of Pathogenic Bacteria on Seeds by Active Oxygen Species Generated in Low-Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Reoto; Uchida, Shohei; Hayashi, Nobuya; Kosaka, Rina; Soeda, Yasutaka

    2015-09-01

    The inactivation of bacteria on seeds by active oxygen species generated by a low-pressure oxygen plasma is investigated. Species of active oxygen contributing to the inactivation of bacteria are attempted to be identified. Cylindrical stainless chamber with the internal volume of 17 L is used and RF antenna is set inside the chamber. The oxygen gas pressure is 20-100 Pa. RF power of 13.56 MHz is supplied to RF antenna and CCP is generated. After irradiation, bacteria are extracted from seeds and cultivated on nutrient agars. The number of colonies on these agars is counted after 48 h incubation. The number of bacteria on seeds decreases to less than 10-3 after plasma irradiation for 45 min comparing with that of control. The tendency of the reduction rate of bacteria on seeds has positive correlation with that of the light emission intensity of the singlet excited oxygen molecule as the oxygen gas pressure is varied. It is supposed that the singlet excited oxygen molecule would be one of the major factors for the inactivation of bacteria on seeds.

  15. Pathogen Inactivation of Platelet and Plasma Blood Components for Transfusion Using the INTERCEPT Blood System™

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Johannes; Lin, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The transmission of pathogens via blood transfusion is still a major threat. Expert conferences established the need for a pro-active approach and concluded that the introduction of a pathogen inactivation/reduction technology requires a thorough safety profile, a comprehensive pre-clinical and clinical development and an ongoing hemovigilance program. Material and Methods The INTERCEPT Blood System utilizes amotosalen and UVA light and enables for the treatment of platelets and plasma in the same device. Preclinical studies of pathogen inactivation and toxicology and a thorough program of clinical studies have been conducted and an active he-movigilance-program established. Results INTERCEPT shows robust efficacy of inactivation for viruses, bacteria (including spirochetes), protozoa and leukocytes as well as large safety margins. Furthermore, it integrates well into routine blood center operations. The clinical study program demonstrates the successful use for very diverse patient groups. The hemovigilance program shows safety and tolerability in routine use. Approximately 700,000 INTERCEPT-treated products have been transfused worldwide. The system is in clinical use since class III CE-mark registration in 2002. The safety and efficacy has been shown in routine use and during an epidemic. Conclusion The INTERCEPT Blood System for platelets and plasma offers enhanced safety for the patient and protection against transfusion-transmitted infections. PMID:21779203

  16. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  17. Chemical Changes in Nonthermal Plasma-Treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Solution and Their Contribution to Bacterial Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Utku K.; Smith, Josh; Ji, Hai-Feng; Brooks, Ari D.; Joshi, Suresh G.

    2016-01-01

    In continuation of our previous reports on the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of atmospheric non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treated N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) solution against planktonic and biofilm forms of different multidrug resistant microorganisms, we present here the chemical changes that mediate inactivation of Escherichia coli. In this study, the mechanism and products of the chemical reactions in plasma-treated NAC solution are shown. UV-visible spectrometry, FT-IR, NMR, and colorimetric assays were utilized for chemical characterization of plasma treated NAC solution. The characterization results were correlated with the antimicrobial assays using determined chemical species in solution in order to confirm the major species that are responsible for antimicrobial inactivation. Our results have revealed that plasma treatment of NAC solution creates predominantly reactive nitrogen species versus reactive oxygen species, and the generated peroxynitrite is responsible for significant bacterial inactivation. PMID:26832829

  18. Utilization of Low-Pressure Plasma to Inactivate Bacterial Spores on Stainless Steel Screws

    PubMed Central

    Stapelmann, Katharina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Raguse, Marina; Awakowicz, Peter; Reitz, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A special focus area of planetary protection is the monitoring, control, and reduction of microbial contaminations that are detected on spacecraft components and hardware during and after assembly. In this study, wild-type spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (a persistent spacecraft assembly facility isolate) and the laboratory model organism B. subtilis 168 were used to study the effects of low-pressure plasma, with hydrogen alone and in combination with oxygen and evaporated hydrogen peroxide as a process gas, on spore survival, which was determined by a colony formation assay. Spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 and B. subtilis 168 were deposited with an aseptic technique onto the surface of stainless steel screws to simulate a spore-contaminated spacecraft hardware component, and were subsequently exposed to different plasmas and hydrogen peroxide conditions in a very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma reactor (VHF-CCP) to reduce the spore burden. Spores of the spacecraft isolate B. pumilus SAFR-032 were significantly more resistant to plasma treatment than spores of B. subtilis 168. The use of low-pressure plasma with an additional treatment of evaporated hydrogen peroxide also led to an enhanced spore inactivation that surpassed either single treatment when applied alone, which indicates the potential application of this method as a fast and suitable way to reduce spore-contaminated spacecraft hardware components for planetary protection purposes. Key Words: Bacillus spores—Contamination—Spacecraft hardware—Plasma sterilization—Planetary protection. Astrobiology 13, 597–606. PMID:23768085

  19. Effects of N2-O2 Gas Mixture Ratio on Microorganism Inactivation in Low-Pressure Surface Wave Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the effect of N2/O2 gas mixture ratio on low-pressure surface wave plasma inactivation of spore-forming bacteria was investigated. It was experimentally confirmed from the quadrupole mass spectrometry measurements that the spores were etched by atomic oxygen via converting the hydrogen atoms constituting microorganisms into H2O and the carbon into CO2. On the basis of results of plasma diagnostics by optical emission spectroscopy and the results of inactivation efficiency by colony-forming units and scanning electron microscope, we found that although there is the highest ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity in pure N2 plasma and the highest etching efficiency in 90% O2/10% N2 plasma, the inactivation rate of microorganisms was not so efficient. The best inactivation result was obtained in 30-80% O2 gas mixture ratios after 60 s plasma irradiation. The present results indicated that more efficient inactivation is achieved by the synergetic effects between atomic oxygen etching and the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/UV emission by combining both effects via optimizing N2/O2 gas mixture ratio.

  20. Atmospheric Nonthermal Plasma-Treated PBS Inactivates Escherichia coli by Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Adam D.; Joshi, Suresh G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treated with nonthermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma (plasma) acquires strong antimicrobial properties, but the mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation were not known. The goal of this study is to understand the cellular responses of Escherichia coli and to investigate the properties of plasma-activated PBS. The plasma-activated PBS induces severe oxidative stress in E. coli cells and reactive-oxygen species scavengers, α-tocopherol and catalase, protect E. coli from cell death. Here we show that the response of E. coli to plasma-activated PBS is regulated by OxyR and SoxyRS regulons, and mediated predominantly through the expression of katG that deactivates plasma-generated oxidants. During compensation of E. coli in the absence of both katG and katE, sodA and sodB are significantly overexpressed in samples exposed to plasma-treated PBS. Microarray analysis found that up-regulation of genes involved in DNA repair, and E. coli expressing recA::lux fusion was extremely sensitive to the SOS response upon exposure to plasma-treated PBS. The cellular changes include rapid loss of E. coli membrane potential and membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, accumulation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguinosine (8OHdG), and severe oxidative DNA damage; reveal ultimate DNA disintegration, and cell death. Together, these data suggest that plasma-treated PBS contains hydrogen peroxide and superoxide like reactive species or/and their products which lead to oxidative changes to cell components, and are eventually responsible for cell death. PMID:26461113

  1. Atmospheric Nonthermal Plasma-Treated PBS Inactivates Escherichia coli by Oxidative DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Yost, Adam D; Joshi, Suresh G

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treated with nonthermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma (plasma) acquires strong antimicrobial properties, but the mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation were not known. The goal of this study is to understand the cellular responses of Escherichia coli and to investigate the properties of plasma-activated PBS. The plasma-activated PBS induces severe oxidative stress in E. coli cells and reactive-oxygen species scavengers, α-tocopherol and catalase, protect E. coli from cell death. Here we show that the response of E. coli to plasma-activated PBS is regulated by OxyR and SoxyRS regulons, and mediated predominantly through the expression of katG that deactivates plasma-generated oxidants. During compensation of E. coli in the absence of both katG and katE, sodA and sodB are significantly overexpressed in samples exposed to plasma-treated PBS. Microarray analysis found that up-regulation of genes involved in DNA repair, and E. coli expressing recA::lux fusion was extremely sensitive to the SOS response upon exposure to plasma-treated PBS. The cellular changes include rapid loss of E. coli membrane potential and membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, accumulation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguinosine (8OHdG), and severe oxidative DNA damage; reveal ultimate DNA disintegration, and cell death. Together, these data suggest that plasma-treated PBS contains hydrogen peroxide and superoxide like reactive species or/and their products which lead to oxidative changes to cell components, and are eventually responsible for cell death. PMID:26461113

  2. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on agar and processed meat surfaces by atmospheric pressure plasma jets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Ham, Jun Sang; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-12-01

    An apparatus for generating atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet was used to investigate the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of agar plates and slices of cooked chicken breast and ham. He, N₂ (both 7 L/min), and mixtures of each with O₂ (0.07 L/min) were used to produce the plasma jets. After treatment for 2 min with APP jets of He, He + O₂, N₂, or N₂ + O₂, the numbers of L. monocytogenes on agar plates were reduced by 0.87, 4.19, 4.26, and 7.59 log units, respectively. Similar treatments reduced the L. monocytogenes inoculated onto sliced chicken breast and ham by 1.37 to 4.73 and 1.94 to 6.52 log units, respectively, according to the input gas used with the N₂ + O₂ mixture being the most effective. Most APP jets reduced the numbers of aerobic bacteria on the meat surfaces to <10² CFU/g, and the numbers remained below that level of detection after storage at 10 °C for 7 days. The results indicate that APP jets are effective for the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on sliced meats and for prolonging the shelf-life of such foods. PMID:21925030

  3. Inactivation Process of Penicillium digitatum Spores Treated with Non-equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Mori, Takumi; Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores treated with a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma, the spores were observed using a fluorescent microscope and compared with those treated with ultraviolet (UV) light or moist heat. The treated spores were stained with two fluorescent dyes, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,Y,3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). The intracellular organelles as well as cell membranes in the spores treated with the plasma were stained with DiI without a major morphological change of the membranes, while the organelles were never stained in the spores treated with UV light or moist heat. Moreover, DPPP staining revealed that organelles were oxidized by plasma treatment unlike UV light or moist heat treatments. These results suggest that only plasma treatment induces a minor structural change or functional inhibition of cell membranes, which leads to the oxidation of the intracellular organelles without a major deformation of the membranes through the penetration of reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma into the cell.

  4. N2 Gas Plasma Inactivates Influenza Virus by Inducing Changes in Viral Surface Morphology, Protein, and Genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2013-01-01

    We have recently treated with N2 gas plasma and achieved inactivation of bacteria. However, the effect of N2 gas plasma on viruses remains unclear. With the aim of developing this technique, we analyzed the virucidal effect of N2 gas plasma on influenza virus and its influence on the viral components. We treated influenza virus particles with inert N2 gas plasma (1.5 kpps; kilo pulses per second) produced by a short high-voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply. A bioassay using chicken embryonated eggs demonstrated that N2 gas plasma inactivated influenza virus in allantoic fluid within 5 min. Immunochromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Coomassie brilliant blue staining showed that N2 gas plasma treatment of influenza A and B viruses in nasal aspirates and allantoic fluids as well as purified influenza A and B viruses induced degradation of viral proteins including nucleoprotein. Analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that N2 gas plasma treatment induced changes in the viral RNA genome. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that aggregation and fusion of influenza viruses were induced by N2 gas plasma treatment. We believe these biochemical changes may contribute to the inactivation of influenza viruses by N2 gas plasma. PMID:24195077

  5. N 2 gas plasma inactivates influenza virus by inducing changes in viral surface morphology, protein, and genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have recently treated with N2 gas plasma and achieved inactivation of bacteria. However, the effect of N2 gas plasma on viruses remains unclear. With the aim of developing this technique, we analyzed the virucidal effect of N2 gas plasma on influenza virus and its influence on the viral components. We treated influenza virus particles with inert N2 gas plasma (1.5 kpps; kilo pulses per second) produced by a short high-voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply. A bioassay using chicken embryonated eggs demonstrated that N2 gas plasma inactivated influenza virus in allantoic fluid within 5 min. Immunochromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Coomassie brilliant blue staining showed that N2 gas plasma treatment of influenza A and B viruses in nasal aspirates and allantoic fluids as well as purified influenza A and B viruses induced degradation of viral proteins including nucleoprotein. Analysis using the polymerase chain reaction suggested that N2 gas plasma treatment induced changes in the viral RNA genome. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that aggregation and fusion of influenza viruses were induced by N2 gas plasma treatment. We believe these biochemical changes may contribute to the inactivation of influenza viruses by N2 gas plasma. PMID:24195077

  6. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment of contaminated fresh fruit and vegetable slices: inactivation and physiochemical properties evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. X.; Nian, W. F.; Wu, H. Y.; Feng, H. Q.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, W. D.; Becker, K. H.; Fang, J.

    2012-10-01

    A direct-current, atmospheric-pressure air cold plasma microjet (PMJ) was applied to disinfect Salmonella directly deposited on fresh fruit and vegetable slices. Effective inactivation was achieved on sliced fruit and vegetables after 1 s plasma treatment. The physiochemical properties of the slices, such as water content, color parameters, and nutritional content were monitored before and after plasma treatment. It was found that the physiochemical properties changes caused by the plasma were within an acceptable range. Reactive oxygen species, which are believed to be the major bactericidal agents in the plasma, were detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy.

  7. Evaluation of the treatment of both sides of raw chicken breasts with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for the inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho; Oh, Mi Wha; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is an emerging nonthermal microbial inactivation technique. In this study, agar and raw chicken breast were inoculated with Escherichia coli and treated with an APP jet based on cold arc plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum conditions for the plasma treatment of an APP jet in order to maximize the efficiency of E. coli inactivation. The combination of N2+O2 (10 standard cubic centimeters per minute) and a longer treatment time (10 min) resulted in the highest inactivation of E. coli on agar plates with an optimum treatment distance of 20 mm. The samples in dry and wet conditions showed similar reductions in E. coli count when one side of the samples was treated at a given treatment time. Treating both sides-2.5 min on each side-resulted in a higher growth inhibition of E. coli than treatment of a single side only for 5 min. However, there was no significant difference between one-side treated samples (10 min) and both-sides treated samples (5+5 min). When the concentration of E. coli in the chicken breast sample was 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, the reduction rate of the E. coli was the highest, followed by 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) CFU/g; however, no difference was found between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g. In conclusion, various treatment conditions may affect the inactivation efficiency of E. coli. In the present study, the optimum condition was determined as the treatment distance of 20 mm and longer treatment time (10 min) with the addition of oxygen to the nitrogen gas flow. Furthermore, the cell concentration of sample was an important parameter for the efficacy of the inactivation process. PMID:24844397

  8. Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus spores in a sealed package by cold plasma streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Shokri, H.; Nikpour, M.

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the inactivation efficacy of cold streamers in a sealed package on pathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus ( A. flavus) spores that artificially contaminated pistachio surface. To produce penetrating cold streamers, electric power supply was adapted to deposit adequate power into the package. The plasma streamers were generated by an alternating high voltage with carrier frequency of 12.5 kHz which was suppressed by a modulated pulsed signal at frequency of 110 Hz. The plasma exposition time was varied from 8 to 18 min to show the effect of the plasma treatment on fungal clearance while the electrode and sample remained at room temperature. This proved a positive effect of the cold streamers treatment on fungal clearance. Benefits of deactivation of fungal spores by streamers inside the package include no heating, short treatment time and adaptability to existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in food packaging and processing industry. In this study, moisture and pH changes of pistachio samples after plasma streamers treatment were also investigated.

  9. Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus spores in a sealed package by cold plasma streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Shokri, H.; Nikpour, M.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the inactivation efficacy of cold streamers in a sealed package on pathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) spores that artificially contaminated pistachio surface. To produce penetrating cold streamers, electric power supply was adapted to deposit adequate power into the package. The plasma streamers were generated by an alternating high voltage with carrier frequency of 12.5 kHz which was suppressed by a modulated pulsed signal at frequency of 110 Hz. The plasma exposition time was varied from 8 to 18 min to show the effect of the plasma treatment on fungal clearance while the electrode and sample remained at room temperature. This proved a positive effect of the cold streamers treatment on fungal clearance. Benefits of deactivation of fungal spores by streamers inside the package include no heating, short treatment time and adaptability to existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in food packaging and processing industry. In this study, moisture and pH changes of pistachio samples after plasma streamers treatment were also investigated.

  10. Inactivation of a Foodborne Norovirus Outbreak Strain with Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Ahlfeld, Birte; Li, Yangfang; Boulaaba, Annika; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Morfill, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Human norovirus (NoV) is the most frequent cause of epidemic nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. We investigated the impact of nonthermal or cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on the inactivation of a clinical human outbreak NoV, GII.4. Three different dilutions of a NoV-positive stool sample were prepared and subsequently treated with CAPP for various lengths of time, up to 15 min. NoV viral loads were quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Increased CAPP treatment time led to increased NoV reduction; samples treated for the longest time had the lowest viral load. From the initial starting quantity of 2.36 × 104 genomic equivalents/ml, sample exposure to CAPP reduced this value by 1.23 log10 and 1.69 log10 genomic equivalents/ml after 10 and 15 min, respectively (P < 0.01). CAPP treatment of surfaces carrying a lower viral load reduced NoV by at least 1 log10 after CAPP exposure for 2 min (P < 0.05) and 1 min (P < 0.05), respectively. Our results suggest that NoV can be inactivated by CAPP treatment. The lack of cell culture assays prevents our ability to estimate infectivity. It is possible that some detectable, intact virus particles were rendered noninfectious. We conclude that CAPP treatment of surfaces may be a useful strategy to reduce the risk of NoV transmission in crowded environments. Importance  Human gastroenteritis is most frequently caused by noroviruses, which are spread person to person and via surfaces, often in facilities with crowds of people. Disinfection of surfaces that come into contact with infected humans is critical for the prevention of cross-contamination and further transmission of the virus. However, effective disinfection cannot be done easily in mass catering environments or health care facilities. We evaluated the efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma, an innovative airborne disinfection method, on surfaces inoculated with norovirus. We used a clinically

  11. Modeling of inactivation of surface borne microorganisms occurring on seeds by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Anindita; Li, Y.-F.; Shimizu, T.; Klämpfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, J. L.; Morfill, G. E.

    2012-10-01

    Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) is a fast, low cost, simple, easy to handle technology for biological application. Our group has developed a number of different CAP devices using the microwave technology and the surface micro discharge (SMD) technology. In this study, FlatPlaSter2.0 at different time intervals (0.5 to 5 min) is used for microbial inactivation. There is a continuous demand for deactivation of microorganisms associated with raw foods/seeds without loosing their properties. This research focuses on the kinetics of CAP induced microbial inactivation of naturally growing surface microorganisms on seeds. The data were assessed for log- linear and non-log-linear models for survivor curves as a function of time. The Weibull model showed the best fitting performance of the data. No shoulder and tail was observed. The models are focused in terms of the number of log cycles reduction rather than on classical D-values with statistical measurements. The viability of seeds was not affected for CAP treatment times up to 3 min with our device. The optimum result was observed at 1 min with increased percentage of germination from 60.83% to 89.16% compared to the control. This result suggests the advantage and promising role of CAP in food industry.

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 in fresh produce using atmospheric pressure cold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Wemlinger, Erik; Barbosa-Canovas, Gustavo; Pedrow, Patrick; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Food-borne outbreaks are associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in food products such as fresh produce. One of the target microorganisms is Escherichia coli which exhibits resistance to being inactivated with conventional disinfection methods for vegetables. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) was tested to disinfect three vegetables with challenge surfaces, lettuce, carrots and tomatoes. The produce was inoculated with the bacteria to reach an initial microbial concentration of 107 cfu/g. Vegetables were initially exposed to the APCP discharges from a needle array at 5.7 kV RMS in argon, processing times of 0.5, 3 and 5 min. Initial results indicate that microbial decontamination is effective on the lettuce (1.2 log reduction) when compared with other vegetables. To claim disinfection, a 3 log reduction or more is needed, which makes APCP treatment very promising technology for decontamination of produce. We propose that with method refinements full disinfection can be achieved using APCP.

  13. Cold Plasma Inactivates Salmonella Stanley and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inoculated on Golden Delicious Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma generated in a gliding arc was applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley on agar plates and inoculated onto the surfaces of golden delicious apples. This novel sanitizing technology inactivated both pathogens on agar plates, with higher flow rate (40 ...

  14. Mechanisms of Inactivation by High-Voltage Atmospheric Cold Plasma Differ for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Han, L.; Patil, S.; Milosavljević, V.; Cullen, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a promising nonthermal technology effective against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial inactivation role when air or other oxygen-containing gases are used. With strong oxidative stress, cells can be damaged by lipid peroxidation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA cleavage. Identification of ROS and an understanding of their role are important for advancing ACP applications for a range of complex microbiological issues. In this study, the inactivation efficacy of in-package high-voltage (80 kV [root mean square]) ACP (HVACP) and the role of intracellular ROS were investigated. Two mechanisms of inactivation were observed in which reactive species were found to either react primarily with the cell envelope or damage intracellular components. Escherichia coli was inactivated mainly by cell leakage and low-level DNA damage. Conversely, Staphylococcus aureus was mainly inactivated by intracellular damage, with significantly higher levels of intracellular ROS observed and little envelope damage. However, for both bacteria studied, increasing treatment time had a positive effect on the intracellular ROS levels generated. PMID:26519396

  15. A comparative study for the inactivation of multidrug resistance bacteria using dielectric barrier discharge and nano-second pulsed plasma

    PubMed Central

    Hoon Park, Ji; Kumar, Naresh; Hoon Park, Dae; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Neyts, Erik C.; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Bogaerts, Annemie; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Ha Choi, Eun; Attri, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria can be inactivated through various physical and chemical means, and these have always been the focus of extensive research. To further improve the methodology for these ends, two types of plasma systems were investigated: nano-second pulsed plasma (NPP) as liquid discharge plasma and an Argon gas-feeding dielectric barrier discharge (Ar-DBD) as a form of surface plasma. To understand the sterilizing action of these two different plasma sources, we performed experiments with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria (wild type) and multidrug resistant bacteria (Penicillum-resistant, Methicillin-resistant and Gentamicin-resistant). We observed that both plasma sources can inactivate both the wild type and multidrug-resistant bacteria to a good extent. Moreover, we observed a change in the surface morphology, gene expression and β-lactamase activity. Furthermore, we used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the variation in functional groups (C-H/C-C, C-OH and C=O) of the peptidoglycan (PG) resulting from exposure to plasma species. To obtain atomic scale insight in the plasma-cell interactions and support our experimental observations, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of plasma species, such as OH, H2O2, O, O3, as well as O2 and H2O, on the dissociation/formation of above mentioned functional groups in PG. PMID:26351132

  16. Observation of inactivation of Bacillus sbtilis spores under exposures of oxygen added argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Ying; Xiao, Dezhi; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Cheng, Junli; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-11-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by an Ar plasma jet mixed with different amounts of oxygen is reported. 5.8 × 106 B. subtilis spores are sterilized by an Ar/O2 (8.7%) plasma jet after exposure for 2 min. The densities of ozone and oxygen radicals in the Ar/O2 plasma jet increase with oxygen concentration and are estimated by optical spectroscopy diagnostic. The malondialdehyde (MDA) test shows that oxygen radicals participate in bacterial inactivation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the deformation of the spore shape due to etching by oxygen radicals and the dependence of the degree of deformation on the density of oxygen radicals.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet utilizing Ar and Ar/H2O mixtures and its applications to bacteria inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Shen, Jie; Xiao, De-Zhi; Xie, Hong-Bing; Lan, Yan; Fang, Shi-Dong; Meng, Yue-Dong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated with Ar with H2O vapor is characterized and applied to inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. The emission spectra obtained from Ar/H2O plasma shows a higher intensity of OH radicals compared to pure argon at a specified H2O concentration. The gas temperature is estimated by comparing the simulated spectra of the OH band with experimental spectra. The excitation electron temperature is determined from the Boltzmann's plots and Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer Hβ line is applied to measure the electron density. The gas temperature, excitation electron temperature, and electron density of the plasma jet decrease with the increase of water vapor concentration at a fixed input voltage. The bacteria inactivation rate increases with the increase of OH generation reaching a maximum reduction at 2.6% (v/v) water vapor. Our results also show that the OH radicals generated by the Ar/H2O plasma jet only makes a limited contribution to spore inactivation and the shape change of the spores before and after plasma irradiation is discussed.

  18. Inactivation of Candida Biofilms by Non-Thermal Plasma and Its Enhancement for Fungistatic Effect of Antifungal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wu, Haiyan; Zhu, Weidong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Li, Ruoyu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal effect of non-thermal plasma, as well as its combination with common antifungal drugs, against Candida biofilms. A direct current atmospheric pressure He/O2 (2%) plasma microjet (PMJ) was used to treat Candida biofilms in a 96-well plate. Inactivation efficacies of the biofilms were evaluated by XTT assay and counting colony forming units (CFUs). Morphological properties of the biofilms were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin for the biofilms were also tested. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated directly and indirectly by PMJ. The Candida biofilms were completely inactivated after 1 min PMJ treatment, where severely deformed fungal elements were observed in SEM images. The SMICs of the tested antifungal drugs for the plasma-treated biofilms were decreased by 2–6 folds of dilution, compared to those of the untreated controls. ROS such as hydroxyl radical (•OH), superoxide anion radical (•O2-) and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) were detected by ESR. We hence conclude that He/O2 (2%) plasma alone, as well as in combination with common antifungal drugs, is able to inactivate Candida biofilms rapidly. The generation of ROS is believed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for the fungicidal activity of plasma. PMID:22808213

  19. Inactivation of Candida biofilms by non-thermal plasma and its enhancement for fungistatic effect of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Yu, Shuang; Sun, Peng; Wu, Haiyan; Zhu, Weidong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Li, Ruoyu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antifungal effect of non-thermal plasma, as well as its combination with common antifungal drugs, against Candida biofilms. A direct current atmospheric pressure He/O(2) (2%) plasma microjet (PMJ) was used to treat Candida biofilms in a 96-well plate. Inactivation efficacies of the biofilms were evaluated by XTT assay and counting colony forming units (CFUs). Morphological properties of the biofilms were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin for the biofilms were also tested. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated directly and indirectly by PMJ. The Candida biofilms were completely inactivated after 1 min PMJ treatment, where severely deformed fungal elements were observed in SEM images. The SMICs of the tested antifungal drugs for the plasma-treated biofilms were decreased by 2-6 folds of dilution, compared to those of the untreated controls. ROS such as hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), superoxide anion radical ((•)O(2) (-)) and singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) were detected by ESR. We hence conclude that He/O(2) (2%) plasma alone, as well as in combination with common antifungal drugs, is able to inactivate Candida biofilms rapidly. The generation of ROS is believed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for the fungicidal activity of plasma. PMID:22808213

  20. Comparison of two radio-frequency plasma sterilization processes using microspot evaluation of microbial inactivation.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Klaus S; Johansen, Jens E; Grün, Reinar

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated gas plasma surface sterilization methods in a specific sterilizer. We have introduced a new monitoring method using 0.4 microm pore size membranes, which in this study gave the information corresponding to 3000 exposed biological indicators per treatment cycle. This enabled us to compare the fraction of inoculates that showed no growth after exposure for 30 different locations in the chamber, and hereby identify weak and strong spots in the chamber with regard to sporicidal effect. Membranes were also used to expose a broad spectrum of soil bacteria for plasma treatment at four different conditions. The organisms were identified using PCR and sequencing. The test showed that Bacillus stearothermophilus spores were inactivated at the slowest rate among the tested microorganisms. Further alpha-proteobacteria (Gram negative) seemed more sensitive than the rest of the tested organisms. The microspot evaluation approach has been a most useful tool in the assessment of sterilization performance in sterilizers that do not have clear measurable parameters related to the sterilization. PMID:16362959

  1. Effects of metastable species in helium and argon atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) on inactivation of periodontopathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Seol, Yang-Jo; Kim, Su-Jeong; Bae, Byeongjun; Huh, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The helium and argon have been widely used as discharge gases in atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) for bacteria inactivation. The APPJs show apparent different in bullet propagation speed and bacteria inactivation rate apparently vary with discharge gas species. This work shows that these two distinctive features of APPJs can be linked through one factor, the metastable energy level. The effects of helium and argon metastable species on APPJ discharge mechanism for reactive oxygen nitrogen species (RONS) generation in APPJs are investigated by experiments and numerical estimation. The discharge mechanism is investigated by using the bullet velocity from the electric field which is obtained with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement. The measured electric field also applied on the estimation of RONS generation, as electron energy source term in numerical particle reaction. The estimated RONS number is verified by comparing NO and OH densities to the inactivation rate of periodontitis bacteria. The characteristic time for bacteria inactivation of the helium-APPJ was found to be 1.63 min., which is significantly less than that of the argon-APPJ, 12.1 min. In argon-APPJ, the argon metastable preserve the energy due to the lack of the Penning ionization. Thus the surface temperature increase is significantly higher than helium-APPJ case. It implies that the metastable energy plays important role in both of APPJ bullet propagation and bacteria inactivation mechanism.

  2. In vitro Quality of Platelets with Low Plasma Carryover Treated with Ultraviolet C Light for Pathogen Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lacey; Hyland, Ryan; Tan, Shereen; Tolksdorf, Frank; Sumian, Chryslain; Seltsam, Axel; Marks, Denese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system uses shortwave ultraviolet C light (UVC, 254 nm) to inactivate pathogens in platelet components. Plasma carryover influences pathogen inactivation and platelet quality following treatment. The plasma carryover in the standard platelets produced by our institution are below the intended specification (<30%). Methods A pool and split study was carried out comparing untreated and UVC-treated platelets with <30% plasma carryover (n = 10 pairs). This data was compared to components that met specifications (>30% plasma). The platelets were tested over storage for in vitro quality. Results Platelet metabolism was accelerated following UVC treatment, as demonstrated by increased glucose consumption and lactate production. UVC treatment caused increased externalization of phosphatidylserine on platelets and microparticles, activation of the GPIIb/IIIa receptor (PAC-1 binding), and reduced hypotonic shock response. Platelet function, as measured with thrombelastogram, was not affected by UVC treatment. Components with <30% plasma were similar to those meeting specification with the exception of enhanced glycolytic metabolism. Conclusion This in vitro analysis demonstrates that treatment of platelets with <30% plasma carryover with the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system affects some aspects of platelet metabolism and activation, although in vitro platelet function was not negatively impacted. This study also provides evidence that the treatment specifications of plasma carryover could be extended to below 30%. PMID:27403091

  3. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  4. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of aerobic microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Alison; Niemira, Brendan A; Gurtler, Joshua B; Fan, Xuetong; Sites, Joseph; Boyd, Glenn; Chen, Haiqiang

    2015-04-01

    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120 s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries were sampled for total aerobic plate count (APC) and yeast/molds immediately after treatment and at 1, 2, and 7 days. Blueberries were also analyzed for compression firmness, surface color, and total anthocyanins immediately after each treatment. All treatments with CP significantly (P < 0.05) reduced APC after exposure, with reductions ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 log CFU/g and 1.5 to 2.0 log CFU/g compared to the control after 1 and 7 days, respectively. Treatments longer than 60s resulted in significant reductions in firmness, although it was demonstrated that collisions between the berries and the container contributed significantly to softening. A significant reduction in anthocyanins was observed after 90 s. The surface color measurements were significantly impacted after 120 s for the L* and a* values and 45 s for the b* values. CP can inactivate microorganisms on blueberries and could be optimized to improve the safety and quality of produce. PMID:25475318

  5. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Patil, Sonal; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B) and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated 'inpack' using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence for the inhibition

  6. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Patil, Sonal; Cullen, P. J.; Bourke, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B) and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated ‘inpack’ using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence for the

  7. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on inactivation of pathogens inoculated onto bacon using two different gas compositions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Binna; Yun, Hyejeong; Jung, Samooel; Jung, Yeonkook; Jung, Heesoo; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is an emerging non-thermal pasteurization method for the enhancement of food safety. In this study, the effect of APP on the inactivation of pathogens inoculated onto bacon was observed. Sliced bacon was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (KCTC 3596), Escherichia coli (KCTC 1682), and Salmonella Typhimurium (KCTC 1925). The samples were treated with APP at 75, 100, and 125 W of input power for 60 and 90 s. Two gases, helium (10 lpm) or a mixture of helium and oxygen, (10 lpm and 10 sccm, respectively) were used for the plasma generation. Plasma with helium could only reduce the number of inoculated pathogens by about 1-2 Log cycles. On the other hand, the helium/oxygen gas mixture was able to achieve microbial reduction of about 2-3 Log cycles. The number of total aerobic bacteria showed 1.89 and 4.58 decimal reductions after plasma treatment with helium and the helium/oxygen mixture, respectively. Microscopic observation of the bacon after plasma treatment did not find any significant changes, except that the L∗-value of the bacon surface was increased. These results clearly indicate that APP treatment is effective for the inactivation of the three pathogens used in this study, although further investigation is needed for elucidating quality changes after treatment. PMID:21056769

  8. Inactivation of a 25.5 µm Enterococcus faecalis biofilm by a room-temperature, battery-operated, handheld air plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, X.; Lu, X.; Liu, J.; Liu, D.; Yang, Y.; Ostrikov, K.; Chu, Paul K.; Pan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Effective biofilm inactivation using a handheld, mobile plasma jet powered by a 12 V dc battery and operated in open air without any external gas supply is reported. This cold, room-temperature plasma is produced in self-repetitive nanosecond discharges with current pulses of ˜100 ns duration, current peak amplitude of ˜6 mA and repetition rate of ˜20 kHz. It is shown that the reactive plasma species penetrate to the bottom layer of a 25.5 µm-thick Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and produce a strong bactericidal effect. This is the thickest reported biofilm inactivated using room-temperature air plasmas.

  9. Cold plasma inactivates Salmonella Stanley and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on golden delicious apples.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    Cold plasma generated in a gliding arc was applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley on agar plates and inoculated onto the surfaces of Golden Delicious apples. This novel sanitizing technology inactivated both pathogens on agar plates, with higher flow rate (40 liters/min) observed to be more efficacious than were lower flow rates (20 liters/min), irrespective of treatment time (1 or 2 min). Golden Delicious apples were treated with various flow rates (10, 20, 30, or 40 liters/min) of cold plasma for various times (1, 2, or 3 min), applied to dried spot inoculations. All treatments resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions from the untreated control, with 40 liters/min more effective than were lower flow rates. Inactivation of Salmonella Stanley followed a time-dependent reduction for all flow rates. Reductions after 3 min ranged from 2.9 to 3.7 log CFU/ml, close to the limit of detection. For E. coli O157:H7, 40 liters/min gave similar reductions for all treatment times, 3.4 to 3.6 log CFU/ml. At lower flow rates, inactivation was related to exposure time, with 3 min resulting in reductions of 2.6 to 3 log CFU/ml. Temperature increase of the treated apples was related to exposure time for all flow rates. The maximum temperature of any plasma-treated apple was 50.8 degrees C (28 degrees C above ambient), after 20 liters/min for 3 min, indicating that antimicrobial effects were not the result of heat. These results indicate that cold plasma is a nonthermal process that can effectively reduce human pathogens inoculated onto fresh produce. PMID:18680933

  10. Design and mechanism of tetrahydrothiophene-based γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivators.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang V; Hawker, Dustin D; Wu, Rui; Doud, Emma; Widom, Julia; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Kelleher, Neil L; Silverman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    Low levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of two major neurotransmitters that regulate brain neuronal activity, are associated with many neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and cocaine addiction. One of the main methods to raise the GABA level in human brain is to use small molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier and inhibit the activity of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), the enzyme that degrades GABA. We have designed a series of conformationally restricted tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA analogues with a properly positioned leaving group that could facilitate a ring-opening mechanism, leading to inactivation of GABA-AT. One compound in the series is 8 times more efficient an inactivator of GABA-AT than vigabatrin, the only FDA-approved inactivator of GABA-AT. Our mechanistic studies show that the compound inactivates GABA-AT by a new mechanism. The metabolite resulting from inactivation does not covalently bind to amino acid residues of GABA-AT but stays in the active site via H-bonding interactions with Arg-192, a π-π interaction with Phe-189, and a weak nonbonded S···O═C interaction with Glu-270, thereby inactivating the enzyme. PMID:25781189

  11. Mechanism-based suicide inactivation of white Spanish broom (Cytisus multiflorus) peroxidase by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Galende, Patricia Pérez; Cuadrado, Nazaret Hidalgo; Kostetsky, Eduard Ya; Roig, Manuel G; Kennedy, John F; Shnyrov, Valery L

    2015-11-01

    Suicide inactivation is a common mechanism observed for haem peroxidases, in which the enzyme is inactivated as a result of self-oxidation mediated by intermediate highly oxidizing enzyme forms during the catalytic cycle. The time-dependence and the inactivation mechanism of Cytisus multiflorus peroxidase (CMP) by hydrogen peroxide were studied kinetically with four co-substrates (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferulic acid, guaiacol and o-dianisidine). Catalytic activity decreased following the sequence ABTS>guaiacol>ferulic acid>o-dianisidine. Once the intermediate complex (compound III-H2O2) had been formed, competition was established between the catalytic pathway and the suicide inactivation pathway. One mole of CMP afforded around 3790 turnovers of H2O2 for ABTS before its complete inactivation. These results suggest that CMP follows a suicide mechanism, the enzyme not being protected in this case. The mechanism of suicide inactivation is discussed with a view to establishing a broad knowledge base for future rational protein engineering. PMID:26407901

  12. Synergy effect of heat and UV photons on bacterial-spore inactivation in an N2-O2 plasma-afterglow sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudam, M. K.; Moisan, M.

    2010-07-01

    As a rule, medical devices (MDs) made entirely from metals and ceramics can withstand, for sterilization purposes, elevated temperatures such as those encountered in autoclaves (moist heat >=120 °C) or Poupinel (Pasteur) ovens (dry heat >=160 °C). This not the case with MDs containing polymers: 70 °C seems to be a limit beyond which their structural and functional integrity will be compromised. Nonetheless, all the so-called low-temperature sterilization techniques, relying essentially on some biocidal chemistry (e.g. ethylene oxide, H2O2, O3), are operated at temperatures close to 65 °C, essentially to enhance the chemical reactivity of the biocidal agent. Based on this fact, we have examined the influence of increasing the temperature of the polystyrene Petri dish containing B. atrophaeus bacterial spores when exposing them to UV radiation coming from an N2-O2 flowing plasma afterglow. We have observed that, for a given UV radiation intensity, the inactivation rate increases with the temperature of the Petri dish, provided heat and UV photons are applied simultaneously, a clear case of synergistic effect. More specifically, it means that (i) simply heating the spores at temperatures below 65 °C without irradiating them with UV photons does not induce mortality; (ii) there is no additional increase in the inactivation rate when the Petri has been pre-heated and then brought back to ambient temperature before the spores are UV irradiated; (iii) no additional inactivation results from post-heating spores previously inactivated with UV radiation. Undoubtedly, the synergistic effect shows up only when the physico-chemical agents (UV photons and temperature) are simultaneously in action.

  13. Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low-pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Ogino, A.; Nagatsu, M.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the inactivation characteristics of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores under different plasma exposure conditions using low-pressure microwave plasma in nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated (N2:O2=4:1) gas mixture. The microwave-excited surface-wave plasma discharges were produced at low pressure by a large volume device. The directly plasma-exposed spores, up to 106 populations, were successfully inactivated within 15, 10 and 5 min of surface-wave plasma treatment using nitrogen, oxygen and an air-simulated gas mixture, respectively, as working gases within the temperature of 75 °C. The contribution of different inactivation factors was evaluated by placing different filters (e.g. a LiF plate, a quartz plate and a Tyvek® sheet) as indirect exposure of spores to the plasma. It was observed that optical emissions (including vacuum UV (VUV)/UV) play an important role in the inactivation process. To further evaluate the effect of VUV/UV photons, we placed an evacuated isolated chamber, inside which spores were set, into the main plasma chamber. The experimental results show that the inactivation time by VUV/UV photons alone, without working gas in the immediate vicinity of the spores, is longer than that with working gas. This suggests that the VUV/UV emission is responsible not only for direct UV inactivation of spores but also for generation of reactive neutral species by photoexcitation. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed significant changes in the morphology of directly plasma-exposed spores but no change in the spores irradiated by VUV/UV photons only.

  14. MS2 virus inactivation by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma using different gas carriers and power levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Liang, Yongdong; Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-02-01

    In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2 [2%, vol/vol], and He-O2 [2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R(2) > 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2 and He-O2 gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity. PMID:25416775

  15. MS2 Virus Inactivation by Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Using Different Gas Carriers and Power Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Liang, Yongdong; Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, airborne MS2 bacteriophages were exposed for subsecond time intervals to atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP) produced using different power levels (20, 24, and 28 W) and gas carriers (ambient air, Ar-O2 [2%, vol/vol], and He-O2 [2%, vol/vol]). In addition, waterborne MS2 viruses were directly subjected to the APCP treatment for up to 3 min. MS2 viruses with and without the APCP exposure were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Viral inactivation was shown to exhibit linear relationships with the APCP generation power and exposure time (R2 > 0.95 for all energy levels tested) up to 95% inactivation (1.3-log reduction) after a subsecond airborne exposure at 28 W; about the same inactivation level was achieved for waterborne viruses with an exposure time of less than 1 min. A larger amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as atomic oxygen, in APCP was detected for a higher generation power with Ar-O2 and He-O2 gas carriers. SEM images, SDS-PAGE, and agarose gel analysis of exposed waterborne viruses showed various levels of damage to both surface proteins and their related RNA genes after the APCP exposure, thus leading to the loss of their viability and infectivity. PMID:25416775

  16. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 2B6 by Chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhang, Haoming; Kenaan, Cesar; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2015-07-20

    Chlorpyrifos (CPS) is a commonly used pesticide which is metabolized by P450s into the toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO). Metabolism also results in the release of sulfur, which has been suggested to be involved in mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of P450s. CYP2B6 was previously determined to have the greatest catalytic efficiency for CPO formation in vitro. Therefore, we characterized the MBI of CYP2B6 by CPS. CPS inactivated CYP2B6 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with a kinact of 1.97 min(-1), a KI of 0.47 μM, and a partition ratio of 17.7. We further evaluated the ability of other organophosphate pesticides including chorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, parathion-methyl, and azinophos-methyl to inactivate CYP2B6. These organophosphate pesticides were also potent MBIs of CYP2B6 characterized by similar kinact and KI values. The inactivation of CYP2B6 by CPS was accompanied by the loss of P450 detectable in the CO reduced spectrum and loss of detectable heme. High molecular weight aggregates were observed when inactivated CYP2B6 was run on SDS-PAGE gels indicating protein aggregation. Interestingly, we found that the rat homologue of CYP2B6, CYP2B1, was not inactivated by CPS despite forming CPO to a similar extent. On the basis of the locations of the Cys residues in the two proteins which could react with released sulfur during the metabolism of CPS, we investigated whether the C475 in CYP2B6, which is not conserved in CYP2B1, was the critical residue for inactivation by mutating it to a Ser. CYP2B6 C475S was inactivated to a similar extent as wild type CYP2B6 indicating that C475 is not likely the key difference between CYP2B1 and CYP2B6 with respect to inactivation. These results indicate that CPS and other organophosphate pesticides are potent MBIs of CYP2B6 which may have implications for the toxicity of these pesticides as well as the potential for pesticide-drug interactions. PMID:26075493

  17. Quantitative inactivation-mechanisms of P. digitatum and A. niger spores based on atomic oxygen dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masafumi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated inactivation mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Asperguills niger spores using atmospheric-pressure radical source quantitatively. The radical source was specially developed for supplying only neutral radicals without charged species and UV-light emissions. Reactive oxygen radical densities such as grand-state oxygen atoms, excited-state oxygen molecules and ozone were measured using VUV and UV absorption spectroscopies. The measurements and the treatments of spores were carried out in an Ar-purged chamber for eliminating the influences of OH, NOx and so on. The results revealed that the inactivation of spores can be explained by atomic-oxygen dose under the conditions employing neutral ROS irradiations. On the basis of the dose, we have observed the changes of intracellular organelles and membrane functions using TEM, SEM and confocal- laser fluorescent microscopy. From these results, we discuss the detail inactivation-mechanisms quantitatively based on atomic-oxygen dose.

