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Sample records for plasma endothelial vasoactive

  1. Release of vasoactive substances from endothelial cells by shear stress and purinergic mechanosensory transduction

    PubMed Central

    BURNSTOCK, GEOFFREY

    1999-01-01

    The evidence for release of vasoactive substances from endothelial cells in response to shear stress caused by the viscous drag of passing fluids is reviewed and, in particular, its physiological significance both in short-term regulation of blood vessel tone and in long-term regulation of cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, and cell death in pathophysiological conditions is discussed. A new concept of purinergic mechanosensory transduction, particularly in relation to nociception, is introduced. It is proposed that distension of tubes (including ureter, vagina, salivary and bile ducts, gut) and sacs (including urinary and gall bladders, and lung) leads to release of ATP from the lining epithelium, which then acts on P2X2/3 receptors on subepithelial sensory nerves to convey information to the CNS. PMID:10386771

  2. Decrease in plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in short bowel syndrome: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Martin Del Olmo, J C; Carbajo Caballero, M A; Blanco Alvarez, J I; Audivert Mena, L; Vaquero Puerta, C

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the behaviour of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in short bowel syndrome (SBS), an experimental model of massive intestinal resection (MIR) was developed. For this purpose, 20 'minipigs' were divided into two experimental groups: A (control) and B (MIR). The parameters determined were the mean plasma levels of VIP and the degree of steatorrhea at four different times: T1 (basal), T2 (one week after surgery), T3 (two weeks after surgery), and T4 (24 weeks after surgery). The results indicated that, after MIR, a progressive decrease in the mean plasma levels of VIP takes place, with statistical significance in T3 (p < 0.05) and T4 (p < 0.01). This situation seems to be a direct result of the massive loss of intestinal tissue, and could lead to the use of this peptide to mark the evolution of the intestinal adaptation process. PMID:9851334

  3. Preconditioning at a distance: Involvement of endothelial vasoactive substances in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sapna; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-15

    There is growing preclinical as well as clinical evidence supporting remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), in which short cycles of non-fatal ischemia followed by reperfusion to an organ or tissue distant from the heart elicits cardioprotection. It is the most practical, non-invasive, cost-free, and clinically compatible, secure procedure for reducing ischemia-reperfusion induced injury. The use of a conventional blood pressure cuff on the upper or lower limb in eliciting cardioprotection has expedited its clinical applicability. Endothelium has been documented to respond very quickly to blood flow and hypoxia by releasing different humoral factors such as endothelium derived releasing factor, endothelium derived contracting factor, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor. In recent years, there have been studies suggesting the key role of endothelial derived factors in RIPC induced cardioprotection. The signaling cascade involves nitric oxide, gap junctions, epoxyeicosatrienoic (EETs) acids, Ca-activated K(+) channels, angiotensin II, thromboxane A2, superoxide anions and prostacyclin. The present review describes the role of these endothelial derived factors in RIPC induced cardioprotection with possible mechanisms. PMID:26979771

  4. Vasoactive peptides upregulate mRNA expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, Vijay K T; Willems-Widyastuti, Anna; Seynhaeve, Ann L B; Garrelds, Ingrid M; ten Hagen, Timo L M; Saxena, Pramod R; Sharma, Hari S

    2007-01-01

    Airway remodeling and associated angiogenesis are documented features of asthma, of which the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Angiotensin (ANG)II and endothelin (ET)-1 are potent vasoconstricting circulatory hormones implicated in asthma. We investigated the effects of ANG II and ET-1 on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells proliferation and growth and examined the mRNA expression and release of the angiogenic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Serum deprived (48 h) human ASM cells were incubated with ANG II (100 nM) or ET-1 (10 nM) for 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h and the endogenous synthesis of VEGF was examined in relation to control cells receiving serum free culture medium. ET-1 induced time dependent DNA biosynthesis as determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Using northern blot hybridization, we detected two mRNA species of 3.9 and 1.7 kb encoding VEGF in the cultured smooth muscle cells. Both ANG II and ET-1 induced the mRNA expression (two- to threefold) and secretion (1.8- to 2.8-fold) of VEGF reaching maximal levels between 4-8 h of incubation. Induced expression and release of VEGF declined after 8 h of ANG II incubation while levels remained elevated in the case of ET-1. The conditioned medium derived from ET-1-treated ASM cells induced [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cell number in porcine pulmonary artery endothelial as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, the VEGF tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor blocked the conditioned medium induced mitogenesis in endothelial cells. Our results suggest a potential role for ANG II and ET-1 in ASM cell growth and upregulation of VEGF that may participate in endothelial cell proliferation via paracrine mechanisms and thus causing pathological angiogenesis and vascular remodelling seen during asthma. PMID:17406064

  5. The effect of ice-slushy consumption on plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Catriona A; Ruell, Patricia; Johnson, Nathan; Chapman, Phillip; O'Brien, Sinead; O'Connor, Helen T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise in the heat on thermoregulatory responses and plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide concentration (VIP) and whether it is modulated by ice-slushy consumption. Ten male participants cycled at 62% V̇O2max for 90min in 32°C and 40% relative humidity. A thermoneutral (37°C