  18. Efficacy of two peroxygen-based disinfectants for inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    PubMed

    Quilez, Joaquin; Sanchez-Acedo, Caridad; Avendaño, Catalina; del Cacho, Emilio; Lopez-Bernad, Fernando

    2005-05-01

    Two commercial peroxygen-based disinfectants containing hydrogen peroxide plus either peracetic acid (Ox-Virin) or silver nitrate (Ox-Agua) were tested for their ability to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Oocysts were obtained from naturally infected goat kids and exposed to concentrations of 2, 5, and 10% Ox-Virin or 1, 3, and 5% Ox-Agua for 30, 60, and 120 min. In vitro excystation, vital dyes (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide), and infectivity in neonatal BALB/c mice were used to assess the viability and infectivity of control and disinfectant-treated oocysts. Both disinfectants had a deleterious effect on the survival of C. parvum oocysts, since disinfection significantly reduced and in some cases eliminated their viability and infectivity. When in vitro assays were compared with an infectivity assay as indicators of oocyst inactivation, the excystation assay showed 98.6% inactivation after treatment with 10% Ox-Virin for 60 min, while the vital-dye assay showed 95.2% inactivation and the infectivity assay revealed 100% inactivation. Treatment with 3% Ox-Agua for 30 min completely eliminated oocyst infectivity for mice, although we were able to observe only 74.7% inactivation as measured by excystation assays and 24.3% with vital dyes (which proved to be the least reliable method for predicting C. parvum oocyst viability). These findings indicate the potential efficacy of both disinfectants for C. parvum oocysts in agricultural settings where soil, housing, or tools might be contaminated and support the argument that in comparison to the animal infectivity assay, vital-dye and excystation methods overestimate the viability of oocysts following chemical disinfection. PMID:15870337

  19. Efficacy of Two Peroxygen-Based Disinfectants for Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Quilez, Joaquin; Sanchez-Acedo, Caridad; Avendaño, Catalina; del Cacho, Emilio; Lopez-Bernad, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Two commercial peroxygen-based disinfectants containing hydrogen peroxide plus either peracetic acid (Ox-Virin) or silver nitrate (Ox-Agua) were tested for their ability to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Oocysts were obtained from naturally infected goat kids and exposed to concentrations of 2, 5, and 10% Ox-Virin or 1, 3, and 5% Ox-Agua for 30, 60, and 120 min. In vitro excystation, vital dyes (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide), and infectivity in neonatal BALB/c mice were used to assess the viability and infectivity of control and disinfectant-treated oocysts. Both disinfectants had a deleterious effect on the survival of C. parvum oocysts, since disinfection significantly reduced and in some cases eliminated their viability and infectivity. When in vitro assays were compared with an infectivity assay as indicators of oocyst inactivation, the excystation assay showed 98.6% inactivation after treatment with 10% Ox-Virin for 60 min, while the vital-dye assay showed 95.2% inactivation and the infectivity assay revealed 100% inactivation. Treatment with 3% Ox-Agua for 30 min completely eliminated oocyst infectivity for mice, although we were able to observe only 74.7% inactivation as measured by excystation assays and 24.3% with vital dyes (which proved to be the least reliable method for predicting C. parvum oocyst viability). These findings indicate the potential efficacy of both disinfectants for C. parvum oocysts in agricultural settings where soil, housing, or tools might be contaminated and support the argument that in comparison to the animal infectivity assay, vital-dye and excystation methods overestimate the viability of oocysts following chemical disinfection. PMID:15870337

  20. A new ozone-based method for virus inactivation: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kekez, M M; Sattar, S A

    1997-11-01

    The nebulization technique reported here could be used to inactivate viruses with ozone in large volumes of body fluids, such as plasma, partial blood and perhaps whole blood in a short time. Coliphage MS2 was used as a model because it is safe, easy to handle and more resistant to chemical disinfections than viruses such as HIV. The theoretical curves and experimental points, describing ozone inactivation of MS2, form a semi-sigmoid of congruent data. There was a > 7log10 reduction in MS2 viability and the possibilities of minimizing the ozone concentration required to kill viruses are indicated. The analysis was expanded to account for the interaction of ozone with a virus suspension in the shape of a thin film from the experimental findings of Bolton et al. We again find a semi-sigmoid of congruent data for their case, i.e. describing ozone inactivation of the influenza A virus (WSN strain) and the vesicular stomatitis virus versus time. For the method of nebulization, the exposure time of droplets with ozone is a few seconds, whereas for the thin film method the exposure time is measured in hours. PMID:9394395

  1. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 using cold atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Baier, Matthias; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Ehlbeck, Jörg; Knorr, Dietrich; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    From cultivation to the end of the post-harvest chain, heat-sensitive fresh produce is exposed to a variety of sources of pathogenic microorganisms. If contaminated, effective gentle means of sanitation are necessary to reduce bacterial pathogen load below their infective dose. The occurrence of rare or new serotypes raises the question of their tenacity to inactivation processes. In this study the antibacterial efficiency of cold plasma by an atmospheric pressure plasma-jet was examined against the Shiga toxin-producing outbreak strain Escherichia coli O104:H4. Argon was transformed into non-thermal plasma at a power input of 8 W and a gas flow of 5 L min(-1). Basic tests were performed on polysaccharide gel discs, including the more common E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli DSM 1116. At 5 mm treatment distance and 10(5) cfu cm(-2) initial bacterial count, plasma reduced E. coli O104:H4 after 60 s by 4.6 ± 0.6 log, E. coli O157:H7 after 45 s by 4.5 ± 0.6 log, and E. coli DSM 1116 after 30 s by 4.4 ± 1.1 log. On the surface of corn salad leaves, gentle plasma application at 17 mm reduced 10(4) cfu cm(-2) of E. coli O104:H4 by 3.3 ± 1.1 log after 2 min, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated by 3.2 ± 1.1 log after 60 s. In conclusion, plasma treatment has the potential to reduce pathogens such as E. coli O104:H4 on the surface of fresh produce. However, a serotype-specific adaptation of the process parameters is required. PMID:25782617

  2. Effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on atmospheric plasma inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Shama, G.; Kong, M. G.

    2005-10-01

    Current inactivation studies of Bacillus subtilis spores using atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGD) do not consider two important factors, namely microbial loading at the surface of a substrate and sporulation temperature. Yet these are known to affect significantly microbial resistance to heat and hydrogen peroxide. This letter investigates effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on spore resistance to APGD. It is shown that microbial loading can lead to a stacking structure as a protective shield against APGD treatment and that high sporulation temperature increases spore resistance by altering core water content and cross-linked muramic acid content of B. subtilis spores.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and acute tolerance of a double virus inactivated plasma derived factor VIII concentrate.

    PubMed

    Saez, A; Bosh, N; Boadas, N; Arguello, A; Horvat, D; Dinapoli, G; Lisciani, R

    1999-07-01

    To further reduce the risk of possible viral disease transmission, an additional virucidal step was performed in the manufacturing process of a solvent/detergent treated factor VIII concentrate, which consisted of heating the lyophilized preparation at 100 degrees C for 30 min (Emoclot DI; ISI, Italy). Because thermal treatment may modify factor VIII bioavailability, the pharmacokinetic parameters and the acute tolerance of the single viral inactivated concentrate (preparation A) were compared with that of the double viral inactivated one (preparation B). Fifteen patients with severe haemophilia A and positive for HAV Ab were enrolled in a double-blind cross-over study and injected with 32.5 IU kg-1 of preparation A and 27 IU kg-1 of the preparation B. No significant differences between terminal half-life, area under the curve/dose, clearance/kg, volume of distribution at the steady state, in vivo recovery and acute tolerance of the two preparations was observed. The only statistical difference was restricted to Cmax. PMID:10469180

  4. Cold Plasma Inactivates Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Fresh Produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize recent advances in cold plasma technology at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center. Cold plasma generated in a gliding arc was applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the surfaces of golden delicious apples. ...

  5. Cold plasma technologies for the inactivation of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in cold plasma processing at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center is focused on developing this technology into an effective tool to improve the safety of a variety of foods. Cold plasma applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the ...

  6. Small unilamellar liposomes as a membrane model for cell inactivation by cold atmospheric plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheux, S.; Frache, G.; Thomann, J. S.; Clément, F.; Penny, C.; Belmonte, T.; Duday, D.

    2016-09-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is thought to be a promising tool for numerous biomedical applications due to its ability to generate a large diversity of reactive species in a controlled way. In some cases, it can also generate pulsed electric fields at the zone of treatment, which can induce processes such as electroporation in cell membranes. However, the interaction of these reactive species and the pulse electric field with cells in a physiological medium is very complex, and we still need a better understanding in order to be useful for future applications. A way to reach this goal is to work with model cell membranes such as liposomes, with the simplest physiological liquid and in a controlled atmosphere in order to limit the number of parallel reactions and processes. In this paper, where this approach has been chosen, 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) have been synthesized in a phosphate buffered aqueous solution, and this solution has been treated by a nanosecond pulsed plasma jet under a pure nitrogen atmosphere. It is only the composition of the plasma gas that has been changed in order to generate different cocktails of reactive species. After the quantification of the main plasma reactive species in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, structural, surface charge state, and chemical modifications generated on the plasma treated liposomes, due to the interaction with the plasma reactive species, have been carefully characterized. These results allow us to further understand the effect of plasma reactive species on model cell membranes in physiological liquids. The permeation through the liposomal membrane and the reaction of plasma reactive species with molecules encapsulated inside the liposomes have also been evaluated. New processes of degradation are finally presented and discussed, which come from the specific conditions of plasma treatment under the pure nitrogen atmosphere.

  7. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe D; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 10(5.2 ± 0.12) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  8. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E.; Campbell, Joy M.; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 105.2±0.12 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  9. Mycoplasma hyorhinis-encoded cytidine deaminase efficiently inactivates cytosine-based anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Vande Voorde, Johan; Vervaeke, Peter; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasmas may colonize tumor tissue in patients. The cytostatic activity of gemcitabine was dramatically decreased in Mycoplasma hyorhinis-infected tumor cell cultures compared with non-infected tumor cell cultures. This mycoplasma-driven drug deamination could be prevented by exogenous administration of the cytidine deaminase (CDA) inhibitor tetrahydrouridine, but also by the natural nucleosides or by a purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor. The M. hyorhinis-encoded CDAHyor gene was cloned, expressed as a recombinant protein and purified. CDAHyor was found to be more catalytically active than its human equivalent and efficiently deaminates (inactivates) cytosine-based anticancer drugs. CDAHyor expression at the tumor site may result in selective drug inactivation and suboptimal therapeutic efficiency. PMID:26322268

  10. Mechanism-based inactivators of plant copper/quinone containing amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Longu, Silvia; Mura, Anna; Padiglia, Alessandra; Medda, Rosaria; Floris, Giovanni

    2005-08-01

    Copper/quinone amine oxidases contain Cu(II) and the quinone of 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (topaquinone; TPQ) as cofactors. TPQ is derived by post-translational modification of a conserved tyrosine residue in the protein chain. Major advances have been made during the last decade toward understanding the structure/function relationships of the active site in Cu/TPQ amine oxidases using specific inhibitors. Mechanism-based inactivators are substrate analogues that bind to the active site of an enzyme being accepted and processed by the normal catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. During the reaction a covalent modification of the enzyme occurs leading to irreversible inactivation. In this review mechanism-based inactivators of plant Cu/TPQ amine oxidases from the pulses lentil (Lens esculenta), pea (Pisum sativum), grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia,) are described. Substrates forming, in aerobiotic and in anaerobiotic conditions, killer products that covalently bound to the quinone cofactor or to a specific amino acid residue of the target enzyme are all reviewed. PMID:16054177

  11. Inactivation of Gram-Negative Bacteria by Low-Pressure RF Remote Plasma Excited in N2-O2 Mixture and SF6 Gases

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Saloum, Saker; Mrad, Omar; Swied, Ghayath; Alkhaled, Bashar

    2013-01-01

    The role of low-pressure RF plasma in the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterobacter sakazakii using N2-O2 and SF6 gases was assessed. 1×109 colony-forming units (CFUs) of each bacterial isolate were placed on three polymer foils. The effects of pressure, power, distance from the source, and exposure time to plasma gases were optimized. The best conditions to inactivate the four bacteria were a 91%N2-9%O2 mixture and a 30-minute exposure time. SF6 gas was more efficient for all the tested isolates in as much as the treatment time was reduced to only three minutes. Therefore, low-pressure plasma could be used to sterilize heat and/or moisture-sensitive medical instruments. PMID:24293788

  12. Risk Assessment of Mechanism-Based Inactivation in Drug-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Yasushi; Kunze, Kent L.

    2012-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that occur via mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 are of serious concern. Although several predictive models have been published, early risk assessment of MBIs is still challenging. For reversible inhibitors, the DDI risk categorization using [I]/Ki ([I], the inhibitor concentration; Ki, the inhibition constant) is widely used in drug discovery and development. Although a simple and reliable methodology such as [I]/Ki categorization for reversible inhibitors would be useful for mechanism-based inhibitors (MBIs), comprehensive analysis of an analogous measure reflecting in vitro potency for inactivation has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the term λ/kdeg (λ, first-order inactivation rate at a given MBI concentration; kdeg, enzyme degradation rate constant) would be useful in the prediction of the in vivo DDI risk of MBIs. Twenty-one MBIs with both in vivo area under the curve (AUC) change of marker substrates and in vitro inactivation parameters were identified in the literature and analyzed. The results of this analysis show that in vivo DDIs with >2-fold change of object drug AUC can be identified with the cutoff value of λ/kdeg = 1, where unbound steady-state Cmax is used for inhibitor concentration. However, the use of total Cmax led to great overprediction of DDI risk. The risk assessment using λ/kdeg coupled with unbound Cmax can be useful for the DDI risk evaluation of MBIs in drug discovery and development. PMID:22685217

  13. Preclinical Development of Inactivated Rabies Virus-Based Polyvalent Vaccine Against Rabies and Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Willet, Mallory; Kurup, Drishya; Papaneri, Amy; Wirblich, Christoph; Hooper, Jay W; Kwilas, Steve A; Keshwara, Rohan; Hudacek, Andrew; Beilfuss, Stefanie; Rudolph, Grit; Pommerening, Elke; Vos, Adriaan; Neubert, Andreas; Jahrling, Peter; Blaney, Joseph E; Johnson, Reed F; Schnell, Matthias J

    2015-10-01

    We previously described the generation of a novel Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine based on inactivated rabies virus (RABV) containing EBOV glycoprotein (GP) incorporated in the RABV virion. Our results demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Protection against viral challenge depended largely on the quality of the humoral immune response against EBOV GP.Here we present the extension and improvement of this vaccine by increasing the amount of GP incorporation into virions via GP codon-optimization as well as the addition of Sudan virus (SUDV) and Marburg virus (MARV) GP containing virions. Immunogenicity studies in mice indicate similar immune responses for both SUDV GP and MARV GP compared to EBOV GP. Immunizing mice with multiple antigens resulted in immune responses similar to immunization with a single antigen. Moreover, immunization of NHP with the new inactivated RABV EBOV vaccine resulted in high titer neutralizing antibody levels and 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge when applied with adjuvant.Our results indicate that an inactivated polyvalent vaccine against RABV filoviruses is achievable. Finally, the novel vaccines are produced on approved VERO cells and a clinical grade RABV/EBOV vaccine for human trials has been produced. PMID:26063224

  14. Nonthermal inactivation of the norovirus surrogate tulane virus on blueberries using atmospheric cold plasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses are currently the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks, most of which are associated with foods consumed raw. Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging novel nonthermal technology that can be used for the surface decontamination of foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inacti...

  15. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Aerobic Microorganisms on blueberries and effects on quality attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (CP) is a novel nonthermal technology, potentially useful in food processing settings. Berries were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, or 120s at a working distance of 7.5 cm with a mixture of 4 cubic feet/minute (cfm) of CP jet and 7 cfm of ambient air. Blueberries w...

  16. Cold plasma - a non-thermal processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...

  17. Laser-plasma-based linear collider using hollow plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    A linear electron-positron collider based on laser-plasma accelerators using hollow plasma channels is considered. Laser propagation and energy depletion in the hollow channel is discussed, as well as the overall efficiency of the laser-plasma accelerator. Example parameters are presented for a 1-TeV and 3-TeV center-of-mass collider based on laser-plasma accelerators.

  18. Cold plasma inactivation of internalised bacteria and biofilms for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ziuzina, Dana; Han, Lu; Cullen, Patrick J; Bourke, Paula

    2015-10-01

    Microbial biofilms and bacteria internalised in produce tissue may reduce the effectiveness of decontamination methods. In this study, the inactivation efficacy of in-package atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) afterglow was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli in the forms of planktonic cultures, biofilms formed on lettuce and associated bacteria internalised in lettuce tissue. Prepared lettuce broth (3%) was inoculated with bacteria resulting in a final concentration of ~7.0 log10 CFU/ml. For biofilm formation and internalisation, lettuce pieces (5 × 5 cm) were dip-inoculated in bacterial suspension of ~7.0 log10 CFU/ml for 2 h and further incubated for 0, 24 and 48 h at either 4 °C or room temperature (~22 °C) in combination with light/dark photoperiod or at 4 °C under dark conditions. Inoculated samples were sealed inside a rigid polypropylene container and indirectly exposed (i.e. placed outside plasma discharge) to a high voltage (80 kVRMS) air ACP with subsequent storage for 24 h at 4 °C. ACP treatment for 30s reduced planktonic populations of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and E. coli suspended in lettuce broth to undetectable levels. Depending on storage conditions, bacterial type and age of biofilm, 300 s of treatment resulted in reduction of biofilm populations on lettuce by a maximum of 5 log10 CFU/sample. Scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy pointed to the incidence of bacterial internalisation and biofilm formation, which influenced the inactivation efficacy of ACP. Measured intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) revealed that the presence of organic matter in the bacterial suspension might present a protective effect against the action of ROS on bacterial cells. This study demonstrated that high voltage in-package ACP could be a potential technology to overcome bacterial challenges associated with food produce. However, the existence of biofilms and internalised bacteria should be

  19. Donor platelet plasma components inactivate sensitive and multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Pakhomova, Olga N; Li, Fanying; Hargrave, Barbara Y; Heller, Loree C

    2015-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an environmentally resilient healthcare-associated opportunistic pathogen responsible for infections at many body sites. In the last 10 years, clinical strains resistant to many or all commonly used antibiotics have emerged globally. With few antimicrobial agents in the pharmaceutical pipeline, new and alternative agents are essential. Platelets secrete a large number of proteins, including proteins with antimicrobial activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated that donor platelet supernatants and plasma significantly inhibited the growth of a reference strain of A. baumannii in broth and on skin. This inhibition appeared to be unrelated to the platelet activation state. In this study, we demonstrate that this growth inhibition extends to clinical multidrug resistant isolates. We also demonstrate that there is no relationship between this activity and selected platelet-derived antimicrobial proteins. Instead, the donor plasma components complement and alpha-2 macroglobulin are implicated. PMID:26500225

  20. Hepatitis E virus derived from different sources exhibits different behaviour in virus inactivation and/or removal studies with plasma derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kadue; Urayama, Takeru; Hattori, Shinji; Ideno, Shoji; Furuki, Rie; Sakai, Kaoru; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes viral hepatitis, and is considered a risk factor for blood products. Although some HEV inactivation/removal studies have been reported, detailed investigations of different manufacturing steps as heat treatment, partitioning during cold ethanol fractionation, low pH treatment, and virus filtration have yet to be reported for plasma-derived medicinal products. In this study, human serum- and swine faeces-derived HEVs, with and without detergent treatment, were used. The kinetic patterns of inactivation, log reduction value, or partitioning during the process were evaluated. In addition, the mouse encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and canine and porcine parvoviruses (CPV/PPV) were also evaluated as model viruses for HEV. Small pore size (19 or 15 nm) virus filtration demonstrated effective removal of HEV. Middle pore size (35 nm) virus filtration and 60 °C liquid heating demonstrated moderate inactivation/removal. Ethanol fractionation steps demonstrated limited removal of HEV. Unpurified HEV exhibited different properties than the detergent-treated HEV, and both forms displayed differences when compared with EMCV, CPV, and PPV. Limited or no inactivation of HEV was observed during low pH treatment. Untreated plasma-derived HEV from humans showed different properties compared to that of HEV treated with detergent or derived from swine faeces. Therefore, HEV spike preparation requires more attention. PMID:27461242

  1. Socioeconomic assessment of the proposed inactivation of the 5th Fighter Interceptor Squadron Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, C.R.; Sage, P.L.; Fichera, J.P.; Lufkin, P.; Stadelman, D.

    1988-12-01

    This assessment examines the potential socioeconomic impacts of inactivating the 5th Fighter Interceptor Squadron (FIS) at Minot Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The study focuses on employment, population, and income impacts and estimates their effects on housing, community services, utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism, and public finance. This assessment is intended primarily for the use of Air Force and community planners concerned with the local consequences of the inactivation. 10 refs., 46 tabs.

  2. Flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of pork butt and beef loin: effects on pathogen inactivation and meat-quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Park, Sanghoo; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    The effects of a flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma system using a sealed package on microbial inactivation and quality attributes of fresh pork and beef were tested. Following a 10-min treatment, the microbial-load reductions of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium were 2.04, 2.54, and 2.68 Log CFU/g in pork-butt samples and 1.90, 2.57, and 2.58 Log CFU/g in beef-loin samples, respectively. Colorimetric analysis showed that DBD-plasma treatment did not significantly affect L* values (lightness) of pork and beef samples, but lowered a* values (redness) significantly after 5- and 7.5-min exposures. The plasma treatment significantly influenced lipid oxidation only after a 10-min exposure. The texture of both types of meat was unaffected by plasma treatment. All sensory parameters of treated and non-treated samples were comparable except for taste, which was negatively influenced by the plasma treatment (P < 0.05). This thin-layer DBD-plasma system can be applied to inactivate foodborne pathogens. The observed minor deterioration of meat quality might be prevented by the use of hurdle technology. PMID:25475266

  3. A dielectric barrier discharge terminally inactivates RNase A by oxidizing sulfur-containing amino acids and breaking structural disulfide bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackmann, J.-W.; Baldus, S.; Steinborn, E.; Edengeiser, E.; Kogelheide, F.; Langklotz, S.; Schneider, S.; Leichert, L. I. O.; Benedikt, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Bandow, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    RNases are among the most stable proteins in nature. They even refold spontaneously after heat inactivation, regaining full activity. Due to their stability and universal presence, they often pose a problem when experimenting with RNA. We investigated the capabilities of nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas to inactivate RNase A and studied the inactivation mechanism on a molecular level. While prolonged heating above 90 °C is required for heat inactivating RNase A, direct plasma treatment with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source caused permanent inactivation within minutes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that DBD-treated RNase A unfolds rapidly. Raman spectroscopy indicated methionine modifications and formation of sulfonic acid. A mass spectrometry-based analysis of the protein modifications that occur during plasma treatment over time revealed that methionine sulfoxide formation coincides with protein inactivation. Chemical reduction of methionine sulfoxides partially restored RNase A activity confirming that sulfoxidation is causal and sufficient for RNase A inactivation. Continued plasma exposure led to over-oxidation of structural disulfide bonds. Using antibodies, disulfide bond over-oxidation was shown to be a general protein inactivation mechanism of the DBD. The antibody’s heavy and light chains linked by disulfide bonds dissociated after plasma exposure. Based on their ability to inactivate proteins by oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids and over-oxidation of disulfide bonds, DBD devices present a viable option for inactivating undesired or hazardous proteins on heat or solvent-sensitive surfaces.

  4. Studies on human plasma C1 inactivator-enzyme interactions. I. Mechanisms of interaction with C1s, plasmin, and trypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, P C; Cooper, N R

    1975-01-01

    This study has explored the nature of the molecular events which occur when C1 inactivator, a human plasma inhibitor of the complement, kinin-forming, coagulation, and fibrinolytic enzyme systems, interacts with C1s, plasmin, and trypsin. Purified inhibitor preparations demonstrated two bands, when examined by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The molecular weights of the major and minor bands were 105,000 and 96,000 daltons, respectively. The minor component appeared to be immunologically and functionally identical to the main C1 inactivator component. Loss of C1s and plasmin functional activity was associated with the formation of a 1:1 molar complex between the inhibitor and each enzyme. These complexes were stable in the presence of SDS and urea. The light chain of both these enzymes provided the binding site for C1 inactivator. Complex formation and enzyme inhibition occurred only with native and not with an inhibitor preparation denatured by acid treatment, thereby demonstrating the importance of conformational factors in the enzyme-inhibitor reaction. Although peptide bond cleavage of the C1 inactivator molecule by C1s was not documented, plasmin was found to degrade the inhibitor with the production of several characteristic derivatives. At least one of these products retained the ability to complex with C1s and plasmin. Trypsin, which failed to form a complex with C1 inactivator, degraded the inhibitor in a limited and sequential manner with the production of nonfunctional derivatives one of which appeared structurally similar to a plasmin-induced product. These studies therefore, provide new information concerning the molecular interactions between C1 inactivator and several of the proteases which it inhibits. Images PMID:123251

  5. Plasma-based XUV lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klisnick, A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture is an introduction to the generation of plasma-based XUV lasers and their use as a source for scientific applications. We first discuss the main conditions required to create population inversions and amplify XUV radiation. We give an overview of the main properties of the different types of XUV lasers beams that are currently operational worldwide, while comparing them to other ultrashort, high-brightness sources existing in the same spectral range. We discuss recent demonstrations of applications of plasma-based XUV lasers to high-resolution imaging and interaction with matter at high intensity. Finally we conclude with current prospects for extending these sources to shorter wavelength and higher output intensity.

  6. Mass spectrometric study on inactivation mechanism of spore-forming bacteria by low-pressure surface-wave excited oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ying; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2011-05-09

    In this letter, the etching phenomena of the spore-forming bacteria by oxygen plasma were investigated by using quadrupole mass spectrometry. The etching by-products of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} were obviously detected during the oxygen plasma irradiation by the multiple ion detection measurement. Inactivation of roughly 10{sup 6} spores population was achieved under almost the same reduced spore shapes for three different incident microwave powers. It is considered from the present results that the oxygen radical etching could cause damage to the germinant receptors located in the inner membrane inevitable for germination of spores, without any damage of the DNA in the cores.

  7. Mass spectrometric study on inactivation mechanism of spore-forming bacteria by low-pressure surface-wave excited oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2011-05-01

    In this letter, the etching phenomena of the spore-forming bacteria by oxygen plasma were investigated by using quadrupole mass spectrometry. The etching by-products of H2O and CO2 were obviously detected during the oxygen plasma irradiation by the multiple ion detection measurement. Inactivation of roughly 106 spores population was achieved under almost the same reduced spore shapes for three different incident microwave powers. It is considered from the present results that the oxygen radical etching could cause damage to the germinant receptors located in the inner membrane inevitable for germination of spores, without any damage of the DNA in the cores.

  8. Mechanism-based inactivation of CYP450 enzymes: a case study of lapatinib

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Han Kiat; Chan, Chun Yip; Hardy, Klarissa D; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP450 enzymes is a unique form of inhibition in which the enzymatic machinery of the victim is responsible for generation of the reactive metabolite. This precondition sets up a time-dependency for the inactivation process, a hallmark feature that characterizes all MBI. Yet, MBI itself is a complex biochemical phenomenon that operates in different modes, namely covalent binding to apoprotein, covalent binding of the porphyrin group, and also complexation of the catalytic iron. Using lapatinib as a recent example of toxicological interest, we present an example of a mixed-function MBI that can confound clinical drug-drug interactions manifestation. Lapatinib exhibits both covalent binding to the apoprotein, and formation of a metabolite-intermediate (MI) complex in an enzyme-selective manner (CYP3A4 versus CYP3A5), each with different reactive metabolites. The clinical implication of this effect is also contingent upon genetic polymorphisms of the enzyme involved as well as the co-administration of other substrates, inhibitors or inducers, culminating in drug-drug interactions. This understanding recapitulates the importance of applying isoform-specific mechanistic investigations to develop customized strategies to manage such outcomes. PMID:25639891

  9. Mechanism-Based Post-Translational Modification and Inactivation in Terpene Synthases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes are ubiquitous natural chemicals with diverse biological functions spanning all three domains of life. In specialized metabolism, the active sites of terpene synthases (TPSs) evolve in shape and reactivity to direct the biosynthesis of a myriad of chemotypes for organismal fitness. As most terpene biosynthesis mechanistically involves highly reactive carbocationic intermediates, the protein surfaces catalyzing these cascade reactions possess reactive regions possibly prone to premature carbocation capture and potentially enzyme inactivation. Here, we show using proteomic and X-ray crystallographic analyses that cationic intermediates undergo capture by conserved active site residues leading to inhibitory self-alkylation. Moreover, the level of cation-mediated inactivation increases with mutation of the active site, upon changes in the size and structure of isoprenoid diphosphate substrates, and alongside increases in reaction temperatures. TPSs that individually synthesize multiple products are less prone to self-alkylation then TPSs possessing relatively high product specificity. In total, the results presented suggest that mechanism-based alkylation represents an overlooked mechanistic pressure during the evolution of cation-derived terpene biosynthesis. PMID:26378620

  10. Apparent congenital athyreosis contrasting with normal plasma thyroglobulin levels and associated with inactivating mutations in the thyrotropin receptor gene: are athyreosis and ectopic thyroid distinct entities?

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Parma, J; Deal, C; Vassart, G; Van Vliet, G

    1998-05-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the TSH receptor gene (TSH-R), usually leading to asymptomatic hyperthyrotropinemia, have been reported since 1995 in a total of eight pedigrees, with a pattern of transmission suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Although normal TSH secretion and action are not necessary for normal migration of the thyroid analage, they are essential for normal thyroid growth and function. In keeping with this concept, we report a severely hypothyroid boy with a normally located but very hypoplastic and hypofunctional thyroid caused by TSH-R loss-of-function mutations. The propositus' maternal great aunt also had apparent athyreosis. The propositus had undetectable uptake on 99mpertechnetate scintigraphy but normal plasma thyroglobulin at 15 days of age. He was found to be a compound heterozygote for TSH-R mutations, with the maternal allele carrying a splicing mutation (G to C transversion at position +3 of the donor site of intron 6) and the other allele a deletion of two nucleotides (2 bases of codon 655 in exon 10). The great aunt's TSH-R was normal. We also report the sex ratio of hypothyroid newborns referred to our center since 1989 with apparent athyreosis (5 girls, 7 boys) and with ectopic thyroid tissue (41 girls, 15 boys). We conclude that different genetic and nongenetic mechanisms for athyreosis and ectopic thyroid are likely, and that these two distinct entities are themselves heterogeneous. Our results further show that inactivating mutations in TSH-R may account for some cases of apparent congenital athyreosis and should be suspected, especially if plasma thyroglobulin levels are normal. PMID:9589691

  11. Impact on disinfection efficiency of cell load and of planktonic/adherent/detached state: case of Hafnia alvei inactivation by plasma activated water.

    PubMed

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges; Herry, Jean-Marie; Brisset, Jean-Louis; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Doubla, Avaly; Naïtali, Murielle

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the effects of initial microbial concentration and planktonic/adherent/detached states on the efficiency of plasma-activated water. This disinfecting solution was obtained by treating distilled water with an atmospheric pressure plasma produced by gliding electric discharges in humid air. The inactivation kinetics of planktonic cells of Hafnia alvei (selected as a bacterial model) were found to be of the first order. They were influenced by the initial microbial concentration. Efficiency decreased when the initial viable population N(0) increased, and the inactivation rate k(max) was linearly modified as a function of Log(10) (N(0)). This relation was used to compare planktonic, adherent, and detached cells independently from the level of population. Bacteria adhering to stainless steel and high-density polyethylene were also sensitive to treatment, but at a lower rate than their free-living counterparts. Moreover, cells detached from these solid substrates exhibited an inactivation rate lower than that of planktonic cells but similar to adherent bacteria. This strongly suggests the induction of a physiological modification to bacteria during the adhesion step, rendering adherent--and further detached--bacteria less susceptible to the treatment, when compared to planktonic bacteria. PMID:18769918

  12. Effect of excited nitrogen atoms on inactivation of spore-forming microorganisms in low pressure N2/O2 surface-wave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Chang, Xijiang; Tei, Reitou; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-06-01

    Using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy with a compact low pressure plasma light source, the absolute nitrogen atom density was measured to study its role in the spore inactivation with low pressure N2/O2 gas mixture surface-wave plasmas (SWPs). Self-absorption effect of the resonance emission lines of nitrogen atoms near 120 nm was minimized by optimizing its discharge conditions of the plasma light source. Experimental results showed that excited nitrogen atom densities monotonically decreased with the decrease of N2 gas percentage in N2/O2 gas mixture SWPs, concomitantly with similar decrease of VUV/UV emission intensities of nitrogen atoms and molecules. In the pure N2 gas SWPs, it was confirmed that a dominant lethal factor was VUV/UV emission generated by N2 plasma, while spore etching occurred via physical and chemical interactions with nitrogen species. With an addition of O2 gas, significant spore etching by excited oxygen atoms made it much easier for the VUV/UV photons emitted by nitrogen atoms, N2 and NO molecules to penetrate through the etched spore coats to the core and cause the fatal DNA damage of the microorganisms. As a result, more rapid inactivation was achieved in the middle region of N2/O2 gas mixture ratio, such as 30–80% O2 gas addition, in the present N2/O2 gas mixture SWPs.

  13. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Two Piperazine-Containing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bolles, Amanda K.; Fujiwara, Rina; Briggs, Erran D.; Nomeir, Amin A.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the metabolism of more than half of pharmaceutic drugs, and inactivation of CYP3A4 can lead to adverse drug-drug interactions. The substituted imidazole compounds 5-fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine (SCH 66712) and 1-[(2-ethyl-4-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine (EMTPP) have been previously identified as mechanism-based inactivators (MBI) of CYP2D6. The present study shows that both SCH 66712 and EMTPP are also MBIs of CYP3A4. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 and EMTPP was determined to be concentration, time, and NADPH dependent. In addition, inactivation of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 was shown to be unaffected by the presence of electrophile scavengers. SCH 66712 displays type I binding to CYP3A4 with a spectral binding constant (Ks) of 42.9 ± 2.9 µM. The partition ratios for SCH 66712 and EMTPP were 11 and 94, respectively. Whole protein mass spectrum analysis revealed 1:1 binding stoichiometry of SCH 66712 and EMTPP to CYP3A4 and a mass increase consistent with adduction by the inactivators without addition of oxygen. Heme adduction was not apparent. Multiple mono-oxygenation products with each inactivator were observed; no other products were apparent. These are the first MBIs to be shown to be potent inactivators of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. PMID:25273356

  14. Thrombin generation, ProC®Global, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in thawed plasma stored for seven days and after methylene blue/light pathogen inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Hron, Gregor; Kellner, Sarah; Wasner, Christina; Westphal, Antje; Warkentin, Theodore E.; Greinacher, Andreas; Selleng, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Methylene blue pathogen inactivation and storage of thawed plasma both lead to changes in the activity of several clotting factors. We investigated how this translates into a global loss of thrombin generation potential and alterations in the protein C pathway. Materials and methods Fifty apheresis plasma samples were thawed and each divided into three subunits. One subunit was stored for 7 days at 4 °C, one was stored for 7 days at 22 °C and one was stored at 4 °C after methylene blue/light treatment. Thrombin generation parameters, ProC®Global-NR, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed on days 0 and 7. Results The velocity of thrombin generation increased significantly after methylene blue treatment (increased thrombin generation rate; time to peak decreased) and decreased after storage (decreased thrombin generation rate and peak thrombin; increased lag time and time to peak). The endogenous thrombin generation potential remained stable after methylene blue treatment and storage at 4 °C. Methylene blue treatment and 7 days of storage at 4 °C activated the protein C pathway, whereas storage at room temperature and storage after methylene blue treatment decreased the functional capacity of the protein C pathway. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time showed only modest alterations. Discussion The global clotting capacity of thawed plasma is maintained at 4 °C for 7 days and directly after methylene blue treatment of thawed plasma. Thrombin generation and ProC®Global are useful tools for investigating the impact of pathogen inactivation and storage on the clotting capacity of therapeutic plasma preparations. PMID:26192785

  15. Plasma-based Accelerator with Magnetic Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Paul F. Schmit and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-06-28

    Electron dephasing is a major gain-inhibiting effect in plasma-based accelerators. A novel method is proposed to overcome dephasing, in which the modulation of a modest (#24; O(10 kG)), axial, uniform magnetic field in the acceleration channel leads to densification of the plasma through magnetic compression, enabling direct, time-resolved control of the plasma wave properties. The methodology is broadly applicable and can be optimized to improve the leading acceleration approaches, including plasma beat-wave, plasma wakefield, and laser wakefield acceleration. The advantages of magnetic compression compared to other proposed schemes to overcome dephasing are identified.

  16. Plasma-based accelerator with magnetic compression.

    PubMed

    Schmit, P F; Fisch, N J

    2012-12-21

    Electron dephasing is a major gain-inhibiting effect in plasma-based accelerators. A novel method is proposed to overcome dephasing, in which the modulation of a modest [~O(10 kG)], axial, uniform magnetic field in the acceleration channel leads to densification of the plasma through magnetic compression, enabling direct, time-resolved control of the plasma wave properties. The methodology is broadly applicable and can be optimized to improve the leading acceleration approaches, including plasma beat wave, plasma wakefield, and laser wakefield acceleration. The advantages of magnetic compression are compared to other proposed techniques to overcome dephasing. PMID:23368475

  17. Plasma-Based Accelerator with Magnetic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, P. F.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Electron dephasing is a major gain-inhibiting effect in plasma-based accelerators. A novel method is proposed to overcome dephasing, in which the modulation of a modest [˜O(10kG)], axial, uniform magnetic field in the acceleration channel leads to densification of the plasma through magnetic compression, enabling direct, time-resolved control of the plasma wave properties. The methodology is broadly applicable and can be optimized to improve the leading acceleration approaches, including plasma beat wave, plasma wakefield, and laser wakefield acceleration. The advantages of magnetic compression are compared to other proposed techniques to overcome dephasing.

  18. Thermal effects in plasma-based accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2007-05-15

    Finite plasma temperature can modify the structure of the wake field, reduce the wave-breaking field, and lead to self-trapped electrons, which can degrade the electron bunch quality in a plasma-based accelerator. A relativistic warm fluid theory is used to describe the plasma temperature evolution and alterations to the structure of a nonlinear periodic wave exited in a warm plasma. The trapping threshold for a plasma electron and the fraction of electrons trapped from a thermal distribution are examined using a single-particle model. Numerical artifacts in particle-in-cell models that can mimic the physics associated with finite momentum spread are discussed.

  19. Identification of SNAIL1 Peptide-Based Irreversible Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1-Selective Inactivators.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yukihiro; Aihara, Keisuke; Mellini, Paolo; Tojo, Toshifumi; Ota, Yosuke; Tsumoto, Hiroki; Solomon, Viswas Raja; Zhan, Peng; Suzuki, Miki; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Shigenaga, Akira; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Miyata, Naoki; Mizukami, Tamio; Otaka, Akira; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2016-02-25

    Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a flavin-dependent histone demethylase, has recently emerged as a new strategy for treating cancer and other diseases. LSD1 interacts physically with SNAIL1, a member of the SNAIL/SCRATCH family of transcription factors. This study describes the discovery of SNAIL1 peptide-based inactivators of LSD1. We designed and prepared SNAIL1 peptides bearing a propargyl amine, hydrazine, or phenylcyclopropane moiety. Among them, peptide 3, bearing hydrazine, displayed the most potent LSD1-inhibitory activity in enzyme assays. Kinetic study and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that peptide 3 is a mechanism-based LSD1 inhibitor. Furthermore, peptides 37 and 38, which consist of cell-membrane-permeable oligoarginine conjugated with peptide 3, induced a dose-dependent increase of dimethylated Lys4 of histone H3 in HeLa cells, suggesting that they are likely to exhibit LSD1-inhibitory activity intracellularly. In addition, peptide 37 decreased the viability of HeLa cells. We believe this new approach for targeting LSD1 provides a basis for development of potent selective inhibitors and biological probes for LSD1. PMID:26700437

  20. Mechanism-based inactivation of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase by aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, L.S.; Lu, J.Y.L.; Alworth, W.L.

    1986-05-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxgenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene, 3-ethynylperylene, 2-ethynylfluorene, methyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene, cis- and trans-1-(2-bromovinyl)pyrene, and 1-allylpyrene serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, while 1-vinylpyrene and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes (suicide destruction). The suicide inhibition by these aryl acetylenes therefore does not involve covalent binding to the heme moiety of the monooxygenase. Nevertheless, in the presence of NADPH, /sup 3/H-labeled 1-ethynylpyrene becomes covalently attached to the cytochrome P-450 protein; the measured stoichiometry of binding is one 1-ethynylpyrene per P-450 heme unit. The authors conclude that the inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase produced by 1-ethynylpyrene may be related to the mechanism of suicide inhibition of P-450 activity by chloramphenicol rather than the mechanism of suicide destruction of P-450 previously described for acetylene and propyne.

  1. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Cytochrome P450 2C9 by Tienilic Acid and (±)-Suprofen: A Comparison of Kinetics and Probe Substrate Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hutzler, J. Matthew; Balogh, Larissa M.; Zientek, Michael; Kumar, Vikas; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to compare kinact, KI and inactivation efficiency (kinact/KI) of cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C9 by tienilic acid and (±)-suprofen using (S)-flurbiprofen, diclofenac, and (S)-warfarin as reporter substrates. Although the inactivation of P450 2C9 by tienilic acid when (S)-flurbiprofen and diclofenac were used as substrates was similar (efficiency of ∼9 ml/min/μmol), the inactivation kinetics were characterized by a sigmoidal profile. (±)-Suprofen inactivation of (S)-flurbiprofen and diclofenac hydroxylation was also described by a sigmoidal profile, although inactivation was markedly less efficient (∼1 ml/min/μmol). In contrast, inactivation of P450 2C9-mediated (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation by tienilic acid and (±)-suprofen was best fit to a hyperbolic equation, where inactivation efficiency was moderately higher (10 ml/min/μmol) and ∼3-fold higher (3 ml/min/μmol), respectively, relative to that of the other probe substrates, which argues for careful consideration of reporter substrate when mechanism-based inactivation of P450 2C9 is assessed in vitro. Further investigations into the increased inactivation seen with tienilic acid relative to that with (±)-suprofen revealed that tienilic acid is a higher affinity substrate with a spectral binding affinity constant (Ks) of 2 μM and an in vitro half-life of 5 min compared with a Ks of 21 μM and a 50 min in vitro half-life for (±)-suprofen. Lastly, a close analog of tienilic acid with the carboxylate functionality replaced by an oxirane ring was devoid of inactivation properties, which suggests that an ionic binding interaction with a positively charged residue in the P450 2C9 active site is critical for recognition and mechanism-based inactivation by these close structural analogs. PMID:18838506

  2. Inactivation of the Carney complex gene 1 (PRKAR1A) alters spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase: a study using genetically encoded FRET-based reporters.

    PubMed

    Cazabat, Laure; Ragazzon, Bruno; Varin, Audrey; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Vandier, Christophe; Vezzosi, Delphine; Risk-Rabin, Marthe; Guellich, Aziz; Schittl, Julia; Lechêne, Patrick; Richter, Wito; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Zhang, Jin; Bertherat, Jérôme; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-03-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a hereditary disease associating cardiac myxoma, spotty skin pigmentation and endocrine overactivity. CNC is caused by inactivating mutations in the PRKAR1A gene encoding PKA type I alpha regulatory subunit (RIα). Although PKA activity is enhanced in CNC, the mechanisms linking PKA dysregulation to endocrine tumorigenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensors for cAMP and PKA activity to define the role of RIα in the spatiotemporal organization of the cAMP/PKA pathway. RIα knockdown in HEK293 cells increased basal as well as forskolin or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-stimulated total cellular PKA activity as reported by western blots of endogenous PKA targets and the FRET-based global PKA activity reporter, AKAR3. Using variants of AKAR3 targeted to subcellular compartments, we identified similar increases in the response to PGE1 in the cytoplasm and at the outer mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, at the plasma membrane, the response to PGE1 was decreased along with an increase in basal FRET ratio. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis of basal and PGE1-induced phosphorylation of membrane-associated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Similar differences were observed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in human adrenal cells carrying a RIα inactivating mutation. RIα inactivation also increased cAMP in the cytoplasm, at the outer mitochondrial membrane and at the plasma membrane, as reported by targeted versions of the cAMP indicator Epac1-camps. These results show that RIα inactivation leads to multiple, compartment-specific alterations of the cAMP/PKA pathway revealing new aspects of signaling dysregulation in tumorigenesis. PMID:24122441

  3. Structural Optimization of Ghrelin Receptor Inverse Agonists to Improve Lipophilicity and Avoid Mechanism-Based CYP3A4 Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bitoku; Funami, Hideaki; Shibata, Makoto; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Koyama, Makoto; Kanki, Satomi; Muto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Structural optimization of 2-aminonicotinamide derivatives as ghrelin receptor inverse agonists is reported. So as to avoid mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP3A4, 1,3-benzodioxol ring of the lead compound was modified. Improvement of the main activity and lipophilicity was achieved simultaneously, leading to compound 18a, which showed high lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) and low MBI activity. PMID:26423040

  4. Inactivation of chemical and heat-resistant spores of Bacillus and Geobacillus by nitrogen cold atmospheric plasma evokes distinct changes in morphology and integrity of spores.

    PubMed

    van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Xie, Houyu; Esveld, Erik; Abee, Tjakko; Mastwijk, Hennie; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial spores are resistant to severe conditions and form a challenge to eradicate from food or food packaging material. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is receiving more attention as potential sterilization method at relatively mild conditions but the exact mechanism of inactivation is still not fully understood. In this study, the biocidal effect by nitrogen CAP was determined for chemical (hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide), physical (UV) and heat-resistant spores. The three different sporeformers used are Bacillus cereus a food-borne pathogen, and Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus that are used as biological indicators for validation of chemical sterilization and thermal processes, respectively. The different spores showed variation in their degree of inactivation by applied heat, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and UV treatments, whereas similar inactivation results were obtained with the different spores treated with nitrogen CAP. G. stearothermophilus spores displayed high resistance to heat, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, while for UV treatment B. atrophaeus spores are most tolerant. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed distinct morphological changes for nitrogen CAP-treated B. cereus spores including etching effects and the appearance of rough spore surfaces, whereas morphology of spores treated with heat or disinfectants showed no such changes. Moreover, microscopy analysis revealed CAP-exposed B. cereus spores to turn phase grey conceivably because of water influx indicating damage of the spores, a phenomenon that was not observed for non-treated spores. In addition, data are supplied that exclude UV radiation as determinant of antimicrobial activity of nitrogen CAP. Overall, this study shows that nitrogen CAP treatment has a biocidal effect on selected Bacillus and Geobacillus spores associated with alterations in spore surface morphology and loss of spore integrity. PMID:25481059

  5. Stress-Induced Hsp70 Gene Expression and Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Chlorine-Based Oxidants▿

    PubMed Central

    Bajszár, George; Dekonenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Our research on the mechanisms of action of chlorine-based oxidants on Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water revealed a dual-phase effect: (i) response to oxidative stress, which was demonstrated by induced expression of the Hsp70 heat shock gene, and (ii) oocyst inactivation as a result of long-term exposure to oxidants. The relative biocidal effects of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) and electrolytically generated mixed oxidant solution (MOS) on C. parvum oocysts were compared at identical free chlorine concentrations. Oocyst inactivation was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification of the heat-induced Hsp70 mRNA and compared with tissue culture infectivity. According to both assays, within the range between 25 and 250 mg/liter free chlorine and with 4 h contact time, MOS exhibits a higher efficacy in oocyst inactivation than hypochlorite. Other RNA-based viability assays, aimed at monitoring the levels of β-tubulin mRNA and 18S rRNA, showed relatively slow decay rates of these molecules following disinfection by chlorine-based oxidants, rendering these molecular diagnostic viability markers inappropriate for disinfection efficacy assessment. PMID:20118357

  6. Inactivation of several strains of Listeria monocytogenes attached to the surface of packaging material by Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Luksiene, Zivile; Buchovec, Irina; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2010-12-01

    This study was focused on the possibility to inactivate thermosensitive Listeria monocytogenes ATC(L3)C 7644 and thermoresistant 56 Ly strain by Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial efficiency of photosensitization with conventional surface cleaning was performed. Data indicate that both Listeria strains, after incubation with Na-Chl and following illumination (λ=400nm, 20mWcm(-2)), were inactivated by 7 log in vitro. This treatment cleaned both Listeria strains from packaging surfaces. Comparative analysis indicates that washing with water diminishes pathogens by less than 1 log, 200ppm Na-hypochlorite by 1.7 log, Na-Chl-based photosensitization by 4.5 log. Listeria biofilms were totally removed from the surface by photosensitization at higher photosensitizer concentrations and longer incubation times. In conclusion, both strains of L. monocytogenes can be effectively inactivated by photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging. Listeria biofilms are susceptible to this treatment as well. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveals that photosensitization is much more effective against both Listeria strains than washing with water or 200ppm Na-hypochlorite. Our data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization is an effective antimicrobial tool which may serve in the future for the development of human and environmentally friendly surface decontamination techniques. PMID:20801669

  7. A novel microfluidic mixer-based approach for determining inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in chlorine solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boce; Luo, Yaguang; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Qin; Millner, Patricia D

    2015-08-01

    Determination of the minimum free chlorine concentration needed to prevent pathogen survival/cross-contamination during produce washing is essential for the development of science-based food safety regulations and practices. Although the trend of chlorine concentration-contact time on pathogen inactivation is generally understood, specific information on chlorine and the kinetics of pathogen inactivation at less than 1.00 s is urgently needed by the produce processing industry. However, conventional approaches to obtain this critical data have been unable to adequately measure very rapid responses. This paper reports our development, fabrication, and test of a novel microfluidic device, and its application to obtain the necessary data on pathogen inactivation by free chlorine in produce wash solution in times as short as 0.10 s. A novel microfluidic mixer with the capability to accurately determine the reaction time and control the chlorine concentration was designed with three inlets for bacterial, chlorine and dechlorinating solutions, and one outlet for effluent collection. The master mold was fabricated on a silicon wafer with microchannels via photopolymerization. Polydimethylsiloxane replicas with patterned microchannels were prototyped via soft lithography. The replicas were further assembled into the micromixer on glass via O2 plasma treatment, and the inlets were connected to a syringe pump for solution delivery. To determine the kinetics of free chlorine on pathogen inactivation, chlorine solutions of varying concentrations were first pumped into the micromixer, together with the addition of bacterial suspension of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through a separate inlet. This was followed by injection of dechlorinating solution to stop the chlorine-pathogen reaction. The effluent was collected and the surviving bacteria cells were enumerated using a modified 'Most Probable Number' method. Free chlorine concentration was determined using a standard colorimetric

  8. Plasma Panel Based Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Dr. Peter S.; Varner Jr, Robert L; Ball, Robert; Beene, James R; Ben Moshe, M.; Benhammou, Yan; Chapman, J. Wehrley; Etzion, E; Ferretti, Claudio; Bentefour, E; Levin, Daniel S.; Moshe, M.; Silver, Yiftah; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in PDPs, it uses non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (< 50 m RMS) and low cost. In this paper we report here on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including detection of alphas, heavy-ions at low to medium energy, thermal neutrons and X-rays.

  9. Plasma-based EUV light source

    DOEpatents

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  10. Population Density and Moment-based Approaches to Modeling Domain Calcium-mediated Inactivation of L-type Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Hardcastle, Kiah; Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    We present a population density and moment-based description of the stochastic dynamics of domain [Formula: see text]-mediated inactivation of L-type [Formula: see text] channels. Our approach accounts for the effect of heterogeneity of local [Formula: see text] signals on whole cell [Formula: see text] currents; however, in contrast with prior work, e.g., Sherman et al. (Biophys J 58(4):985-995, 1990), we do not assume that [Formula: see text] domain formation and collapse are fast compared to channel gating. We demonstrate the population density and moment-based modeling approaches using a 12-state Markov chain model of an L-type [Formula: see text] channel introduced by Greenstein and Winslow (Biophys J 83(6):2918-2945, 2002). Simulated whole cell voltage clamp responses yield an inactivation function for the whole cell [Formula: see text] current that agrees with the traditional approach when domain dynamics are fast. We analyze the voltage-dependence of [Formula: see text] inactivation that may occur via slow heterogeneous domain [[Formula: see text

  11. Independent evaluation of tolerance of therapeutic plasma inactivated by amotosalen-HCl-UVA (Intercept ™) over a 5-year period of extensive delivery.

    PubMed

    Bost, V; Chavarin, P; Boussoulade, F; Fabrigli, P; Chabre, C; Benamara, H; Odent-Malaure, H; Legrand, D; Cognasse, F; Garraud, O

    2015-11-01

    Amotosalen-HCl-UVA (AI) is a process to inactivate pathogens in therapeutic plasma (FFP). Tolerance is the main residual issue in FFP transfusion, and only large series observations are powered enough to identify significantly elevated levels of hazards. We report here on 15,133 new transfusions of AI-FFP, over the previously published 36,035, which in all represents one of the largest series observed by means of a highly standardized surveillance (51.168 observations). There is no noticeable difference in terms of tolerance of AI-FFP compared to 5875 transfusions of Quarantine (Q)-FFP. There was no significant difference in terms of advance events, between the two types of FFP (P = 0.98); further, no difference was recorded either when the total number of AI-FFP (51,168) was compared to the corresponding number of Q-FFP (5875; P = 0.62). PMID:26031441

  12. Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-05-01

    Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

  13. The potential adjuvanticity of quaternized chitosan hydrogel based microparticles for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wu, Ya-Jun; Jia, Pei-Yuan; Shan, Jun-Jie; Wu, Jie; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Infectious diseases possess a big threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Currently, inactivated veterinary vaccines have attracted much attention to prevent infection due to their safer profile compared to live attenuated vaccine. However, its intrinsic poor immunogenicity demands the incorporation of an adjuvant. Mineral oil based adjuvant (Montanide™ ISA206) was usually used to potentiate the efficacy of veterinary vaccines. However, ISA206 could not induce robust cellular immune responses, which was very important in controlling virus replication and clearing the infected cells. Moreover, mineral oil would result in severe side effects. To improve both the humoral and cellular immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inactivated vaccine, we developed pH-sensitive and size-controllable quaternized chitosan hydrogel microparticles (Gel MPs) without using chemical cross linking agent. Gel MPs, ionic cross-linked with glycerophosphate (GP), were biocompatible and could efficiently adsorb the inactivated PRRSV vaccine with a loading capacity of 579.05μg/mg. After intramuscular immunization in mice, results suggested that Gel MPs elicited significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses and comparable humoral immune responses compared to ISA 206. Regarding the biocompatibility, safety and effectiveness, Gel MPs would be a promising candidate to enhance the efficacy of veterinary vaccine. PMID:27449471

  14. An assay for X inactivation based on differential methylations at the fragile X locus, FMR1

    SciTech Connect

    Carrel, L.; Willard, H.F. |

    1996-07-12

    We describe an assay analyzing methylation at the fragile X mental retardation gene, FMR1, to examine patterns of random or non-random X chromosome inactivation. Digestion of genomic DNA with the methylation-sensitive enzyme HpaII cleaves two restriction sites near the CGG repeat of the FMR1 gene if they are unmethylated on the active X chromosome, but fails to digest these sites on the inactive chromosome. Subsequent PCR using primers that flank the sites and the variable CGG repeat within the FMR1 gene amplifies alleles only on undigested, methylated inactive X chromosomes. Amplification of the hypervariable CGG repeat distinguishes alleles in heterozygous samples, while the relative ratio of alleles within a HpaII-digested sample reflects the randomness or non-randomness of inactivation. To demonstrate that methylation of the HpaII sites within the amplified FMR1 fragment correlates strictly with the activity state of the X chromosome, we have tested the validity of this assay by comparing DNA from normal males and females, as well as DNA from mouse/human somatic cell hybrids carrying either active or inactive human X chromosomes. The data demonstrate that this assay provides a reliable means of assessing the inactivation status of X chromosomes in individuals with X-linked disorders or X chromosome abnormalities. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Roles of individual radicals generated by a submerged dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor during Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Muhammad Saiful Islam; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Ji

    2015-10-15

    A submerged dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor (underwater DBD) has been used on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 35150). Plasma treatment was carried out using clean dry air gas to investigate the individual effects of the radicals produced by underwater DBD on an E. coli O157:H7 suspension (8.0 log CFU/ml). E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 6.0 log CFU/ml for 2 min of underwater DBD plasma treatment. Optical Emission Spectra (OES) shows that OH and NO (α, β) radicals, generated by underwater DBD along with ozone gas. E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by 2.3 log CFU/ml for 10 min of underwater DBD plasma treatment with the terephthalic acid (TA) OH radical scavenger solution, which is significantly lower (3.7 log CFU/ml) than the result obtained without using the OH radical scavenger. A maximum of 1.5 ppm of ozone gas was produced during the discharge of underwater DBD, and the obtained reduction difference in E.coli O157:H7 in presence and in absence of ozone gas was 1.68 log CFU/ml. The remainder of the 0.62 log CFU/ml reduction might be due to the effect of the NO (α, β) radicals or due to the combined effect of all the radicals produced by underwater DBD. A small amount of hydrogen peroxide was also generated but does not play any role in E. coli O157:H7 inactivation.

  16. The inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms using low-power argon plasma in a layer-by-layer approach

    PubMed Central

    Traba, Christian; Liang, Jun F.

    2014-01-01

    The direct application of low power argon plasma for the decontamination of pre-formed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on various surfaces was examined. Distinct chemical/physical properties of reactive species found in argon plasmas generated at different wattages all demonstrated very potent but very different anti-biofilm mechanisms of action. An in depth analysis of results showed that: (1) the different reactive species produced in each plasma demonstrated specific antibacterial and/or anti-biofilm activity, and 2) the commonly associated etching effect could be manipulated and even controlled, depending on experimental conditions. Under optimal experimental parameters, bacterial cells in S. aureus biofilms were killed (>99.9%) by plasmas within 10 min of exposure and no bacteria nor biofilm re-growth from argon discharge gas treated biofilms was observed for 150 h. The decontamination ability of plasmas for the treatment of biofilm related contaminations on various materials was confirmed and an entirely novel layer-by-layer decontamination approach was designed and examined. PMID:25569189

  17. The inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms using low-power argon plasma in a layer-by-layer approach.

    PubMed

    Traba, Christian; Liang, Jun F

    2015-01-01

    The direct application of low power argon plasma for the decontamination of pre-formed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on various surfaces was examined. Distinct chemical/physical properties of reactive species found in argon plasmas generated at different wattages all demonstrated very potent but very different anti-biofilm mechanisms of action. An in-depth analysis of the results showed that: (1) the different reactive species produced in each plasma demonstrated specific antibacterial and/or anti-biofilm activity; and (2) the commonly associated etching effect could be manipulated and even controlled, depending on the experimental conditions. Under optimal experimental parameters, bacterial cells in S. aureus biofilms were killed (> 99.9%) by plasmas within 10 min of exposure and no bacteria nor biofilm regrowth from argon discharge gas treated biofilms was observed for 150 h. The decontamination ability of plasmas for the treatment of biofilm related contaminations on various materials was confirmed and an entirely novel layer-by-layer decontamination approach was designed and examined. PMID:25569189

  18. INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS WITH OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone inactivation rates for Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) oocysts were determined with an in-vitro excystation method based on excysted sporozoite counts. Results were consistent with published animal infectivity data for the same C. parvum strain. The inactivation kinetics...

  19. Bacterial inactivation/sterilization by argon plasma treatment on contaminated titanium implant surfaces:In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Annunziata, Marco; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Caputo, Pina; Nastri, Livia; Guida, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Surface treatment by argon plasma is widely used as the last step of the manufacturing process of titanium implant fixtures before their sterilization by gamma rays. The possibility of using such a technology in the daily clinical practice is particularly fascinating. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the argon plasma treatment on different titanium implant surfaces previously exposed In vitro to bacterial contamination. Material and Methods Sterile c.p. titanium implant discs with turned (T, Sa: 0.8 µm ), sandblasted/acid-etched (SAE, Sa: 1.3 µm) and titanium plasma sprayed (TPS, Sa: 3.0µm) surface were used in this study. A strain of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC3718 was grown at 37°C under anaerobic conditions for 24 h and then transferred on six discs for each of the three surface types. After 24 hours, a half of the contaminated discs (control group) were directly used to evaluate the colony forming units (CFUs). The other half of the contaminated discs (test group) were treated in an argon plasma chamber for 12 minutes at room temperature prior to be analyzed for CFU counting. All assays were performed using triplicate samples of each material in 3 different experiments. Results When the CFU counting was carried out on control discs, a total of 1.50x106±1.4x105, 1.55x106±7.07x104 and 3.15x106±2.12x105 CFU was respectively assessed for T, SAE and TPS discs, without statistically significant differences among the three surfaces. On the contrary, any trace of bacterial contamination was assessed for titanium discs treated in the argon plasma chamber prior to be analyzed, irrespectively to the implant surface tested. Conclusions Within the limit of this study, reported data suggested that the argon plasma technology could be efficiently used to decontaminate/sterilize previously infected titanium implant surfaces. Key words:Argon plasma, titanium implant surface, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. PMID

  20. A chemical free, nanotechnology-based method for airborne bacterial inactivation using engineered water nanostructures†‡

    PubMed Central

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Bordini, Andre; Diaz, Edgar; Molina, Ramon; Watson, Christa; Deloid, Glen; Lenard, Steve; Fix, Natalie; Mizuyama, Yosuke; Yamauchi, Toshiyuki; Brain, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Airborne pathogens are associated with the spread of infectious diseases and increased morbidity and mortality. Herein we present an emerging chemical free, nanotechnology-based method for airborne pathogen inactivation. This technique is based on transforming atmospheric water vapor into Engineered Water Nano-Structures (EWNS) via electrospray. The generated EWNS possess a unique set of physical, chemical, morphological and biological properties. Their average size is 25 nm and they contain reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. In addition, EWNS are highly electrically charged (10 electrons per particle on average). A link between their electric charge and the reduction of their evaporation rate was illustrated resulting in an extended lifetime (over an hour) at room conditions. Furthermore, it was clearly demonstrated that the EWNS have the ability to interact with and inactivate airborne bacteria. Finally, inhaled EWNS were found to have minimal toxicological effects, as illustrated in an acute in-vivo inhalation study using a mouse model. In conclusion, this novel, chemical free, nanotechnology-based method has the potential to be used in the battle against airborne infectious diseases. PMID:26180637

  1. A Cohesin-Based Partitioning Mechanism Revealed upon Transcriptional Inactivation of Centromere

    PubMed Central

    Tsabar, Michael; Haase, Julian; Harrison, Benjamin; Snider, Chloe E.; Kaminsky, Lila; Hine, Rebecca M.; Haber, James E.; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional inactivation of the budding yeast centromere has been a widely used tool in studies of chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. In haploid cells when an essential chromosome contains a single conditionally inactivated centromere (GAL-CEN), cell growth rate is slowed and segregation fidelity is reduced; but colony formation is nearly 100%. Pedigree analysis revealed that only 30% of the time both mother and daughter cell inherit the GAL-CEN chromosome. The reduced segregation capacity of the GAL-CEN chromosome is further compromised upon reduction of pericentric cohesin (mcm21∆), as reflected in a further diminishment of the Mif2 kinetochore protein at GAL-CEN. By redistributing cohesin from the nucleolus to the pericentromere (by deleting SIR2), there is increased presence of the kinetochore protein Mif2 at GAL-CEN and restoration of cell viability. These studies identify the ability of cohesin to promote chromosome segregation via kinetochore assembly, in a situation where the centromere has been severely compromised. PMID:27128635

  2. A Cohesin-Based Partitioning Mechanism Revealed upon Transcriptional Inactivation of Centromere.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Haase, Julian; Harrison, Benjamin; Snider, Chloe E; Eldridge, Brittany; Kaminsky, Lila; Hine, Rebecca M; Haber, James E; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Transcriptional inactivation of the budding yeast centromere has been a widely used tool in studies of chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. In haploid cells when an essential chromosome contains a single conditionally inactivated centromere (GAL-CEN), cell growth rate is slowed and segregation fidelity is reduced; but colony formation is nearly 100%. Pedigree analysis revealed that only 30% of the time both mother and daughter cell inherit the GAL-CEN chromosome. The reduced segregation capacity of the GAL-CEN chromosome is further compromised upon reduction of pericentric cohesin (mcm21∆), as reflected in a further diminishment of the Mif2 kinetochore protein at GAL-CEN. By redistributing cohesin from the nucleolus to the pericentromere (by deleting SIR2), there is increased presence of the kinetochore protein Mif2 at GAL-CEN and restoration of cell viability. These studies identify the ability of cohesin to promote chromosome segregation via kinetochore assembly, in a situation where the centromere has been severely compromised. PMID:27128635

  3. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  4. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  5. Inactivation of plasma membrane-localized CDPK-RELATED KINASE5 decelerates PIN2 exocytosis and root gravitropic response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rigó, Gábor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Tietz, Olaf; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, Hajnalka; Páy, Anikó; Salchert, Klaus; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Szabados, László; Palme, Klaus; Koncz, Csaba; Cséplo, Agnes

    2013-05-01

    CRK5 is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase-related kinase family. Here, we show that inactivation of CRK5 inhibits primary root elongation and delays gravitropic bending of shoots and roots. Reduced activity of the auxin-induced DR5-green fluorescent protein reporter suggests that auxin is depleted from crk5 root tips. However, no tip collapse is observed and the transcription of genes for auxin biosynthesis, AUXIN TRANSPORTER/AUXIN TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN (AUX/LAX) auxin influx, and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers is unaffected by the crk5 mutation. Whereas AUX1, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 display normal localization, PIN2 is depleted from apical membranes of epidermal cells and shows basal to apical relocalization in the cortex of the crk5 root transition zone. This, together with an increase in the number of crk5 lateral root primordia, suggests facilitated auxin efflux through the cortex toward the elongation zone. CRK5 is a plasma membrane-associated kinase that forms U-shaped patterns facing outer lateral walls of epidermis and cortex cells. Brefeldin inhibition of exocytosis stimulates CRK5 internalization into brefeldin bodies. CRK5 phosphorylates the hydrophilic loop of PIN2 in vitro, and PIN2 shows accelerated accumulation in brefeldin bodies in the crk5 mutant. Delayed gravitropic response of the crk5 mutant thus likely reflects defective phosphorylation of PIN2 and deceleration of its brefeldin-sensitive membrane recycling. PMID:23673979

  6. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Ziuzina, D; Patil, S; Cullen, P J; Keener, K M; Bourke, P

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) represents a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal decontamination of foods. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a novel dielectric barrier discharge ACP device against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cherry tomatoes and strawberries, was examined. Bacteria were spot inoculated on the produce surface, air dried and sealed inside a rigid polypropylene container. Samples were indirectly exposed (i.e. placed outside plasma discharge) to a high voltage (70 kVRMS) air ACP and subsequently stored at room temperature for 24 h. ACP treatment for 10, 60 and 120 s resulted in reduction of Salmonella, E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations on tomato to undetectable levels from initial populations of 3.1, 6.3, and 6.7 log10 CFU/sample, respectively. However, an extended ACP treatment time was necessary to reduce bacterial populations attached on the more complex surface of strawberries. Treatment time for 300 s resulted in reduction of E. coli, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes populations by 3.5, 3.8 and 4.2 log10 CFU/sample, respectively, and also effectively reduced the background microflora of tomatoes. PMID:24929725

  7. Tape-Drive Based Plasma Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Osterhoff, Jens; Evans, Eugene; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    We present experimental results on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used for a compact coupling of a laser beam into a staged laser driven electron accelerator. This novel kind of plasma mirror is suitable for high repetition rates and for high number of laser shots. In order to design a compact, staged laser plasma based accelerator or collider [1], the coupling of the laser beam into the different stages represents one of the key issues. To limit the spatial foot print and thus to realize a high overall acceleration gradient, a concept has to be found which realizes this in-coupling within a few centimeters (cf. Fig 1). The fluence of the laser pulse several centimeters away from the acceleration stage (focus) exceeds the damage threshold of any available mirror coating. Therefore, in reference [2] a plasma mirror was suggested for this purpose. We present experiments on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used to reflect the focused laser beam into the acceleration stage. Plasma mirrors composed of antireflection coated glass substrates are usually used to improve the temporal laser contrast of laser pulses by several orders of magnitudes [3,4]. This is particularly important for laser interaction with solid matter, such as ion acceleration [5,6] and high harmonic generation on surfaces [7]. Therefore, the laser pulse is weekly focused onto a substrate. The main pulse generates a plasma and is reflected at the critical surface, whereas the low intensity pre-pulse (mainly the Amplified Spontaneous Emission pedestal) will be transmitted through the substrate before the mirror has been triggered. Several publications [3,4] demonstrate a conservation of the spatial beam quality and a reflectivity of about 70 %. The drawback of this technique is the limited repetition rate since for every shot a fresh surface has to be provided. In the past years several novel approaches for high repetition rate plasma mirrors have been developed [2, 8

  8. Sterilization/disinfection of medical devices using plasma: the flowing afterglow of the reduced-pressure N2-O2 discharge as the inactivating medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, Michel; Boudam, Karim; Carignan, Denis; Kéroack, Danielle; Levif, Pierre; Barbeau, Jean; Séguin, Jacynthe; Kutasi, Kinga; Elmoualij, Benaïssa; Thellin, Olivier; Zorzi, Willy

    2013-07-01

    Potential sterilization/disinfection of medical devices (MDs) is investigated using a specific plasma process developed at the Université de Montréal over the last decade. The inactivating medium of the microorganisms is the flowing afterglow of a reduced-pressure N2-O2 discharge, which provides, as the main biocidal agent, photons over a broad ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. The flowing afterglow is considered less damaging to MDs than the discharge itself. Working at gas pressures in the 400—700 Pa range (a few torr) ensures, through species diffusion, the uniform filling of large volume chambers with the species outflowing from the discharge, possibly allowing batch processing within them. As a rule, bacterial endospores are used as bio-indicators (BI) to validate sterilization processes. Under the present operating conditions, Bacillus atrophaeus is found to be the most resistant one and is therefore utilized as BI. The current paper reviews the main experimental results concerning the operation and characterization of this sterilizer/disinfector, updating and completing some of our previously published papers. It uses modeling results as guidelines, which are particularly useful when the corresponding experimental data are not (yet) available, hopefully leading to more insight into this plasma afterglow system. The species flowing out of the N2-O2 discharge can be divided into two groups, depending on the time elapsed after they left the discharge zone as they move toward the chamber, namely the early afterglow and the late afterglow. The early flowing afterglow from a pure N2 discharge (also called pink afterglow) is known to be comprised of N2+ and N4+ ions. In the present N2-O2 mixture discharge, NO+ ions are additionally generated, with a lifetime that extends over a longer period than that of the nitrogen molecular ions. We shall suppose that the disappearance of the NO+ ions marks the end of the early afterglow regime, thereby stressing our intent

  9. Cold plasma: overview of plasma technologies and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology. It is based on energetic, reactive gases which inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization pro...

  10. The action of microsecond-pulsed plasma-activated media on the inactivation of human lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh; Park, Ji Hoon; Jeon, Su Nam; Park, Bong Sang; Choi, Eun Ha; Attri, Pankaj

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, we have generated reactive species (RS) through microsecond-pulsed plasma (MPP) in the cell culture media using a Marx generator with point-point electrodes of approximately 0.06 J discharge energy/pulse. RS generated in culture media through MPP have a selective action between growth of the H460 lung cancer cells and L132 normal lung cells. We observed that MPP-activated media (MPP-AM) induced apoptosis on H460 lung cancer cells through an oxidative DNA damage cascade. Additionally, we studied the apoptosis-related mRNA expression, DNA oxidation and polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleaved analysis from treated cancer cells. The result proves that radicals generated through MPP play a pivotal role in the activation of media that induces the selective killing effect.

  11. Mechanism-based Inactivation by Aromatization of the Transaminase BioA Involved in Biotin Biosynthesis in Mycobaterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ce; Geders, Todd W.; Park, Sae Woong; Wilson, Daniel J.; Boshoff, Helena I.; Abayomi, Orishadipe; Barry, III, Clifton E.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Finzel, Barry C.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2011-11-16

    BioA catalyzes the second step of biotin biosynthesis, and this enzyme represents a potential target to develop new antitubercular agents. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biochemical characterization of a mechanism-based inhibitor (1) featuring a 3,6-dihydropyrid-2-one heterocycle that covalently modifies the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor of BioA through aromatization. The structure of the PLP adduct was confirmed by MS/MS and X-ray crystallography at 1.94 {angstrom} resolution. Inactivation of BioA by 1 was time- and concentration-dependent and protected by substrate. We used a conditional knock-down mutant of M. tuberculosis to demonstrate the antitubercular activity of 1 correlated with BioA expression, and these results provide support for the designed mechanism of action.

  12. Inactivation of nitroalkane oxidase upon mutation of the active site base and rescue with a deprotonated substrate.

    PubMed

    Valley, Michael P; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2003-07-23

    Mutation of Asp402 in nitroalkane oxidase to Asn or Ala inactivates the enzyme with neutral nitroethane as substrate, but the activity can be rescued with the nitroethane anion. The V/K values of the D402N and D402A enzymes with the nitroethane anion are independent of pH, whereas the V/K values of the wild-type and D402E enzymes are pH dependent with both the protonated and the deprotonated forms of nitroethane. Moreover, although the V/K value of the D402E enzyme with neutral nitroethane is 20-fold less than that of the wild-type enzyme, there is only a 2-fold difference in the V/K values with the nitroethane anion. These results are fully consistent with a primary role for Asp402 as the active site base in nitroalkane oxidase which abstracts the substrate alpha-proton. PMID:12862464

  13. Theoretical Investigations of Plasma-Based Accelerators and Other Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Shuets, G.

    2004-05-21

    Theoretical investigations of plasma-based accelerators and other advanced accelerator concepts. The focus of the work was on the development of plasma based and structure based accelerating concepts, including laser-plasma, plasma channel, and microwave driven plasma accelerators.

  14. Decontamination methods for cytotoxic drugs. 1. Use of a bioluminescent technique to monitor the inactivation of methotrexate with chlorine-based agents.

    PubMed

    Wren, A E; Melia, C D; Garner, S T; Denyer, S P

    1993-04-01

    A new microbial bioluminescence assay has been used to monitor the loss of mutagenicity on inactivation of methotrexate by active chlorine-based agents. The drug was degraded to products that were non-active in this mutagen detection system, in agreement with previously described work. Presept granules appear to be a suitable alternative to sodium hypochlorite for inactivating solutions and surface spills of methotrexate. The bioluminescence assay appears to have potential for monitoring clean-up and decontamination procedures in areas where cytotoxic agents are used. PMID:8458881

  15. Inactivation of Plasma Membrane–Localized CDPK-RELATED KINASE5 Decelerates PIN2 Exocytosis and Root Gravitropic Response in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rigó, Gábor; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Tietz, Olaf; Zsigmond, Laura; Kovács, Hajnalka; Páy, Anikó; Salchert, Klaus; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Szabados, László; Palme, Klaus; Koncz, Csaba; Cséplő, Ágnes

    2013-01-01

    CRK5 is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase-related kinase family. Here, we show that inactivation of CRK5 inhibits primary root elongation and delays gravitropic bending of shoots and roots. Reduced activity of the auxin-induced DR5–green fluorescent protein reporter suggests that auxin is depleted from crk5 root tips. However, no tip collapse is observed and the transcription of genes for auxin biosynthesis, AUXIN TRANSPORTER/AUXIN TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN (AUX/LAX) auxin influx, and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers is unaffected by the crk5 mutation. Whereas AUX1, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 display normal localization, PIN2 is depleted from apical membranes of epidermal cells and shows basal to apical relocalization in the cortex of the crk5 root transition zone. This, together with an increase in the number of crk5 lateral root primordia, suggests facilitated auxin efflux through the cortex toward the elongation zone. CRK5 is a plasma membrane–associated kinase that forms U-shaped patterns facing outer lateral walls of epidermis and cortex cells. Brefeldin inhibition of exocytosis stimulates CRK5 internalization into brefeldin bodies. CRK5 phosphorylates the hydrophilic loop of PIN2 in vitro, and PIN2 shows accelerated accumulation in brefeldin bodies in the crk5 mutant. Delayed gravitropic response of the crk5 mutant thus likely reflects defective phosphorylation of PIN2 and deceleration of its brefeldin-sensitive membrane recycling. PMID:23673979

  16. Meclizine, a pregnane X receptor agonist, is a direct inhibitor and mechanism-based inactivator of human cytochrome P450 3A.

    PubMed

    Foo, Winnie Yin Bing; Tay, Hwee Ying; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Meclizine is an agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR). It increases CYP3A4 mRNA expression, but decreases CYP3A-catalyzed testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in primary cultures of human hepatocytes, as assessed at 24h after the last dose of meclizine. Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested is that meclizine inactivates human CYP3A enzymes. Our findings indicated that meclizine directly inhibited testosterone 6β-hydroxylation catalyzed by human liver microsomes, recombinant CYP3A4, and recombinant CYP3A5. The inhibition of human liver microsomal testosterone 6β-hydroxylation by meclizine occurred by a mixed mode and with an apparent Ki of 31±6μM. Preincubation of meclizine with human liver microsomes and NADPH resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. The extent of inactivation required the presence of NADPH, was unaffected by nucleophilic trapping agents or reactive oxygen species scavengers, attenuated by a CYP3A substrate, and not reversed by dialysis. Meclizine selectively inactivated CYP3A4, but not CYP3A5. In contrast to meclizine, which has a di-substituted piperazine ring, norchlorcyclizine, which is a N-debenzylated meclizine metabolite with a mono-substituted piperazine ring, did not inactivate but directly inhibited hepatic microsomal CYP3A activity. In conclusion, meclizine inhibited human CYP3A enzymes by both direct inhibition and mechanism-based inactivation. In contrast, norchlorcyclizine is a direct inhibitor but not a mechanism-based inactivator. Furthermore, a PXR agonist may also be an inhibitor of a PXR-regulated enzyme, thereby giving rise to opposing effects on the functional activity of the enzyme and indicating the importance of measuring the catalytic activity of nuclear receptor-regulated enzymes. PMID:26239802

  17. Physics of Laser-driven plasma-based acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.

    2003-06-30

    The physics of plasma-based accelerators driven by short-pulse lasers is reviewed. This includes the laser wake-field accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator, and plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse direction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, as well as beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and plasmas with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Recent experimental results are summarized.

  18. Inhibition of mammalian squalene synthetase activity by zaragozic acid A is a result of competitive inhibition followed by mechanism-based irreversible inactivation.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, S; Harwood, H J

    1995-04-21

    Squalene synthetase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) catalyzes the first committed step in the formation of cholesterol and thus represents an ideal site for selectively inhibiting sterol formation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal metabolite, zaragozic acid A (ZGA-A), inhibits SQS activity by mimicking the substrate farnesyl pyrophosphate, the reaction intermediate presqualene pyrophosphate, or both, through a process that confers increased apparent potency in the presence of reduced enzyme concentrations, an observation consistent with either tight binding reversible competitive inhibition or mechanism-based irreversible inactivation. The studies outlined in this report provide multiple lines of evidence indicating that ZGA-A acts as a mechanism-based irreversible inactivator of SQS. 1) Inhibition of SQS by ZGA-A is dependent on the [SQS] present in the incubation reaction, and this inhibition is time-dependent and follows pseudo-first order reaction kinetics, exhibiting kobs values that range between 2 x 10(-4)/s and 23 x 10(-4)/s for [ZGA-A] within the log-linear range of the inhibition curve, and a bimolecular rate constant of 2.3 x 10(5) M-1s-1.2) SQS activity is titratable by ZGA-A, such that for each [ZGA-A] evaluated, inactivation exhibits a threshold [SQS] whereby enzyme activity at lower [SQS] is totally inhibited. 3) Time-dependent inactivation exhibits saturation kinetics with a Km for the process of 2.5 nM, which is approximately equal to the IC50 for SQS inhibition under these conditions, suggesting that inactivation results from selective modification of a functional group of the enzyme active center rather than from a nonspecific bimolecular reaction mechanism and that most, if not all of the inhibition results from irreversible inactivation. 4) Saturable, time-dependent inactivation occurs with similar inactivation kinetics for both the microsomal and trypsin-solubilized forms of the enzyme, indicating that irreversible inactivation by ZGA

  19. Trapping and dark current in plasma-based accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-06-01

    The trapping of thermal electrons in a nonlinear plasma wave of arbitrary phase velocity is investigated. The threshold plasma wave amplitude for trapping plasma electrons is calculated, thereby determining the fraction trapped and the expected dark current in a plasma-based accelerator. It is shown that the presence of a laser field (e.g., trapping in the self-modulated regime of the laser wakefield accelerator) increases the trapping threshold. Implications for experimental and numerical laser-plasma studies are discussed.

  20. Thermostabilization of inactivated polio vaccine in PLGA-based microspheres for pulsatile release.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Stephany Y; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; McHugh, Kevin J; Rose, Sviatlana; Rosenberg, Evan M; Zeng, Yingying; Langer, Robert; Jaklenec, Ana

    2016-07-10

    Vaccines are a critical clinical tool in preventing illness and death due to infectious diseases and are regularly administered to children and adults across the globe. In order to obtain full protection from many vaccines, an individual needs to receive multiple doses over the course of months. However, vaccine administration in developing countries is limited by the difficulty in consistently delivering a second or third dose, and some vaccines, including the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), must be injected more than once for efficacy. In addition, IPV does not remain stable over time at elevated temperatures, such as those it would encounter over time in the body if it were to be injected as a single-administration vaccine. In this manuscript, we describe microspheres composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that can encapsulate IPV along with stabilizing excipients and release immunogenic IPV over the course of several weeks. Additionally, pH-sensitive, cationic dopants such as Eudragit E polymer caused clinically relevant amounts of stable IPV release upon degradation of the PLGA matrix. Specifically, IPV was released in two separate bursts, mimicking the delivery of two boluses approximately one month apart. In one of our top formulations, 1.4, 1.1, and 1.2 doses of the IPV serotype 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were released within the first few days from 50mg of particles. During the delayed, second burst, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.6 doses of each serotype, respectively, were released; thus, 50mg of these particles released approximately two clinical doses spaced a month apart. Immunization of rats with the leading microsphere formulation showed more robust and long-lasting humoral immune response compared to a single bolus injection and was statistically non-inferior from two bolus injections spaced 1 month apart. By minimizing the number of administrations of a vaccine, such as IPV, this technology can serve as a tool to aid in the eradication of polio and

  1. Use of isotope effects to characterize intermediates in mechanism-based inactivation of dopamine beta-monooxygenase by beta-chlorophenethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Bossard, M.J.; Klinman, J.P. )

    1990-04-05

    A mechanism for beta-chlorophenethylamine inhibition of dopamine beta-monooxygenase has been postulated in which bound alpha-aminoacetophenone is generated followed by an intramolecular redox reaction to yield a ketone-derived radical cation as the inhibitory species. Based on the assumption that the ketone radical is the inhibitory intermediate, an analogous system was predicted and verified. In the present study, the role of alpha-aminoacetophenone as the proposed intermediate in the inactivation by beta-chlorophenethylamine was examined in greater detail. From the interdependence of tyramine and alpha-aminoacetophenone concentrations, ketone inactivation is concluded to occur at the substrate site as opposed to potential binding at the reductant-binding site. Using beta-(2-1H)- and beta-(2-2H)chlorophenethylamine, the magnitude of the deuterium isotope effect on inactivation under second-order conditions has been found to be identical to that observed under catalytic turnover, D(kappa inact/Ki) = D(kappa cat/Km) = 6-7. By contrast, the isotope effect on inactivation under conditions of substrate and oxygen saturation, D kappa inact = 2, is 3-fold smaller than that seen on catalytic turnover, D kappa cat = 6. This reduced isotope effect for inactivation is attributed to a normal isotope effect on substrate hydroxylation followed by an inverse isotope effect on the partitioning of the enol of alpha-aminoacetophenone between oxidation to a radical cation versus protonation to regenerate ketone. These findings are unusual in that two isotopically sensitive steps are present in the inactivation pathway whereas only one is observable in turnover.

  2. LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-05-04

    Design considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed, and a laser-plasma-accelerator-based gamma-gamma collider is considered. An example of the parameters for a 0.5 TeV laser-plasma-accelerator gamma gamma collider is presented.

  3. Operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-21

    The operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. Beamstrahlung limits the charge per bunch at low plasma densities. Reduced laser intensity is examined to improve accelerator efficiency in the beamstrahlung-limited regime.

  4. Low-temperature low-damage sterilization based on UV radiation through plasma immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Moisan, M.; Kéroack, D.; Boudam, M. K.

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces a new type of high-frequency (HF) sustained discharge where the HF field applicator is a planar transmission line that allows us to fill with plasma a long chamber of rectangular cross-section (typically 1 m × 15 cm × 5 cm). Peculiar interesting features of this plasma source are a low gas temperature (typically below 40 °C in the 1 Torr range in argon), broadband impedance matching with no need for retuning, stability and reproducibility of the discharge (non-resonant behaviour). This type of plasma source could be useful for web processing; nonetheless, it is applied here to plasma sterilization, taking advantage of its low gas temperature to inactivate microorganisms on polymer-made medical devices to avoid damaging them. The predominant biocide species are the UV photons emitted by the discharge whereas most plasma sterilization techniques call for reactive species such as O atoms and OH molecules, which induce significant erosion damage on polymers. Polystyrene microspheres are actually observed to be erosion-free under the current plasma sterilization conditions (scanning electron micrographs have been examined). Moreover, inactivation is quite fast: 106 B. atrophaeus spores deposited on a Petri dish are inactivated in less than 1 min. Correlation of the UV radiation with the spore inactivation rate is examined by (i) considering the emitted light intensity integrated over the 112-180 nm vacuum UV (VUV) range with a photomultiplier; (ii) looking with an optical spectrometer at the emission spectrum over the 200-400 nm UV range; (iii) using absorption spectroscopy to determine the role of the VUV argon resonant lines (105 and 107 nm) on spore inactivation. It is found that the test-reference spores are mainly inactivated by VUV photons (112-180 nm) that are primarily emitted by impurities present in the argon plasma.

  5. A four-state kinetic model of the temporary threshold shift after loud sound based on inactivation of hair cell transduction channels.

    PubMed

    Patuzzi, R

    1998-11-01

    A model of the temporary threshold shift (TTS) following loud sound is presented based on inactivation of the mechano-electrical transduction (MET) channels at the apex of the outer hair cells (OHCs). This inactivation is assumed to reduce temporarily the OHC receptor current with a consequent drop in the mechanical sensitivity of the organ of Corti. With acoustic over-stimulation some of the hair cells' MET channels are assumed to adopt one of three closed and non-transducing conformations or 'TTS states'. The sound-induced inactivation is assumed to occur because the sound makes the TTS states more energetically favourable when compared with the transducing states, and the distribution between these states is assumed to depend on the relative energies of the states and the time allowed for migration between them. By lumping the fast transducing states (one open and two closed) into a single transducing 'pseudo-state', the kinetics of the inactivation and re-activation processes (corresponding to the onset and recovery of TTS) can be described by a four-state kinetic model. The model allows an elegant description of the onset and recovery of TTS time-course in a human subject under a variety of continuous exposure conditions, and some features of intermittent exposure as well. The model also suggests that recovery of TTS may be accelerated by an intermittent tone during the recovery period which may explain some variability TTS in the literature. Other implications of the model are also discussed. PMID:9833962

  6. Clinical applications of plasma based electrosurgical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woloszko, Jean; Endler, Ashley; Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 18 years, several electrosurgical systems generating a low temperature plasma in an aqueous conductive solution have been commercialized for various clinical applications and have been used in over 10 million patients to date. The most popular utilizations are in arthroscopic surgery, otorhinolaryngology surgery, spine and neurosurgery, urology and wound care. These devices can be configured to bring saline to the tip and to have concomitant aspiration to remove by-products and excess fluid. By tuning the electrode geometry, waveform and fluid dynamic at the tip of the devices, tissue resection and thermal effects can be adjusted individually. This allows one to design products that can operate as precise tissue dissectors for treatment of articular cartilage or debridement of chronic wounds, as well as global tissue debulking devices providing sufficient concomitant hemostasis for applications like tonsillectomies. Effects of these plasma based electrosurgical devices on cellular biology, healing response and nociceptive receptors has also been studied in various models. This talk will include a review of the clinical applications, with product descriptions, results and introductory review of some of the research on the biological effects of these devices.

  7. Redesign of coenzyme B(12) dependent diol dehydratase to be resistant to the mechanism-based inactivation by glycerol and act on longer chain 1,2-diols.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Mamoru; Kinoshita, Koichiro; Fukuoka, Masaki; Saito, Takuya; Tanokuchi, Aya; Ikeda, Yuuki; Obayashi, Hirokazu; Mori, Koichi; Shibata, Naoki; Tobimatsu, Takamasa; Toraya, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    Coenzyme B(12) dependent diol dehydratase undergoes mechanism-based inactivation by glycerol, accompanying the irreversible cleavage of the coenzyme Co-C bond. Bachovchin et al. [Biochemistry16, 1082-1092 (1977)] reported that glycerol bound in the G(S) conformation, in which the pro-S-CH(2) OH group is oriented to the hydrogen-abstracting site, primarily contributes to the inactivation reaction. To understand the mechanism of inactivation by glycerol, we analyzed the X-ray structure of diol dehydratase complexed with cyanocobalamin and glycerol. Glycerol is bound to the active site preferentially in the same conformation as that of (S)-1,2-propanediol, i.e. in the G(S) conformation, with its 3-OH group hydrogen bonded to Serα301, but not to nearby Glnα336. k(inact) of the Sα301A, Qα336A and Sα301A/Qα336A mutants with glycerol was much smaller than that of the wild-type enzyme. k(cat) /k(inact) showed that the Sα301A and Qα336A mutants are substantially more resistant to glycerol inactivation than the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that Serα301 and Glnα336 are directly or indirectly involved in the inactivation. The degree of preference for (S)-1,2-propanediol decreased on these mutations. The substrate activities towards longer chain 1,2-diols significantly increased on the Sα301A/Qα336A double mutation, probably because these amino acid substitutions yield more space for accommodating a longer alkyl group on C3 of 1,2-diols. Database Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession number 3AUJ. Structured digital abstract • Diol dehydrase gamma subunit, Diol dehydrase beta subunit and Diol dehydrase alpha subunit physically interact by X-ray crystallography (View interaction). PMID:22221669

  8. Species Differences in the Oxidative Desulfurization of a Thiouracil-Based Irreversible Myeloperoxidase Inactivator by Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eng, Heather; Sharma, Raman; Wolford, Angela; Di, Li; Ruggeri, Roger B; Buckbinder, Leonard; Conn, Edward L; Dalvie, Deepak K; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2016-08-01

    N1-Substituted-6-arylthiouracils, represented by compound 1 [6-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-4(1H)-one], are a novel class of selective irreversible inhibitors of human myeloperoxidase. The present account is a summary of our in vitro studies on the facile oxidative desulfurization in compound 1 to a cyclic ether metabolite M1 [5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-7H-oxazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-7-one] in NADPH-supplemented rats (t1/2 [half-life = mean ± S.D.] = 8.6 ± 0.4 minutes) and dog liver microsomes (t1/2 = 11.2 ± 0.4 minutes), but not in human liver microsomes (t1/2 > 120 minutes). The in vitro metabolic instability also manifested in moderate-to-high plasma clearances of the parent compound in rats and dogs with significant concentrations of M1 detected in circulation. Mild heat deactivation of liver microsomes or coincubation with the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) inhibitor imipramine significantly diminished M1 formation. In contrast, oxidative metabolism of compound 1 to M1 was not inhibited by the pan cytochrome P450 inactivator 1-aminobenzotriazole. Incubations with recombinant FMO isoforms (FMO1, FMO3, and FMO5) revealed that FMO1 principally catalyzed the conversion of compound 1 to M1. FMO1 is not expressed in adult human liver, which rationalizes the species difference in oxidative desulfurization. Oxidation by FMO1 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Michaelis-Menten constant, maximum rate of oxidative desulfurization, and intrinsic clearance values of 209 μM, 20.4 nmol/min/mg protein, and 82.7 μl/min/mg protein, respectively. Addition of excess glutathione essentially eliminated the conversion of compound 1 to M1 in NADPH-supplemented rat and dog liver microsomes, which suggests that the initial FMO1-mediated S-oxygenation of compound 1 yields a sulfenic acid intermediate capable of redox cycling to the parent compound in a glutathione-dependent fashion or undergoing further oxidation to a more

  9. Comprehensive safety assessment of a human inactivated diploid enterovirus 71 vaccine based on a phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kong, Yujia; Jiang, Zhiwei; Li, Chanjuan; Wang, Ling; Xia, Jielai

    2016-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In a previous phase III trial in children, a human diploid cell-based inactivated EV71 vaccine elicited EV71 specific immune responses and protection against EV71 associated HFMD. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing the severity of adverse events observed in this previous trial. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trial of a human diploid vaccine carried out in 12,000 children in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01569581). Solicited events were recorded for 7 days and unsolicited events were reported for 28 days after each injection. Age trend analysis of adverse reaction was conducted in each treatment group. Multiple logistic regression models were built to identify factors influencing the severity of adverse reactions. Fewer solicited adverse reactions were observed in older participants within the first 7 days after vaccination (P < 0.0001), except local pain and pruritus. More severe adverse reactions were observed after the initial injection than after the booster injection. Serious cold or respiratory tract infections (RTI) were observed more often in children aged 6-36 months than in older children. Only the severity of local swelling was associated with body mass index. Children with throat discomfort before injection had a higher risk of serious cold or RTI. These results indicated that the human diploid cell-based vaccine achieved a satisfactory safety profile. PMID:26837471

  10. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5260 - Complement C3b inactivator immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques the complement C3b inactivator (a plasma protein) in serum. Complement is a group of serum proteins that destroy infectious agents. Measurement of complement C3b inactivator aids in...

  15. Thermal effects in plasma-based accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Michel, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Geddes,C.G.R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2007-01-09

    Finite plasma temperature can modify the structure of thewake field, reduce the wave-breaking field, and lead to self-trappedelectrons, which can degrade the electron bunch quality in a plasma-basedaccelerator. A relativistic warm fluid theory is used to describe theplasma temperature evolution and alterations to the structure of anonlinear periodic wave exited in a warm plasma. The trapping thresholdfor a plasma electron and the fraction of electrons trapped from athermal distribution are examined using a single-particle model.Numerical artifacts in particle-in-cell models that can mimic the physicsassociated with finite momentum spread are discussed.

  16. Summary report: Working Group 2 on 'Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts'

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W. P.; Esarey, E.

    1999-07-12

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beatwave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module.

  17. Transfer of foodborne pathogens during mechanical slicing and their inactivation by levulinic acid-based sanitizer on slicers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the degree of cross-contamination between deli foods and slicers by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and their inactivation by levulinic acid (LA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on slicers. The transfer rate of pathogens at 5 locations on the contaminated slicers (scenario I) and on food slices (scenario II) was determined. The antimicrobial efficacy of the LA + SDS sanitizers applied either as a liquid or as foam at three concentrations (0.5% LA + 0.05% SDS, 1% LA + 0.1% SDS, and 2% LA + 0.5% SDS) was determined for decontamination of the pathogens on the slicers at 21 °C. After slicing 10 slices, the pathogens recovered from slicer blades were significantly (P < 0.05) less than the recovery from some other contact locations (scenario I). With an initial inoculum at approximately 8.5 log CFU/blade, the populations of the pathogens transferred from blades to slices decreased logarithmically (R(2) > 0.9, scenario II). Contaminated slicer surfaces sprayed with 1% LA plus 0.1% SDS as a foam (45-55 psi) reduced within 1 min 6.0 to 8.0 log CFU/blade of the pathogens. Results revealed that cross-contamination can occur between deli foods and slicers. Also, LA-based sanitizer applied as foam can be a useful treatment to remove microbial contamination on the slicers. PMID:24290650

  18. Plasma undulator based on laser excitation of wakefields in a plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Rykovanov, Sergey; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Leemans, Wim

    2015-11-01

    A novel plasma undulator based on the wakefields excited by a laser pulse in a plasma channel is described. Generation of the undulator fields is achieved by inducing centroid oscillations of the laser pulse in the channel. The period of such a plasma undulator is proportional to the Rayleigh length of the laser pulse and can be sub-millimeter, with an effective undulator strength parameter of order unity. The undulator period can further be controlled and reduced by beating laser modes or using multiple colors. Analytic expressions for the electron trajectories in the plasma undulator and the synchrotron radiation are compared to numerical modeling. Examples of short-period laser-driven plasma undulators are presented based on available laser and plasma channel parameters. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. Mechanism-based inactivation of L-methionine. gamma. -lyase by L-2-amino-4-chloro-4-pentenoate

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Takada, Harumi; Moriguchi, Mitsuaki; Hatanaka, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Soda, Kenji )

    1989-03-07

    L-2-amino-4-chloro-4-pentenoic acid (L-ACP), an antibacterial amino acid produced by Amanita pseudoporphyria Hongo time dependently and irreversibly inactivates L-methionine {gamma}-lyase. The inactivation obeys biphasic pseudo-first-order kinetics and is carried out completely with a minimum molar ratio ((L-ACP)/(enzyme tetramer)) of 5. During the incubation of enzyme, 4.4-5.0 mol of chloride ions is formed per mole of tetramer enzyme. The tetrameric enzyme is labeled with 4 mol of DL-(2-{sup 14}C)ACP/mol. The authors have isolated {sup 14}C-labeled acetopyruvate and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate from the ({sup 14}C)ACP-modified enzyme. The enzyme fully inactivated shows {lambda}{sub max} at 460 and 495 nm, which probably is derived from a conjugated pyridoximine parquinoid. The authors have proposed a mechanism which involves enzymatic dehalogenation from C{sub 4} of ACP to form a reactive allene. The allene is attacked by a nucleophilic amino acid residue at the active site. Analysis results of the thiol content of enzyme suggest that a cysteine residue is a possible nucleophilic residue covalently bound to the inactivator.

  20. A fusion based plasma propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Bryant, D.; Creese, C.; Djordjevic, V.; Peddicord, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Plasma Propulsion System scoping study was performed to investigate the possibilities of a fusion powered plasma propulsion system for space applications. Specifically, it was to be compared against existing electric propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission. Design parameters consist of 1000 N thrust for 500 days, and the minimum mass possible. This investigation is briefly presented and conclusions drawn.

  1. Ground-based plasma contractor characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Aadland, Randall S.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are recent NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) plasma contractor experimental results, as well as a description of the plasma contractor test facility. The operation of a 24 cm diameter plasma source with hollow cathode was investigated in the lighted-mode regime of electron current collection from 0.1 to 7.0 A. These results are compared to those obtained with a 12 cm plasma source. Full two-dimensional plasma potential profiles were constructed from emissive probe traces of the contractor plume. The experimentally measured dimensions of the plume sheaths were then compared to those theoretically predicted using a model of a spherical double sheath. Results are consistent for currents up to approximately 1.0 A. For currents above 1.0 A, substantial deviations from theory occur. These deviations are due to sheath asphericity, and possibly volume ionization in the double-sheath region.

  2. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    PubMed Central

    Nims, Raymond; Plavsic, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses) display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus) are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses. PMID:24276023

  3. Time resolved spectroscopic studies of methylene blue and phenothiazine derivatives used for bacteria inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C.; Rentzepis, Peter M.

    2010-09-01

    Phenothiazine dyes are known to inactivate bacteria in whole blood and plasma caused by the singlet oxygen photo generated by these dyes. Methylene blue (MB), 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue (DMB) and toluidine blue (TB) transient singlet and triplet states spectra and their formation and decay kinetics have been measured by time resolved spectroscopy. The triplet state formation and singlet oxygen quantum yields in water are found to be approximately the same in MB and DMB. Therefore, based on our data we propose that although singlet oxygen is highly important as previously stated, the rate of inactivation is determined by the binding of the dye to the bacteria.

  4. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Wu, Haiyan; Zhu, Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Li, Ruoyu; Fang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  5. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu; Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2011-01-10

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  6. Inactivation kinetics of spores of Bacillus cereus strains treated by a peracetic acid-based disinfectant at different concentrations and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sudhaus, Nadine; Pina-Pérez, Maria Consuelo; Martínez, Antonio; Klein, Günter

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a commercial peracetic acid-based disinfectant against spores of Bacillus cereus, to identify the most influential factor for the final number of microorganisms after different disinfection procedures, and to evaluate the nature of the inactivation kinetics. The spores of four different strains of B. cereus (DSM 318, 4312, 4313, and 4384) were treated with five different disinfectant concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% [w/v]) at three different temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 20°C) with or without protein load. A higher temperature and PES 15/23 concentration resulted in a higher inactivation. Inactivation of B. cereus strain 4312 was around 2 log₁₀ cycles at 10°C and around 7 log₁₀ at 20°C (conc=1% [w/v] PAA; t=60 min; without protein). The protein load at higher concentrations did not significantly reduce the efficacy of the disinfectant (p>0.05). This article indicates the applicability of the Weibull model to fit the B. cereus disinfectant survival curves. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to carry out a sensitivity analysis, which revealed the most influential factors affecting the final number of microorganisms after the disinfection process. PMID:22506696

  7. Inactivation of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleotide reductase by 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate: adenosylcobalamin destruction and formation of a nucleotide-based radical.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Gerfen, Gary J; Stubbe, Joanne

    2010-02-23

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, 76 kDa) from Lactobacillus leichmannii is a class II RNR that requires adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor. It catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides and is 100% inactivated by 1 equiv of 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (F(2)CTP) in <2 min. Sephadex G-50 chromatography of the inactivation reaction mixture for 2 min revealed that 0.47 equiv of a sugar moiety is covalently bound to RNR and 0.25 equiv of a cobalt(III) corrin is tightly associated, likely through a covalent interaction with C(419) (Co-S) in the active site of RNR [Lohman, G. J. S., and Stubbe, J. (2010) Biochemistry 49, DOI: 10.1021/bi902132u ]. After 1 h, a similar experiment revealed 0.45 equiv of the Co-S adduct associated with the protein. Thus, at least two pathways are associated with RNR inactivation: one associated with alkylation by the sugar of F(2)CTP and the second with AdoCbl destruction. To determine the fate of [1'-(3)H]F(2)CTP in the latter pathway, the reaction mixture at 2 min was reduced with NaBH(4) (NaB(2)H(4)) and the protein separated from the small molecules using a centrifugation device. The small molecules were dephosphorylated and analyzed by HPLC to reveal 0.25 equiv of a stereoisomer of cytidine, characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, indicating the trapped nucleotide had lost both of its fluorides and gained an oxygen. High-field ENDOR studies with [1'-(2)H]F(2)CTP from the reaction quenched at 30 s revealed a radical that is nucleotide-based. The relationship between this radical and the trapped cytidine analogue provides insight into the nonalkylative pathway for RNR inactivation relative to the alkylative pathway. PMID:20088568

  8. Prediction of plasma rotation and neoclassical toroidal viscosity in KSTAR discharges based on plasma fluid formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Cheonho; Stacey, Weston

    2015-11-01

    Braginskii's flow rate of strain tensor formalism, as extended first to low collisional plasmas in axisymmetric circular toroidal flux surface geometry, then to elongated axisymmetric flux surface geometry, has recently been extended to 3-D non-axisymmetric toroidal flux surface geometry. In toroidally non-axisymmetric plasmas, the leading order neoclassical parallel viscosity terms in the flow rate of strain tensor do not vanish to cause flux surface averaged toroidal angular momentum damping and eventually slow down the plasma rotation. The formalism of Ref. 5 provides a means to systematically evaluate the ``neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV)'' in curvilinear plasma geometry based on the plasma fluid equations. As the first step of its application, a practical formalism for circular plasmas, given in the appendix of Ref. 5, will be applied to KSTAR discharges to predict the rotation and NTV, which can also be compared with actual rotation measurements to numerically validate the NTV damping effects.

  9. New plasma source based on contact ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Schrittwieser, R.; Koslover, R.; Karim, R.; Rynn, N.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of plasma source is presented: A collisionless plasma is formed by producing ions on one end and electrons on the other of a cylindrical vacuum chamber in a solenoidal magnetic field. The ions are produced by contact ionization of potassium on tungsten. The source of electrons is a LaB/sub 6/ plate. In the usual single-ended Q machine the elements rhenium, iridium, and platinum are tested as ionizing metals for potassium and barium.

  10. Identification of the heme adduct and an active site peptide modified during mechanism-based inactivation of rat liver cytochrome P450 2B1 by secobarbital.

    PubMed

    He, K; Falick, A M; Chen, B; Nilsson, F; Correia, M A

    1996-01-01

    The olefinic barbiturate secobarbital (SB) is a sedative hypnotic known to be a relatively selective mechanism-based inactivator of rat liver cytochrome P450 2B1. Previous studies have demonstrated that such inactivation results in prosthetic heme destruction and irreversible drug-induced protein modification, events most likely triggered by P450 2B1-dependent oxidative activation of the olefinic pi-bond. However, the precise structure of the SB-modified heme and/or the protein site targeted for attack remained to be elucidated. We have now isolated the SB-heme adduct from P450 2B1 inactivated by [14C]SB in a functionally reconstituted system and structurally characterized it by electronic absorption spectroscopy and tandem collision-induced dissociation (CID), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization on time of flight (MALDI-TOF), and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry in the positive mode (+ LSIMS) as the N-(5-(2-hydroxypropyl)-5-(1-methylbutyl)barbituric acid)protoporphyrin IX adduct. The [14C]SB-modified 2B1 protein has also been isolated from similar inactivation systems and subjected to lysyl endopeptidase C (Lys-C) digestion and HPLC-peptide mapping. A [14C]SB-modified 2B1 peptide was thus isolated, purified, electrotransferred onto a poly-(vinylidene) membrane, and identified by micro Edman degradation of its first N-terminal 17 residues (S277NH(H)TEFH(H)ENLMISLL293) as the Lys-C peptide domain comprised of amino acids 277-323. This peptide thus includes the peptide domain corresponding to the distal helix I of P450 101, a region highly conserved through evolution, and which is known not only to flank the heme moiety but also to intimately contact the substrates. This finding thus suggests that SB-induced protein modification of P450 2B1 also occurs at the active site and, together with heme N-alkylation, contributes to the SB-induced mechanism-based inactivation of P450 2B1. PMID:8728507

  11. Alliin is a suicide substrate of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase: structural bases of inactivation of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Elena A; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Kulikova, Vitalia V; Nikulin, Alexey D; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of Citrobacter freundii methionine γ-lyase (MGL) and the mutant form in which Cys115 is replaced by Ala (MGL C115A) with the nonprotein amino acid (2R)-2-amino-3-[(S)-prop-2-enylsulfinyl]propanoic acid (alliin) was investigated. It was found that MGL catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of alliin to form 2-propenethiosulfinate (allicin), pyruvate and ammonia. The β-elimination reaction of alliin is followed by the inactivation and modification of SH groups of the wild-type and mutant enzymes. Three-dimensional structures of inactivated wild-type MGL (iMGL wild type) and a C115A mutant form (iMGL C115A) were determined at 1.85 and 1.45 Å resolution and allowed the identification of the SH groups that were oxidized by allicin. On this basis, the mechanism of the inactivation of MGL by alliin, a new suicide substrate of MGL, is proposed. PMID:25372692

  12. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  13. New Freeform Manufacturing Chains Based on Atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, T.; Boehm, G.; Paetzelt, H.

    2016-01-01

    New manufacturing chains for precise fabrication of asphere and freeform optical surfaces including atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining (PJM) technology will be presented. PJM is based on deterministic plasma-assisted material removal. It has the potential for flexible and cost-efficient shape generation and correction of small and medium-sized optical freeform elements. The paper discusses the interactions between the plasma tools and optical fused silica samples in the context of the pre-machined and intermediate surface states and identifies several plasma jet machining methods for freeform generation, surface correction, and finishing as well as suitable auxiliary polishing methods. The successful application of either processing chain is demonstrated.

  14. Physics of laser-driven plasma-based electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-07-15

    Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators, which are capable of supporting fields in excess of 100 GV/m, are reviewed. This includes the laser wakefield accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator, plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses, and highly nonlinear regimes. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse diffraction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, and beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Experiments demonstrating key physics, such as the production of high-quality electron bunches at energies of 0.1-1 GeV, are summarized.

  15. Viral inactivation and reduction in cellular blood products.

    PubMed

    Friedman, L I; Stromberg, R R

    1993-01-01

    Even though the risks associated with the transfusion of blood products are lower than ever before, considerable efforts are being employed to improve the safety of the blood supply. Based upon available data, a six log (99.9999%) reduction in virus level from screened and tested blood components should significantly reduce or eliminate the risk of post-transfusion infection. The objective has been to identify "generic" methods, that is, one that would be applicable to all virus. For red cells, physical and chemical approaches have been studied; for platelets, the approaches have been limited to chemical. The physical methods include depletion of leukocytes by filtration, removal of plasma by washing, and viral inactivation by heat. Among the chemicals investigated to inactivate or help displace virus are ozone, detergents, and hypochlorous acid. Several photochemicals have also received intensive investigation: merocyanine 540, a benzoporphyrin derivative, aluminum phthalocyanine, and methylene blue. For platelets, photochemical inactivation methods using merocyanine 540, and two psoralen derivatives, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and aminomethyl trimethyl psoralen (AMT), have also been studied. Approaches which include washing are not suitable. For the most part, either viral removal or inactivation has been insufficient, or red cell or platelet damage unacceptable. However, there are a few indications that at least inactivation of a specific virus, such as HIV, may be possible without major cell damage. These studies are in their early stages and significant work remains. If feasibility is clearly shown in vitro, it is likely that in vivo primate studies to demonstrate safety and efficacy will be required. PMID:8476492

  16. Evaluation of plasma-based transmit coils for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Webb, A G; Aussenhofer, S A

    2015-12-01

    In this work a new concept for designing transmit coils for magnetic resonance using a plasma is introduced. Unlike conventional coils, a plasma can be turned on and off, eliminating electrical interactions between coils, and enabling radiofrequency-invisibility when desired. A surfatron has been designed to produce a surface-mode wave which propagates along the inner surface of a commercial fluorescent lighting tube. NMR spectra and images have been produced using the plasma as the transmit coil and a copper-based monopole to receive the signal. The transmit efficiency of the plasma tube was estimated, and is currently much lower than that of an equivalently-sized metal-based structure: however, there are many potential methods for increasing the efficiency using a custom-built plasma tube. PMID:26529202

  17. Efficacy of a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate-based sanitizer on inactivation of human norovirus surrogates.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jennifer L; Aydin, Ali; Mann, Amy N; Bolton, Stephanie L; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    Human noroviruses are the most common etiologic agent of foodborne illness in the United States. The inability to culture human noroviruses in the laboratory necessitates the use of surrogate viruses such as murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) for inactivation studies. In this study, a novel sanitizer of organic acid (levulinic acid) plus the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was evaluated. Viruses were treated with levulinic acid (0.5 to 5%), SDS (0.05 to 2%), or combinations of levulinic acid plus SDS (1:10 solution of virus to sanitizer). MNV-1 inoculated onto stainless steel also was treated with a 5% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS liquid or foaming solution. Log reductions of viruses were determined with a plaque assay. Neither levulinic acid nor SDS alone were capable of inactivating MNV-1 or FCV, resulting in a ≤0.51-log reduction of the infectious virus titer. However, the combination of 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.5% SDS inactivated both surrogates by 3 to 4.21 log PFU/ml after 1 min of exposure. Similarly, MNV-1 inoculated onto stainless steel was reduced by >1.50 log PFU/ml after 1 min and by >3.3 log PFU/ml after 5 min of exposure to a liquid or foaming solution of 5% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS. The presence of organic matter (up to 10%) in the virus inoculum did not significantly affect sanitizer efficacy. The fact that both of the active sanitizer ingredients are generally recognized as safe to use as food additives by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration further extends its potential in mitigating foodborne disease. PMID:22856583

  18. Fabrication of graphene-based films using remote plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Mineo; Tsukada, Ryosuke; Kashima, Yohei; Naito, Masateru; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) employing methane/hydrogen gases has been used to grow diamond, diamond-like carbon, and carbon nanotubes. In the case of microwave PECVD with methane/hydrogen system without catalyst nanoparticles at temperatures of 700--850 ^oC, where the substrate is exposed to the plasma, vertical nano-graphenes and carbon nanoflakes have been easily grown even on Cu substrate due to the ion bombardment and local electric field forces. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of planar few-layer graphene-based film using PECVD with remote plasma configuration. In the case using microwave plasma of cylindrical resonant cavity type, by simply installing grounded grid over the substrate plate for obtaining remote plasma configuration, we have successfully fabricated graphene-based films on Cu substrate, which was confirmed by the Raman spectrum and SEM image of deposit. Similar method will be applied to other plasmas such as low-pressure inductively coupled plasma, in order to verify the effectiveness of remote plasma configuration for the growth of planar graphene using PECVD technique. We will discuss the planar graphene growth mechanism in terms of precursors and their surface reaction.

  19. Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Jean Paul; Taylor, Chase N.

    2012-05-15

    The plasma-material interface and its impact on the performance of magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas are considered to be one of the key scientific gaps in the realization of nuclear fusion power. At this interface, high particle and heat flux from the fusion plasma can limit the material's lifetime and reliability and therefore hinder operation of the fusion device. Lithium-based surfaces are now being used in major magnetic confinement fusion devices and have observed profound effects on plasma performance including enhanced confinement, suppression and control of edge localized modes (ELM), lower hydrogen recycling and impurity suppression. The critical spatial scale length of deuterium and helium particle interactions in lithium ranges between 5-100 nm depending on the incident particle energies at the edge and magnetic configuration. Lithium-based surfaces also range from liquid state to solid lithium coatings on a variety of substrates (e.g., graphite, stainless steel, refractory metal W/Mo/etc., or porous metal structures). Temperature-dependent effects from lithium-based surfaces as plasma facing components (PFC) include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability issues related to liquid lithium, surface impurity, and deuterium retention issues, and anomalous physical sputtering increase at temperatures above lithium's melting point. The paper discusses the viability of lithium-based surfaces in future burning-plasma environments such as those found in ITER and DEMO-like fusion reactor devices.

  20. Initial experimental test of a helicon plasma based mass filter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gueroult, R.; Evans, E. S.; Zweben, S. J.; Fisch, N. J.; Levinton, F.

    2016-05-12

    High throughput plasma mass separation requires rotation control in a high density multi-species plasmas. A preliminary mass separation device based on a helicon plasma operating in gas mixtures and featuring concentric biasable ring electrodes is introduced. Plasma profile shows strong response to electrode biasing. In light of floating potential measurements, the density response is interpreted as the consequence of a reshaping of the radial electric field in the plasma. This field can be made confining or de-confining depending on the imposed potential at the electrodes, in a way which is consistent with single particle orbit radial stability. In conclusion, concurrentmore » spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements suggest ion separation, with heavy to light ion emission line ratio increasing with radius when a specific potential gradient is applied to the electrodes.« less

  1. Initial experimental test of a helicon plasma based mass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueroult, R.; Evans, E. S.; Zweben, S. J.; Fisch, N. J.; Levinton, F.

    2016-06-01

    High throughput plasma mass separation requires rotation control in a high density multi-species plasmas. A preliminary mass separation device based on a helicon plasma operating in gas mixtures and featuring concentric biasable ring electrodes is introduced. Plasma profile shows strong response to electrode biasing. In light of floating potential measurements, the density response is interpreted as the consequence of a reshaping of the radial electric field in the plasma. This field can be made confining or de-confining depending on the imposed potential at the electrodes, in a way which is consistent with single particle orbit radial stability. Concurrent spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements suggest ion separation, with heavy to light ion emission line ratio increasing with radius when a specific potential gradient is applied to the electrodes.

  2. Inactivation of invasive marine species in the process of conveying ballast water using OH based on a strong ionization discharge.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mindong; Zheng, Qilin; Tian, Yiping; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Cao; Cheng, Chao; Meng, Xiangying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, invasive marine species in medium-salinity ballast water were inactivated using OH generated from a strong ionization discharge. The OH is determined by the concentration of oxygen active species combined with the effects of water jet cavitation. The results indicated that the OH concentration reached 7.62 μM, within 1 s, which is faster and higher than in conventional AOP methods. In a pilot-scale OH ballast water system with a capacity of 10 m(3)/h, algae were inactivated when CT value was 0.1 mg min/L with a contact time only 6 s. The viable and nonviable cells were determined using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain and Flow cytometry. As a result, the OH treatment could be completed during the process of conveying the ballast water. In addition, the concentrations of relevant disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate, were less than that required by the World Health Organization's drinking water standards, which suggest that the discharged ballast water posed no risks to the oceanic environment. Nevertheless, for conventional ozonation and electrolysis methods, the ballast water should be treated only in the treated tanks during the ship's voyage and form higher level DBPs. PMID:27058879

  3. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Yang, Si-ze

    2013-05-01

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  4. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  5. Comparison of the disinfection efficacy of chlorine-based products for inactivation of viral indicators and pathogenic bacteria in produce wash water.

    PubMed

    Chaidez, Cristobal; Moreno, Maria; Rubio, Werner; Angulo, Miguel; Valdez, Benigno

    2003-09-01

    Outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria infections associated with the consumption of fresh produce has occurred with increased frequency in recent years. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of three commonly used disinfectants in packing-houses of Culiacan, Mexico (sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], trichlor-s-triazinetrione [TST] and thrichlormelamine [TCM]) for inactivation of viral indicators and pathogenic bacteria inoculated onto produce wash water. Each microbial challenge consisted of 2 L of water containing approximately 8 log10 bacterial CFU ml(-1), and 8 log10 viral PFU ml(-1) treated with 100 and 300 mg l(-1) of total chlorine with modified turbidity. Water samples were taken after 2 min of contact with chlorine-based products and assayed for the particular microorganisms. TST and NaOCl were found to effectively reduce for bacterial pathogens and viral indicators 8 log10 and 7 log10, respectively (alpha=0.05). The highest inactivation rate was observed when the turbidity was low and the disinfectant was applied at 300 mg l(-1). TCM did not show effective results when compared with the TST and NaOCl (P<0.05). These findings suggest that turbidity created by the organic and inorganic material present in the water tanks carried by the fresh produce may affect the efficacy of the chlorine-based products. PMID:12909560

  6. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He–H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  7. Membrane damage and active but nonculturable state in liquid cultures of Escherichia coli treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Dolezalova, Eva; Lukes, Petr

    2015-06-01

    Electrical discharge plasmas can efficiently inactivate various microorganisms. Inactivation mechanisms caused by plasma, however, are not fully understood because of the complexity of both the plasma and biological systems. We investigated plasma-induced inactivation of Escherichia coli in water and mechanisms by which plasma affects bacterial cell membrane integrity. Atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet generated at ambient air in direct contact with bacterial suspension was used as a plasma source. We determined significantly lower counts of E. coli after treatment by plasma when they were assayed using a conventional cultivation technique than using a fluorescence-based LIVE/DEAD staining method, which indicated that bacteria may have entered the viable-but-nonculturable state (VBNC). We did not achieve resuscitation of these non-culturable cells, however, we detected their metabolic activity through the analysis of cellular mRNA, which suggests that cells may have been rather in the active-but-nonculturable state (ABNC). We hypothesize that peroxidation of cell membrane lipids by the reactive species produced by plasma was an important pathway of bacterial inactivation. Amount of malondialdehyde and membrane permeability of E. coli to propidium iodide increased with increasing bacterial inactivation by plasma. Membrane damage was also demonstrated by detection of free DNA in plasma-treated water. PMID:25212700

  8. Color-based tracking of plasma dust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Villamayor, Michelle Marie S. Soriano, Maricor N.; Ramos, Henry J.; Kato, Shuichi; Wada, Motoi

    2014-02-15

    Color-based tracking to observe agglomeration of deposited particles inside a compact planar magnetron during plasma discharge was done by creating high dynamic range (HDR) images of photos captured by a Pentax K10D digital camera. Carbon erosion and redeposition was also monitored using the technique. The HDR images were subjected to a chromaticity-based constraint discoloration inside the plasma chamber indicating film formation or carbon redeposition. Results show that dust deposition occurs first near the evacuation pumps due to the pressure gradient and then accumulates at the positively charged walls of the chamber. This method can be applied to monitor dust formation during dusty plasma experiments without major modification of plasma devices, useful especially for large fusion reactors.

  9. Color-based tracking of plasma dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamayor, Michelle Marie S.; Kato, Shuichi; Soriano, Maricor N.; Wada, Motoi; Ramos, Henry J.

    2014-02-01

    Color-based tracking to observe agglomeration of deposited particles inside a compact planar magnetron during plasma discharge was done by creating high dynamic range (HDR) images of photos captured by a Pentax K10D digital camera. Carbon erosion and redeposition was also monitored using the technique. The HDR images were subjected to a chromaticity-based constraint discoloration inside the plasma chamber indicating film formation or carbon redeposition. Results show that dust deposition occurs first near the evacuation pumps due to the pressure gradient and then accumulates at the positively charged walls of the chamber. This method can be applied to monitor dust formation during dusty plasma experiments without major modification of plasma devices, useful especially for large fusion reactors.

  10. Classifier based on support vector machine for JET plasma configurationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Vega, J.; Dormido, R.; Sánchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H.; Murari, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2008-10-01

    The last flux surface can be used to identify the plasma configuration of discharges. For automated recognition of JET configurations, a learning system based on support vector machines has been developed. Each configuration is described by 12 geometrical parameters. A multiclass system has been developed by means of the one-versus-the-rest approach. Results with eight simultaneous classes (plasma configurations) show a success rate close to 100%.

  11. Investigations of the plasma and structure based accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Gennady

    2012-08-30

    The objective of our research during the reported period was three-fold: (a) theoretical investigation of novel mechanisms of injection into laser wake field accelerators; (b) theoretical investigation of single-shot frequency domain diagnostics of relativistic plasma wakes, specifically in the context of spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma bubble;(c) experimental and theoretical investigation of laser-driven accelerating structure, specifically in the context of the Surface Wave Accelerator Based on SiC (SWABSIC).

  12. Effects of bacterial inactivation methods on downstream proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Andy; Merkley, Eric D; Clowers, Brian H; Hutchison, Janine R; Kreuzer, Helen W

    2015-05-01

    Inactivation of pathogenic microbial samples is often necessary for the protection of researchers and to comply with local and federal regulations. By its nature, biological inactivation causes changes to microbial samples, potentially affecting observed experimental results. While inactivation-induced damage to materials such as DNA has been evaluated, the effect of various inactivation strategies on proteomic data, to our knowledge, has not been discussed. To this end, we inactivated samples of Yersinia pestis and Escherichia coli by autoclave, ethanol, or irradiation treatment to determine how inactivation changes liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry data quality as well as apparent protein content of cells. Proteomic datasets obtained from aliquots of samples inactivated by different methods were highly similar, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.822 to 0.985 and 0.816 to 0.985 for E. coli and Y. pestis, respectively, suggesting that inactivation had only slight impacts on the set of proteins identified. In addition, spectral quality metrics such as distributions of various database search algorithm scores remained constant across inactivation methods, indicating that inactivation does not appreciably degrade spectral quality. Though overall changes resulting from inactivation were small, there were detectable trends. For example, one-sided Fischer exact tests determined that periplasmic proteins decrease in observed abundance after sample inactivation by autoclaving (α=1.71×10(-2) for E. coli, α=4.97×10(-4) for Y. pestis) and irradiation (α=9.43×10(-7) for E. coli, α=1.21×10(-5) for Y. pestis) when compared to controls that were not inactivated. Based on our data, if sample inactivation is necessary, we recommend inactivation with ethanol treatment with secondary preference given to irradiation. PMID:25620019

  13. Effects of Bacterial Inactivation Methods on Downstream Proteomic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Andy; Merkley, Eric D.; Clowers, Brian H.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2015-05-01

    Inactivation of pathogenic microbial samples is often necessary for the protection of researchers and to comply with local and federal regulations. By its nature, biological inactivation causes changes to microbial samples, potentially affecting observed experimental results. While inactivation induced damage to materials such as DNA has been evaluated, the effect of various inactivation strategies on proteomic data, to our knowledge, has not been discussed. To this end, we inactivated samples of Yersinia pestis and Escherichia coli by autoclave, ethanol, or irradiation treatment to determine how inactivation changes liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry data quality as well as apparent protein content of cells. Proteomic datasets obtained from aliquots of samples inactivated by different methods were highly similar, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.822 to 0.985 and 0.816 to 0.985 for E. coli and Y. pestis, respectively, suggesting that inactivation had only slight impacts on the set of proteins identified. In addition, spectral quality metrics such as distributions of various database search algorithm scores remained constant across inactivation methods, indicating that inactivation does not appreciably degrade spectral quality. Though overall changes resulting from inactivation were small, there were detectable trends. For example, one-sided Fischer exact tests determined that periplasmic proteins decrease in observed abundance after sample inactivation by autoclaving (α = 1.71x10-2 for E. coli, α = 4.97x10-4 for Y. pestis) and irradiation (α = 9.43x10-7 for E. coli, α = 1.21x10-5 for Y. pestis) when compared to controls that were not inactivated. Based on our data, if sample inactivation is necessary, we recommend inactivation with ethanol treatment with secondary preference given to irradiation.

  14. Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2010-09-09

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity (<10{sup 14}Wcm{sup -2}) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  15. Etch Process Sensitivity To An Inductively Coupled Plasma Etcher Treated With Fluorine-Based Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Songlin; Sun, Zhiwen; Qian, Xueyu; Yin, Gerald

    1997-10-01

    Significant etch rate drop after the treatment of an etch chamber with Fluorine-based plasma has been found for some silicon etch processes on an inductively coupled plasma reactor, which might cause problems in IC production line once the etch chamber runs alternative processes with F-based and F-free chemistry, or needs frequent cleaning with F-plasma. In this work, a systematic study of the root cause of process sensitivity to the etch chamber treated with F-plasma has been conducted. The experimental results show that pressure is a key factor to affect the etch rate drop. Processes at high pressure are more sensitive than those at low pressure because the quenching of neutral reactive species becomes more severe after the F-treatment. O2 addition also increases the etch rate sensitivity, basically due to higher O2(subscript: )concentration after F-treatment which enhances the oxidation of silicon. The EDX and XPS elemental analysis of the chamber interior wall reveals a significant composition change after the interaction with F-plasma, the altered surface might accelerate the recombination of free radical species.

  16. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  17. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  18. Plasma Undulator Based on Laser Excitation of Wakefields in a Plasma Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykovanov, S. G.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-04-01

    An undulator is proposed based on the plasma wakefields excited by a laser pulse in a plasma channel. Generation of the undulator fields is achieved by inducing centroid oscillations of the laser pulse in the channel. The period of such an undulator is proportional to the Rayleigh length of the laser pulse and can be submillimeter, while preserving high undulator strength. The electron trajectories in the undulator are examined, expressions for the undulator strength are presented, and the spontaneous radiation is calculated. Multimode and multicolor laser pulses are considered for greater tunability of the undulator period and strength.

  19. Plasma undulator based on laser excitation of wakefields in a plasma channel.

    PubMed

    Rykovanov, S G; Schroeder, C B; Esarey, E; Geddes, C G R; Leemans, W P

    2015-04-10

    An undulator is proposed based on the plasma wakefields excited by a laser pulse in a plasma channel. Generation of the undulator fields is achieved by inducing centroid oscillations of the laser pulse in the channel. The period of such an undulator is proportional to the Rayleigh length of the laser pulse and can be submillimeter, while preserving high undulator strength. The electron trajectories in the undulator are examined, expressions for the undulator strength are presented, and the spontaneous radiation is calculated. Multimode and multicolor laser pulses are considered for greater tunability of the undulator period and strength. PMID:25910131

  20. High-throughput, cell-based screens to identify small-molecule inhibitors of ricin toxin and related category b ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs).

    PubMed

    Wahome, Paul G; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2013-02-01

    Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family of toxins. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classify ricin and related toxins as Category B biothreat agents. There are currently no antidotes or therapeutics to counteract RIPs in humans. The discovery of effective small-molecule inhibitors of RIPs is increasingly possible, however, due to the availability and accessibility of diverse small-molecule chemical libraries coupled with robust robotics and automated screening methodologies. In this article, we describe a cell-based, high-throughput screening strategy and secondary assays that we have successfully used to identify compounds that target ricin toxin's enzymatic activity and intracellular trafficking, as well as stress-activated signaling pathways associated with cell death. The methods described in the protocol are amenable to the other RIPs. PMID:23408195

  1. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS)

    PubMed Central

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. From the Clinical Editor This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. PMID:24632246

  2. How is a metabolic intermediate formed in the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 by using 1,1-dimethylhydrazine: hydrogen abstraction or nitrogen oxidation?

    PubMed

    Hirao, Hajime; Chuanprasit, Pratanphorn; Cheong, Ying Yi; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2013-06-01

    A precise understanding of the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) at the quantum mechanical level should allow more reliable predictions of drug-drug interactions than those currently available. Hydrazines are among the molecules that act as mechanism-based inactivators to terminate the function of P450s, which are essential heme enzymes responsible for drug metabolism in the human body. Despite its importance, the mechanism explaining how a metabolic intermediate (MI) is formed from hydrazine is not fully understood. We used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to compare four possible mechanisms underlying the reaction between 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (or unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UDMH) and the reactive compound I (Cpd I) intermediate of P450. Our DFT calculations provided a clear view on how an aminonitrene-type MI is formed from UDMH. In the most favorable pathway, hydrogen is spontaneously abstracted from the N2 atom of UDMH by Cpd I, followed by a second hydrogen abstraction from the N2 atom by Cpd II. Nitrogen oxidation of nitrogen atoms and hydrogen abstraction from the C-H bond of the methyl group were found to be less favorable than the hydrogen abstraction from the N-H bond. We also found that the reaction of protonated UDMH with Cpd I is rather sluggish. The aminonitrene-type MI binds to the ferric heme more strongly than a water molecule. This is consistent with the notion that the catalytic cycle of P450 is impeded when such an MI is produced through the P450-catalyzed reaction. PMID:23592585

  3. International workshop on plasma-based neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-09

    The workshop was devoted to discussion of the status and future directions of work on plasma-based neutron sources. The workshop presentations demonstrated significant progress in development of the concepts of these sources and in broadening the required data base. Two main groups of neutron source designs were presented at the workshop: tokamak-based and mirror-based. Designs of the tokamak- based devices use the extensive data base generated during decades of tokamak research. Their plasma physics performance can be predicted with a high degree of confidence. On the other hand, they are relatively large and expensive, and best suited for Volumetric Neutron Sources (VNSes) or other large scale test facilities. They also have the advantage of being on the direct path to a power- producing reactor as presently conceived, although alternatives to the tokamak are presently receiving serious consideration for a reactor. The data base for the mirror-based group of plasma sources is less developed, but they are generally more flexible and, with appropriate selection of parameters, have the potential to be developed as compact Accelerated Test Facilities (ATFs) as well as full-scale VNSes. Also discussed at the workshop were some newly proposed but potentially promising concepts, like those based on the flow-through pinch and electrostatic ion-beam sources.

  4. EUV induced low temperature SF6-based plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Jarocki, R.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.

    2016-03-01

    In this work spectral investigations of low temperature F-rich photoionized plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of SF6 gas with intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation pulses. Two laser plasma EUV sources of different parameters used in the experiments were based on 0.8 J /4ns and 10 J/ 10 ns Nd:YAG lasers respectively. Both sources operated at 10 Hz repetition rate. The EUV radiation was focused using a dedicated reflective collector onto the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulses. Irradiation of the SF6 gas resulted in dissociative ionization of the molecules, leading to creation of SFn+ ions and fluorine atoms. Further photo- or electron impact ionization and excitation processes allow for formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the wide spectral range. Emission spectra were measured in the EUV and optical ranges. The EUV spectra contained multiple spectral lines, originating from F II, F III and S II ions. The UV/VIS spectra were composed of spectral lines corresponding to radiative transitions in F II, F I and S II species. A computer simulation of the F II spectrum was performed using a collisional-radiative PrismSPECT code. Parameters of the photoionized plasmas were estimated by fitting the spectrum obtained from the simulations to the experimental one. Apart from that, the electron temperature was estimated employing Boltzmann plots based on the UV/VIS spectrum.

  5. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Barnard, Neal D

    2009-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality. The investigators therefore reviewed the published scientific research to determine the effectiveness of plant-based diets in modifying plasma lipid concentrations. Twenty-seven randomized controlled and observational trials were included. Of the 4 types of plant-based diets considered, interventions testing a combination diet (a vegetarian or vegan diet combined with nuts, soy, and/or fiber) demonstrated the greatest effects (up to 35% plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction), followed by vegan and ovolactovegetarian diets. Interventions allowing small amounts of lean meat demonstrated less dramatic reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, plant-based dietary interventions are effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations. PMID:19766762

  6. The Plasma-Based Instruction in Ethiopia: Utopia or Dystopia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abera, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the utopian and dystopian viewpoints held on the plasma-based instruction in Ethiopian by looking into the existing literature works and by analyzing attitudes of implementing bodies and implementers towards the program. The article identified that though implementing bodies were enthusiastic in developing and expanding the…

  7. Deactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteria by an Atmospheric Cold Plasma Brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed and used to treat enterococcus faecalis bacteria. The results show that the efficiency of the inactivation process by helium plasma is dependent on applied power and exposure time. After plasma treatments, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  8. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  9. The Effect of Ritonavir on Human CYP2B6 Catalytic Activity: Heme Modification Contributes to the Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by Ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; D’Agostino, Jaime; Kenaan, Cesar; Calinski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6 by ritonavir (RTV) in a reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation is time, concentration, and NADPH dependent and exhibits a KI of 0.9 μM, a kinact of 0.05 min−1, and a partition ratio of approximately 3. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the protonated molecular ion of RTV exhibits an m/z at 721 and its two major metabolites are an oxidation product with MH+ at m/z 737 and a deacylated product with MH+ at m/z 580. Inactivation of CYP2B6 by incubation with 10 μM RTV for 10 min resulted in an approximately 50% loss of catalytic activity and native heme, but no modification of the apoprotein was observed. RTV was found to be a potent mixed-type reversible inhibitor (Ki = 0.33 μM) and a type II ligand (spectral dissociation constant-Ks = 0.85 μM) of CYP2B6. Although previous studies have demonstrated that RTV is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4, the molecular mechanism responsible for the inactivation has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence that RTV inactivation of CYP3A4 is due to heme destruction with the formation of a heme-protein adduct. Similar to CYP2B6, there is no significant modification of the apoprotein. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that both CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes form an RTV-glutathione conjugate having a MH+ at m/z 858 during metabolism of RTV, suggesting the formation of an isocyanate intermediate leading to formation of the conjugate. PMID:23886699

  10. A Novel Electric Thruster Based on IEC Plasma Jet Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, George H.; Momota, H.; Stubbers, R.

    2004-07-01

    A novel plasma jet thruster, based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) technology, is described for orbit transfer operations. While electronically driven, it represents a fore summer of a future fusion powered unit. The IEC thruster employs a spherical configuration, wherein ions are generated and accelerated towards the center of a spherical vacuum chamber where a high-density central core region accelerated ions into an intense quasi-neutral ion jet. Compared to other high-power plasma thrusters, the IEC offers advantages in design simplicity and minimum propellant leakage, plus a high power-to-weight ratio. (authors)

  11. Photodynamic-induced inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.

  12. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  13. Preliminary scoping studies for nozzle-based coaxial plasma thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwin, R.A.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Rej, D.J. )

    1991-01-05

    The ideal steady-state properties of nozzle-based coaxial plasma guns are modelled by means of a magnetic Bernoulli equation. Formulas for thrust, power usage, mass flow rate, and specific impulse using hydrogen are thereby obtained, and are used to approximately assess the mission performance capabilities of such thrusters. Parameters in the range of experience of the Los Alamos spheromak group are addressed within the context of orbit raising, slow (cargo) missions to mars, and fast missions to mars. The various internal atomic and plasma effects on hydrogen plasma thruster performance are approximately estimated or bounded. It is concluded that such devices may be relevant to mission performance at reasonable power levels.

  14. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as a potential platform for artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akimasa; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Hakamada, Kenichi; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2006-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE, and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of the plasma separator. This study was performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system. Hyperbilirubinemia was induced by ligating the bile duct in pigs, and 7 days later, only PE for 2 h (group PE) or PE for 2 h followed by PRD for 6 h (group PE + PRD) was performed. The separated plasma was recycled over anion-exchange resin through the extra fiber space of the plasma separator. The safety and efficacy of this system were evaluated based on the values of hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Transfer from PE to PRD was completed in a few minutes. The hemodynamic status and blood cells counts were stable and hemolysis was not observed during the procedure. In the PE + PRD group, the concentrations of total bile acids continuously decreased (pretreatment, 155.5 +/- 40.6 microM; 2 h [end of PE], 76.1 +/- 14.4 microM; 8 h [end of PRD], 25.8 +/- 9.1 microM) and the value was significantly lower than in the PE group after 6 h. The total bilirubin also continuously decreased during PRD (pretreatment, 55.3 +/- 11.5 microM; 2 h [end of PE], 33.8 +/- 8.4 microM; 8 h [end of PRD], 18.6 +/- 7.7 microM) and was significantly lower than in the PE group after 4 h. No significant change was observed in other laboratory values. This PE-based PRD system allowed a swift transfer from PE to sorbent-based blood purification. The safety of this system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as a platform for artificial liver support. PMID:16911318

  15. Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2012-12-25

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

  16. A fluorescence-based method for measuring total plasma antioxidant capability.

    PubMed

    Ghiselli, A; Serafini, M; Maiani, G; Azzini, E; Ferro-Luzzi, A

    1995-01-01

    The Total Radical-Trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP) of 10 freshly prepared human plasmas was measured by a new fluorometric assay. In this method, the rate of peroxidation induced by 2,2'-diazobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP) was monitored through the loss of fluorescence of the protein R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE). The lag-phase induced by plasma was compared to that induced by 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2- carboxylic acid (Trolox, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E). Proteins (but not their sulphydryl groups) interfere with the analysis, partially protecting R-PE when all plasma antioxidants are exhausted. A Trolox-induced lag-phase must therefore be measured on each plasma sample. We found that ascorbate (2.5-5.3%), alpha-tocopherol (2.9-8.5%), urate (19.6-61.0), and thiol groups (17.3-42.3%) jointly explain up to 70% of TRAP. Thus, either other compounds present in plasma are likely to exert antioxidant action, or a marked synergistic action between antioxidants should be postulated to exist. This latter hypothesis is supported by the finding that the simultaneous inactivation of ascorbate and thiol groups produces a loss in antioxidant capacity of plasma greater (26%) than the sum of the decreases produced by the separate inactivation of each of the two compounds. The proposed method appears simple, reliable, and allows the rapid handling of a reasonable number of freshly prepared plasma samples. Given the rapid loss of TRAP upon storage, the latter characteristic is crucial in studies on humans, involving a large number of subjects. PMID:7896168

  17. Ribosome-inactivating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew J; Dodd, Jennifer E; Hautbergue, Guillaume M

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with other potent toxins that abolish protein synthesis: the fungal ribotoxins which directly cleave the 28S rRNA and the newly discovered Burkholderia lethal factor 1 (BLF1). BLF1 presents additional challenges to the current classification system since, like the ribotoxins, it does not possess RNA N-glycosidase activity but does irreversibly inactivate ribosomes. We further discuss whether the RIP classification should be broadened to include toxins achieving irreversible ribosome inactivation with similar turnovers to RIPs, but through different enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:24071927

  18. Prediction of colorectal cancer diagnosis based on circulating plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Surinova, Silvia; Choi, Meena; Tao, Sha; Schüffler, Peter J; Chang, Ching-Yun; Clough, Timothy; Vysloužil, Kamil; Khoylou, Marta; Srovnal, Josef; Liu, Yansheng; Matondo, Mariette; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Weisser, Hendrik; Buhmann, Joachim M; Hajdúch, Marián; Brenner, Hermann; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-09-01

    Non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer with blood-based markers is a critical clinical need. Here we describe a phased mass spectrometry-based approach for the discovery, screening, and validation of circulating protein biomarkers with diagnostic value. Initially, we profiled human primary tumor tissue epithelia and characterized about 300 secreted and cell surface candidate glycoproteins. These candidates were then screened in patient systemic circulation to identify detectable candidates in blood plasma. An 88-plex targeting method was established to systematically monitor these proteins in two large and independent cohorts of plasma samples, which generated quantitative clinical datasets at an unprecedented scale. The data were deployed to develop and evaluate a five-protein biomarker signature for colorectal cancer detection. PMID:26253081

  19. Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry in bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Smoluch, Marek; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Silberring, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry techniques are gaining growing interest due to their specific features, such as the need for little or no sample preparation, its high analysis speed, and the ambient experimental conditions. Samples can be analyzed in gas, liquid, or solid forms. These techniques allow for a wide range of applications, like warfare agent detection, chemical reaction control, mass spectrometry imaging, polymer identification, and food safety monitoring, as well as applications in biomedical science, e.g., drug and pharmaceutical analysis, medical diagnostics, biochemical analysis, etc. Until now, the main drawback of plasma-based techniques is their quantitative aspect, but a lot of efforts have been done to improve this obstacle. PMID:25988731

  20. Method of plasma etching GA-based compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2013-01-01

    A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent thereto. The chamber contains a Ga-based compound semiconductor sample in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. SiCl.sub.4 and Ar gases are flowed into the chamber. RF power is supplied to the platen at a first power level, and RF power is supplied to the source electrode. A plasma is generated. Then, RF power is supplied to the platen at a second power level lower than the first power level and no greater than about 30 W. Regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched at a rate of no more than about 25 nm/min to create a substantially smooth etched surface.

  1. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as an artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Nishimura, Akimasa; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Hakamada, Kenichi; Yoshihara, Syuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2008-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of a plasma separator. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system, we used a pig model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and anion exchange resin, activated charcoal and hemodialysis for the purification device. FHF was induced by intraportal administration of alpha-amanitine (0.1 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharides (1 microg/kg) in pigs. Three groups of animals were studied: group 1, diseased controls (N = 4); group 2, PE group (N = 4), 16 h after drug infusion the pigs underwent PE of approximately 1.2 L for 2 h; and group 3, PE + PRD group (N = 4), the pigs underwent PE followed by PRD for 6 h. The hemodynamic status of all animals was stable during the procedure. In group 3, the values of ammonia, total bile acid and total bilirubin continuously decreased and were significantly lower than those of the animals in group 2 24 h after the induction of FHF. The Fischer ratio was significantly higher than in group 2 after 24 h. Group 3 pigs maintained a higher level of consciousness and survived longer than group 2 pigs. Safety of this PE-based PRD system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as an artificial liver support. PMID:18789112

  2. Plasma channel diagnostic based on laser centroid oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Lin, C.; Osterhoff, J.; Shiraishi, S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Tóth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-05-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. Experiments were performed using low-intensity (<1014 Wcm-2) laser pulses focused onto the entrance of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide. Scanning the laser centroid position at the input of the channel and recording the exit position allows determination of the channel depth with an accuracy of a few percent, measurement of the transverse channel shape, and inference of the matched spot size. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  3. Verification strategies for fluid-based plasma simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Shankar

    2012-10-01

    Verification is an essential aspect of computational code development for models based on partial differential equations. However, verification of plasma models is often conducted internally by authors of these programs and not openly discussed. Several professional research bodies including the IEEE, AIAA, ASME and others have formulated standards for verification and validation (V&V) of computational software. This work focuses on verification, defined succinctly as determining whether the mathematical model is solved correctly. As plasma fluid models share several aspects with the Navier-Stokes equations used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the CFD verification process is used as a guide. Steps in the verification process: consistency checks, examination of iterative, spatial and temporal convergence, and comparison with exact solutions, are described with examples from plasma modeling. The Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS), which has been used to verify complex systems of PDEs in solid and fluid mechanics, is introduced. An example of the application of MMS to a self-consistent plasma fluid model using the local mean energy approximation is presented. The strengths and weaknesses of the techniques presented in this work are discussed.

  4. Effective photosensitization-based inactivation of Gram (-) food pathogens and molds using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex: towards photoactive edible coatings to preserve strawberries.

    PubMed

    Buchovec, Irina; Lukseviciute, Viktorija; Marsalka, Arunas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Luksiene, Zivile

    2016-04-13

    This study is focused on the novel approaches to enhance the inactivation of the Gram (-) food pathogen Salmonella enterica and harmful molds in vitro and on the surface of strawberries using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex. Salmonella enterica (∼1 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) was incubated with chlorophyllin 1.5 × 10(-5) M (Chl, food additive), chitosan 0.1% (CHS, food supplement) or the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS) and illuminated with visible light (λ = 405 nm, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) in vitro. Chlorophyllin (Chl)-based photosensitization inactivated Salmonella just by 1.8 log. Chitosan (CHS) alone incubated for 2 h with Salmonella reduced viability 2.15 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS diminished bacterial viability by 7 log. SEM images indicate that the Chl-CHS complex under these experimental conditions covered the entire bacterial surface. Significant cell membrane disintegration was the main lethal injury induced in Gram (-) bacteria by this treatment. Analysis of strawberry decontamination from surface-inoculated Salmonella indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS, 30 min incubation, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) coatings diminished the pathogen population on the surface of strawberries by 2.2 log. Decontamination of strawberries from naturally distributed yeasts/molds revealed that chitosan alone reduced the population of yeasts/molds just by 0.4 log, Chl-based photosensitization just by 0.9 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS coatings reduced yeasts/molds on the surface of strawberries by 1.4 log. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that no additional photosensitization-induced free radicals have been found in the strawberry matrix. Visual quality (color, texture) of the treated strawberries was not affected either. In conclusion, photoactive Chl-CHS exhibited strong antimicrobial action against more resistant to photosensitization Gram (-) Salmonella enterica in comparison with

  5. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P-450 dependent benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity by acetylenic and olefinic polycyclic arylhydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene (EP), 3-ethynylperylene (EPL), cis- and trans-1-(2-bromo-vinyl)pyrene (c-BVP and t-BVP), and 1-allylpyrene (AP) serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) hydroxylase, while 1-vinyl-pyrene (VP) and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene (PPA) do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of the BP hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of BP hydroxylase activity caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes. In the presence of NADPH, /sup 3/H-labeled EP covalently attached to P-450 isozymes with a measured stoichiometry of one mole of EP per mole of the P-450 heme. The results of the effects of these aryl derivatives in the mammalian cell-mediated mutagenesis assay and toxicity assay show that none of the compounds examined nor any of the their metabolites produced in the incubation system are cytotoxic to V79 cells.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle-Photosensitizer Conjugate Based Photodynamic Inactivation of Biofilm Producing Cells: Potential for Treatment of C. albicans Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sherwani, Mohd. Asif; Tufail, Saba; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Owais, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been found to be effective in inhibiting biofilm producing organisms. We investigated the photodynamic effect of gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilm. We also examined the photodynamic efficacy of photosensitizer (PS) conjugated GNPs (GNP-PS) to treat skin and oral C. albicans infection in BALB/c mice. Methods The biomimetically synthesized GNPs were conjugated to photosensitizers viz. methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue O (TB). The conjugation of PSs with GNPs was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugates against C. albicans biofilm was demonstrated by XTT assay and microscopic studies. The therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the GNP conjugates against cutaneous C. albicans infection was examined in mouse model by enumerating residual fungal burden and histopathological studies. Results The GNP-PS conjugate based PDT was found to effectively kill both C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilm populating hyphal forms. The mixture of GNPs conjugated to two different PSs significantly depleted the hyphal C. albicans burden against superficial skin and oral C. albicans infection in mice. Conclusion The GNP-PS conjugate combination exhibits synergism in photodynamic inactivation of C. albicans. The GNP conjugate based PDT can be employed effectively in treatment of cutaneous C. albicans infections in model animals. The antibiofilm potential of PDT therapy can also be exploited in depletion of C. albicans on medical appliances such as implants and catheters etc. PMID:26148012

  7. Developments in Laser and Plasma-Based Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, Michael

    2001-04-01

    The explosive growth of multiterawatt laser technology combined with the increasing size and cost of conventional RF particle accelerators has driven intense research into more compact laser-driven and/or plasma based acceleration concepts. Although schemes for direct laser acceleration without plasmas or, conversely, plasma acceleration without lasers have been studied, the greatest recent progress has been made with concepts that combine lasers and plasmas [1]. Tajima and Dawson [2] proposed in 1979 that a sufficiently intense single laser pulse of duration t ω_p-1, or a pair of laser pulses with Δω ω_p, could be efficiently drive a longitudinal electron plasma wave with phase velocity approaching c via the ponderomotive force. Charged particles that "surf" such waves experience accelerating gradients (E 10^9 V/cm) as much as a thousand times greater than conventional RF accelerators. Numerous experiments have now demonstrated acceleration of up to 10^9 electrons per laser pulse to energies exceeding 100 MeV, with wide energy spread, but competitive beam emittance. Such sources have proven useful for nuclear activation analysis in their current form. However for such accelerators to be useful to a wider community, including high energy physics, key challenges must be addressed. These include: 1) Guiding terawatt laser pulses. Achieving useful laser intensities requires focusing, thus limiting interaction length to < 1 mm, whereas interaction lengths of several cm are needed to use laser energy efficiently and reach GeV acceleration in a single stage. Several groups are now developing high-throughput plasma "fibers" that have supported peak powers near a terawatt over > 1 cm without distortion [3]. 2) Phased injection. Since plasma waves with useful gradients have wavelengths of micron dimensions, charged particles must be injected with unprecedented spatial and temporal precision to achieve a monochromatic output beam. Several groups are developing new laser-based

  8. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies for Cellular Blood Components: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Schlenke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood. PMID:25254027

  9. Hydrazine inactivates bacillus spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne; Plett, G. A.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Barengoltz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary Protection places requirements on the maximum number of viable bacterial spores that may be delivered by a spacecraft to another solar system body. Therefore, for such space missions, the spores that may be found in hydrazine are of concern. A proposed change in processing procedures that eliminated a 0.2 um filtration step propmpted this study to ensure microbial contamination issue existed, especially since no information was found in the literature to substantiate bacterial spore inactivation by hydrazine.

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli phage by pulsed electric field treatment and analysis of inactivation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanino, Takanori; Yoshida, Tomoki; Sakai, Kazuki; Ohshima, Takayuki

    2013-03-01

    Inactivation of bacteriophage by pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, one of the effective procedures for bacteria nonthermal inactivation, was studied. Model phage particles Escherichia coli bacteriophages M13mp18 and λ phage, were successfully inactivated by PEF treatment. The survival ratios of both bacteriophages decreased depending on the PEF treatment time when applied peak voltage was 5 or 7 kV, and the survival ratios after 12 min PEF treatment were 10-4 - 10-5. Electrophoresis analyses of biological molecules of inactivated λ phage detected no degradation of total protein and genomic DNA. These results suggested that the factor of phage inactivation by PEF treatment was not based on the degradation of protein or DNA, but on the destruction of phage particle structure. Sensitivity of E. coli phage to PEF treatment was compared with that of E. coli cell. Phage and MV1184 cell were treated with same condition PEF at 5 kV, respectively. After 12 min treatment, the survival ration of λ phage and MV1184 were 4.0 × 10-5 and 1.7 × 10-3, respectively. The survival ratio of phage was lower than that of MV1184. E. coli cell is more tolerant to inactivation with PEF treatment than coli phage.

  11. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.

    2012-06-19

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  12. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  13. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ▿

    PubMed Central

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log10 after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log10 and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log10 after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log10 reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log10 reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by ≥3.16 log10 and ≥4.32 log10, respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log10 in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  14. Structure and Function of Cytochromes P450 2B: From Mechanism-Based Inactivators to X-Ray Crystal Structures and Back

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews work from the author dating back to 1978 and focuses on the structural basis of cytochrome P450 (P450) function using available contemporary techniques. Early studies used mechanism-based inactivators that bound to the protein moiety of hepatic P450s to try to localize the active site. Subsequent studies used cDNA cloning, heterologous expression, site-directed mutagenesis, and homology modeling based on multiple bacterial P450 X-ray crystal structures to predict the active sites of CYP2B enzymes with considerable accuracy. Breakthroughs in engineering and expression of mammalian P450s enabled us to determine our first X-ray crystal structure of ligand-free rabbit CYP2B4. To date, we have solved 11 CYP2B4 and three human CYP2B6 structures, which represent four significantly different conformations. The plasticity of CYP2B4 has been confirmed by deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and is substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to major movement of secondary structure elements, more subtle reorientation of active site side chains, especially Phe206, Phe297, and Glu301, contributes to the ability of CYP2B enzymes to bind various ligands. Isothermal titration calorimetry has proven to be a useful tool for studying the thermodynamics of ligand binding to CYP2B4 and CYP2B6, and NMR has enabled study of ligand binding orientation in solution as an adjunct to X-ray crystallography. A major challenge remains to harness the power of the various approaches to facilitate prediction of CYP2B specificity and inhibition. PMID:21502194

  15. Polycrystalline diamond based detector for Z-pinch plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Linyue; Zhao Jizhen; Chen Liang; Ouyang Xiaoping; Wang Lan

    2010-08-15

    A detector setup based on polycrystalline chemical-vapor-deposition diamond film is developed with great characteristics: low dark current (lower than 60 pA within 3 V/{mu}m), fast pulsed response time (rise time: 2-3 ns), flat spectral response (3-5 keV), easy acquisition, low cost, and relative large sensitive area. The characterizing data on Qiangguang-I accelerator show that this detector can satisfy the practical requirements in Z-pinch plasma diagnosis very well, which offers a promising prototype for the x-ray detection in Z-pinch diagnosis.

  16. Cancer cell uptake behavior of Au nanoring and its localized surface plasmon resonance induced cell inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Che-Kuan; Tu, Yi-Chou; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chu, Chih-Ken; Chen, Shih-Yang; Chi, Ting-Ta; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung

    2015-02-01

    Au nanorings (NRIs), which have the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength around 1058 nm, either with or without linked antibodies, are applied to SAS oral cancer cells for cell inactivation through the LSPR-induced photothermal effect when they are illuminated by a laser of 1065 nm in wavelength. Different incubation times of cells with Au NRIs are considered for observing the variations of cell uptake efficiency of Au NRI and the threshold laser intensity for cell inactivation. In each case of incubation time, the cell sample is washed for evaluating the total Au NRI number per cell adsorbed and internalized by the cells based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement. Also, the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane are etched with KI/I2 solution to evaluate the internalized Au NRI number per cell. The threshold laser intensities for cell inactivation before washout, after washout, and after KI/I2 etching are calibrated from the circular area sizes of inactivated cells around the illuminated laser spot center with various laser power levels. By using Au NRIs with antibodies, the internalized Au NRI number per cell increases monotonically with incubation time up to 24 h. However, the number of Au NRI remaining on cell membrane reaches a maximum at 12 h in incubation time. The cell uptake behavior of an Au NRI without antibodies is similar to that with antibodies except that the uptake NRI number is significantly smaller and the incubation time for the maximum NRI number remaining on cell membrane is delayed to 20 h. By comparing the threshold laser intensities before and after KI/I2 etching, it is found that the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane cause more effective cancer cell inactivation, when compared with the internalized Au NRIs.

  17. Ozone inactivation of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1980-06-01

    Ozone decreased the trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activities of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor both in plasma and in solutions of the pure inhibitor. The total loss of porcine elastase inhibitory activity required 18 mol of ozone/mol of pure alpha 1-PI and approximately 850 mol of ozone/mol of alpha 1-PI in plasma. A corresponding loss of the ability to inhibit human leukocyte elastase was observed. Inactivated alpha 1-PI contains four residues of methionine sulfoxide, in addition to oxidized tryosine and tryptophan. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated that the ozone-inactivated alpha 1-PI did not form normal complexes with serine proteinases. These findings suggest that the inhalation of ozone could inactivate alpha 1-PI on the airspace side of the lung to create a localized alpha 1-PI deficiency, which might contribute to the development of emphysema.

  18. Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

    1988-01-01

    The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images PMID:2849380

  19. XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament

    SciTech Connect

    Peth, Christian; Kalinin, Anton; Barkusky, Frank; Mann, Klaus; Toennies, J. Peter; Rusin, Lev Yu

    2007-10-15

    We present a laser driven soft x-ray source based on a novel solid argon filament. The continuously flowing micron-sized filament (diameter {approx}56 {mu}m, flow speed {approx}5 mm/s) was used as a laser target in order to generate a plasma source of high brightness in the ''water window'' (2.2-4.4 nm) spectral range. The emission properties of the source were characterized in detail with respect to crucial parameters such as positional and energy stability using an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sensitive pinhole camera and an XUV spectrometer. The results are compared with an argon plasma based on a gas puff target operated under the same experimental conditions showing an increase of the brilliance by a factor of 84. By changing the capillary geometry from a constant diameter to a convergent shape the flow speed of the filament was significantly increased up to 250 mm/s, facilitating the operation at higher repetition rates.

  20. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method. PMID:16865888

  1. Slow inactivation of Na(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged depolarizing pulses that last seconds to minutes cause slow inactivation of Na(+) channels, which regulates neuron and myocyte excitability by reducing availability of inward current. In neurons, slow inactivation has been linked to memory of previous excitation and in skeletal muscle it ensures myocytes are able to contract when K(+) is elevated. The molecular mechanisms underlying slow inactivation are unclear even though it has been studied for 50+ years. This chapter reviews what is known to date regarding the definition, measurement, and mechanisms of voltage-gated Na(+) channel slow inactivation. PMID:24737231

  2. Relativistic plasma dielectric tensor evaluation based on the exact plasma dispersion functions concept

    SciTech Connect

    Castejon, F.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2006-07-15

    The fully relativistic plasma dielectric tensor for any wave and plasma parameter is estimated on the basis of the exact plasma dispersion functions concept. The inclusion of this concept allows one to write the tensor in a closed and compact form and to reduce the tensor evaluation to the calculation of those functions. The main analytical properties of these functions are studied and two methods are given for their evaluation. The comparison between the exact dielectric tensor with the weakly relativistic approximation, widely used presently in plasma waves calculations, is given as well as the range of plasma temperature, harmonic number, and propagation angle in which the weakly relativistic approximation is valid.

  3. Beam-plasma amplifiers based on nonhomogeneous plasma-cavity slow-wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Perevodchikov, V.I.; Mitin, L.A.; Shapiro, A.L.; Zavjalov, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    The investigation of interaction of E-beam with hybrid waves of nonhomogeneous plasma-cavity slow-wave structure have been carried out. It`s shown that depression of external magnetic field at out-put part of plasma-cavity structure may be used for decreasing of phase velocity of active waves and phase space synchronization ones with space charge fields, induced in plasma. This mode of operation of plasma TWT was calculated. The investigations carried out theoretically has been supported by experiments with plasma TWT.

  4. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies: The Advent of Pathogen-Reduced Blood Components to Reduce Blood Safety Risk.

    PubMed

    Devine, Dana V; Schubert, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen inactivation technologies represent a shift in blood safety from a reactive approach to a proactive protective strategy. Commercially available technologies demonstrate effective killing of most viruses, bacteria, and parasites and are capable of inactivating passenger leukocytes in blood products. The use of pathogen inactivation causes a decrease in the parameters of products that can be readily measured in laboratory assays but that do not seem to cause any alteration in hemostatic effect of plasma or platelet transfusions. Effort needs to be made to further develop these technologies so that the negative quality impact is ameliorated without reducing the pathogen inactivation effectiveness. PMID:27112999

  5. Ground-Based Simulation of Low-Earth Orbit Plasma Conditions: Plasma Generation and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Farnell, Casey C.; Shoemaker, Paul B.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    A 16-cm diameter plasma source operated on argon is described that is capable of producing a plasma environment that closely simulates the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions experienced by satellites in the altitude range between 300 to 500 km. The plasma source uses a transverse-field magnetic filter, and has been successful in producing low electron temperature plasmas that contain streaming ion populations. Both of these characteristics are important because the plasma in LEO is relatively cold (e.g., Te approx. 0.1 eV) and the ram energy of the ions due to the motion of the satellite relative to the LEO plasma is high (e.g., 7,800 m/s which corresponds to approx. 5 eV for O+ ions). Plasma source operational conditions of flow rate and discharge power are presented that allow the electron temperature to be adjusted over a range from 0.14 to 0.4 eV. The expanding plasma flow field downstream of the source contains both low-energy, charge-exchange ions and streaming ions with energies that are adjustable over a range from 4 eV to 6 eV. At low flow rates and low facility pressures, the streaming ion component of the ion population comprises over 90% of the total plasma density. In the work described herein, a large area retarding potential analyzer was used to measure both electron and ion energy distribution functions in the low density, expanding plasma produced downstream of the plasma source. The benefits of using this type of plasma diagnostic tool in easily perturbed, low-density plasma are identified, and techniques are also discussed that can be used to perform real-time measurements of electron temperature. Finally, recommendations are made that may enable lower electron temperatures to be produced while simultaneously decreasing the plasma source flow rate below 1 to 2 sccm.

  6. Advanced oxide powders processing based on cascade plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solonenko, O. P.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the potential advantages offered to thermal spraying and powder processing by the implementation of plasma torches with inter-electrode insert (IEI) or, in other words, cascade plasma torches (CPTs) is presented. The paper provides evidence that the modular designed single cathode CPT helps eliminate the following major disadvantages of conventional plasma torches: plasma parameters drifting, 1-5 kHz pulsing of plasma flow, as well as excessive erosion of electrodes. More stable plasma results in higher quality, homogeneity and reproducibility of plasma sprayed coatings and powders treated. In addition, CPT offers an extremely wide operating window, which allows better control of plasma parameters, particle dwell time and, consequently, particle temperature and velocity within a wide range by generating high enthalpy quasi-laminar plasmas, medium enthalpy transient plasmas, as well as relatively low enthalpy turbulent plasmas. Stable operation, flexibility with plasma gases as well as wide operating window of CPT should help significantly improve the existing plasma spraying processes and coatings, and also help develop new advanced technologies.

  7. Particle based plasma simulation for an ion engine discharge chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalingam, Sudhakar

    Design of the next generation of ion engines can benefit from detailed computer simulations of the plasma in the discharge chamber. In this work a complete particle based approach has been taken to model the discharge chamber plasma. This is the first time that simplifying continuum assumptions on the particle motion have not been made in a discharge chamber model. Because of the long mean free paths of the particles in the discharge chamber continuum models are questionable. The PIC-MCC model developed in this work tracks following particles: neutrals, singly charged ions, doubly charged ions, secondary electrons, and primary electrons. The trajectories of these particles are determined using the Newton-Lorentz's equation of motion including the effects of magnetic and electric fields. Particle collisions are determined using an MCC statistical technique. A large number of collision processes and particle wall interactions are included in the model. The magnetic fields produced by the permanent magnets are determined using Maxwell's equations. The electric fields are determined using an approximate input electric field coupled with a dynamic determination of the electric fields caused by the charged particles. In this work inclusion of the dynamic electric field calculation is made possible by using an inflated plasma permittivity value in the Poisson solver. This allows dynamic electric field calculation with minimal computational requirements in terms of both computer memory and run time. In addition, a number of other numerical procedures such as parallel processing have been implemented to shorten the computational time. The primary results are those modeling the discharge chamber of NASA's NSTAR ion engine at its full operating power. Convergence of numerical results such as total number of particles inside the discharge chamber, average energy of the plasma particles, discharge current, beam current and beam efficiency are obtained. Steady state results for

  8. Inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage by streamer corona discharge in water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changha; Kim, Jaeeun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2011-02-01

    Electrical discharge processes are emerging as water treatment technologies applicable to both the degradation of organic contaminants as well as inactivation of pathogens. Particularly as a disinfection technology, electrical discharge processes do not produce toxic byproducts, and effectively inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms by multiple lethal actions generated by the formation of plasma channels. This study demonstrates the inactivation of a virus using the streamer corona discharge process (SCDP) with MS2 phage as a surrogate. A rapid inactivation of MS2 phage (i.e., approximately 4 log inactivation in 5 min) was observed in all experimental runs conducted. Discharge conditions such as applied voltage and storage capacitance significantly affected the inactivation efficiency of MS2 phage, whereas the influence of water quality parameters was minor. In order to elucidate the mechanism of MS2 phage inactivation, potentially lethal factors that can be generated by the SCDP were selected, and their roles in the inactivation of MS2 phage were examined. As a result, effects of UV radiation, chemical oxidants, and pulsed electric fields were found to be insignificant. The shockwave generated upon plasma channel formation appears to be the most important factor responsible for MS2 phage inactivation. PMID:21144553

  9. INACTIVATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ENTEROVIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project was to compare the kinetics of chlorine inactivation of a naturally-shed virus and its tissue culture grown counterpart. Since inactivation studies require purified preparation possessing high infectivity titer and low chlorine demand a major part of this...

  10. Origin and evolution of X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gribnau, Joost; Grootegoed, J Anton

    2012-06-01

    Evolution of the mammalian sex chromosomes heavily impacts on the expression of X-encoded genes, both in marsupials and placental mammals. The loss of genes from the Y chromosome forced a two-fold upregulation of dose sensitive X-linked homologues. As a corollary, female cells would experience a lethal dose of X-linked genes, if this upregulation was not counteracted by evolution of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) that allows for only one active X chromosome per diploid genome. Marsupials rely on imprinted XCI, which inactivates always the paternally inherited X chromosome. In placental mammals, random XCI (rXCI) is the predominant form, inactivating either the maternal or paternal X. In this review, we discuss recent new insights in the regulation of XCI. Based on these findings, we propose an X inactivation center (Xic), composed of a cis-Xic and trans-Xic that encompass all elements and factors acting to control rXCI either in cis or in trans. We also highlight that XCI may have evolved from a very small nucleation site on the X chromosome in the vicinity of the Sox3 gene. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary road maps that resulted in imprinted XCI and rXCI as observed in present day mammals. PMID:22425180

  11. Sucrose Octasulfate Selectively Accelerates Thrombin Inactivation by Heparin Cofactor II*

    PubMed Central

    Sarilla, Suryakala; Habib, Sally Y.; Kravtsov, Dmitri V.; Matafonov, Anton; Gailani, David; Verhamme, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Inactivation of thrombin (T) by the serpins heparin cofactor II (HCII) and antithrombin (AT) is accelerated by a heparin template between the serpin and thrombin exosite II. Unlike AT, HCII also uses an allosteric interaction of its NH2-terminal segment with exosite I. Sucrose octasulfate (SOS) accelerated thrombin inactivation by HCII but not AT by 2000-fold. SOS bound to two sites on thrombin, with dissociation constants (KD) of 10 ± 4 μm and 400 ± 300 μm that were not kinetically resolvable, as evidenced by single hyperbolic SOS concentration dependences of the inactivation rate (kobs). SOS bound HCII with KD 1.45 ± 0.30 mm, and this binding was tightened in the T·SOS·HCII complex, characterized by Kcomplex of ∼0.20 μm. Inactivation data were incompatible with a model solely depending on HCII·SOS but fit an equilibrium linkage model employing T·SOS binding in the pathway to higher order complex formation. Hirudin-(54–65)(SO3−) caused a hyperbolic decrease of the inactivation rates, suggesting partial competitive binding of hirudin-(54–65)(SO3−) and HCII to exosite I. Meizothrombin(des-fragment 1), binding SOS with KD = 1600 ± 300 μm, and thrombin were inactivated at comparable rates, and an exosite II aptamer had no effect on the inactivation, suggesting limited exosite II involvement. SOS accelerated inactivation of meizothrombin 1000-fold, reflecting the contribution of direct exosite I interaction with HCII. Thrombin generation in plasma was suppressed by SOS, both in HCII-dependent and -independent processes. The ex vivo HCII-dependent process may utilize the proposed model and suggests a potential for oversulfated disaccharides in controlling HCII-regulated thrombin generation. PMID:20053992

  12. Performance analysis of charge plasma based dual electrode tunnel FET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sunny; Intekhab Amin, S.; Sarin, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes the charge plasma based dual electrode doping-less tunnel FET (DEDLTFET). The paper compares the device performance of the conventional doping-less TFET (DLTFET) and doped TFET (DGTFET). DEDLTEFT gives the superior results with high ON state current (ION ∼ 0.56 mA/μm), ION/IOFF ratio ∼ 9.12 × 1013 and an average subthreshold swing (AV-SS ∼ 48 mV/dec). The variation of different device parameters such as channel length, gate oxide material, gate oxide thickness, silicon thickness, gate work function and temperature variation are done and compared with DLTFET and DGTFET. Through the extensive analysis it is found that DEDLTFET shows the better performance than the other two devices, which gives the indication for an excellent future in low power applications.

  13. Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl

    2012-12-21

    Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

  14. Electron-ion plasma modification of Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yurii; Rygina, Mariya; Petrikova, Elizaveta; Krysina, Olga; Teresov, Anton; Ivanova, Olga; Ikonnikova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the study where we analyzed the surface structure and strength properties of coated Al alloys modified by electron-ion plasma treatment. The Al alloys were deposited with a thin (≈0.5 μm) TiCu film coating (TiCu-Al system) and with a hard TiCuN coating (TiCuN-AlSi system) on a TRIO vacuum setup in the plasma of low-pressure arc discharges. The temperature fields and phase transformations in the film-substrate system were estimated by numerical simulation in a wide range of electron energy densities (5-30 J/cm2) and pulse durations (50-200 μs). The calculations allowed us to determine the threshold energy density and pulse duration at which the surface structure of the irradiated Al-based systems is transformed in a single-phase state (solid or liquid) and in a two-phase state (solid plus liquid). The elemental composition, defect structure, phase state, and lattice state in the modified surface layers were examined by optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, and by X-ray diffraction analysis. The mechanical characteristics of the modified layers were studied by measuring the hardness and Young's modulus. The tribological properties of the modified layers were analyzed by measuring the wear resistance and friction coefficient. It is shown that melting and subsequent high-rate crystallization of the TiCu-Al system makes possible a multiphase Al-based surface structure with the following characteristics: crystallite size ranging within micrometer, microhardness of more than 3 times that in the specimen bulk, and wear resistance ≈1.8 times higher compared to the initial material. Electron beam irradiation of the TiCuN-AlSi system allows fusion of the coating into the substrate, thus increasing the wear resistance of the material ≈2.2 times at a surface hardness of ˜14 GPa.

  15. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  16. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  17. Lab- and space-based researchers discuss plasma experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Yamada, M.

    Plasma physics provides a common language and set of approaches that tie together all scientists who study the acceleration, transport, and loss processes of the plasma state. Some years ago, researchers from the laboratory and space research communities suggested a workshop to bring together the diverse researchers in the respective fields. A series of workshops on the “Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and Space” (IPELS) was established, and the third meeting was held July 24-28, 1995, in the beautiful and historic town of Pitlochry in the Scottish Highlands.The conference reestablished the critical point that plasma physics is an important but surprisingly diversified research discipline. Meetings attendees discussed a number of new approaches to plasma research, including novel diagnostic techniques for use in space, such as active antennas and electric field sounding devices. Detailed discussions covered spacecraft-plasma environment interactions, including vehicle charging and neutral gas release; fundamental aspects of industrial application of dusty plasmas and waves in dusty plasmas; a very distinctive phase transition of coulomb crystals (from solid state to liquid state) in dusty plasmas; and terrella experiments to simulate and study chaotic transport in the ionosphere.

  18. Summary report: working group 2 on 'Plasma Based AccelerationConcepts'

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Leemans, Wim

    1998-09-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beatwave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module.

  19. Destruction of {alpha}-synuclein based amyloid fibrils by a low temperature plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Erdinc; Laroussi, Mounir; Munyanyi, Agatha; Greene, Lesley

    2010-10-04

    Amyloid fibrils are ordered beta-sheet aggregates that are associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. At present, there is no cure for these progressive and debilitating diseases. Here we report initial studies that indicate that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma can break amyloid fibrils into smaller units in vitro. The plasma was generated by the 'plasma pencil', a device capable of emitting a long, low temperature plasma plume/jet. This avenue of research may facilitate the development of a plasma-based medical treatment.

  20. Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Park, So Lee; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-08-01

    Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Although this protocol has been widely accepted for the inactivation of envelope RNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged heat inactivation is required to completely inactivate two alphaviruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and CHIKV. Incomplete inactivation of viruses poses a laboratory biosafety risk and can also lead to spurious test results. Despite its importance in ensuring the safety of laboratory personnel as well as test integrity, systematic investigation on the thermostability of alphaviruses has not been performed. In this study, the temperature tolerance and heat inactivation profiles of RRV, Barmah Forest, and o'nyong-nyong viruses were determined. Variations in thermostability were observed within the Semliki forest serocomplex. Therefore, evidence-based heat inactivation procedures for alphaviruses are recommended. PMID:27079828

  1. Kinetics of Ozone Inactivation of Infectious Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ning; Price, Luke M.; Braithwaite, Shannon L.; Balachandran, Aru; Mitchell, Gordon; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of ozone inactivation of infectious prion protein (PrPSc, scrapie 263K) was investigated in ozone-demand-free phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Diluted infectious brain homogenates (IBH) (0.01%) were exposed to a predetermined ozone dose (10.8 ± 2.0 mg/liter) at three pHs (pH 4.4, 6.0, and 8.0) and two temperatures (4°C and 20°C). The inactivation of PrPSc was quantified by determining the in vitro destruction of PrPSc templating properties using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assay and bioassay, which were shown to correlate well. The inactivation kinetics were characterized by both Chick-Watson (CW) and efficiency factor Hom (EFH) models. It was found that the EFH model fit the experimental data more appropriately. The efficacy of ozone inactivation of PrPSc was both pH and temperature dependent. Based on the EFH model, CT (disinfectant concentration multiplied by contact time) values were determined for 2-log10, 3-log10, and 4-log10 inactivation at the conditions under which they were achieved. Our results indicated that ozone is effective for prion inactivation in ozone-demand-free water and may be applied for the inactivation of infectious prion in prion-contaminated water and wastewater. PMID:23416994

  2. Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 < XGSM < --15, i.e. which of the records that were located in the current sheet, in the tail lobe, in the magnetosheath and in the boundary layers respectively. The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

  3. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Based Chemically Assisted Plasma Etching Of Silicon in CF4/Ar Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R.K.; Angra, S.K.; Bajpai, R.P.; Lal, Madan; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2005-09-09

    Etching of silicon in Chemical Assisted Plasma Etching mode with CF4 gas being sprayed on the surface of wafer in process chamber and Ar fed to ECR cavity in Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source was carried out. The plasma source was 2.45 GHz microwave source superimposed with mirror type magnetic field configuration to have resonance. Effect of CF4/Ar ratio and substrate bias on etching rate of silicon and anisotropy of etched profile has been investigated. The variation of etch rate and anisotropy has been correlated to the availability of fluorine atoms and other radicals available for etching. Optimum parameters required for etching of silicon in chemical assisted plasma etching with self-assembled ECR plasma source has been established.

  4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Based Chemically Assisted Plasma Etching Of Silicon in CF4/Ar Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, R. K.; Angra, S. K.; Bajpai, R. P.; Lal, Madan; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.

    2005-09-01

    Etching of silicon in Chemical Assisted Plasma Etching mode with CF4 gas being sprayed on the surface of wafer in process chamber and Ar fed to ECR cavity in Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source was carried out. The plasma source was 2.45 GHz microwave source superimposed with mirror type magnetic field configuration to have resonance. Effect of CF4/Ar ratio and substrate bias on etching rate of silicon and anisotropy of etched profile has been investigated. The variation of etch rate and anisotropy has been correlated to the availability of fluorine atoms and other radicals available for etching. Optimum parameters required for etching of silicon in chemical assisted plasma etching with self-assembled ECR plasma source has been established.

  5. High-Pressure Inactivation of Rotaviruses: Role of Treatment Temperature and Strain Diversity in Virus Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Araud, Elbashir; DiCaprio, Erin; Yang, Zhihong; Li, Xinhui; Lou, Fangfei; Hughes, John H; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants worldwide. Although high-pressure processing (HPP) is a popular method to inactivate enteric pathogens in food, the sensitivity of different virus strains within same species and serotype to HPP is variable. This study aimed to compare the barosensitivities of seven RV strains derived from four serotypes (serotype G1, strains Wa, Ku, and K8; serotype G2, strain S2; serotype G3, strains SA-11 and YO; and serotype G4, strain ST3) following high-pressure treatment. RV strains showed various responses to HPP based on the initial temperature and had different inactivation profiles. Ku, K8, S2, SA-11, YO, and ST3 showed enhanced inactivation at 4°C compared to 20°C. In contrast, strain Wa was not significantly impacted by the initial treatment temperature. Within serotype G1, strain Wa was significantly (P < 0.05) more resistant to HPP than strains Ku and K8. Overall, the resistance of the human RV strains to HPP at 4°C can be ranked as Wa > Ku = K8 > S2 > YO > ST3, and in terms of serotype the ranking is G1 > G2 > G3 > G4. In addition, pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 2 min was sufficient to eliminate the Wa strain, the most pressure-resistant RV, from oyster tissues. HPP disrupted virion structure but did not degrade viral protein or RNA, providing insight into the mechanism of viral inactivation by HPP. In conclusion, HPP is capable of inactivating RV at commercially acceptable pressures, and the efficacy of inactivation is strain dependent. PMID:26187961

  6. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  7. Environmentally friendly plasma-based surface engineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenik, A.; Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Cvelbar, U.

    2010-01-01

    Weakly ionised reactive plasmas are characterised by a very low degree of ionization, which rarely exceeds the order of 10-4, and by a very high degree of dissociation, which often reaches values above 50%. Thus the most numerous plasma species are free neutral atoms originated from the dissociation of the source gas molecules. Neutral atoms are chemically very reactive species, which makes such plasma suitable for material processing. At the same time the neutral atoms have a low kinetic energy and therefore they cannot penetrate into the bulk material, so their effect is restricted to the topmost atomic layers of the material surface hence weakly ionised, reactive plasmas are suitable for surface engineering. Here we present examples of weakly ionised plasma applications as environmentally friendly alternatives to processes that otherwise utilise aggressive chemicals and produce toxic waste.

  8. Free radical inactivation of pepsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josimović, Lj; Ruvarac, I.; Janković, I.; Jovanović, S. V.

    1994-06-01

    Alkylperoxy radicals containing one, two or three chlorine atoms, CO -2, O 2 - were reacted with pepsin in aqueous solutions. It was found that only Cl 3COO and CO -2 inactive pepsin, attacking preferentially the disulfide bridge. Transient spectra obtained upon completion of the Cl 3COO + pepsin reaction at pH 5 indicate that 20% of initially produced Cl 3COO radicals oxidizes tryptophan residues, and 40% disulfide bridges. The inactivation induced by the Cl 3COO radical increases at lower pH, and the maximal inactivation, Gin = 5.8, was observed at pH 1.5. The inactivation of pepsin by CO -2 radicals depends on the absorbed dose. The maximal inactivation, Gin = 4.5, was determined in the dose range from 38 to 53 Gy.

  9. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  10. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator.

    PubMed

    Andriyash, I A; Lehe, R; Lifschitz, A; Thaury, C; Rax, J-M; Krushelnick, K; Malka, V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas. PMID:25145401

  11. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyash, I. A.; Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A.; Thaury, C.; Rax, J.-M.; Krushelnick, K.; Malka, V.

    2014-08-01

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas.

  12. Richardson Extrapolation Based Error Estimation for Stochastic Kinetic Plasma Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Keigh

    2014-10-01

    To have a high degree of confidence in simulations one needs code verification, validation, solution verification and uncertainty qualification. This talk will focus on numerical error estimation for stochastic kinetic plasma simulations using the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method and how it impacts the code verification and validation. A technique Is developed to determine the full converged solution with error bounds from the stochastic output of a Particle-In-Cell code with multiple convergence parameters (e.g. ?t, ?x, and macro particle weight). The core of this method is a multi parameter regression based on a second-order error convergence model with arbitrary convergence rates. Stochastic uncertainties in the data set are propagated through the model usin gstandard bootstrapping on a redundant data sets, while a suite of nine regression models introduces uncertainties in the fitting process. These techniques are demonstrated on Flasov-Poisson Child-Langmuir diode, relaxation of an electro distribution to a Maxwellian due to collisions and undriven sheaths and pre-sheaths. Sandia National Laboratories is a multie-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subisidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Paparelli, Laura; Corthout, Nikky; Pavie, Benjamin; Wakefield, Devin L; Sannerud, Ragna; Jovanovic-Talisman, Tijana; Annaert, Wim; Munck, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH). We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided. PMID:27603951

  14. Mass spectrometry-based plasma proteomics: state of the art and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Pernemalm, Maria; Lehtiö, Janne

    2014-08-01

    Mass spectrometry-based plasma proteomics is a field where intense research has been performed during the last decade. Being closely linked to biomarker discovery, the field has received a fair amount of criticism, mostly due to the low number of novel biomarkers reaching the clinic. However, plasma proteomics is under gradual development with improvements on fractionation methods, mass spectrometry instrumentation and analytical approaches. These recent developments have contributed to the revival of plasma proteomics. The goal of this review is to summarize these advances, focusing in particular on fractionation methods, both for targeted and global mass spectrometry-based plasma analysis. PMID:24661227

  15. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun.

    PubMed

    Zherlitsyn, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Pedin, N N

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode. PMID:23126788

  16. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    SciTech Connect

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  17. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  18. Radiation inactivation target size of rat adipocyte glucose transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.Y.; Jacobs, D.B.; Berenski, C.J.; Spangler, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    In situ assembly states of rat adipocyte glucose transport protein in plasma membrane (PM) and in microsomal pool (MM) were assessed by measuring target size (TS) of D glucose-sensitive, cytochalasin B binding activity. High energy radiation inactivated the binding in both PM and MM by reducing the total capacity of the binding (B/sub T/) without affecting the dissociation constant (K/sub D/). The reduction in B/sub T/ as a function of radiation dose was analyzed based on classical target theory, from which TS was calculated. TS in the PM of insulin-treated adipocytes was 58 KDa. TS in the MM of noninsulin-treated and insulin-treated adipocytes were 112 and 109 KDa, respectively. With MM, however, inactivation data showed anomalously low radiation sensitivities at low radiation doses showing a shoulder in the semilog plots, which may be due to an interaction with a radiation sensitive inhibitor. With these results, they propose the following model: Adipocyte glucose transporter, while exists as a monomer (T) in PM, occurs in MM either as a homodimer (T/sub 2/) or as a heterodimer (TX) with a protein X of a similar size. These dimers (T/sub 2/ or TX) in MM, furthermore, may form a multi-molecular assembly with another, large (300-400 KDa) protein Y, and insulin increases this assembly formation. These putative, transporter-associated proteins X and Y may play an important role in control of transporter distribution between PM and MM, particularly in response to insulin.

  19. Ground-based observations of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.

    A series of ground-based 1-D spatially resolved, high resolution spectra (in SII, SIII, and OII) of the Io plasma torus were acquired in October 1999, around the time of the Galileo I24 passage through the IPT. In a previous paper (Thomas et al., JGR, 106, 26277, 2001), we have presented the initial results from these observations. In this presentation, we will describe recent more detailed analysis which seems to be lending further insight into the structure of the IPT. In particular, we have used an "onion-peeling" technique to remove line of sight effects from the observations. The resulting profiles, show the so-called ribbon region (5.7 RJ) being clearly separated from the cold torus (5.3 RJ) by a region of lower SII emission. SIII emission is now shown to be almost completely absent in the cold torus. The ratio of these two species is seen to rise systematically and almost linearly with jovicentric distance from the cold torus through to the warm torus (beyond 6.0 RJ). Models can be used to interpret this behaviour in terms of changing electron temperature with distance. We compare our results with the only other measurement of this property which was based on Voyager 1 PLS observations. We further show that the peak of OII emission is not centred at the, what we now call, the sulphur ribbon. We attempt to derive the relative composition of the three major species in the torus as a function of jovicentric distance using our data.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.

  1. Structural Analysis of Dusty Plasma Formations Based on Spatial Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Khakhaev, A. D.; Luizova, L. A.; Piskunov, A. A.; Podryadchikov, S. F.; Soloviev, A. V.

    2008-09-07

    Some advantages of studying the structure of dusty plasma formations using spatial spectra are illustrated by simulated experiments and by processing actual images of dusty structures in dc glow discharge in inert and molecular gases.

  2. Magnetically confined plasma solar collector. [satellite based system in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, C. T.; Wolken, G., Jr.; Purvis, G. D., III

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of using a plasma medium for collecting solar energy in space is examined on the basis of a concept involving an orbiting magnetic bottle in which a solar-energy-absorbing plasma is confined. A basic system uses monatomic cesium as working fluid. Cesium evaporates from a source and flows into the useful volume of a magnetic bottle where it is photoionized by solar radiation. Ions and electrons lost through the loss cones are processed by a recovery system, which might be a combination of electromagnetic devices and heat engines. This study concentrates on the plasma production processes and size requirements, estimates of the magnetic field required to confine the plasma, and an estimate of the system parameters for a 10 GW solar collector using cesium.

  3. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  4. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  5. Plasma-based conversion of CO2: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Kozák, Tomas; van Laer, Koen; Snoeckx, Ramses

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses our recent results on plasma-based CO2 conversion, obtained by a combination of experiments and modeling, for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), a microwave plasma and a packed bed DBD reactor. The results illustrate that plasma technology is quite promising for CO2 conversion, but more research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to further improve the capabilities. PMID:26391907

  6. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  7. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-03-23

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  8. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath ("plasma shield") that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  9. A new plasma source based on contact ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Koslover, R.; Karim, R.; Rynn, N.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of plasma source is presented: A collisionless plasma is formed by producing ions on one end and electrons on the other of a cylindrical vacuum chamber in a solenoidal magnetic field. The ions are produced by contact ionization of potassium on tungsten. The source of electrons is a LaB6 plate. In the usual single-ended Q machine the elements rhenium, iridium, and platinum are tested as ionizing metals for potassium and barium.

  10. Population Dynamics of Viral Inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Krista; Li, Dong; Behrens, Manja; Streletzky, Kiril; Olsson, Ulf; Evilevitch, Alex

    We have investigated the population dynamics of viral inactivation in vitrousing time-resolved cryo electron microscopy combined with light and X-ray scattering techniques. Using bacteriophage λ as a model system for pressurized double-stranded DNA viruses, we found that virions incubated with their cell receptor eject their genome in a stochastic triggering process. The triggering of DNA ejection occurs in a non synchronized manner after the receptor addition, resulting in an exponential decay of the number of genome-filled viruses with time. We have explored the characteristic time constant of this triggering process at different temperatures, salt conditions, and packaged genome lengths. Furthermore, using the temperature dependence we determined an activation energy for DNA ejections. The dependences of the time constant and activation energy on internal DNA pressure, affected by salt conditions and encapsidated genome length, suggest that the triggering process is directly dependent on the conformational state of the encapsidated DNA. The results of this work provide insight into how the in vivo kinetics of the spread of viral infection are influenced by intra- and extra cellular environmental conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1252522.

  11. Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry techniques: The current status and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuelu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient mass spectrometry is emerging as a frontier technology for direct analysis of sample that employs low-energy plasma as the ionization reagent. The versatile sources of ambient mass spectrometry (MS) can be classified according to the plasma formation approaches; namely, corona discharge, glow discharge, dielectric barrier discharge, and microwave-induced discharge. These techniques allow pretreatment-free detection of samples, ranging from biological materials (e.g., flies, bacteria, plants, tissues, peptides, metabolites, and lipids) to pharmaceuticals, food-stuffs, polymers, chemical warfare reagents, and daily-use chemicals. In most cases, plasma-based ambient MS performs well as a qualitative tool and as an analyzer for semi-quantitation. Herein, we provide an overview of the key concepts, mechanisms, and applications of plasma-based ambient MS techniques, and discuss the challenges and outlook. PMID:24338668

  12. Reply to ``Comment on `Beamstrahlung considerations in laser-plasma-accelerator-based linear colliders' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-10-01

    We reply to Lebedev and Nagaitsev’s foregoing Comment [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 16, 108001 (2013)PRABFM1098-4402]. We disagree with the conclusion of the Comment that scattering imposes a fundamental limitation on plasma-based accelerator technology. Laser-plasma accelerators are compatible with high-luminosity collider concepts.

  13. Feature-based Analysis of Plasma-based Particle Acceleration Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Chen, Min; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Bethel, E. Wes

    2013-07-05

    Plasma-based particle accelerators can produce and sustain thousands of times stronger acceleration fields than conventional particle accelerators, providing a potential solution to the problem of the growing size and cost of conventional particle accelerators. To facilitate scientific knowledge discovery from the ever growing collections of accelerator simulation data generated by accelerator physicists to investigate next-generation plasma-based particle accelerator designs, we describe a novel approach for automatic detection and classification of particle beams and beam substructures due to temporal differences in the acceleration process, here called acceleration features. The automatic feature detection in combination with a novel visualization tool for fast, intuitive, query-based exploration of acceleration features enables an effective top-down data exploration process, starting from a high-level, feature-based view down to the level of individual particles. We describe the application of our analysis in practice to analyze simulations of single pulse and dual and triple colliding pulse accelerator designs, and to study the formation and evolution of particle beams, to compare substructures of a beam and to investigate transverse particle loss.

  14. Feature-based analysis of plasma-based particle acceleration data.

    PubMed

    Rübel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G R; Chen, Min; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Bethel, E Wes

    2014-02-01

    Plasma-based particle accelerators can produce and sustain thousands of times stronger acceleration fields than conventional particle accelerators, providing a potential solution to the problem of the growing size and cost of conventional particle accelerators. To facilitate scientific knowledge discovery from the ever growing collections of accelerator simulation data generated by accelerator physicists to investigate next-generation plasma-based particle accelerator designs, we describe a novel approach for automatic detection and classification of particle beams and beam substructures due to temporal differences in the acceleration process, here called acceleration features. The automatic feature detection in combination with a novel visualization tool for fast, intuitive, query-based exploration of acceleration features enables an effective top-down data exploration process, starting from a high-level, feature-based view down to the level of individual particles. We describe the application of our analysis in practice to analyze simulations of single pulse and dual and triple colliding pulse accelerator designs, and to study the formation and evolution of particle beams, to compare substructures of a beam, and to investigate transverse particle loss. PMID:24356363

  15. Physics data base for the Beam Plasma Neutron Source (BPNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coensgen, F. H.; Casper, T. A.; Correll, D. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Molvik, A. W.

    1990-10-01

    A 14-MeV deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron source for accelerated end-of-life testing of fusion reactor materials has been designed on the basis of a linear two-component collisional plasma system. An intense flux (up to 5 x 10(exp 18)/sq m sec) of 14 MeV neutrons is produced in a fully ionized high-density (n sub e approx. = 3 x 10(exp 21) per cu m) tritium target by transverse injection of 60 MW of neutral beam power. Power deposited in the target is removed by thermal electron conduction to large end chambers, where it is deposited in gaseous plasma collectors. We show in this paper that the major physics issues have now been experimentally demonstrated. These include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, microstability, startup, fueling, Spitzer electron thermal conductivity, and power deposition in a gaseous plasma collector. However, an integrated system was not demonstrated.

  16. In vitro evaluation of pathogen-inactivated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates during storage: psoralen-based photochemical treatment step-by-step

    PubMed Central

    Abonnenc, Mélanie; Sonego, Giona; Kaiser-Guignard, Julie; Crettaz, David; Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background The Intercept Blood SystemTM (Cerus) is used to inactivate pathogens in platelet concentrates (PC). The aim of this study was to elucidate the extent to which the Intercept treatment modifies the functional properties of platelets. Material and methods A two-arm study was conducted initially to compare buffy coat-derived pathogen-inactivated PC to untreated PC (n=5) throughout storage. A four-arm study was then designed to evaluate the contribution of the compound adsorbing device (CAD) and ultraviolet (UV) illumination to the changes observed upon Intercept treatment. Intercept-treated PC, CAD-incubated PC, and UV-illuminated PC were compared to untreated PC (n=5). Functional characteristics were assessed using flow cytometry, hypotonic shock response (HSR), aggregation, adhesion assays and flow cytometry for the detection of CD62P, CD42b, GPIIb-IIIa, phosphatidylserine exposure and JC-1 aggregates. Results Compared to fresh platelets, end-of-storage platelets exhibited greater passive activation, disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm), and phosphatidylserine exposure accompanied by a decreased capacity to respond to agonist-induced aggregation, lower HSR, and CD42b expression. The Intercept treatment resulted in significantly lower HSR and CD42b expression compared to controls on day 7, with no significant changes in CD62P, Δψm, or phosphatidylserine exposure. GPIIbIIIa expression was significantly increased in Intercept-treated platelets throughout the storage period. The agonist-induced aggregation response was highly dependent on the type and concentration of agonist used, indicating a minor effect of the Intercept treatment. The CAD and UV steps alone had a negligible effect on platelet aggregation. Discussion The Intercept treatment moderately affects platelet function in vitro. CAD and UV illumination alone make negligible contributions to the changes in aggregation observed in Intercept-treated PC. PMID:25369598

  17. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-01

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification. PMID:24099566

  18. [Universal implementation of pathogen inactivation in labile blood products is a major step towards transfusion safety].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Jean-Pierre

    2010-12-01

    Transfusion of labile blood products (red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates and plasma) is vital in the absence of alternatives. Patients and doctors have always feared infections transmitted by blood, blood components and blood-derived drugs. It is potentially dangerous to delay implementation of pathogen inactivation in labile blood products pending a perfect process. Universal implementation of pathogen inactivation in labile blood products is a major step towards transfusion safety. PMID:22043595

  19. Final report of ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing''

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb S. Oehrlein; H. Anderson; J. Cecchi; D. Graves

    2004-09-21

    This report provides a summary of results obtained in research supported by contract ''Fundamental Surface Reaction Mechanisms in Fluorocarbon Plasma-Based Processing'' (Contract No. DE-FG0200ER54608). In this program we advanced significantly the scientific knowledge base on low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas used for patterning of dielectric films and for producing fluorocarbon coatings on substrates. We characterized important neutral and ionic gas phase species that are incident at the substrate, and the processes that occur at relevant surfaces in contact with the plasma. The work was performed through collaboration of research groups at three universities where significantly different, complementary tools for plasma and surface characterization, computer simulation of plasma and surface processes exist. Exchange of diagnostic tools and experimental verification of key results at collaborating institutions, both experimentally and by computer simulations, was an important component of the approach taken in this work.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown plasma-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2010-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is dependent on the interaction between the initiating Laser sequence, the sampled material and the intermediate plasma states. Pulse shaping and timing have been empirically demonstrated to have significant impact on the signal available for active/passive detection and identification. The transient nature of empirical LIBS work makes data collection for optimization an expensive process. Guidance from effective computer simulation represents an alternative. This computational method for CBRNE sensing applications models the Laser, material and plasma interaction for the purpose of performance prediction and enhancement. This paper emphasizes the aspects of light, plasma, and material interaction relevant to portable sensor development for LIBS. The modeling structure emphasizes energy balances and empirical fit descriptions with limited detailed-balance and finite element approaches where required. Dusty plasma from partially decomposed material sample interaction with pulse dynamics is considered. This heuristic is used to reduce run times and computer loads. Computer simulations and some data for validation are presented. A new University of Memphis HPC/super-computer (~15 TFLOPS) is used to enhance simulation. Results coordinated with related effort at Arkansas State University. Implications for ongoing empirical work are presented with special attention paid to the application of compressive sensing for signal processing, feature extraction, and classification.

  1. A Plasma-Based DC-DC Electrical Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Richard; Finn, John

    2013-10-01

    Previous work has indicated that it may be possible to make DC-DC electrical transformers using plasmas. The mechanism is an MHD electromagnetic relaxation process induced by helical electrodes. This process is now being tested on the Bismark device at Tibbar Technologies.

  2. Global Turbulence Simulations of CYCLONE Base Case and MAST Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Saarelma, S.; Akers, R.; Reshko, M.; Roach, C. M.; Romanelli, M.; Thyagaraja, A.; Bottino, A.; Jolliet, S.

    2008-11-01

    The non-local effects of turbulence can affect the transport especially in devices when the ration of ion gyroradius to plasma size ({rho}{sub i}*) is large. We show how the local linear and nonlinear ITG flux-tube results are modified when the simulations are done with finite {rho}{sub i}* in a global code.

  3. Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Jaroszynski, D A; Bingham, R; Brunetti, E; Ersfeld, B; Gallacher, J; van der Geer, B; Issac, R; Jamison, S P; Jones, D; de Loos, M; Lyachev, A; Pavlov, V; Reitsma, A; Saveliev, Y; Vieux, G; Wiggins, S M

    2006-03-15

    Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged particles to high energies over very short distances, as high as 1GeV in a few millimetres. The short length scale of plasma waves provides a means of developing very compact high-energy accelerators, which could form the basis of compact next-generation light sources with unique properties. Tuneable X-ray radiation and particle pulses with durations of the order of or less than 5fs should be possible and would be useful for probing matter on unprecedented time and spatial scales. If developed to fruition this revolutionary technology could reduce the size and cost of light sources by three orders of magnitude and, therefore, provide powerful new tools to a large scientific community. We will discuss how a laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerator can be used to produce radiation with unique characteristics over a very large spectral range. PMID:16483958

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Plasma Actuators Based on Magnetogasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Chiranjeev; Zaidi, Sohail; Shneider, Mikhail; Miles, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were conducted of magnetically driven DC surface plasma discharges. Their application to supersonic boundary layer control is investigated, specifically the shockwave-turbulent boundary layer interaction problem and the induced separation control is shown. This interaction causes incoming boundary layer thickening and localized pressure loads and high heating rates. In the case of scramjet engine inlet this results in reduced effective cross-section and loss of thrust and efficiency. Magnetogasdynamic flow control is achieved by generating a plasma column close to the wall in boundary layer and dragging the gas close to the wall using Lorentz force due to perpendicular (to flow direction as well as current) magnetic field. The surface plasma column appears as a transverse ``arc'' between two slightly diverging electrodes which is driven by j x B forces so that it sweeps the gas near the surface in the separated region or the recirculation zone, either in the downstream direction or in the upstream direction. Depending on the direction of Lorentz force, separation bubble is either induced in the boundary layer or the shockwave induced bubble is reduced in intensity and probably eliminated. It is shown that these interactions between the plasma and the recirculation zone are non-thermal in nature.

  5. Los Alamos research in nozzle based coaxial plasma thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuer, Jay; Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Wurden, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: research approach; perspectives on efficient magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) operation; NASA and DOE supported research in ideal magnetohydrodynamic plasma acceleration and flow, electrode phenomena, and magnetic nozzles; and future research directions and plans.

  6. Plasma etch characteristics of aluminum nitride mask layers grown by low-temperature plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition in SF{sub 6} based plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Perros, Alexander; Bosund, Markus; Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Sainiemi, Lauri; Huhtio, Teppo; Lipsanen, Harri

    2012-01-15

    The plasma etch characteristics of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited by low-temperature, 200 deg. C, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated for reactive ion etch (RIE) and inductively coupled plasma-reactive ion etch (ICP-RIE) systems using various mixtures of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} under different etch conditions. During RIE, the film exhibits good mask properties with etch rates below 10r nm/min. For ICP-RIE processes, the film exhibits exceptionally low etch rates in the subnanometer region with lower platen power. The AlN film's removal occurred through physical mechanisms; consequently, rf power and chamber pressure were the most significant parameters in PEALD AlN film removal because the film was inert to the SF{sub x}{sup +} and O{sup +} chemistries. The etch experiments showed the film to be a resilient masking material. This makes it an attractive candidate for use as an etch mask in demanding SF{sub 6} based plasma etch applications, such as through-wafer etching, or when oxide films are not suitable.

  7. Membrane-based Therapeutic Plasma Exchange: A New Frontier for Nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Gashti, Casey N

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange has long been utilized to manage a variety of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying principle is the removal of a circulating pathogenic substance from the plasma and substitution with a replacement fluid. Different methodologies of plasma separation include the use of centrifuge, which relies on the variation in the specific gravity of blood components, and membrane-based separation, which relies on particle size. With advancements in technology and clinical insight into disease pathophysiology, membrane technology has become more biocompatible, safer, and more adaptable to conventional hemodialysis and hemofiltration machines. As such, nephrologists, who are familiar with management of extracorporeal blood purification systems, are increasingly involved with membrane-based plasma separation. This review aims to highlight the technical aspects of membrane-based separation, review the prescription for therapy, and draw comparisons with the centrifuge-based technique when applicable. PMID:27062015

  8. Plasma fluorination of carbon-based materials for imprint and molding lithographic applications

    PubMed Central

    Schvartzman, M.; Mathur, A.; Hone, J.; Jahnes, C.; Wind, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon nanoimprint templates are modified by exposure to a fluorocarbon-based plasma, yielding an ultrathin layer of a fluorocarbon material on the surface which has a very low surface energy with excellent antiwear properties. We demonstrate the use of these plasma fluorinated templates to pattern features with dimensions ∼20 nm and below. Furthermore, we show that this process is extendable to other carbon-based materials. Plasma fluorination can be applied directly to nanoimprint resists as well as to molds used to form elastomer stamps for microcontact printing and other applications requiring easy mold release. PMID:19529791

  9. Development Of Sputtering Models For Fluids-Based Plasma Simulation Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth; Beckwith, Kristian; Stoltz, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Rf-driven plasma devices such as ion sources and plasma processing devices for many industrial and research applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling. Simulation of these devices using explicit PIC codes is difficult due to inherent separations of time and spatial scales. One alternative type of model is fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics, that are applicable to modeling higher-density plasmas in the time domain, but can relax time step requirements. To accurately model plasma-surface processes, such as physical sputtering and secondary electron emission, kinetic particle models have been developed, where particles are emitted from a material surface due to plasma ion bombardment. In fluid models plasma properties are defined on a cell-by-cell basis, and distributions for individual particle properties are assumed. This adds a complexity to surface process modeling, which we describe here. We describe the implementation of sputtering models into the hydrodynamic plasma simulation code USim, as well as methods to improve the accuracy of fluids-based simulation of plasmas-surface interactions by better modeling of heat fluxes. This work was performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Award #DE-SC0009585.

  10. A fluctuation-induced plasma transport diagnostic based upon fast-Fourier transform spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, J. Y.; Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A diagnostic, based on fast Fourier-transform spectral analysis techniques, that provides experimental insight into the relationship between the experimentally observable spectral characteristics of the fluctuations and the fluctuation-induced plasma transport is described. The model upon which the diagnostic technique is based and its experimental implementation is discussed. Some characteristic results obtained during the course of an experimental study of fluctuation-induced transport in the electric field dominated NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma are presented.

  11. A parametric study of the destruction efficiency of Bacillus spores in low pressure oxygen-based plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hury, S; Vidal, D R; Desor, F; Pelletier, J; Lagarde, T

    1998-06-01

    The destruction of Bacillus spores in oxygen-based plasmas sustained in the millitorr pressure range has been studied as functions of various biological and plasma parameters, namely Bacillus species, surface concentration of spores, treatment temperature, and gas composition. In an oxygen plasma, Bacillus stearothermophilus appears less plasma-resistant than the other spores tested. Oxygen, H2O2 and chiefly CO2 plasmas are clearly shown to be much more efficient in destroying Bacillus subtilis spores than pure argon plasma. The bacterial surface concentration on the spore carriers and the treatment temperature also lead to significant variations in the destruction efficiency of spores when using CO2 plasma. PMID:9717311

  12. Plasma-Based Detector of Outer-Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Brinza, David E.; Henry, Michael D.; Clay, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    A report presents a concept for an instrument to be flown in outer space, where it would detect dust particles - especially those associated with comets. The instrument would include a flat plate that would intercept the dust particles. The anticipated spacecraft/dust-particle relative speeds are so high that the impingement of a dust particle on the plate would generate a plasma cloud. Simple electric dipole sensors located equidistantly along the circumference of the plate would detect the dust particle indirectly by detecting the plasma cloud. The location of the dust hit could be estimated from the timing of the detection pulses of the different dipoles. The mass and composition of the dust particle could be estimated from the shapes and durations of the pulses from the dipoles. In comparison with other instruments for detecting hypervelocity dust particles, the proposed instrument offers advantages of robustness, large collection area, and simplicity.

  13. Inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of alien ballast water is a well-known, major reason for marine species invasion. Here, circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation was used to inactivate Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water. In comparison with single- and multihole orifice plates, the conical-hole orifice plate yielded the highest inactivation percentage, 51.12%, and consumed only 6.84% energy (based on a 50% inactivation percentage). Repeating treatment, either using double series-connection or circling inactivation, elevated the inactivation percentage, yet consumed much more energy. The results indicate that conical-hole-generated hydrodynamic cavitation shows great potential as a pre-inactivation method for ballast water treatment. PMID:26370563

  14. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INACTIVATION AND REMOVAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench- and pilot-scale tests were performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment, ozonation and chlorine dioxide to remove and inactivate Cryptosporidium oocysts. The impacts of coagulant type, coagulant dose, raw water quality, filter loading rates and filter media w...

  15. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  16. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  17. Reflectance characterization of tape-based plasma mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, B. H.; Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-06-01

    Specular reflections of relativistic laser pulses from an overdense plasma mirror (PM) were studied experimentally. The pointing stability of the PM and reflectance of the input laser were characterized. The solid material used for the PM was a VHS tape. This study was done for the magnetic and plastic sides of the VHS tape, and for input light of both s and p-polarizations. The laser pulse fluence was varied by changing the focus position relative to the tape surface, which changed the spot size at the tape. The pointing fluctuations of the reflected pulses caused by the PM were ≃1 mrad. A peak reflectance of 82% was obtained from the plastic surface of the VHS tape when focusing s-polarized light 4 mm from the tape surface (the wavefront quality was confirmed to be conserved). An analytic model was developed to understand the physics of the interaction for each tape material and polarization. Fitting of our model parameters to the experimental results allowed an estimate of the key plasma parameters such as plasma expansion velocity, ionization intensity, and fraction of absorbed laser energy.

  18. Summary report: Working Group 2 on {open_quotes}Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.; Esarey, E.

    1999-07-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beatwave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Dynamical programming based turbulence velocimetry for fast visible imaging of tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Santanu; Zushi, H; Nishino, N; Mishra, K; Onchi, T; Kuzmin, A; Nagashima, Y; Hanada, K; Nakamura, K; Idei, H; Hasegawa, M; Fujisawa, A

    2015-03-01

    An orthogonal dynamic programming (ODP) based particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is developed to measure the time resolved flow field of the fluctuating structures at the plasma edge and scrape off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. This non-intrusive technique can provide two dimensional velocity fields at high spatial and temporal resolution from a fast framing image sequence and hence can provide better insights into plasma flow as compared to conventional probe measurements. Applicability of the technique is tested with simulated image pairs. Finally, it is applied to tangential fast visible images of QUEST plasma to estimate the SOL flow in inboard poloidal null-natural divertor configuration. This technique is also applied to investigate the intricate features of the core of the run-away dominated phase following the injection of a large amount of neutrals in the target Ohmic plasma. Development of the ODP-PIV code and its applicability on actual plasma images is reported. PMID:25832227

  20. Dynamical programming based turbulence velocimetry for fast visible imaging of tokamak plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Zushi, H.; Nishino, N.; Mishra, K.; Onchi, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.

    2015-03-01

    An orthogonal dynamic programming (ODP) based particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is developed to measure the time resolved flow field of the fluctuating structures at the plasma edge and scrape off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. This non-intrusive technique can provide two dimensional velocity fields at high spatial and temporal resolution from a fast framing image sequence and hence can provide better insights into plasma flow as compared to conventional probe measurements. Applicability of the technique is tested with simulated image pairs. Finally, it is applied to tangential fast visible images of QUEST plasma to estimate the SOL flow in inboard poloidal null-natural divertor configuration. This technique is also applied to investigate the intricate features of the core of the run-away dominated phase following the injection of a large amount of neutrals in the target Ohmic plasma. Development of the ODP-PIV code and its applicability on actual plasma images is reported.

  1. Synthetic virus seeds for improved vaccine safety: Genetic reconstruction of poliovirus seeds for a PER.C6 cell based inactivated poliovirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Barbara P; Edo-Matas, Diana; Papic, Natasa; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Custers, Jerome H H V

    2015-10-13

    Safety of vaccines can be compromised by contamination with adventitious agents. One potential source of adventitious agents is a vaccine seed, typically derived from historic clinical isolates with poorly defined origins. Here we generated synthetic poliovirus seeds derived from chemically synthesized DNA plasmids encoding the sequence of wild-type poliovirus strains used in marketed inactivated poliovirus vaccines. The synthetic strains were phenotypically identical to wild-type polioviruses as shown by equivalent infectious titers in culture supernatant and antigenic content, even when infection cultures are scaled up to 10-25L bioreactors. Moreover, the synthetic seeds were genetically stable upon extended passaging on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. Use of synthetic seeds produced on the serum-free PER.C6 cell platform ensures a perfectly documented seed history and maximum control over starting materials. It provides an opportunity to maximize vaccine safety which increases the prospect of a vaccine end product that is free from adventitious agents. PMID:26362098

  2. Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation. PMID:27070504

  3. Effective Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Reliable inactivation of specimens before removal from high-level biocontainment is crucial for safe operation. To evaluate efficacy of methods of chemical inactivation, we compared in vitro and in vivo approaches using Ebola virus as a surrogate pathogen. Consequently, we have established parameters and protocols leading to reliable and effective inactivation. PMID:27070504

  4. Inactivation of phosphoglycerate mutase and creatine kinase isoenzymes in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Durany, N; Carreras, J; Valentí, M; Cámara, J; Carreras, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims/Background: Total phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) activity in serum has been shown to be increased in acute myocardial infarction with the same time course as creatine kinase (CK) activity. However, the increase in the muscle (MM) and in the cardiac (MB) PGM isoenzymes was not as high as expected. The present study was undertaken to characterise PGM inactivation by serum and to compare it with serum CK inactivation. Methods: The PGM and the CK activities of extracts of human heart, skeletal muscle, and brain were determined spectrophotometrically after incubation with different media, namely: plasma, whole serum, dialysed serum, heated serum, serum ultrafiltrate, urate solution, and buffer solution. Results: Type MM PGM was inactivated by plasma, whole serum, heated serum, dialysed serum, and serum ultrafiltrate. Inactivation in dialysed serum was reduced by EDTA and largely reversed by thiol agents. Inactivation in serum ultrafiltrate was not prevented by EDTA and only partially reversed by dithiothreitol. The muscle and type BB CK isoenzymes were inactivated in all the tested media. The incubation of human and rabbit skeletal muscle PGM and CK in urate solution showed that urate does not affect mutase activity under conditions that inactivate CK. Conclusions: These results confirm the mechanisms of CK inactivation proposed by others and show that the type M PGM subunit is inactivated by two different mechanisms, which appear to involve the thiol groups of the enzyme. One mechanism is caused by either a protein component or a protein bound serum component and involves calcium ions and/or another chelatable metal ion. The other mechanism is caused by a lower molecular weight serum component and is metal ion independent. PMID:12147715

  5. PLASMA LENS FOR US BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM AT EITHER FNAL OR BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.; WENG, W.; DIWAN, M.; GALLARDO, J.; KIRK, H.; JOHNSON, B.; KAHN, S.; GARATE, E.; VAN DRIE, A.; ROSTOKER, N.

    2007-06-25

    The plasma lens concept is examined as an alternative to focusing horns and solenoids for a neutrino beam facility. The concept is based on a combined high-current lens/target configuration. Current is fed at an electrode located downstream from the beginning of the target where pion capturing is needed. The current is carried by plasma outside the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target. The plasma is immersed in a relatively small solenoidal magnetic field to facilitate its current profile shaping to optimize pion capture. Simulations of the not yet fully optimized configuration yielded a 25% higher neutrino flux at a detector situated at 3 km from the target than the horn system for the entire energy spectrum and a factor of 2.47 higher flux for neutrinos with energy larger than 3 GeV. A major advantage of plasma lenses is in background reduction. In anti-neutrino operation, neutrino background is reduced by a factor of close to 3 for the whole spectrum, and for and for energy larger than 3 GeV, neutrino background is reduced by a factor of 3.6. Plasma lenses have additional advantages: larger axial currents, high signal purity: minimal neutrino background in anti-neutrino runs. The lens medium consists of plasma, consequently, particle absorption and scattering is negligible. Withstanding high mechanical and thermal stresses in a plasma is not an issue.

  6. Development of laser-based diagnostics for 1-MA z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Wiewior, P.; Presura, R.; Kindel, J. M.; Shevelko, A. P.; Chalyy, O.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Haboub, A.; Altemara, S. D.; Papp, D.; Durmaz, T.

    2009-11-01

    The 50 TW Leopard laser coupled with the 1-MA Zebra generator was used for development of new diagnostics of z-pinch plasmas. Two plasma diagnostics are presented: an x-ray broadband backlighting for z-pinch absorption spectroscopy and parametric two-plasmon decay of the laser beam in dense z-pinch plasma. Implementation of new diagnostics on the Zebra generator and the first results are discussed. The absorption spectroscopy is based on backlighting of z-pinch plasma with a broadband x-ray radiation from a Sm laser plasma. Detailed analysis of the absorption spectra yields the electron temperature and density of z-pinch plasma at the non-radiative stage. The parametric two-plasmon decay of intensive laser radiation generates 3/2φ and 1/2φ harmonics. These harmonics can be used to derive a temperature of z-pinch plasma with the electron density near the quarter of critical plasma density.

  7. Development of barrier coatings for cellulosic-based materials by cold plasma methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Agnes Reka

    Cellulose-based materials are ideal candidates for future industries that need to be based on environmentally safe technologies and renewable resources. Wood represents an important raw material and its application as construction material is well established. Cellophane is one of the most important cellulosic material and it is widely used as packaging material in the food industry. Outdoor exposure of wood causes a combination of physical and chemical degradation processes due to the combined effects of sunlight, moisture, fungi, and bacteria. Cold-plasma-induced surface modifications are an attractive way for tailoring the characteristics of lignocellulosic substrates to prevent weathering degradation. Plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) was deposited onto wood surfaces to create water repellent characteristics. The presence of a crosslinked macromolecular structure was detected. The plasma coated samples exhibited very high water contact angle values indicating the existence of hydrophobic surfaces. Reflective and electromagnetic radiation-absorbent substances were incorporated with a high-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxane polymer in liquid phase and deposited as thin layers on wood surfaces. The macromolecular films, containing the dispersed materials, were then converted into a three dimensional solid state network by exposure to a oxygen-plasma. It was demonstrated that both UV-absorbent and reflectant components incorporated into the plasma-generated PDMSO matrix protected the wood from weathering degradation. Reduced oxidation and less degradation was observed after simulated weathering. High water contact angle values indicated a strong hydrophobic character of the oxygen plasma-treated PDMSO-coated samples. Plasma-enhanced surface modifications and coatings were employed to create water-vapor barrier layers on cellophane substrate surfaces. HMDSO was selected as a plasma gas and oxygen was used to ablate amorphous regions. Oxygen plasma

  8. Addressing uncertainty in fecal indicator bacteria dark inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Myers, Luke; Swall, Jenise L; Noble, Rachel T

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the potential threat of fecal contamination in surface water often depends on model forecasts which assume that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a proxy for the concentration of pathogens found in fecal contamination from warm-blooded animals) are lost or removed from the water column at a certain rate (often referred to as an "inactivation" rate). In efforts to reduce human health risks in these water bodies, regulators enforce limits on easily-measured FIB concentrations, commonly reported as most probable number (MPN) and colony forming unit (CFU) values. Accurate assessment of the potential threat of fecal contamination, therefore, depends on propagating uncertainty surrounding "true" FIB concentrations into MPN and CFU values, inactivation rates, model forecasts, and management decisions. Here, we explore how empirical relationships between FIB inactivation rates and extrinsic factors might vary depending on how uncertainty in MPN values is expressed. Using water samples collected from the Neuse River Estuary (NRE) in eastern North Carolina, we compare Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus (ENT) dark inactivation rates derived from two statistical models of first-order loss; a conventional model employing ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression with MPN values, and a novel Bayesian model utilizing the pattern of positive wells in an IDEXX Quanti-Tray®/2000 test. While our results suggest that EC dark inactivation rates tend to decrease as initial EC concentrations decrease and that ENT dark inactivation rates are relatively consistent across different ENT concentrations, we find these relationships depend upon model selection and model calibration procedures. We also find that our proposed Bayesian model provides a more defensible approach to quantifying uncertainty in microbiological assessments of water quality than the conventional MPN-based model, and that our proposed model represents a new strategy for developing robust relationships between

  9. On the plasma-based growth of ‘flowing’ graphene sheets at atmospheric pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, D.; Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, A.; Henriques, J.; Rego, A.; Ferraria, A.; Abrashev, M. V.; Dias, F. M.; Luhrs, C. C.; Phillips, J.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental study on atmospheric pressure microwave plasma-based assembly of free standing graphene sheets is presented. The synthesis method is based on introducing a carbon-containing precursor (C2H5OH) through a microwave (2.45 GHz) argon plasma environment, where decomposition of ethanol molecules takes place and carbon atoms and molecules are created and then converted into solid carbon nuclei in the ‘colder’ nucleation zones. A theoretical model previously developed has been further updated and refined to map the particle and thermal fluxes in the plasma reactor. Considering the nucleation process as a delicate interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic factors, the model is based on a set of non-linear differential equations describing plasma thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. The model predictions were validated by experimental results. Optical emission spectroscopy was applied to detect the plasma emission related to carbon species from the ‘hot’ plasma zone. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques have been applied to analyze the synthesized nanostructures. The microstructural features of the solid carbon nuclei collected from the colder zones of plasma reactor vary according to their location. A part of the solid carbon was deposited on the discharge tube wall. The solid assembled from the main stream, which was gradually withdrawn from the hot plasma region in the outlet plasma stream directed to a filter, was composed by ‘flowing’ graphene sheets. The influence of additional hydrogen, Ar flow rate and microwave power on the concentration of obtained stable species and carbon-dicarbon was evaluated. The ratio of sp3/sp2 carbons in graphene sheets is presented. A correlation between changes in C2 and C number densities and sp3/sp2 ratio was found.

  10. Au nanoparticle-based sensor for apomorphine detection in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Trusso, Sebastiano; de Grazia, Ugo; Ciusani, Emilio; Ossi, Paolo M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Artificially roughened gold surfaces with controlled nanostructure produced by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated as sensors for apomorphine detection aiming at clinical application. The use of such gold surfaces has been optimized using aqueous solutions of apomorphine in the concentration range between 3.3 × 10−4 M and 3.3 × 10−7 M. The experimental parameters have been investigated and the dynamic concentration range of the sensor has been assessed by the selection of two apomorphine surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) peaks. The sensor behavior used to detect apomorphine in unfiltered human blood plasma is presented and discussed. PMID:26734514

  11. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet. PMID:24880391

  13. Plasma-surface interactions during Si etching in Cl- and Br-based plasmas: An empirical and atomistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Hirotaka; Nagaoka, Tatsuya; Miyata, Hiroki; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2009-10-01

    Nanometer-scale control of Si etching in Cl2- and HBr-containing plasmas is indispensable in the fabrication of gate electrodes and shallow trench isolation. There are profile anomalies of sidewalls such as tapering, bowing, footing (or corner rounding), and notching, which largely affect the critical dimension. There are also anomalies of bottom surfaces such as microtrenching and roughness (or residues), which affect the bottom uniformity, and lead to recess and damage in gate fabrication. Atomic-scale cellular model (ASCeM) based on the Monte Carlo method has been developed to simulate plasma-surface interactions and the profile evolution during etching, including passivation layer formation, and also ion reflection and penetration on feature surfaces. We have also studied atomistic plasma-surface interactions by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, where an improved Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential was newly developed. The numerical results were compared with etching experiments and also with surface diagnostics including in-situ Fourier-transform-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS), to reveal the origin of profile anomalies on feature surfaces during etching, and then to achieve the precise control of etched profiles.

  14. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  15. Acid-base balance and plasma composition in the aestivating lungfish (Protopterus).

    PubMed

    DeLaney, R G; Lahiri, S; Hamilton, R; Fishman, P

    1977-01-01

    Upon entering into aestivation, Protopterus aethiopicus develops a respiratory acidosis. A slow compensatory increase in plasma bicarbonate suffices only to partially restore arterial pH toward normal. The cessation of water intake from the start of aestivation results in hemoconcentration and marked oliguria. The concentrations of most plasma constituents continue to increase progressively, and the electrolyte ratios change. The increase in urea concentration is disproportionately high for the degree of dehydration and constitutes an increasing fraction of total plasma osmolality. Acid-base and electrolyte balance do not reach a new equilibrium within 1 yr in the cocoon. PMID:13665

  16. Process Conditions and Microstructures of Ceramic Coatings by Gas Phase Deposition Based on Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, G.; Hospach, A.; Zotov, N.; Vaßen, R.

    2013-03-01

    Plasma spraying at very low pressure (50-200 Pa) is significantly different from atmospheric plasma conditions (APS). By applying powder feedstock, it is possible to fragment the particles into very small clusters or even to evaporate the material. As a consequence, the deposition mechanisms and the resulting coating microstructures could be quite different compared to conventional APS liquid splat deposition. Thin and dense ceramic coatings as well as columnar-structured strain-tolerant coatings with low thermal conductivity can be achieved offering new possibilities for application in energy systems. To exploit the potential of such a gas phase deposition from plasma spray-based processes, the deposition mechanisms and their dependency on process conditions must be better understood. Thus, plasma conditions were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. Coating experiments were performed, partially at extreme conditions. Based on the observed microstructures, a phenomenological model is developed to identify basic growth mechanisms.

  17. Efficient accelerator afterburner design based on plasma wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengkun; Blumenfeld, I.; Clayton, C. E.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M. J.; Iverson, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.; Kirby, N.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Muggli, P.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Tzoufras, M.

    2008-11-01

    Recent plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) experiment using short (˜100fs), high peak current (>10KA) electron beam as wakefield driver has demonstrated sustained acceleration gradient of ˜50GeV/m over 85 cm. The rapid progress of PWFA experiments has attracted interests regarding the possibility of making an ``afterburner'' for a linear collider. In the ``afterburner'' concept, electron acceleration is achieved by placing a trailing electron beam into the wakefield (either by beam splitting or external injection) to extract energy deposited in the plasma wave wake. Several important aspects of the ``afterburner'' design in the blow-out regime, such as wakefield generation, efficient beam loading and hosing instability have been investigated theoretically. These relevant physics will have great impact on the beam quality of a possible ``afterburner'' design. A multi-stage ``afterburner'' design with 25GeV energy gain in each stage is explored numerically with a 3D quasi-static code QuickPIC. Parameters are suggested for a 0.5 TeV PWFA afterburner with this design and simulation result will be presented.

  18. Inactivation of ANGPTL3 reduces hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gusarova, Viktoria; Banfi, Serena; Gromada, Jesper; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2015-07-01

    Humans and mice lacking angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) have pan-hypolipidemia. ANGPTL3 inhibits two intravascular lipases, LPL and endothelial lipase, and the low plasma TG and HDL-cholesterol levels in ANGPTL3 deficiency reflect increased activity of these enzymes. The mechanism responsible for the low LDL-cholesterol levels associated with ANGPTL3 deficiency is not known. Here we used an anti-ANGPTL3 monoclonal antibody (REGN1500) to inactivate ANGPTL3 in mice with genetic deficiencies in key proteins involved in clearance of ApoB-containing lipoproteins. REGN1500 treatment consistently reduced plasma cholesterol levels in mice in which Apoe, Ldlr, Lrp1, and Sdc1 were inactivated singly or in combination, but did not alter clearance of rabbit (125)I-βVLDL or mouse (125)I-LDL. Despite a 61% reduction in VLDL-TG production, VLDL-ApoB-100 production was unchanged in REGN1500-treated animals. Hepatic TG content, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation were similar in REGN1500 and control antibody-treated animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that inactivation of ANGPTL3 does not affect the number of ApoB-containing lipoproteins secreted by the liver but alters the particles that are made such that they are cleared more rapidly from the circulation via a noncanonical pathway(s). The increased clearance of lipolytic remnants results in decreased production of LDL in ANGPTL3-deficient animals. PMID:25954050

  19. Erythromycin oxidation and ERY-resistant Escherichia coli inactivation in urban wastewater by sulfate radical-based oxidation process under UV-C irradiation.

    PubMed

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Iacovou, M; Frontistis, Z; Hapeshi, E; Dionysiou, D D; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-11-15

    This study evaluates the feasibility of UV-C-driven advanced oxidation process induced by sulfate radicals SO4(.)- in degrading erythromycin (ERY) in secondary treated wastewater. The results revealed that 10 mg L(-1) of sodium persulfate (SPS) can result in rapid and complete antibiotic degradation within 90 min of irradiation, while ERY decay exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern under the different experimental conditions applied. ERY degradation rate was strongly affected by the chemical composition of the aqueous matrix and it decreased in the order of: ultrapure water (kapp = 0.55 min(-1)) > bottled water (kapp = 0.26 min(-1)) > humic acid solution (kapp = 0.05 min(-1)) > wastewater effluents (kapp = 0.03 min(-1)). Inherent pH conditions (i.e. pH 8) yielded an increased ERY degradation rate, compared to that observed at pH 3 and 5. The contribution of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals (HO. and SO4(.)-) on ERY degradation was found to be ca. 37% and 63%, respectively. Seven transformation products (TPs) were tentatively elucidated during ERY oxidation, with the 14-membered lactone ring of the ERY molecule being intact in all cases. The observed phytotoxicity against the tested plant species can potentially be attributed to the dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in wastewater effluents and its associated-oxidation products and not to the TPs generated from the oxidation of ERY. This study evidences the potential use of the UV-C/SPS process in producing a final treated effluent with lower phytotoxicity (<10%) compared to the untreated wastewater. Finally, under the optimum experimental conditions, the UV-C/SPS process resulted in total inactivation of ERY-resistant Escherichia coli within 90 min. PMID:26360228

  20. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  1. Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 μm.

  2. Inactivation of rabies virus by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elghaffar, Asmaa A; Ali, Amal E; Boseila, Abeer A; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-02-01

    Development of safe and protective vaccines against infectious pathogens remains a challenge. Inactivation of rabies virus is a critical step in the production of vaccines and other research reagents. Beta-propiolactone (βPL); the currently used inactivating agent for rabies virus is expensive and proved to be carcinogenic in animals. This study aimed to investigate the ability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to irreversibly inactivate rabies virus without affecting its antigenicity and immunogenicity in pursuit of finding safe, effective and inexpensive alternative inactivating agents. H2O2 3% rapidly inactivated a Vero cell adapted fixed rabies virus strain designated as FRV/K within 2h of exposure without affecting its antigenicity or immunogenicity. No residual infectious virus was detected and the H2O2-inactivated vaccine proved to be safe and effective when compared with the same virus harvest inactivated with the classical inactivating agent βPL. Mice immunized with H2O2-inactivated rabies virus produced sufficient level of antibodies and were protected when challenged with lethal CVS virus. These findings reinforce the idea that H2O2 can replace βPL as inactivating agent for rabies virus to reduce time and cost of inactivation process. PMID:26731189

  3. Control of the misuse of testosterone in castrated horses based on an international threshold in plasma.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Leung, David K K; Riggs, Christopher M; Sidlow, Gordon; Stewart, Brian D; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone is an endogenous steroid produced primarily in the testes. Trace levels of testosterone are found in urine samples from geldings, as testosterone is also secreted by the adrenal. An international threshold of free and conjugated testosterone in urine (20 ng/mL) was adopted by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA) in 1996 for controlling testosterone misuse in geldings. In view of the recent popularity of using blood in doping control testing, it is necessary to establish a threshold for testosterone in gelding plasma. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed for quantifying low levels of free testosterone in gelding plasma. Based on a population study of 152 post-race plasma samples, the mean ± SD concentration of plasma testosterone was determined to be 14.7 ± 6.8 pg/mL. Normal distribution could be obtained after square-root or cube-root transformation, resulting in respective tentative thresholds of 49 or 55 pg/mL (corresponding to a risk factor of less than 1 in 10 000). A rounded-up threshold of 100 pg/mL of free testosterone in plasma was proposed. Based on the administration of Testosterone Suspension 100 to six geldings, the same average detection time of 14 days was observed in either plasma or urine using the proposed plasma threshold and the existing international urine threshold. The maximum detection time was 18 days in plasma and 20 days in urine. The results demonstrated the proposed plasma threshold is effective in controlling the misuse of testosterone in geldings. Similar results were subsequently obtained in Europe, and this proposed threshold was adopted by IFHA in October 2013. PMID:24889217

  4. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood. PMID:22094609

  5. Efficacy Evaluation of an Inactivated Duck Tembusu Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Liu, Yuehuan; Wang, Xiuqing; Yang, Baoshou; He, Pingyou; Yang, Zhiyuan; Duan, Huijuan; Xie, Jia; Zou, Lihong; Zhao, Jicheng; Pan, Jie

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of an inactivated virus-based vaccine for the control and prevention of the newly emerged duck Tembusu virus infection in China, a duck Tembusu virus isolate, Tembusu-HB, was propagated in 12-day-old duck embryos and inactivated by treatment with formaldehyde. The inactivated viral antigen was emulsified with mineral oil, and five batches of the vaccine were manufactured. The immunogenicity and protection efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated in Beijing ducks and Beijing white geese. Results showed that more than 80% of immunized ducks were protected against virulent virus challenge after two intramuscular or subcutaneous injections of the inactivated vaccine, as evidenced by the negative virus isolation results. The protection is also correlated with a positive virus-specific antibody response as detected by ELISA. In contrast, none of the control ducks and geese had any detectable antibody response. Virus was isolated from all control ducks and geese after virulent virus challenge. Interestingly, a variable level of protection (20%-80%) was observed in Beijing white geese immunized twice with the same batches of vaccine, suggesting a species-specific effect of the vaccine. Overall, the results clearly suggest that the inactivated duck Tembusu virus vaccine is immunogenic and provides protection against virulent virus challenge. PMID:26473674

  6. Glucosyltransferase inactivation reduces dental caries.

    PubMed

    Devulapalle, K S; Mooser, G

    2001-02-01

    Dental caries has been an intractable disease in spite of intense dental research. The metabolic acids produced by mutans streptococci demineralize the tooth surface and lead to dental caries. The enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTF) produced by mutans streptococci is the key factor in this process. Oral bacterial GTFs use sucrose as a substrate in synthesis of either water-soluble or insoluble glucans. In this investigation, kinetic studies with divalent metal ions revealed their strong binding affinity to GTF. The metal ions also proved to be strong inhibitors of the enzyme. Here we describe a simple method of inactivating the enzyme that actively participates in dental caries by taking advantage of a Fenton reaction which requires metal ions such as iron or copper and peroxide. The hydroxyl radical ions produced via the Fenton reaction inactivate GTF, a factor in the production of dental caries. PMID:11332534

  7. Thermal Inactivation of Phytophthora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Coelho, L; Mitchell, D J; Chellemi, D O

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT Phytophthora nicotianae was added to pasteurized soil at the rate of 500 laboratory-produced chlamydospores per gram of soil and exposed to temperatures ranging from 35 to 53 degrees C for 20 days. The time required to reduce soil populations to residual levels (0.2 propagule per gram of soil or less) decreased with increasing temperatures. Addition of cabbage residue to the soil reduced the time required to inactivate chlamydospores. Temperature regimes were established to simulate daily temperature changes observed in the field, with a high temperature of 47 degrees C for 3 h/day, and were good estimators of the efficacy of soil solarization for the control of P. nicotianae in soil. Cabbage amendment reduced the time required to inactivate chlamydospores of P. nicotianae and its effect was more pronounced at lower temperature regimes. PMID:18944471

  8. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ögün, C. M.; Kaiser, C.; Kling, R.; Heering, W.

    2015-06-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs.

  9. Electromagnetic analysis of the plasma chamber of an ECR-based charge breeder.

    PubMed

    Galatà, A; Patti, G; Celona, L; Mascali, D; Neri, L; Torrisi, G

    2016-02-01

    The optimization of the efficiency of an ECR-based charge breeder is a twofold task: efforts must be paid to maximize the capture of the injected 1+ ions by the confined plasma and to produce high charge states to allow post-acceleration at high energies. Both tasks must be faced by studying in detail the electrons heating dynamics, influenced by the microwave-to-plasma coupling mechanism. Numerical simulations are a powerful tools for obtaining quantitative information about the wave-to-plasma interaction process: this paper presents a numerical study of the microwaves propagation and absorption inside the plasma chamber of the PHOENIX charge breeder, which the selective production of exotic species project, under construction at Legnaro National Laboratories, will adopt as charge breeder. Calculations were carried out with a commercial 3D FEM solver: first, all the resonant frequencies were determined by considering a simplified plasma chamber; then, the realistic geometry was taken into account, including a cold plasma model of increasing complexity. The results gave important information about the power absorption and losses and will allow the improvement of the plasma model to be used in a refined step of calculation reproducing the breeding process itself. PMID:26932058

  10. Plasma based optical guiding of an amplitude-modulated electromagnetic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    We propose the stronger optical guiding of an electromagnetic beam in a plasma by considering the amplitude modulation of the fundamental beam. With the advent of high power source of electromagnetic radiation, the electron velocity in a plasma may become quite large (comparable to the light velocity in free space). Thus, the effect of relativistic mass variation must be taken into account. The relativistic effect of the laser propagation in a plasma leads to self-focusing because of the dielectric constant of a plasma being an increasing function of the intensity. The ponderomotive force of the laser beam pushes the electrons out of the region of high intensity, which reduces the local electron density and increases the plasma dielectric function further, leading to even more selffocusing of the laser. In this work, we consider a short pulse laser of finite spot size as an amplitude modulation in time. Our findings show an efficient optical guiding mechanism based on amplitude modulation signal propagation in plasmas. Medium nonlinearity becomes stronger if an amplitude modulated beam is introduced, which contributes significantly in laser guiding in plasmas. Furthermore, the rate of laser self-focusing is increased with modulation index due the fact of stronger Kerr effect. The study related to amplitude modulated optical signal may be useful for communication technology.

  11. Enhancement of emission currents in plasma electron sources based on a low-pressure arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, T. V.; Devyatkov, V. N.; Hung, Nguyen Bao

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on a theoretical and experimental study of the discharge plasma generation with an enhanced electron emission current in a plasma electron source based on a low-pressure arc discharge with a grid-stabilized plasma emission boundary. The source operates at a pressure in the working chamber of p = 0.02-0.05 Pa (Ar), accelerating voltage of up to Ua = 10 kV, and longitudinal magnetic field for electron beam transport of up to Bz = 0.1 T. The experiments show that in the mode of electron emission from the plasma, the voltage Ud between the cathode and grid electrode changes its sign. The numerical simulation demonstrates that the plasma potential and voltage Ud depend on the electric field penetrating from the acceleration gap into the discharge region through the grid meshes, and on the discharge current, gas pressure, geometric transparency of the grid, and gas kind. It is shown that the main mechanisms responsible for the increase in the discharge current and electron emission current from the plasma are associated with secondary ion-electron emission from the emission electrode and with positive feedback between the region of cathode plasma generation and the channel of electron beam transport.

  12. An experimental investigation of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which describe operation of the plasma environment associated with a hollow cathod-based plasma contactor collecting electrons from or emitting them to an ambient, low density Maxwellian plasma. A one-dimensional, phenomenological model of the near-field electron collection process, which was formulated from experimental observations, is presented. It considers three regions, namely, a plasma cloud adjacent to the contactor, an ambient plasma from which electrons are collected, and a double layer region that develops between the contactor plasma cloud and the ambient plasma regions. Results of the electron emission experiments are also presented. An important observation is made using a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) which shows that high energy ions generally stream from a contactor along with the electrons being emitted. A mechanism for this phenomenon is presented and it involves a high rate of ionization induced between electrons and atoms flowing together from the hollow cathode orifice. This can result in the development of a region of high positive potential. Langmuir and RPA probe data suggest that both electrons and ions expand spherically from this hill region. In addition to experimental observations, a one-dimensional model which describes the electron emission process and predicts the phenomena just mentioned is presented and shown to agree qualitatively with these observations.

  13. Electromagnetic analysis of the plasma chamber of an ECR-based charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Torrisi, G.

    2016-02-01

    The optimization of the efficiency of an ECR-based charge breeder is a twofold task: efforts must be paid to maximize the capture of the injected 1+ ions by the confined plasma and to produce high charge states to allow post-acceleration at high energies. Both tasks must be faced by studying in detail the electrons heating dynamics, influenced by the microwave-to-plasma coupling mechanism. Numerical simulations are a powerful tools for obtaining quantitative information about the wave-to-plasma interaction process: this paper presents a numerical study of the microwaves propagation and absorption inside the plasma chamber of the PHOENIX charge breeder, which the selective production of exotic species project, under construction at Legnaro National Laboratories, will adopt as charge breeder. Calculations were carried out with a commercial 3D FEM solver: first, all the resonant frequencies were determined by considering a simplified plasma chamber; then, the realistic geometry was taken into account, including a cold plasma model of increasing complexity. The results gave important information about the power absorption and losses and will allow the improvement of the plasma model to be used in a refined step of calculation reproducing the breeding process itself.

  14. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  15. Plasma spray processing of TiC-based coatings for sliding wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Mahesh

    Titanium carbide-reinforced metallic coatings, produced by plasma spraying, can be used for sliding wear resistant applications. The sliding wear properties of such coatings are governed to a large extent by the strength, structure and stability of the bond interface between the carbide and the metallic phases. In the present investigation, the microstructure and sliding wear properties of plasma sprayed metal-bonded TiC coatings containing up to 90 v/o carbide have been studied. It was shown that alloying of the metallic phase improved carbide retention in TiC cermets due to better interface bonding, and increased wear resistance and lowered sliding coefficient of friction. TiC-based coatings were produced from both physically blended and synthesized feed powders. It was observed that the precursor TiC-based powder morphology and structure greatly affected the plasma sprayed coating microstructures and the resultant physical and mechanical characteristics. Physical blending of powders induced segregation during spraying, leading to somewhat lower deposit efficiencies and coating uniformity, while synthesized and alloyed titanium carbide/metal composite powders reduced problems of segregation and reactions associated with plasma spraying of physically blended powders where the TiC was in direct contact with the plasma jet. To understand oxidation effects of the environment, Ti and TiC-based coatings were produced under low pressure (VPS), air plasma (APS) and shrouded plasma sprayed conditions. APS Ti and TiC-based powders with reactive matrices suffered severe oxidation decomposition during flight, leading to poor deposition efficiencies and oxidized microstructures. High particle temperatures and cold air plasma spraying. Coating oxidation due to reactions of the particles with the surrounding air during spraying reduced coating hardness and wear resistance. TiC-with Ti or Ti-alloy matrix coatings with the highest hardness, density and wear resistance was

  16. New evidence for Cu-decorated binary-oxides mediating bacterial inactivation/mineralization in aerobic media.

    PubMed

    Rtimi, S; Pulgarin, C; Bensimon, M; Kiwi, J

    2016-08-01

    Binary oxide semiconductors TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 (TiO2-ZrO2-Cu) uniform films were sputtered on polyester (PES). These films were irradiated under low intensity solar simulated light and led to bacterial inactivation in aerobic and anaerobic media as evaluated by CFU-plate counting. But bacterial mineralization was only induced by TiO2-ZrO2-Cu in aerobic media. The highly oxidative radicals generated on the films surface under light were identified by the use of appropriate scavengers. The hole generated on the TiO2-ZrO2 films is shown to be the main specie leading to bacterial inactivation. TiO2-ZrO2 and Cu-decorated TiO2-ZrO2 films release Zr and Ti <1ppb and Cu 4.6ppb/cm(2) as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) This level is far below the citotoxicity permitted level allowed for mammalian cells suggesting that bacterial disinfection proceeds through an oligodynamic effect. By Fourier transform attenuated infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) the systematic shift of the predominating νs(CH2) vibrational-rotational peak making up most of the bacterial cell-wall content in C was monitored. Based on this evidence a mechanism suggested leading to CH bond stretching followed by cell lysis and cell death. Bacterial inactivation cycling was observed on TiO2-ZrO2-Cu showing the stability of these films leading to bacterial inactivation. PMID:27088192

  17. APNTP Inactivation of MS2 Bacteriophage: Effect of operating parameters on virucidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshraiedeh, Nid'a.; Alkawareek, Mahmoud; Gorman, Sean; Graham, William; Gilmore, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas (APNTP) provide a promising alternative method for surface decontamination. Norovirus is globally the most common etiological agent of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. APNTP have proven to be effective in inactivation of MS2 bacteriophages, widely employed as surrogate for human norovirus. Here we explore the optimization of a helium-based kHz APNTP by varying the oxygen concentration (from 0 to 0.75%) in the feed gas and the operating frequency (from 10 to 40 kHz). It has been established that both these changes increase the reactive oxide concentration in the plume and we see a correlation between both increasing oxygen concentration and operating frequency and reduction in survival density of treated bacteriophages. For example increasing the O2 concentration from 0 to 0.5 to 0.75% increased the log reduction from 4.98 to 5.93 to 7.06, respectively. These results will be discussed in the context of recent studies where singlet delta oxygen was shown to cause MS2 phage inactivation., Q T Algwari, PhD Thesis QUB (2011).

  18. Prospects of Hybrid Plasma- and Radiofrequency-Based Electron Acceleration at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterhoff, Jens; Gruener, Florian; Elsen, Eckhard; Floettmann, Klaus; Foster, Brian; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Schmidt, Bernhard; Schlarb, Holger; Stephan, Frank

    2012-10-01

    The field of particle acceleration in plasma wakes has seen remarkable progress in recent years. Accelerating gradients of more than 10 GV/m can now be readily achieved using either ultra-short intense laser pulses or particle beams as wake drivers. The demonstration of the first GeV electron beams and a general trend towards improved reproducibility, beam quality and control over the involved plasma processes has led to plasma-acceleration techniques beginning to draw considerable interest in the traditional accelerator community. As a consequence, DESY, Germany's leading accelerator center, has established a research program for plasma-based novel acceleration techniques with the goal of exploiting the synergetic combination of conventional and new accelerator technology. Such a concept offers an attractive pathway to study many mechanisms occurring in plasma-based accelerators, for example electron-beam-emittance evolution, extreme bunch compression, the controlled emission of betatron radiation, and staging of accelerating units. In addition, it is assumed that bypassing the difficult-to-master process of particle self-injection, which is utilized in all current laser-plasma acceleration schemes, will greatly enhance the reliability of such machines compared to the state-of-the-art.

  19. Self-operated blood plasma separation using micropump in polymer-based microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Won Ick; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Pyo, Hyeon Bong; Park, Seon Hee

    2006-12-01

    The blood is one of the best indicators of health because blood circulates all body tissues and collects information. The COC(Cyclo Olefin Copolymer) has better various properties than PMMA(Polymethy Mechacrylate) and PC(Polycarbonate) that are widely used in biotechnology field. This paper presents a new method of plasma separation on the COC in terms of surface modification for the development of a disposable protein chip. The blood plasma separation device was composed of a whole blood inlet, microchannel with filtration region of micropillars, micropump with microheater, and a blood cell outlet. Micropump with microheater was designed by ANSYS and flow model in the microchannel was designed by CFD-ACE + simulators. We successfully fabricated a polymer based microfluidic device for blood plasma separation by MEMS(Micro Electro Mechanical System) technology. By using this device, cell-free plasma was successfully obtained through the filtration from a drop of whole blood without external force of a syringe pump.

  20. Analysis on laser plasma emission for characterization of colloids by video-based computer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Kirana Yuniati; Lumbantoruan, Hendra Damos; Isnaeni

    2016-02-01

    Laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) is a sensitive technique for characterization of colloids with small size and low concentration. There are two types of detection, optical and acoustic. Optical LIBD employs CCD camera to capture the plasma emission and uses the information to quantify the colloids. This technique requires sophisticated technology which is often pricey. In order to build a simple, home-made LIBD system, a dedicated computer program based on MATLAB™ for analyzing laser plasma emission was developed. The analysis was conducted by counting the number of plasma emissions (breakdowns) during a certain period of time. Breakdown probability provided information on colloid size and concentration. Validation experiment showed that the computer program performed well on analyzing the plasma emissions. Optical LIBD has A graphical user interface (GUI) was also developed to make the program more user-friendly.

  1. Detecting Causality In Space Plasmas With Entropy Based Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Wing, S.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding causal relationships in space plasmas is a key ingredient of modeling, but can often be difficult to establish. Frequently, causality is investigated by looking at the cross-correlation and checking for a shift in the peak as a function of lag time or by examining differences in the forward and backwards directions. Some of the shortcomings of this method can be illustrated by cross-correlations that exhibit multiple peaks that are large in the non-causal direction and causal systems that do not exhibit asymmetries in the cross-correlation. Furthermore, cross-correlations only reveal linear dependency and may not be as useful for a nonlinear storage and release dynamics (such as might be expected for the magnetospheric response to the solar wind). An alternative choice for studying causality is the one-sided transfer entropy which is highly directional and accounts for static internal correlations so that it is possible to examine whether two variables are driven by a common driver or whether they are causally connected. We apply the transfer entropy to several test systems to illustrate its utility for detecting causality and to space data to illustrate causality in space systems with examples from solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  2. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  3. Mechanism of chromophore assisted laser inactivation employing fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mark A; Rajfur, Zenon; Chen, Zaozao; Humphrey, David; Yang, Bing; Sligar, Stephen G; Jacobson, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Chromophore assisted laser inactivation (CALI) is a technique that uses irradiation of chromophores proximate to a target protein to inactivate function. Previously, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) mediated CALI has been used to inactivate EGFP-fusion proteins in a spatio-temporally defined manner within cells, but the mechanism of inactivation is unknown. To help elucidate the mechanism of protein inactivation mediated by fluorescent protein CALI ([FP]-CALI), the activities of purified glutathione-S-transferase-FP (GST-EXFP) fusions were measured after laser irradiation in vitro. Singlet oxygen and free radical quenchers as well as the removal of oxygen inhibited CALI, indicating the involvement of a reactive oxygen species (ROS). At higher concentrations of protein, turbidity after CALI increased significantly indicating cross-linking of proximate fusion proteins suggesting that damage of residues on the surface of the protein, distant from the active site, results in inactivation. Control experiments removed sample heating as a possible cause of these effects. Different FP mutants fused to GST vary in their CALI efficiency in the order enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) > enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) > enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), while a GST construct that binds fluorescein-based arsenical hairpin binder (FlAsH) results in significantly higher CALI efficiency than any of the fluorescent proteins (XFPs) tested. It is likely that the hierarchy of XFP effectiveness reflects the balance between ROS that are trapped within the XFP structure and cause fluorophore and chromophore bleaching and those that escape to effect CALI of proximate proteins. PMID:19199572

  4. Student Excellence Award Finalist: Binary quantum dot arrays: A plasma-based deterministic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, Amanda; Ostrikov

    2007-10-01

    Fabrication of size-uniform, compositionally controlled binary quantum dot (QD) [1] arrays is of great interest to the multidisciplinary research community. The increasing number of QD applications in fields ranging from biology to optoelectronics - each with precise structural requirements, necessitates that a more rigorous approach to fabrication be adopted. Conventional fabrication techniques are unable to cope with the myriad requirements for highly tailored QDs. In this paper, emphasis is placed on plasma-related effects such as substrate heating, surface activation energy and the benefits of low-temperature growth offered by thermally non-equilibrium, low-temperature plasma routes. The competitive edge in using plasmas as versatile nanofabrication tools is examined via a comprehensive analysis of available experimental results and numerical simulation of the deterministic plasma-assisted nanofabrication of compositionally controlled, size-uniform QD arrays. The commercial potential of a plasma-based approach compared to common fabrication techniques such as thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is explored, as is the application of plasma grown QDs in novel biosensors and third generation solar cells. [1] A. E. Rider et al, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044306 (2007); I. Levchenko, A. E. Rider, K. Ostrikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 193110 (2007).

  5. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  6. Pressure Inactivation of Bacillus Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Margosch, Dirk; Gänzle, Michael G.; Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2004-01-01

    The inactivation of bacterial endospores by hydrostatic pressure requires the combined application of heat and pressure. We have determined the resistance of spores of 14 food isolates and 5 laboratory strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. licheniformis to treatments with pressure and temperature (200 to 800 MPa and 60 to 80°C) in mashed carrots. A large variation in the pressure resistance of spores was observed, and their reduction by treatments with 800 MPa and 70°C for 4 min ranged from more than 6 log units to no reduction. The sporulation conditions further influenced their pressure resistance. The loss of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from spores that varied in their pressure resistance was determined, and spore sublethal injury was assessed by determination of the detection times for individual spores. Treatment of spores with pressure and temperature resulted in DPA-free, phase-bright spores. These spores were sensitive to moderate heat and exhibited strongly increased detection times as judged by the time required for single spores to grow to visible turbidity of the growth medium. The role of DPA in heat and pressure resistance was further substantiated by the use of the DPA-deficient mutant strain B. subtilis CIP 76.26. Taken together, these results indicate that inactivation of spores by combined pressure and temperature processing is achieved by a two-stage mechanism that does not involve germination. At a pressure between 600 and 800 MPa and a temperature greater than 60°C, DPA is released predominantly by a physicochemical rather than a physiological process, and the DPA-free spores are inactivated by moderate heat independent of the pressure level. Relevant target organisms for pressure and temperature treatment of foods are proposed, namely, strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, which form highly pressure-resistant spores. PMID:15574932

  7. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    PubMed Central

    DISTECHE, CHRISTINE M.; BERLETCH, JOEL B.

    2016-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation, which was discovered by Mary Lyon in 1961 results in random silencing of one X chromosome in female mammals. This review is dedicated to Mary Lyon, who passed away last year. She predicted many of the features of X inactivation, for e.g., the existence of an X inactivation center, the role of L1 elements in spreading of silencing and the existence of genes that escape X inactivation. Starting from her published work here we summarize advances in the field. PMID:26690513

  8. Recent Advances in X-Chromosome Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kalantry, Sundeep

    2011-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation is a paradigmatic epigenetic phenomenon that results in the mitotically heritable transcriptional inactivation of one X-chromosome in female mammals, thereby equalizing X-linked gene dosage between the sexes. The epigenetic factors and mechanisms that execute X-inactivation overlap with those that regulate embryonic development and disease progression, thus offering a window into the epigenetic processes that regulate development and disease. Here I summarize some recent developments as well as open questions in X-inactivation research. PMID:21344379

  9. Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization: from bacteria to biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Although ionized gases have been known to have biological effects for more than 100 years, their impact on the practice in healthcare service became very significant only recently. Today, plasma-based surgical tools are used for tissue reduction and blood coagulation as surgical procedures. Most significant however is the speed at which low-temperature gas plasmas are finding new applications in medicine and biology, including plasma sterilization, wound healing, and cancer therapies just to name a few. In the terminology of biotechnology, the ``pipeline'' is long and exciting. This presentation reviews the current status of the field with a particular emphasis on plasma inactivation of microorganisms and biomolecules, for which comprehensive scientific evidence has been obtained. Some of the early speculations of biocidal plasma species are now being confirmed through a combination of optical emission spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence, mass spectrometry, fluid simulation and biological sensing with mutated bacteria. Similarly, fundamental studies are being performed to examine cell components targeted by gas plasmas, from membrane, through lipid and membrane proteins, to DNA. Scientific challenge is significant, as the usual complexity of plasma dynamics and plasma chemistry is compounded by the added complication that cells are live and constantly evolving. Nevertheless, the current understanding of plasma inactivation currently provides strong momentum for plasma decontamination technologies to be realized in healthcare. We will discuss the issue of protein and tissue contaminations of surgical instruments and how cold atmospheric plasmas may be used to degrade and reduce their surface load. In the context of plasma interaction with biomolecules, we will consider recent data of plasma degradation of adhesion proteins of melanoma cells. These adhesion proteins are important for cancer cell migration and spread. If low-temperature plasmas could be used to

  10. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  11. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-08-15

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications.

  12. EDITORIAL: Gas plasmas in biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, Eva

    2006-08-01

    It is my great pleasure to introduce this special cluster devoted to recent developments in biomedical plasma technology. It is an even greater pleasure to behold the enormous progress which has been made in this area over the last five years. Research on biomedical plasma applications proceeds hand in hand with the development of new material processing technologies, based on atmospheric plasma sources. In the beginning, major research effort was invested in the development and control of new plasma sources—in this laborious process, novel devices were constructed and characterized, and also new plasma physical phenomena were discovered. Self-constriction of micro-plasmas, pattern formation, filamentation of glow discharges and various mode transitions are just a few examples. It is a real challenge for theorists to gain an understanding of these complex phenomena. Later, the devices had to be thoroughly tested and automated, and various safety issues had to be addressed. At present, many atmospheric plasma sources are ready to use, but not all fundamental and technical problems have been resolved by far. There is still plenty of room for improvement, as in any dynamic area of research. The recent trends are clear: the application area of plasmas expands into processing of unconventional materials such as biological scaffolds, and eventually living human, animal and plant tissues. The gentle, precise and versatile character of cold plasmas simply invites this new application. Firstly, non-living surfaces have been plasma-treated to attain desired effects in biomedical research; tissue engineering will soon fully profit from this powerful technique. Furthermore, studies on cultured plant and animal cells have provided many findings, which are both fundamentally interesting and potentially applicable in health care, veterinary medicine and agriculture. The most important and hitherto unique property of plasma treatment is that it can evade accidental cell death

  13. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Kolb, Juergen F; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC(50), from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC(50) in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges. PMID:21982539

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli Cells in Aqueous Solution by Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhang, Xianhui; Bi, Zhenhua; Zong, Zichao; Niu, Jinhai; Song, Ying; Yang, Size

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to inactivate Escherichia coli cells suspended in aqueous solution. Measurements show that the efficiency of inactivation of E. coli cells is strongly dependent on the feed gases used, the plasma treatment time, and the discharge power. Compared to atmospheric-pressure N2 and He microplasma arrays, air and O2 microplasma arrays may be utilized to more efficiently kill E. coli cells in aqueous solution. The efficiencies of inactivation of E. coli cells in water can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model, where reactive oxygen species play a crucial role in the inactivation process. Analysis indicates that plasma-generated reactive species can react with E. coli cells in water by direct or indirect interactions. PMID:26025895

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on PTFE surfaces by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tučeková, Zlata; Koval'ová, Zuzana; Zahoranová, Anna; Machala, Zdenko; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The non-equilibrium plasma of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) was tested for decontamination of bacteria Escherichia coli on polymer surfaces. We investigated the optical parameters of DCSBD plasma generated in synthetic air with different relative humidity. Our study was provided to estimate the main plasma components active during the DCSBD plasma degradation of E. coli contamination prepared on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) surface, in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The DCSBD plasma was characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. The inactivation of E. coli bacteria was evaluated by standard microbiological cultivation (CFU plate counting). The experimental results of the germicidal efficiency obtained for short plasma exposure times proved the effectiveness of DCSBD plasma for the polymer surface decontamination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  16. Continuum emission-based electron diagnostics for atmospheric pressure plasmas and characteristics of nanosecond-pulsed argon plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Holak; Park, Joo Young

    2015-06-01

    Electron diagnostics based on electron-neutral atom (e-a) bremsstrahlung in the UV and visible range emitted from atmospheric pressure plasmas is presented. Since the spectral emissivity of the e-a bremsstrahlung is determined by electron density (ne) and mean electron temperature (Te) representing the Maxwellian electron energy distribution, their diagnostics is possible. As an example, emission spectra measured from capacitive discharges are presented, which show good agreement with the theoretically calculated emissivity of the e-a bremsstrahlung. For a single pin electrode nanosecond-pulsed plasma jet (n-PPJ) in argon, we investigate the electron properties and the temporal behavior of the positive streamers. Streamers with many branches are clearly observed inside the dielectric tube, while a few main streamers propagate outside the tube along the jet axis. A two-dimensional (2D) measurement of the time-averaged Te distribution was developed using a commercial digital camera and optical band pass filters based on the emissivity ratio of two wavelengths of the e-a bremsstrahlung. The viable measurement range of Te is 0.5-7 eV for the choice of two wavelengths of 300s and 900s nm and 0.5-4 eV for two wavelengths of 400s and 900s nm, which are uncontaminated by the atomic and/or molecular spectra. The 2D Te distribution obtained using 514.5 and 632.8 nm emissions helps to reveal the role of electrons in streamer characteristics in the argon n-PPJ. Time-averaged Te of 2.0 eV and 1.0 eV inside and outside the tube, respectively, were measured. The streamer dynamics of the n-PPJ is shown to be dependent on Te.

  17. Inactivation of an astrovirus associated with poult enteritis mortality syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Cherry, S; King, D J; Koci, M D

    2001-01-01

    Outbreaks of poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) continue to cause financial losses to the turkey industry. Clinically, PEMS is defined by mortality profiles, diarrhea, flock unevenness, and immunosuppression. PEMS is a very difficult disease to control and prevent. Depopulation of PEMS-affected flocks and thorough cleaning of the contaminated housing have failed to prevent infection (disease) in subsequent flock placements. The relationship of PEMS to other enteric disease complexes of young turkeys is unknown, partly because the causative agent of PEMS remains unknown. Recently, we isolated a unique astrovirus strain from the thymus and intestines of PEMS-infected poults. This strain is molecularly and serologically distinct from the astrovirus that circulated in turkeys in the 1980s. Mammalian astroviruses are very resistant to inactivation. In these studies, we examined the stability of partially purified PEMS-associated astrovirus to inactivation with heat, laboratory disinfectants, and commercial disinfectants used in commercial turkey houses in an embryonated egg model system. Similar to mammalian astroviruses, the PEMS-associated astrovirus is resistant to inactivation by heat, acidification, detergent treatment, and treatment with phenolic, quaternary ammonium, or benzalkonium chloride-based products. Only treatment with formaldehyde, beta-propriolactone, or the peroxymonosulfate-based product Virkon S completely inactivated the astrovirus in the embryo model. These studies provide an alternate means to potentially control at least one virus associated with PEMS through the use of specific disinfectants. PMID:11332502

  18. Detecting inactivated endospores in fluorescence microscopy using propidium monoazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Alexander; Mahnert, Alexander; Weber, Christina; Haberer, Klaus; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2012-04-01

    The differentiation between living and dead bacterial endospores is crucial in many research areas of microbiology. The identification of inactivated, non-pathogenic Bacillus anthracis spores is one reason why improvement of decontamination protocols is so desirable. Another field interested in spore viability is planetary protection, a sub-discipline of astrobiology that estimates the bioburden of spacecraft prior to launch in order to avoid interplanetary cross-contamination. We developed a dedicated, rapid and cost-effective method for identifying bacterial endospores that have been inactivated and consequently show a compromised spore wall. This novel protocol is culture-independent and is based on fluorescence microscopy and propidium monoazide (PMA) as a fluorescent marker, which is suggested to bind to DNA of spores with compromised spore coat, cortex and membranes based on our results. Inactivated preparations (treated with wet heat, irradiation, ultracentrifugation) showed a significant increase in spores that were PMA stained in their core; moreover, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus seemed to be best suited for this technique, as the spore cores of all these endospores could be positively stained after inactivation. Lastly, we describe an additional counter-staining protocol and provide an example of the application of the coupled staining methods for planetary protection purposes. The introduction of this novel protocol is expected to provide an initial insight into the various possible future applications of PMA as a non-viability marker for spores in, for example, B. anthracis-related studies, food microbiology and astrobiology.

  19. Sensitivity enhancement of carbon nanotube based ammonium ion sensors through surface modification by using oxygen plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Sanghak; Woong Jang, Chi; Lee, Seok; Min Jhon, Young; Choi, Changrok

    2013-02-18

    We have shown that the sensitivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) based sensors can be enhanced as high as 74 times through surface modification by using the inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition method with oxygen. The plasma treatment power was maintained as low as 10 W within 20 s, and the oxygen plasma was generated far away from the sensors to minimize the plasma damage. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we found that the concentration of oxygen increased with the plasma treatment time, which implies that oxygen functional groups or defect sites were generated on the CNT surface.

  20. Broadband Single-Shot Electron Spectrometer for GeV-Class Laser Plasma Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Wan, W.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Laser-plasma-based accelerators can provide electrons over a broad energy range and/or with large momentum spread. The electron beam energy distribution can be controlled via accurate control of laser and plasma properties, and beams with energies ranging from'0.5 to 1000 MeV have been observed. Measuring these energy distributions in a single shot requires the use of a diagnostic with large momentum acceptance and, ideally, sufficient resolution to accurately measure energy spread in the case of narrow energy spread. Such a broadband single-shot electron magnetic spectrometer for GeV-class laser-plasma-based accelerators has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A detailed description of the hardware and the design concept is presented, as well as a performance evaluation of the spectrometer. The spectrometer covered electron beam energies raging from 0.01 to 1.1 GeV in a single shot, and enabled the simultaneous measurement of the laser properties at the exit of the accelerator through the use of a sufficiently large pole gap. Based on measured field maps and 3rd-order transport analysis, a few percent-level resolution and determination of the absolute energy were achieved over the entire energy range. Laser-plasma-based accelerator experiments demonstrated the capability of the spectrometer as a diagnostic and its suitability for such a broadband electron source.

  1. The effect of soybean based foods on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We would like to clarify statements printed in the editorial (1) accompanying our recent publication about the effect of different forms of soybean based foods on plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (2). It was written that "... when the change from ba...

  2. Meprin Metalloproteases Inactivate Interleukin 6*

    PubMed Central

    Keiffer, Timothy R.; Bond, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Meprins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, in which the cytokine IL-6 is a prominent effector molecule. Because IL-6 levels are elevated markedly in meprin α and α/β knockout mice in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease, the interaction between meprins and IL-6 was studied. The results demonstrate that rodent and human meprin A and B cleave IL-6 to a smaller product and, subsequently, are capable of extensive degradation of the cytokine. Analysis of the limited degradation product formed by meprin A indicated that three to five amino acids are removed from the C terminus of the cytokine. Meprin A and meprin B cleaved IL-6 with micromolar affinities (Km of 4.7 and 12.0 μm, respectively) and with high efficiencies (kcat/Km of 0.2 and 2.5 (m−1/s−1) × 106, respectively). These efficiency constants are among the highest for known meprin substrates. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transiently transfected with meprin α or meprin β constructs also cleave exogenous IL-6. Both human and murine IL-6 cleaved by meprin A or B are inactivated, as demonstrated by their decreased capability to stimulate proliferation of B9 cells. These results are consistent with the proposition that one function of meprin metalloproteases is to modulate inflammation by inactivating IL-6. PMID:24474695

  3. Photochemical inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in human platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Londe, H; Janda, J M; Hanson, C V; Corash, L

    1994-05-01

    Platelet concentrates (PC) may be infrequently contaminated with low levels of bacteria that can cause septicemia and death in patients receiving transfusion therapy. We evaluated the efficacy of a photochemical decontamination (PCD) technique using 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wavelength UV light (UVA) to inactivate bacteria in standard therapeutic PC. Twelve phylogenetically distinct pathogenic bacteria, 5 gram-positive and 7 gram-negative organisms, were seeded into PC to a final challenge dose ranging from 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Contaminated PC were treated with 8-MOP (5 micrograms/mL) and 5 J/cm2 of UVA, a PCD treatment regimen found to adequately preserve in vitro platelet function. Greater than 10(5) CFU/mL of all 5 gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Corynebacterium minutissimum) and 2 of the gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica) organisms were inactivated. The remaining 5 gram-negative organisms were more resistant, with less than 10(1) to 10(3.7) CFU/mL inactivated under these conditions. The inactivation efficiency for this resistant group of gram-negative organisms was improved when PC were resuspended in a synthetic storage medium with reduced plasma protein concentration (15%) and an increased 8-MOP concentration (23.4 micrograms/mL). Illumination with 3 J/cm2 of UVA in this system inactivated greater than 10(5) CFU/mL of 4 resistant gram-negative organisms (Salmonella choleraesuis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 10(4.1) CFU/mL of the most resistant gram-negative organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This level of PCD treatment did not adversely affect in vitro platelet function. These results demonstrate that PCD using 8-MOP (5 to 23.4 micrograms/mL) effectively inactivated high levels of pathogenic bacteria in PC with adequate preservation of in vitro platelet properties. PMID

  4. Induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifiers for plasma heating

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, R.A.

    1988-08-22

    We describe an induction-linac based free-electron laser amplifier that is presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is designed to produce up to 2 MW of average power at a frequency of 250 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment. In addition, we shall describe a FEL amplifier design for plasma heating of advanced tokamak fusion devices. This system is designed to produce average power levels of about 10 MW at frequencies ranging form 280 to 560 GHz. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Instabilities during the growth of dust successive generations in silane-based plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cavarroc, Marjorie; Mikikian, Maxime; Tessier, Yves; Boufendi, Laiefa

    2008-10-15

    Dust growth in silane-based plasmas is known to be a cyclic phenomenon as long as silane is provided. This continuous dust growth leads to an unstable behavior of the complex plasma, characterized by well-defined instabilities. In this paper, a complete study of these instabilities is presented. The electrical analysis is corroborated by an optical one, and high speed video imaging is used to get an insight in the dust cloud behavior. A possible cause of this instability phenomenon is also discussed.

  6. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Chun

    2012-04-24

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  7. Plasma-Based Steel Rod or Rebar Production From In Situ Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, H.; Prisbrey, Keith

    1998-01-01

    The probability of lunar ice has redefined the importance of earlier research reporting Fe as a byproduct of O production from lunar regolith. That emphasis is now on Fe and other materials for in situ resources for construction. In pursuit of O from lunar ilmenite, we have tried (1) a resonating cavity microwave plasma reactor, (2) a nontransferred arc plasma torch feeding a cylindrical reactor, and (3) an inductively coupled plasma reactor feeding a quench chamber with relative success. Instead of using these or other O-focused strategies, and instead of using commercial submerged electric arc smelting of ilmenite to produce Fe, a compact, portable, light, plasma-based cyclone reactor could be adapted as another choice. Cyclone reactors have been under development for several decades, and P. R. Taylor and coworkers have extended their evolution and used them effectively on iron taconites as well as other materials. The advantages of the plasma reactor over other current steel making processes include continuous operation, higher through puts in small reactors, enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, higher temperatures, easy separation of liquids and gases, capture and recycle of plasma gases, and no feed agglomeration. The procedure for producing steel was to feed taconite and CO/CO2 mixtures into the cyclone reactor (Fig. 1), The results were excellent. The procedure and results for lunar ilmenite would be similar. Electrostatically concentrated ilmenite and magnetically concentrated Fe and associated agglutinates would be fed into the reactor along with reductant. Plasma reactors can be modified to produce Al, Ti, glass, ceramics, and advanced materials, and an already automated reactor system can be further automated for remote operation.

  8. Approximate method for estimating plasma ionization characteristics based on numerical simulation of the dynamics of a plasma bunch with a high specific energy in the upper ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorin, A. A.; Stupitsky, E. L.; Kholodov, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern for the development of a plasma cloud formed in the ionosphere and the main cloud gas-dynamic characteristics have been obtained from 3D calculations of the explosion-type plasmodynamic flows previously performed by us. An approximate method for estimating the plasma temperature and ionization degree with the introduction of the effective adiabatic index has been proposed based on these results.

  9. Portable, Constriction-Expansion Blood Plasma Separation and Polymerization-Based Malaria Detection.

    PubMed

    Shatova, Tatyana A; Lathwal, Shefali; Engle, Marissa R; Sikes, Hadley D; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-08-01

    A portable, microfluidic blood plasma separation device is presented featuring a constriction-expansion design, which produces 100.0% purity for undiluted blood at 9% yield. This level of purity represents an improvement of at least 1 order of magnitude with increased yield compared to that achieved previously using passive separation. The system features high flow rates, 5-30 μL/min plasma collection, with minimal clogging and biofouling. The simple, portable blood plasma separation design is hand-driven and can easily be incorporated with microfluidic or laboratory scale diagnostic assays. The separation system was applied to a paper-based diagnostic test for malaria that produced an amplified color change in the presence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 at a concentration well below clinical relevancy for undiluted whole blood. PMID:27366819

  10. Biophysical bases of human plasma lipoprotein polydispersity: role of surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh, Z.

    1984-11-01

    Metabolic depletion of the core of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via lipolysis results in the production of polydisperse species of particles within the density range of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Modifications of surface properties of plasma LDL may further contribute to LDL polydispersity. In this dissertation, we study the interactions with LDL of models of lipolysis-related surface products (i.e., phosphatidylcholine vesicles (PCV) and discoidal complexes (DC) of apoprotein AI and phosphatidylcholine) and examine the influence on such interactions of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and other relevant plasma components (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), albumin, lysolecithin (LPC)). Based on the studies obtained in this dissertation LDL surface modification may contribute to LDL polydispersity. Since HDL is a major acceptor of PL, formation of surface-modified LDL (e.g., PL-enriched, larged LDL) in vivo would depend on LDL/HDL weight ratio in plasma. 140 references, 50 figures, 15 tables.

  11. Theory of plasma contactors in ground-based experiments and low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerver, M. J.; Hastings, D. E.; Oberhardt, M. R.

    1990-08-01

    An examination of several models of electron collection by plasma contactors leads to a definition of the range of validity and applicability for each model. It is noted that most present ground-based experiments are of limited relevance to space applications of plasma contactors, since they operate in a regime where the magnetic field and effective collisions are at most only marginally important. An exception is the experiment of Stenzel and Urrutia (1986), which examined a plasma whose electron Larmor radius was small by comparison to the scale of the potential, and in which the anomalous transport of electrons across the magnetic field was important. The enhanced electron current was not continuous in time, but occurred in periodic bursts as the instabilities periodically emerged, saturated, and decayed.

  12. Theory of plasma contactors in ground-based experiments and low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerver, M. J.; Hastings, D. E.; Oberhardt, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of several models of electron collection by plasma contactors leads to a definition of the range of validity and applicability for each model. It is noted that most present ground-based experiments are of limited relevance to space applications of plasma contactors, since they operate in a regime where the magnetic field and effective collisions are at most only marginally important. An exception is the experiment of Stenzel and Urrutia (1986), which examined a plasma whose electron Larmor radius was small by comparison to the scale of the potential, and in which the anomalous transport of electrons across the magnetic field was important. The enhanced electron current was not continuous in time, but occurred in periodic bursts as the instabilities periodically emerged, saturated, and decayed.

  13. Plasma wave simulation based on versatile FEM solver on Alcator C-mod

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraiwa, S.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R.; Wallace, G.; Wilson, J.

    2009-11-26

    The finite element method (FEM) has the potential of simulating plasma waves seamlessly from the core to the vacuum and antenna regions. We explored the possibility of using a versatile FEM solver package, COMSOL, for lower hybrid (LH) wave simulation. Special care was paid to boundary conditions to satisfy toroidal symmetry. The non-trivial issue of introducing hot plasma effects was addressed by an iterative algorithm. These techniques are verified both analytically and numerically. In the lower hybrid (LH) grill antenna coupling problem, the FEM solver successfully reproduced the solution that was obtained analytically. Propagation of LH waves on the Alcator C and Alcator C-MOD plasmas was compared with a ray-tracing code, showing good consistency. The approach based on the FEM is computationally less intensive compared to spectral domain solvers, and more suitable for the simulation of larger device such as ITER.

  14. Radiative damping and electron beam dynamics in plasma-based accelerators.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Schroeder, C B; Shadwick, B A; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2006-08-01

    The effects of radiation reaction on electron beam dynamics are studied in the context of plasma-based accelerators. Electrons accelerated in a plasma channel undergo transverse betatron oscillations due to strong focusing forces. These oscillations lead to emission by the electrons of synchrotron radiation, with a corresponding energy loss that affects the beam properties. An analytical model for the single particle orbits and beam moments including the classical radiation reaction force is derived and compared to the results of a particle transport code. Since the betatron amplitude depends on the initial transverse position of the electron, the resulting radiation can increase the relative energy spread of the beam to significant levels (e.g., several percent). This effect can be diminished by matching the beam into the channel, which could require micron sized beam radii for typical values of the beam emittance and plasma density. PMID:17025550

  15. Tunable angle absorption of hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zheng; Ning, Renxia; Xu, Yuan; Bao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    We present the design of a multilayer structure of hyperbolic metamaterials based on plasma photonic crystals which composed of two kinds of traditional dielectric and plasma. The relative permittivity of hyperbolic metamaterials has been studied at certain frequency range. The absorption and reflection of the multilayer period structure at normal and oblique incident have been investigated by the transfer matrix method. We discussed that the absorption is affected by the thickness of material and the electron collision frequency γ of the plasma. The results show that an absorption band at the low frequency can be obtained at normal incident angle and another absorption band at the high frequency can be found at a large incident angle. The results may be applied by logical gate, stealth, tunable angle absorber, and large angle filter.

  16. Ionospheric Plasma Drift Analysis Technique Based On Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ari, Gizem; Toker, Cenk

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric drift measurements provide important information about the variability in the ionosphere, which can be used to quantify ionospheric disturbances caused by natural phenomena such as solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. One of the prominent ways for drift measurement depends on instrumentation based measurements, e.g. using an ionosonde. The drift estimation of an ionosonde depends on measuring the Doppler shift on the received signal, where the main cause of Doppler shift is the change in the length of the propagation path of the signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Unfortunately, ionosondes are expensive devices and their installation and maintenance require special care. Furthermore, the ionosonde network over the world or even Europe is not dense enough to obtain a global or continental drift map. In order to overcome the difficulties related to an ionosonde, we propose a technique to perform ionospheric drift estimation based on ray tracing. First, a two dimensional TEC map is constructed by using the IONOLAB-MAP tool which spatially interpolates the VTEC estimates obtained from the EUREF CORS network. Next, a three dimensional electron density profile is generated by inputting the TEC estimates to the IRI-2015 model. Eventually, a close-to-real situation electron density profile is obtained in which ray tracing can be performed. These profiles can be constructed periodically with a period of as low as 30 seconds. By processing two consequent snapshots together and calculating the propagation paths, we estimate the drift measurements over any coordinate of concern. We test our technique by comparing the results to the drift measurements taken at the DPS ionosonde at Pruhonice, Czech Republic. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR14/001 projects.

  17. Ground-Based Tests of Spacecraft Polymeric Materials under OXY-GEN Plasma-Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, Vladimir; Novikov, Lev; Gaidar, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft LEO mission is accompanied by destruction of polymeric material surface under influence of atomic oxygen flow. Sources of molecular, plasma and ion beams are used for the accelerated ground-based tests of spacecraft materials. In the work application of oxygen plasma accelerator of a duoplasmatron type is described. Plasma particles have been accelerated up to average speed of 13-16 km/s. Influence of such beam on materials leads to more intensive destruction of polymers than in LEO. This fact allows to execute tests in the accelerated time scale by a method of an effective fluence. Special measures were given to decrease a concentration of both gaseous and electrode material impurities in the oxygen beam. In the work the results of simulative tests of spacecraft materials and experiments on LEO are considered. Comparison of plasma beam simulation with LEO data has shown conformity for structures of a number of polymeric materials. The relative erosion yields (normalized with respect to polyimide) of the tested materials are shown practically equal to those in LEO. The obtained results give grounds for using the plasma-generation mode with ion energies of 20-30 eV to accelerated testing of spacecraft materials for long -term LEO missions.

  18. Modeling of plasma-based CO2 conversion: lumping of the vibrational levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, Antonin; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-08-01

    Although CO2 conversion by plasma technology is gaining increasing interest, the underlying mechanisms for an energy-efficient process are still far from understood. In this work, a reduced non-equilibrium CO2 plasma chemistry set, based on level lumping of the vibrational levels, is proposed and the reliability of this level-lumping method is tested by a self-consistent zero-dimensional code. A severe reduction of the number of equations to be solved is achieved, which is crucial to be able to model non-equilibrium CO2 plasmas by 2-dimensional models. Typical conditions of pressure and power used in a microwave plasma for CO2 conversion are investigated. Several different sets, using different numbers of lumped groups, are considered. The lumped models with 1, 2 or 3 groups are able to reproduce the gas temperature, electron density and electron temperature profiles, as calculated by the full model treating all individual excited levels, in the entire pressure range investigated. Furthermore, a 3-groups model is also able to reproduce the shape of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) and gives the most reliable prediction of the CO2 conversion. A strong influence of the vibrational excitation on the plasma characteristics is observed. Finally, the limitations of the lumped-levels method are discussed.

  19. Inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts with ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Wickramanayake, G B; Rubin, A J; Sproul, O J

    1984-01-01

    Giardia lamblia cysts were inactivated in water with ozone at pH 7.0 and 5 and 25 degrees C. The concentration-time products for 99% inactivation were 0.53 and 0.17 mg-min/liter at 5 and 25 degrees C, respectively. These products were significantly lower than those reported for chlorine. PMID:6497374

  20. Inactivation Gating of Kv4 Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jerng, Henry H.; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Covarrubias, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Kv4 channels represent the main class of brain A-type K+ channels that operate in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials (Serodio, P., E. Vega-Saenz de Miera, and B. Rudy. 1996. J. Neurophysiol. 75:2174– 2179), and their function depends critically on inactivation gating. A previous study suggested that the cytoplasmic NH2- and COOH-terminal domains of Kv4.1 channels act in concert to determine the fast phase of the complex time course of macroscopic inactivation (Jerng, H.H., and M. Covarrubias. 1997. Biophys. J. 72:163–174). To investigate the structural basis of slow inactivation gating of these channels, we examined internal residues that may affect the mutually exclusive relationship between inactivation and closed-state blockade by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (Campbell, D.L., Y. Qu, R.L. Rasmussen, and H.C. Strauss. 1993. J. Gen. Physiol. 101:603–626; Shieh, C.-C., and G.E. Kirsch. 1994. Biophys. J. 67:2316–2325). A double mutation V[404,406]I in the distal section of the S6 region of the protein drastically slowed channel inactivation and deactivation, and significantly reduced the blockade by 4-AP. In addition, recovery from inactivation was slightly faster, but the pore properties were not significantly affected. Consistent with a more stable open state and disrupted closed state inactivation, V[404,406]I also caused hyperpolarizing and depolarizing shifts of the peak conductance–voltage curve (∼5 mV) and the prepulse inactivation curve (>10 mV), respectively. By contrast, the analogous mutations (V[556,558]I) in a K+ channel that undergoes N- and C-type inactivation (Kv1.4) did not affect macroscopic inactivation but dramatically slowed deactivation and recovery from inactivation, and eliminated open-channel blockade by 4-AP. Mutation of a Kv4-specifc residue in the S4–S5 loop (C322S) of Kv4.1 also altered gating and 4-AP sensitivity in a manner that closely resembles the effects of V[404,406]I. However, this mutant did not exhibit

  1. DNA Polymerase λ Inactivation by Oxidized Abasic Sites&

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Adam J.; Guan, Lirui; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Greenberg, Marc M.

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair plays a vital role in maintaining genomic integrity in mammalian cells. DNA polymerase λ is believed to play a backup role to DNA polymerase β in base excision repair. Two oxidized abasic lesions that are produced by a variety of DNA damaging agents, including several antitumor antibiotics, the C4′-oxidized abasic site following Ape1 incision (pC4-AP) and 5′-(2-phosphoryl-1,4-dioxobutane) (DOB), irreversibly inactivate Pol β and Pol λ. The interactions of DOB and pC4-AP with Pol λ are examined in detail using DNA substrates containing these lesions at defined sites. Single turnover kinetic experiments show that Pol λ excises DOB almost 13-times more slowly than a 5′-phosphorylated 2-deoxyribose (dRP). pC4-AP is excised approximately twice as fast as DOB. The absolute rate constants are considerably slower than those reported for Pol β at the respective reactions, suggesting that Pol λ may be an inefficient backup in BER. DOB inactivates Pol λ approximately 3-fold less efficiently than it does Pol β and the difference is attributable to a higher KI (33 ± 7 nM). Inactivation of Pol λ’s lyase activity by DOB also prevents the enzyme from carrying out polymerization following preincubation of the protein and DNA. Mass spectral analysis of GluC digested Pol λ inactivated by DOB shows that Lys324 is modified. There is inferential support that Lys312 may also be modified. Both residues are within the Pol λ lyase active site. Protein modification involves reaction with released but-2-ene-1,4-dial. When acting on pC4-AP, Pol λ achieves approximately 4 turnovers on average before being inactivated. Lyase inactivation by pC4-AP is also accompanied by loss of polymerase activity and mass spectrometry indicates that Lys312 and Lys324 are modified by the lesion. The ability of DOB and pC4-AP to inactivate Pol λ provides additional evidence that these lesions are significant sources of the cytotoxicity of DNA damaging agents that

  2. Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Christopher; Peccia, Jordan

    2011-10-15

    The potential for anaerobic digester energy production must be balanced with the sustainability of reusing the resultant biosolids for land application. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temperature-phased, and high temperature (60 or 70 °C) batch pre-treatment digester configurations have been systematically evaluated for net energy production and pathogen inactivation potential. Energy input requirements and net energy production were modeled for each digester scheme. First-order inactivation rate coefficients for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and bacteriophage MS-2 were measured at each digester temperature and full-scale pathogen inactivation performance was estimated for each indicator organism and each digester configuration. Inactivation rates were found to increase dramatically at temperatures above 55 °C. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U.S. EPA time and temperature constraints predicts a 1-2 log inactivation in mesophilic treatment, and a 2-5 log inactivation in 50-55 °C thermophilic and temperature-phased treatments. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C batch pre-treatment phase resulted in dramatically higher potency, achieving MS-2 inactivation of 14 and 16 logs respectively, and complete inactivation (over 100 log reduction) of E. coli and E. faecalis. For temperatures less than 70 °C, viability staining of thermally-treated E. coli showed significantly reduced inactivation relative to standard culture enumeration. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy production for all digesters was similar (less than 20% difference) with the 60 or 70 °C batch treatment configurations producing the most net energy and the mesophilic treatment producing the least. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C pre-treatment phase can dramatically increase pathogen inactivation performance without decreasing net energy capture from anaerobic digestion. Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against

  3. A novel micro fluidic mixer-based approach for determining inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in free chlorine solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the minimum free chlorine concentration needed to prevent pathogen survival/cross-contamination during produce washing is a critical need to develop science-based food safety regulations and practices. Although the trend of chlorine concentration-contact time on pathogen inactivatio...

  4. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i) summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii) discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process. PMID:22852040

  5. Ozone inactivation of cell-associated viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, M A; Sproul, O J; Buck, C E

    1982-01-01

    The inactivation of HEp-2 cell-associated poliovirus (Sabin 1) and coxsackievirus A9 was investigated in three experimental systems, using ozone as a disinfectant. The cell-associated viral samples were adjusted to a turbidity of 5 nephelometric turbidity units. The cell-associated poliovirus and coxsackievirus samples demonstrated survival in a continuous-flow ozonation system at applied ozone dosages of 4.06 and 4.68 mg/liter, respectively, for 30 s. Unassociated viral controls were inactivated by the application of 0.081 mg of ozone per liter for 10 s. Ultrasonic treatment of cell-associated enteric viruses did not increase inactivation of the cell-associated viruses. The batch reactor with a declining ozone residual did not effect total inactivation of either cell-associated enteric virus. These cell-associated viruses were completely inactivated after exposure to ozone in a batch reactor using continuous ozonation. Inactivation of cell-associated poliovirus required a 2-min contact period with an applied ozone dosage of 6.82 mg/liter and a residual ozone concentration of 4.70 mg/liter, whereas the coxsackievirus was completely inactivated after a 5-min exposure to an applied ozone dosage of 4.81 mg/liter with an ozone residual of 2.18 mg/liter. These data indicate that viruses associated with cells or cell fragments are protected from inactivation by ozone concentrations that readily inactivate purified virus. The cell-associated viral samples used in this research contained particles that were 10 to 15 microns in size. Use of a filtration system before ozonation would remove these particles, thereby facilitating inactivation of any remaining viruses associated with cellular fragments. PMID:6280611

  6. Metabolic signatures of lung cancer in biofluids: NMR-based metabonomics of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cláudia M; Carrola, Joana; Barros, António S; Gil, Ana M; Goodfellow, Brian J; Carreira, Isabel M; Bernardo, João; Gomes, Ana; Sousa, Vitor; Carvalho, Lina; Duarte, Iola F

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the variations in the metabolic profile of blood plasma from lung cancer patients and healthy controls were investigated through NMR-based metabonomics, to assess the potential of this approach for lung cancer screening and diagnosis. PLS-DA modeling of CPMG spectra from plasma, subjected to Monte Carlo Cross Validation, allowed cancer patients to be discriminated from controls with sensitivity and specificity levels of about 90%. Relatively lower HDL and higher VLDL + LDL in the patients' plasma, together with increased lactate and pyruvate and decreased levels of glucose, citrate, formate, acetate, several amino acids (alanine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, valine), and methanol, could be detected. These changes were found to be present at initial disease stages and could be related to known cancer biochemical hallmarks, such as enhanced glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and gluconeogenesis, together with suppressed Krebs cycle and reduced lipid catabolism, thus supporting the hypothesis of a systemic metabolic signature for lung cancer. Despite the possible confounding influence of age, smoking habits, and other uncontrolled factors, these results indicate that NMR-based metabonomics of blood plasma can be useful as a screening tool to identify suspicious cases for subsequent, more specific radiological tests, thus contributing to improved disease management. PMID:21744875

  7. A Nanoflare-based Cellular Automaton Model and the Observed Properties of the Coronal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo; Klimchuk, James A.

    2016-09-01

    We use the cellular automaton model described in López Fuentes & Klimchuk to study the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model, based on the idea of a critical misalignment angle in tangled magnetic fields, produces nanoflares of varying frequency with respect to the plasma cooling time. We compare the results of the model with active region (AR) observations obtained with the Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA instruments. The comparison is based on the statistical properties of synthetic and observed loop light curves. Our results show that the model reproduces the main observational characteristics of the evolution of the plasma in AR coronal loops. The typical intensity fluctuations have amplitudes of 10%–15% both for the model and the observations. The sign of the skewness of the intensity distributions indicates the presence of cooling plasma in the loops. We also study the emission measure (EM) distribution predicted by the model and obtain slopes in log(EM) versus log(T) between 2.7 and 4.3, in agreement with published observational values.

  8. Magnetic measurement based methods in determination of plasma equilibrium parameters in Damavand tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, E.; Sadeghi, Y.; Mehdian, H.

    2016-06-01

    Determination of plasma equilibrium parameters such as poloidal beta (βp) with half of plasma internal inductance (li) known as Shafranov parameter (asymmetry factor) (βp+𝔡li2) and edge safety factor plays very important role in primary equilibrium and stability analysis and control of tokamak plasma. In this study, the well known Shafranov semi-empirical model, based on external magnetic measurements is used to extract Shafranov parameter and effective edge safety factor in low-β operating regime of Damavand tokamak. The well known integral representation of βp+𝔡li2 was modified for non-circular tokamaks with ellipse-like cross section. After calibration of magnetic pick-up coils, Shafranov parameter was estimated with respect to the first and second Fourier harmonic of radial and poloidal components of magnetic field. The results were compared with approximate, semi-analytical determination of Shafranov parameter which is based on analytical solution of Grad-Shafranov equation (GSE). Founding evolution of Shafranov parameter, effective edge safety factor was obtained in terms of Shafranov parameter and compared with semi-empirical description. It was found that between the ramp-up and ramp-down domain of the plasma current, the result from Shafranov model is approximately in good agreement with the semi-analytical and semi-empirical benchmarks and the integral model provides more reliable trace of the Shafranov parameter in out of ramp domains of the discharge.

  9. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 [times] 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V[sub x] ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V[sub x], the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90[degree]. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 [times] 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  10. Pulse power requirements for large aperture optical switches based on plasma electrode Pockels cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Taylor, J.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss very large-aperture optical switches (greater than 30 {times} 30 cm) as an enabling technology for inertial confinement fusion drivers based on multipass laser amplifiers. Large-scale laser fusion drivers such as the Nova laser have been based on single-pass amplifier designs in part because of the unavailability of a suitable large-aperture switch. We are developing an optical switch based on a Pockels cell employing plasma-electrodes. A plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) is a longitudinal-mode Pockels cell in which a plasma discharge is formed on each side of an electro-optic crystal (typically KDP or deuterated KDP, often designated KD*P). The plasmas formed on either side of the crystal act as transparent electrodes for a switching-pulse and are intended to allow uniform charging of the entire crystal. The switching-pulse is a nominally rectangular high-voltage pulse equal to the half-wave voltage V{sub x} ( 8 kV for KD*P or 17 kV for KDP) and is applied across the crystal via the plasma-electrodes. When the crystal is charged to V{sub x}, the polarization of an incoming, linearly polarized, laser beam is rotated by 90{degree}. When used in conjunction with an appropriate, passive polarizer, an optical switch is thus realized. A switch with a clear aperture of 37 {times} 37 cm is now in construction for the Beamlet laser which will serve as a test bed for this switch as well as other technologies required for an advanced NOVA laser design. In this paper, we discuss the unique power electronics requirements of PEPC optical switches.

  11. Nitrogen mass transfer models for plasma-based low-energy ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Bocong; Wang, Kesheng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Che, Honglong; Lei, Mingkai

    2015-03-15

    The nitrogen mass transfer process in plasma-based low-energy ion implantation (PBLEII) is theoretically and experimentally studied in order to explore the process mechanism of PBLEII and therefore to optimize the apparatus design and the process conditions. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge generates the nitrogen plasma with a high density of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 3}, which diffuses downstream to the process chamber along the divergent magnetic field. The nitrogen ions in the plasma implant into the surface and transport to the matrix of an austenitic stainless steel under the low negative pulsed bias of −2 kV at a process temperature of 400 °C. A global plasma model is used to simulate the ECR microwave plasma discharge for a range of working pressures and microwave powers. The fluid models are adopted to calculate the plasma downstream diffusion, the sheath expansion and the low-energy ion implantation on the surface. A nonlinear kinetic discrete model is established to describe the nitrogen transport in the austenitic stainless steel and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. Under an average implantation current density of 0.3–0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the surface nitrogen concentration in the range from 18.5 to 29 at. % is a critical factor for the nitrogen transport in the AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel by PBLEII, which accelerates the implanted nitrogen diffusion inward up to 6–12 μm during a nitriding time of 4 h.

  12. Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 by Dronedarone and N-Desbutyl Dronedarone.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanjun; Chia, Yvonne Mei Fen; Yeo, Ray Hng; Venkatesan, Gopalakrishnan; Koh, Siew Kwan; Chai, Christina Li Lin; Zhou, Lei; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent approved in 2009 for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. An in-house preliminary study demonstrated that dronedarone inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 3A5 in a time-dependent manner. This study aimed to investigate the inactivation of CYP450 by dronedarone. We demonstrated for the first time that both dronedarone and its main metabolite N-desbutyl dronedarone (NDBD) inactivate CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner. For the inactivation of CYP3A4, the inactivator concentration at the half-maximum rate of inactivation and inactivation rate constant at an infinite inactivator concentration are 0.87 µM and 0.039 minute(-1), respectively, for dronedarone, and 6.24 µM and 0.099 minute(-1), respectively, for NDBD. For CYP3A5 inactivation, the inactivator concentration at the half-maximum rate of inactivation and inactivation rate constant at an infinite inactivator concentration are 2.19 µM and 0.0056 minute(-1) for dronedarone and 5.45 µM and 0.056 minute(-1) for NDBD. The partition ratios for the inactivation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by dronedarone are 51.1 and 32.2, and the partition ratios for the inactivation of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 by NDBD are 35.3 and 36.6. Testosterone protected both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 from inactivation by dronedarone and NDBD. Although the presence of Soret peak confirmed the formation of a quasi-irreversible metabolite-intermediate complex between dronedarone/NDBD and CYP3A4/CYP3A5, partial recovery of enzyme activity by potassium ferricyanide illuminated an alternative irreversible mechanism-based inactivation (MBI). MBI of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was further supported by the discovery of glutathione adducts derived from the quinone oxime intermediates of dronedarone and NDBD. In conclusion, dronedarone and NDBD inactivate CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 via unique dual mechanisms of MBI and formation of the metabolite-intermediate complex. Our novel findings contribute new knowledge for

  13. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  14. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii

    SciTech Connect

    Seefeldt, L.C.; Arp, D.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

  15. Evaluation of aqueous and alcohol-based quaternary ammonium sanitizers for inactivating Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on peanut and pistachio shells.

    PubMed

    McEgan, Rachel; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of aqueous (aQUAT) and isopropyl alcohol-based quaternary ammonium (ipQUAT) sanitizers for reducing Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes populations on peanut and pistachio shell pieces. Inoculated nutshells were mixed with QUAT sanitizers, water, or 70% ethanol and enumerated immediately or after incubation at 30 °C for 48 h. None of the treatments had any immediate effect on Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 populations on the peanut or pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations declined immediately on the peanut and pistachio shells treated with aQUAT or ipQUAT. After incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut and pistachio shells. L. monocytogenes populations also increased significantly on the water- or aQUAT-treated peanut shells, but levels did not change on the water-treated pistachio shells and levels were just above the limit of detection on the aQUAT-treated pistachio shells. After treatment with ipQUAT and 48-h incubation, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations decreased to or below the limit of detection on both shell types; L. monocytogenes populations remained at or below the limit of detection on both shell types. PMID:25583342

  16. Photons and electrons: advances in using cold plasma, irradiation, UV and other energy-based treatments for fresh and fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional antimicrobial treatments for fresh produce rely on chemical compounds and physical contact to inactivate and remove bacterial contamination. Recent research has identified a number of energy-based alternative technologies to improve the safety of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetable...

  17. Inhibition of the contraction of the ductus arteriosus to oxygen by 1-aminobenzotriazole, a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450.

    PubMed Central

    Coceani, F.; Kelsey, L.; Seidlitz, E.; Korzekwa, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have proposed that contractile tension of the ductus arteriosus is sustained by a cytochrome P450-linked mechanism acting as a limiting step in the synthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1). In the present study, we have used the isolated ductus from near-term foetal lambs and guinea-pigs to investigate the effect on both muscle tone and ET-1 formation of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a suicide substrate for mono-oxygenase reactions. 2. ABT relaxed the lamb ductus at rest (2.5% O2) and during the oxygen contraction (15 to 95% O2). The effect was seen at 40 microM, and at 0.8 mM active tone was almost completely abolished. ABT (1 mM) also reversed the oxygen contraction in the guinea-pig ductus. 3. In the lamb ductus, the ABT response was not affected by removal of the endothelium or by treatment with 2.8 microM indomethacin (at 2.5% O2) and the ensuing contraction. 4. At both low and high concentration, ABT relaxed marginally, or not at all, the potassium-contracted (55 mM) ductus from either species. 5. ET-1 release from either the intact or endothelium-denuded lamb ductus tended to decrease in the presence of ABT (1 mM), whilst during the same treatment cyclic GMP content of the tissue remained unchanged. 6. We conclude that ABT relaxation is due to suppression of a contractile mechanism and not to activation of prostaglandin- and NO-mediated relaxing mechanisms. This contractile mechanism has a cytochrome P450-based mono-oxygenase reaction as a key component. PMID:8730758

  18. Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children Estimated by a Test-Negative Case-Control Design Study Based on Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Tomidokoro, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Shiro, Hiroyuki; Komiyama, Osamu; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoko; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Myokai, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Furuichi, Munehiro; Baba, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hisayo; Sato, Akihiro; Ookawara, Ichiro; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kono, Mio; Tanaka, Fumie; Kawakami, Chiharu; Kimiya, Takahisa; Takahashi, Takao; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013–14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38°C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39–52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56–69), 77% (95% CI, 59–87), and 26% (95% CI, 14–36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B. PMID:26317334

  19. Plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} at elevated temperatures in chlorine-based chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Helot, M.; Chevolleau, T.; Vallier, L.; Joubert, O.; Blanquet, E.; Pisch, A.; Mangiagalli, P.; Lill, T.

    2006-01-15

    Plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} at an elevated temperature is investigated in chlorine-based plasmas. Thermodynamic studies are performed in order to determine the most appropriate plasma chemistry. The theoretical calculations show that chlorocarbon gas chemistries (such as CCl{sub 4} or Cl{sub 2}-CO) can result in the chemical etching of HfO{sub 2} in the 425-625 K temperature range by forming volatile effluents such as HfCl{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. The etching of HfO{sub 2} is first studied on blanket wafers in a high density Cl{sub 2}-CO plasma under low ion energy bombardment conditions (no bias power). Etch rates are presented and discussed with respect to the plasma parameters. The evolution of the etch rate as function of temperature follows an Arrhenius law indicating that the etching comes from chemical reactions. The etch rate of HfO{sub 2} is about 110 A /min at a temperature of 525 K with a selectivity towards SiO{sub 2} of 15. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses (XPS) reveal that neither carbon nor chlorine is detected on the HfO{sub 2} surface, whereas a chlorine-rich carbon layer is formed on top of the SiO{sub 2} surface leading to the selectivity between HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}. A drift of the HfO{sub 2} etch process is observed according to the chamber walls conditioning due to chlorine-rich carbon coatings formed on the chamber walls in a Cl{sub 2}-CO plasma. To get a very reproducible HfO{sub 2} etch process, the best conditioning strategy consists in cleaning the chamber walls with an O{sub 2} plasma between each wafer. The etching of HfO{sub 2} is also performed on patterned wafers using a conventional polysilicon gate. The first result show a slight HfO{sub 2} foot at the bottom of the gate and the presence of hafnium oxide-based residues in the active areas.

  20. QuickPIC: a highly efficient fully parallelized PIC code for plasma-based acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Decyk, V. K.; Zhou, M.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.; Cooley, J. H.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Feng, B.; Katsouleas, T.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.

    2006-09-01

    A highly efficient, fully parallelized, fully relativistic, three-dimensional particle-incell model for simulating plasma and laser wakefield acceleration is described. The model is based on the quasi-static approximation, which reduces a fully three-dimensional electromagnetic field solve and particle push to a two-dimensional field solve and particle push. This is done by calculating the plasma wake assuming that the drive beam and/or laser does not evolve during the time it takes for it to pass a plasma particle. The complete electromagnetic fields of the plasma wake and its associated index of refraction are then used to evolve the drive beam and/or laser using very large time steps. This algorithm reduces the computation time by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude without loss of accuracy for highly nonlinear problems of interest. The code is fully parallelizable with different domain decompositions for the 2D and 3D pieces of the code. The code also has dynamic load balancing. We present the basic algorithms and design of QuickPIC, as well as comparison between the new algorithm and conventional fully explicit models (OSIRIS). Direction for future work is also presented including a software pipeline technique to further scale QuickPIC to 10,000+ processors.

  1. Theory of the plasma thruster based on the rotating electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Rudenko, T. S.

    2015-04-01

    A theory of electrodeless electric propulsion systems (EEPS) based on the use of the solenoid magnetic field and the rotating electromagnetic field produced by antennas is developed, which includes a study of the plasma acceleration by the Radio Frequency (RF) field and the concomitant thrust. It was assumed that the frequency of the RF field exceeds the lower hybrid frequency but is much less than the electron gyrofrequency. Relations for the thrust are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that thrust gain is significant only when the RF-induced drift velocity well exceeds the fluid velocity of the injected plasma. It is revealed that the curvature of the magnetic field lines and the plasma acceleration in the region outside the solenoid are the factors which can considerably increase the thrust. On the other hand, it is found that the axial inhomogeneity of the plasma and some other factors are unfavorable for the thrust. The obtained results can be used for the optimization of particular experiments aimed to create a new thruster for long-time space missions.

  2. Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Formaldehyde to Enhance Biosafety of Diagnostic Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Lars; Schünadel, Livia; Nitsche, Andreas; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Hanisch, Manuela; Laue, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non–infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation (i.e., the negative staining) and the detection of viruses. To examine the efficiency of FA inactivation, we used Vaccinia virus, Human adenovirus and Murine norovirus as models and treated them with FA under various conditions. Critical parameters for the inactivation efficiency were the temperature, the duration of the FA treatment, and the resistance of the virus in question. Our results show that FA inactivation at low temperature (4 °C) bears a high risk of incomplete inactivation. Higher temperatures (25 °C) are more efficient, although they still require rather long incubation times to fully inactivate a complex and highly robust virus like Vaccinia. A protocol, which applied 2% buffered FA for 60 min and a temperature–shift from 25 to 37 °C after 30 min was efficient for the complete inactivation of all test viruses, and therefore has the potential to improve both biosafety and speed of diagnostic electron microscopy. PMID:25674771

  3. Evaluation of virus inactivation by formaldehyde to enhance biosafety of diagnostic electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Möller, Lars; Schünadel, Livia; Nitsche, Andreas; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Hanisch, Manuela; Laue, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non-infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation (i.e., the negative staining) and the detection of viruses. To examine the efficiency of FA inactivation, we used Vaccinia virus, Human adenovirus and Murine norovirus as models and treated them with FA under various conditions. Critical parameters for the inactivation efficiency were the temperature, the duration of the FA treatment, and the resistance of the virus in question. Our results show that FA inactivation at low temperature (4 °C) bears a high risk of incomplete inactivation. Higher temperatures (25 °C) are more efficient, although they still require rather long incubation times to fully inactivate a complex and highly robust virus like Vaccinia. A protocol, which applied 2% buffered FA for 60 min and a temperature-shift from 25 to 37 °C after 30 min was efficient for the complete inactivation of all test viruses, and therefore has the potential to improve both biosafety and speed of diagnostic electron microscopy. PMID:25674771

  4. Inactivation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Herbert S.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-four chemical disinfectants considered to be viricidal were tested. Ten disinfectants were not viricidal for vesicular stomatitis virus within 10 min at 20 C when an LD50 titer of 108.5 virus units per 0.1 ml were to be inactivated. Quantitative inactivation experiments were done with acid, alkaline, and a substituted phenolic disinfectant to determine the kinetics of the virus inactivation. Substituted phenolic disinfectants, halogens, and cresylic and hydrochloric acids were viricidal. Basic compounds such as lye and sodium metasilicate were not viricidal. PMID:4313317

  5. Cold flame on Biofilm - Transport of Plasma Chemistry from Gas to Liquid Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Michael

    2014-10-01

    One of the most active and fastest growing fields in low-temperature plasma science today is biological effects of gas plasmas and their translation in many challenges of societal importance such as healthcare, environment, agriculture, and nanoscale fabrication and synthesis. Using medicine as an example, there are already three FDA-approved plasma-based surgical procedures for tissue ablation and blood coagulation and at least five phase-II clinical trials on plasma-assisted wound healing therapies. A key driver for realizing the immense application potential of near room-temperature ambient pressure gas plasmas, commonly known as cold atmospheric plasmas or CAP, is to build a sizeable interdisciplinary knowledge base with which to unravel, optimize, and indeed design how reactive plasma species interact with cells and their key components such as protein and DNA. Whilst a logical objective, it is a formidable challenge not least since existing knowledge of gas discharges is largely in the gas-phase and therefore not directly applicable to cell-containing matters that are covered by or embedded in liquid (e.g. biofluid). Here, we study plasma inactivation of biofilms, a jelly-like structure that bacteria use to protect themselves and a major source of antimicrobial resistance. As 60--90% of biofilm is made of water, we develop a holistic model incorporating physics and chemistry in the upstream CAP-generating region, a plasma-exit region as a buffer for as-phase transport, and a downstream liquid region bordering the gas buffer region. A special model is developed to account for rapid chemical reactions accompanied the transport of gas-phase plasma species through the gas-liquid interface and for liquid-phase chemical reactions. Numerical simulation is used to illustrate how key reactive oxygen species (ROS) are transported into the liquid, and this is supported with experimental data of both biofilm inactivation using plasmas and electron spin spectroscopy (ESR

  6. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  7. The mechanism of stimulation of NADPH oxidation during the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B1 by N-methylcarbazole: redox cycling and DNA scission.

    PubMed

    Shen, T; Hollenberg, P F

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation rate of NADPH is markedly stimulated during the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B1 by N-methylcarbazole (NMC) in a reconstituted system consisting of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 and phospholipid. The stimulation of NADPH oxidation in this system is due to 1-hydroxy-N-methylcarbazole (1-OH-NMC), one of the major metabolites of NMC. The 1-OH-NMC is further metabolized in an NADPH-dependent manner by the reconstituted system or by purified NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase to give a more polar metabolite which has been isolated by HPLC. The conversion of 1-OH-NMC to this product was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), and incubation of the 1-OH-NMC with hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase resulted in the formation of the same product, suggesting that the superoxide anion was involved in the metabolism of 1-OH-NMC by the reductase. Redox cycling activity during the metabolism of 1-OH-NMC by reductase has been demonstrated. The oxidation of NADPH by the reductase in the presence of 35 microM 1-OH-NMC was enhanced approximately 23-fold [240 nmol of NADPH oxidized/(min.nmol of reductase)] relative to control levels in the presence of 500 microM NMC [10.5 nmol/(min.nmol of reductase)]. 1-OH-NMC (35 microM) caused a 40-fold increase in the rate of formation of superoxide during its metabolism by reductase. The rapid rates of NADPH oxidation and superoxide formation were inhibited by the addition of reduced glutathione (GSH) to the reaction mixture. Neither SOD nor GSH inhibited the reductase activity directly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8199313

  8. Change of plasma volume, osmolality, and acid-base status in healthy calves after feeding of milk and water- and milk-based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, L; Schmidt, B; Rauwolf, U; Wenge, J; Coenen, M

    2012-10-01

    Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are a simple and cheap method to treat diarrheal dehydration and acidosis. To maintain the energy supply of diarrheic calves, it is necessary to continue milk feeding. Suckling of milk or milk-based or hypertonic water-based ORS produces a slower rate of abomasal emptying than suckling isotonic water-based ORS. The faster abomasal passage of isotonic water-based ORS implies that efficacious electrolytes reach the gut more quickly, possibly providing a faster rate of rehydration. The aim of the study was to verify when and to what extent milk and water- and milk-based ORS increase plasma volume and affect plasma osmolality and acid-base status in healthy suckling calves. Eleven calves were fed with milk and with an ORS that was prepared in water or milk. Moreover, for one experiment, the calves remained fasting without suckling milk or ORS. During the experimental phase, the calves were deprived of water, hay, and concentrates. Blood samples were taken before and at various time points after feeding. Total plasma protein, osmolality, [Na(+)], [K(+)], [Cl(-)], and albumin were determined. In 6 of 11 experiments, blood gas analysis was also performed. The calculated change in plasma volume after feeding was assessed from the plasma protein concentration before feeding (P(t=0)) and the plasma protein concentration after feeding (P(t=x)): (P(t=0)- P(t=x)) × 100/P(t=x). Water- and milk-based ORS produced equal rates of plasma expansion in healthy calves. After milk feeding, the change in plasma volume was decelerated. Because of water influx, we did not observe a significant effect of feeding regimen on plasma osmolality. Acid-base status was little affected by feeding regimen. Feeding of milk-based ORS increased plasma strong ion difference, an alkaline response, which could potentially also reduce acidosis in calves suffering from diarrhea. PMID:22863100

  9. Control of supersonic axisymmetric base flows using passive splitter plates and pulsed plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, Todd Mitchell

    An experimental investigation evaluating the effects of flow control on the near-wake downstream of a blunt-based axisymmetric body in supersonic flow has been conducted. To better understand and control the physical phenomena that govern these massively separated high-speed flows, this research examined both passive and active flow-control methodologies designed to alter the stability characteristics and structure of the near-wake. The passive control investigation consisted of inserting splitter plates into the recirculation region. The active control technique utilized energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges placed around the base. The flow-control authority of both methodologies was evaluated with experimental diagnostics including particle image velocimetry, schlieren photography, surface flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and discrete surface pressure measurements. Using a blowdown-type wind tunnel reconstructed specifically for these studies, baseline axisymmetric experiments without control were conducted for a nominal approach Mach number of 2.5. In addition to traditional base pressure measurements, mean velocity and turbulence quantities were acquired using two-component, planar particle image velocimetry. As a result, substantial insight was gained regarding the time-averaged and instantaneous near-wake flow fields. This dataset will supplement the previous benchmark point-wise laser Doppler velocimetry data of Herrin and Dutton (1994) for comparison with new computational predictive techniques. Next, experiments were conducted to study the effects of passive triangular splitter plates placed in the recirculation region behind a blunt-based axisymmetric body. By dividing the near-wake into 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 cylindrical regions, the time-averaged base pressure distribution, time-series pressure fluctuations, and presumably the stability characteristics were altered. While the spatial base pressure distribution was

  10. ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from

  11. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2013-10-01

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel determines the focusing forces, while the accelerating field is determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Beam loading using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined. Properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Elimination of Rapid Potassium Channel Inactivation by Phosphorylation of the Inactivation Gate

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Manuel; Wei, Aguan; Salkoff, Lawrence; Vyas, Tapan B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on rapid N-type inactivation of K+ channels has not been reported previously. We found that PKC specifically eliminates rapid inactivation of a cloned human A-type K+ channel (hKv3.4), converting this channel from a rapidly inactivating A type to a noninactivating delayed rectifier type. Biochemical analysis showed that the N-terminal domain of hKv3.4 is phosphorylated in vitro by PKC, and mutagenesis experiments revealed that two serines within the inactivation gate at the N-terminus are sites of direct PKC action. Moreover, mutating one of these serines to aspartic acid mimics the action of PKC. Serine phosphorylation may thus prevent rapid inactivation by shielding basic residues known to be critical to the function of the inactivation gate. The regulatory mechanism reported here may have substantial effects on signal coding in the nervous system. PMID:7993631

  13. Identification of peptidase substrates in human plasma by FTMS based differential mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Nathan A.; Deyanova, Ekaterina G.; Geissler, Wayne; Wiener, Matthew C.; Sachs, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Kenny K.; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Sinha Roy, Ranabir; Settlage, Robert E.; Hendrickson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the human genome encodes for proteases. Unfortunately, however, the biological roles of most of these enzymes remain poorly defined, since the physiological substrates are typically unknown and are difficult to identify using traditional methods. We have developed a proteomics experiment based on FTMS profiling and differential mass spectrometry (dMS) to identify candidate endogenous substrates of proteases using fractionated human plasma as the candidate substrate pool. Here we report proof-of-concept experiments for identifying in vitro substrates of aminopeptidase P2, (APP2) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), a peptidase of therapeutic interest for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. For both proteases, previously validated peptide substrates spiked into the human plasma pool were identified. Of note, the differential mass spectrometry experiments also identified novel substrates for each peptidase in the subfraction of human plasma. Targeted MS/MS analysis of these peptides in the complex human plasma pool and manual confirmation of the amino acid sequences led to the identification of these substrates. The novel DPP-4 substrate EPLGRQLTSGP was chemically synthesized and cleavage kinetics were determined in an in vitro DPP-4 enzyme assay. The apparent second order rate constant (kcat/KM) for DPP-4-mediated cleavage was determined to be 2.3 x 105 M-1 s-1 confirming that this peptide is efficiently processed by the peptidase in vitro. Collectively, these results demonstrate that differential mass spectrometry has the potential to identify candidate endogenous substrates of target proteases from a human plasma pool. Importantly, knowledge of the endogenous substrates can provide useful insight into the biology of these enzymes and provides useful biomarkers for monitoring their activity in vivo.

  14. A cartridge based sensor array platform for multiple coagulation measurements from plasma.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, O; Ermek, E; Kilinc, N; Bulut, S; Baris, I; Kavakli, I H; Yaralioglu, G G; Urey, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a MEMS-based sensor array enabling multiple clot-time tests for plasma in one disposable microfluidic cartridge. The versatile LoC (Lab-on-Chip) platform technology is demonstrated here for real-time coagulation tests (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT)). The system has a reader unit and a disposable cartridge. The reader has no electrical connections to the cartridge. This enables simple and low-cost cartridge designs and avoids reliability problems associated with electrical connections. The cartridge consists of microfluidic channels and MEMS microcantilevers placed in each channel. The microcantilevers are made of electroplated nickel. They are actuated remotely using an external electro-coil and the read-out is also conducted remotely using a laser. The phase difference between the cantilever oscillation and the coil drive is monitored in real time. During coagulation, the viscosity of the blood plasma increases resulting in a change in the phase read-out. The proposed assay was tested on human and control plasma samples for PT and aPTT measurements. PT and aPTT measurements from control plasma samples are comparable with the manufacturer's datasheet and the commercial reference device. The measurement system has an overall 7.28% and 6.33% CV for PT and aPTT, respectively. For further implementation, the microfluidic channels of the cartridge were functionalized for PT and aPTT tests by drying specific reagents in each channel. Since simultaneous PT and aPTT measurements are needed in order to properly evaluate the coagulation system, one of the most prominent features of the proposed assay is enabling parallel measurement of different coagulation parameters. Additionally, the design of the cartridge and the read-out system as well as the obtained reproducible results with 10 μl of the plasma samples suggest an opportunity for a possible point-of-care application. PMID:25353144

  15. Stability analysis of the Gravito-Electrostatic Sheath-based solar plasma equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Goutam, H. P.; Lal, M.; Dwivedi, C. B.

    2016-08-01

    We present approximate solutions of non-local linear perturbational analysis for discussing the stability properties of the Gravito-Electrostatic Sheath (GES)-based solar plasma equilibrium, which is indeed non-uniform on both the bounded and unbounded scales. The relevant physical variables undergoing perturbations are the self-solar gravity, electrostatic potential and plasma flow along with plasma population density. We methodologically derive linear dispersion relation for the GES fluctuations, and solve it numerically to identify and characterize the existent possible natural normal modes. Three distinct natural normal modes are identified and named as the GES-oscillator mode, GES-wave mode and usual (classical) p-mode. In the solar wind plasma, only the p-mode survives. These modes are found to be linearly unstable in wide-range of the Jeans-normalized wavenumber, k. The local plane-wave approximation marginally limits the validity or reliability of the obtained results in certain radial- and k-domains only. The phase and group velocities, time periods of these fluctuation modes are investigated. It is interesting to note that, the oscillation time periods of these modes are 3-10 min, which match exactly with those of the observed helio-seismic waves and solar surface oscillations. The proposed GES model provides a novel physical view of the waves and oscillations of the Sun from a new perspective of plasma-wall interaction physics. Due to simplified nature of the considered GES equilibrium, it is a neonatal stage to highlight its applicability in the real Sun. The proposed GES model and subsequent fluctuation analysis need further improvements to make it more realistic.

  16. pH-dependent inactivation of DT-diaphorase by mitomycin C and porfiromycin.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D; Beall, H; Kasai, M; Arai, H; Gibson, N W; Ross, D

    1993-12-01

    Mitomycin C and porfiromycin were found to inactivate rat hepatic DT-diaphorase. Inactivation was pH dependent; little inactivation was detected at pH 5.8, but inactivation increased as the pH was raised to 7.8. Inactivation was concentration and time dependent and displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Inactivation was NADH dependent, indicating that reductive metabolism was necessary for inhibition. [3H]Mitomycin C was covalently bound to DT-diaphorase during inhibition, and the stoichiometry for inactivation of DT-diaphorase by mitomycin C was approximately 0.8 nmol of mitomycin C bound/nmol of enzyme. A higher molecular mass product (60 kDa) was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis of DT-diaphorase preincubated with NADH and mitomycin C at pH 7.8, suggesting that mitomycin C is capable of cross-linking DT-diaphorase. The kinetics of inhibition, requirement for NADH for inhibition, covalent binding of [3H] mitomycin C to DT-diaphorase, and approximate 1:1 stoichiometry suggest that this inactivation process may be mechanism based. Inhibition of DT-diaphorase by mitomycin C and porfiromycin is not limited to a cell-free system and could also be observed in HT-29 cells in culture at pH 7.2. Bioactivation of mitomycin C or porfiromycin by DT-diaphorase is favored at lower pH, whereas at higher pH values enzyme alkylation and inactivation of DT-diaphorase occur. These data suggest that the success of attempts to exploit the elevated DT-diaphorase content of certain human tumors for improved chemotherapeutic response using mitomycin C or porfiromycin will depend on intracellular pH. PMID:8264549

  17. Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

  18. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins. PMID:27556443

  19. Inactivation kinetics of model and relevant blood-borne viruses by treatment with sodium hydroxide and heat.

    PubMed

    Borovec, S; Broumis, C; Adcock, W; Fang, R; Uren, E

    1998-09-01

    To determine the efficacy of a clean-in-place system for the inactivation of viruses present in human plasma, the effect of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide at 60 degrees C on viral infectivity was investigated. Inactivation of the following model and relevant viruses were followed as a function of time: human hepatitis A virus (HAV), canine parvovirus (CPV; a model for human parvovirus B-19) pseudorabies virus (PRV, a model for hepatitis B virus), and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, a model for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus). Infectivity of CPV was determined by a novel in situ EIA method which will prove useful for studies to validate parvovirus inactivation or removal. Infectivity of BVDV, PRV and CPV were shown to be reproducibly inactivated below the limit of detection by 0.1 M NaOH at 60 degrees C within 30 s. HAV was inactivated to below the limit of detection within 2 min. Treatment with heat alone also resulted in some log reduction for all viruses tested except for CPV which remained unaffected after heating at 60 degrees C for 16 min. Treatment of HAV with hydroxide alone (up to 1.0 m) at 15 degrees C did not lead to rapid inactivation. Collectively, these data suggest that 0.1 M NaOH at 60 degrees C for two min should be sufficient to inactivate viruses present in process residues. PMID:10208725

  20. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by chlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C H; Rice, E W; Reasoner, D J

    1997-01-01

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were studied to determine their resistance to chlorination. The organisms were readily inactivated by free chlorine and should therefore be controlled by disinfection practices normally employed in the treatment of drinking water. PMID:9406419

  1. Behavior modification after inactivation of cerebellar dentate nuclei.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd C; Villatoro, Lee; Arneson, Tom; Ahuja, Brittany; Voss, Stephanie; Swain, Rodney A

    2012-08-01

    Effort-based decision making occurs when subjects are given a choice between a reward available at a high response cost and a reward available at a low response cost and is altered in individuals with disorders such as autism or particular patterns of brain injury. The current study explored the relationship between effort-based decision making and reinforcement characteristics in the T maze. This was done using both normal animals and animals with bilateral inactivation of the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Rats chose between alternatives in which one arm contained high-density reinforcement (HR) and the other arm contained low-density reinforcement (LR). During training, the HR arm was obstructed and the point at which the animal no longer worked for reinforcement (breaking point) was determined. The cerebellar dentate nuclei were then transiently inactivated and once again breaking points were assessed. The results indicated that inactivation of the dentate nucleus disrupted effort-based decision making. Additionally, altering both the palatability and the magnitude of the reinforcement were assessed in an attempt to reestablish the original preinactivation breaking point. It was hypothesized that an increase in the strength or magnitude of the reinforcement would promote an increase in the breaking point of the animal even when the cerebellum was inactivated. The results indicated that with both strategies animals effectively reestablished original breaking points. The results of this study will inform the current literature regarding the modification of behavior after brain injury and further the understanding of the behavioral deficits associated with cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:22845704

  2. A compact tunable polarized X-ray source based on laser-plasma helical undulators

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J.; Chen, M.; Zeng, M.; Vieira, J.; Yu, L. L.; Weng, S. M.; Silva, L. O.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators have great potential as the basis for next generation compact radiation sources because of their extremely high accelerating gradients. However, X-ray radiation from such devices still lacks tunability, especially of the intensity and polarization distributions. Here we propose a tunable polarized radiation source based on a helical plasma undulator in a plasma channel guided wakefield accelerator. When a laser pulse is initially incident with a skew angle relative to the channel axis, the laser and accelerated electrons experience collective spiral motions, which leads to elliptically polarized synchrotron-like radiation with flexible tunability on radiation intensity, spectra and polarization. We demonstrate that a radiation source with millimeter size and peak brilliance of 2 × 1019 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth can be made with moderate laser and electron beam parameters. This brilliance is comparable with third generation synchrotron radiation facilities running at similar photon energies, suggesting that laser plasma based radiation sources are promising for advanced applications. PMID:27377126

  3. A compact tunable polarized X-ray source based on laser-plasma helical undulators.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Chen, M; Zeng, M; Vieira, J; Yu, L L; Weng, S M; Silva, L O; Jaroszynski, D A; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators have great potential as the basis for next generation compact radiation sources because of their extremely high accelerating gradients. However, X-ray radiation from such devices still lacks tunability, especially of the intensity and polarization distributions. Here we propose a tunable polarized radiation source based on a helical plasma undulator in a plasma channel guided wakefield accelerator. When a laser pulse is initially incident with a skew angle relative to the channel axis, the laser and accelerated electrons experience collective spiral motions, which leads to elliptically polarized synchrotron-like radiation with flexible tunability on radiation intensity, spectra and polarization. We demonstrate that a radiation source with millimeter size and peak brilliance of 2 × 10(19) photons/s/mm(2)/mrad(2)/0.1% bandwidth can be made with moderate laser and electron beam parameters. This brilliance is comparable with third generation synchrotron radiation facilities running at similar photon energies, suggesting that laser plasma based radiation sources are promising for advanced applications. PMID:27377126

  4. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cellulose based fillers for wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekobou, William; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick; Scudiero, Louis

    2011-10-01

    The main challenge of wood plastic composites (WPC) resides in the low interfacial adhesion due to incompatibility between the cellulose based filler that has a polar surface and most common matrixes, polyolefins which are non-polar. Plasma treatment is a promising technique for surface modification and its implementation into the processing of WPC would provide this industry with a versatile and nearly environmentally benign manufacturing tool. Our investigation aims at designing a cold atmospheric pressure plasma reactor for coating fillers with a hydrophobic material prior to compounding with the matrix. Deposition was achieved with our reactor that includes an array of high voltage needles, a grounded metal mesh, Ar as carrier gas and C2H2 as the precursor molecule. Parameters studied have included gas feed rates and applied voltage; FTIR, ESCA, AFM and SEM imaging were used for film diagnostics. We will also report on deposition rate and its dependence on radial and axial position as well as the effects of plasma-polymerized acetylene on the surface free energy of cellulose based substrates.

  5. Full wave simulation of lower hybrid waves in Maxwellian plasma based on the finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghini, O.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R.

    2009-09-15

    A full wave simulation of the lower-hybrid (LH) wave based on the finite element method is presented. For the LH wave, the most important terms of the dielectric tensor are the cold plasma contribution and the electron Landau damping (ELD) term, which depends only on the component of the wave vector parallel to the background magnetic field. The nonlocal hot plasma ELD effect was expressed as a convolution integral along the magnetic field lines and the resultant integro-differential Helmholtz equation was solved iteratively. The LH wave propagation in a Maxwellian tokamak plasma based on the Alcator C experiment was simulated for electron temperatures in the range of 2.5-10 keV. Comparison with ray tracing simulations showed good agreement when the single pass damping is strong. The advantages of the new approach include a significant reduction of computational requirements compared to full wave spectral methods and seamless treatment of the core, the scrape off layer and the launcher regions.

  6. Multi-layered plasma-polymerized chips for SPR-based detection.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Ram P; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Dixit, Chandra K; Volcke, Cedric; Doyle, Colin; Gubala, Vladimir; Uppal, Suresh; Monaghan, Ruairi; James, Bryony; O'Kennedy, Richard; Daniels, Stephen; Williams, David E

    2011-12-01

    The surface functionalization of a noble metal is crucial in a surface plasmon resonance-based biomolecular detection system because the interfacial coating must retain the activity of immobilized biomolecules while enhancing the optimal loading. We present here a one-step, room-temperature, high-speed, gas-phase plasma polymerization process for functionalizing gold substrates using siloxane as an adhesion layer and acrylic acid as a functional layer. Siloxane- and thiol-based coatings were compared for their performance as adhesion and the interfacial layer for subsequent functionalization. An in situ sequential deposition of siloxane and acrylic acid resulted in a 7-fold increase in carboxylic functionality surfacial content compared to films deposited with thiol-containing precursors. Grading of the layer composition achieved as a consequence of ion-induced mixing on the surface coating under the application of the plasma is confirmed through secondary ion mass spectroscopic studies. DNA hybridization assays were demonstrated on gold/glass substrates using surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry and the applicability of this coating for protein immunoassays were demonstrated with plasma functionalized gold/plastic substrates in Biacore 3000 SPR instrument. PMID:22029622

  7. Thermal Inactivation of Newcastle Disease Virus I. Coupled Inactivation Rates of Hemagglutinating and Neuraminidase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, John S.; Haywood, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal stability of Newcastle disease virus has been characterized in terms of the rate constants for inactivation of hemagglutinating activity (HA), neuraminidase activity (NA), and infectivity. Inactivation of HA results in the concomitant loss of NA. Infectivity, however, is much more thermolabile. Disintegration of the virus particle is not responsible for the identical rate constants for inactivation of HA and NA, nor is their parallel inactivation uncoupled in envelope fragments produced by pretreating the virus with phospholipase-C. The data indicate that a common envelope factor(s) can influence the thermal stability of both activities. PMID:4734647

  8. Two-stage plasma gun based on a gas discharge with a self-heating hollow emitter.

    PubMed

    Vizir, A V; Tyunkov, A V; Shandrikov, M V; Oks, E M

    2010-02-01

    The paper presents the results of tests of a new compact two-stage bulk gas plasma gun. The plasma gun is based on a nonself-sustained gas discharge with an electron emitter based on a discharge with a self-heating hollow cathode. The operating characteristics of the plasma gun are investigated. The discharge system makes it possible to produce uniform and stable gas plasma in the dc mode with a plasma density up to 3x10(9) cm(-3) at an operating gas pressure in the vacuum chamber of less than 2x10(-2) Pa. The device features high power efficiency, design simplicity, and compactness. PMID:20192469

  9. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  10. Pressure inactivation of microorganisms at moderate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, P.; Ludwig, H.

    1986-05-01

    The inactivation of bacteria, bacterial spores, yeasts and molds by high hydrostatic pressure was investigated over a pressure range up to 3000 bar. Survival curves were measured as a function of temperature and pressure applied on the microorganisms. Conditions are looked for under which heat or radiation sensitive pharmaceutical preparations can be sterilized by high pressure treatment at moderate temperatures. All organisms tested can be inactivated in the range of 2000-2500 bar and between 40-60 degrees.

  11. Inactivation of viruses by benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J A; Froelich, E J

    1964-03-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  12. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  13. Highly accurate coating composition control during co-sputtering, based on controlling plasma chromaticity

    SciTech Connect

    Anguita, J.V.; Thwaites, M.; Holton, B.; Hockley, P.; Holton, B.; Rand, S.

    2005-03-01

    Highly accurate control of sputtering processes is of paramount importance to industry. Plasma diagnostic equipment based on spectroscopic methods such as optical emission spectroscopy (OES) have been commercially available for many years and have the ability to deliver a high level of accuracy. Despite this, their complexity, demand for operator time, and disregard for the vast majority of the optical emission spectrum have rendered them as unpopular, and they are rarely used in manufacturing lines. This article introduces the measurement of the chromaticity of the plasma as a new method of analysis, as an alternative to OES. This method is simple, while maintaining a high level of sensitivity. Chromaticity monitors a wide range of the optical emission spectrum, obtaining a large amount of process information. It also averages and simplifies the data, making them easier to analyze.

  14. Characterization of a DBD-Based Plasma Jet Using a Variable Pulse Width Nanosecond Pulser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Picard, Julian; Prager, James; Miller, Kenneth; Carscadden, John

    2015-11-01

    Most high voltage pulsers used to drive dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), produce a single pulse shape (width and voltage), thus making it challenging to assess the effect of pulse shape on the production of different chemical species during a discharge. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has developed a high voltage nanosecond pulser that enables independent control of the output voltage, pulse width, and pulse repetition frequency. This pulser has been specifically designed to drive dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). EHT has used this pulser to conduct a parametric investigation of a DBD-based jet utilizing spectroscopic diagnostics. A better understanding of this parameter dependency can allow for more targeted and effective application of plasma in medical, environmental, industrial, and other applications. Results comparing DBD voltage and current waveforms with plasma spectrographic measurements will be presented.

  15. The robust bio-immobilization based on pulsed plasma polymerization of cyclopropylamine and glutaraldehyde coupling chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakhov, Anton; Makhneva, Ekaterina; Skládal, Petr; Nečas, David; Čechal, Jan; Kalina, Lukáš; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    The performance of immunosensing devices crucially depends on the methodology of antibody or antigen immobilization on the sensor surface. Hence, the stable intermediate layers capable of specific and reproducible binding of antibodies are required. Herein, we introduce the amine rich (NHx concentration of 6 at.%) layers prepared by pulsed plasma polymerization of cyclopropylamine (CPA) for functionalization of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) surface by the antibody specific to human serum albumin. In these layers the amine groups serve as anchor for the antibody binding. The sensitivity of QCM sensors prepared in this way surpasses the one for the previously reported sensors functionalized by the thiol-based self-assembled monolayers by the factor of 2. Our results thus show that CPA plasma polymers have a significant potential for further development of the active layers for biosensing applications.

  16. Ground-based observations of comets, the Jupiter plasma Torus, and Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherb, Frank; Roesler, Fred L.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of cometary and magnetospheric physics were investigated by means of ground-based astronomical spectroscopy. High-throughput, dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometers were used to obtain very high resolution spectra of atomic, molecular, and ionic emission lines from the diffuse gases and plasmas associated with comets and the Jupiter plasma torus. The Fabry-Perot spectrometers were also used with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to obtain images of these extended emission sources in individual spectral lines at high spectral resolution. A new program using the McMath solar-stellar spectrograph to observe emission lines from Io was recently initiated. The McMath spectrograph has a high resolution mode which allows the detection of narrow, relatively faint emission lines superimposed on Io's reflected solar spectrum.

  17. Physical Characteristics of AR 11024 Plasma Based on SPHINX and XRT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.; Engell, A. J.; Kuzin, S. V.

    We have studied the evolution of basic physical properties of plasma within the coronal part of the isolated, new cycle region (AR 11024) during its crossing over the solar disc in July 2009. Our analysis is based on the high temporal and spectral resolution measurements performed by the Polish X-ray spectrometer SphinX onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite. Hinode XRT images provide information on spatial extension of the emission within this active region. It is found that the average temperature of the plasma within the analysed region is the highest (˜6 MK) when the region is young and gradually declines to ˜2 MK when the emission measure is the highest. An average density during this first part of the evolution is estimated to be ˜2 x 10^9 cm^{-3}.

  18. Generating intense fully coherent soft x-ray radiation based on a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Xiang, Dao; Deng, Haixiao; Huang, Dazhang; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Zhentang

    2015-06-01

    Laser-plasma based accelerator has the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of future x-ray light sources to the university-laboratory scale. However, the large energy spread of the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam may hinder the way for short wavelength free-electron laser generation. In this paper, we propose a novel method for directly imprinting strong coherent micro-bunching on the electron beam with large intrinsic energy spread by using a wavefront-tilted conventional optical laser beam and a weak dipole magnet. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate that this technique can be used for the generation of fully coherent femtosecond soft x-ray radiation at gigawatts level with a very short undulator. PMID:26072855

  19. Protecting the blood supply from emerging pathogens: the role of pathogen inactivation.

    PubMed

    Allain, Jean Pierre; Bianco, Celso; Blajchman, Morris A; Brecher, Mark E; Busch, Michael; Leiby, David; Lin, Lily; Stramer, Susan

    2005-04-01

    Although the risk of infection by blood transfusion is relatively low, breakthrough infections still occur, Transfusion-related fatalities caused by infections continue to be reported, and blood is not tested for many potentially dangerous pathogens. The current paradigm for increasing the safety of the blood supply is the development and implementation of laboratory screening methods and restrictive donor criteria. When considering the large number of known pathogens and the fact that pathogens continue to emerge, it is clear that the utility of new tests and donor restrictions will continue to be a challenge when considering the cost of developing and implementing new screening assays, the loss of potential donors, and the risk of testing errors. Despite improving the safety of blood components, testing remains a reactive approach to blood safety. The contaminating organisms must be identified before sensitive tests can be developed. In contrast, pathogen inactivation is a proactive strategy designed to inactivate a pathogen before it enters the blood supply. Almost all pathogen inactivation technologies target nucleic acids, allowing for the inactivation of a variety of nucleic acid-containing pathogens within plasma, platelets, or red blood cells thus providing the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. However, widespread use of a pathogen inactivation technology can only be realized when proven safe and efficacious and not cost-prohibitive. PMID:15852240

  20. High gas pressure: an innovative method for the inactivation of dried bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Colas de la Noue, A; Espinasse, V; Perrier-Cornet, J-M; Gervais, P

    2012-08-01

    In this article, an original non-thermal process to inactivate dehydrated bacterial spores is described. The use of gases such as nitrogen or argon as transmission media under high isostatic pressure led to an inactivation of over 2 logs CFU/g of Bacillus subtilis spores at 430 MPa, room temperature, for a 1 min treatment. A major requirement for the effectiveness of the process resided in the highly dehydrated state of the spores. Only a water activity below 0.3 led to substantial inactivation. The solubility of the gas in the lipid components of the spore and its diffusion properties was essential to inactivation. The main phenomenon involved seems to be the sorption of the gas under pressure by the spores' structures such as residual pores and plasma membranes, followed by a sudden drop in pressure. Observation by phase-contrast microscopy suggests that internal structures have been affected by the treatment. Some parallels with polymer permeability to gas and rigidity at various water activities offer a few clues about the behavior of the outer layers of spores in response to this parameter and provide a good explanation for the sensitivity of spores to high gas pressure discharge at low hydration levels. Specificity of microorganisms such as size, organization, and composition could help in understanding the differences between spores and yeast regarding the parameters required for inactivation, such as pressure or maintenance time. PMID:22362566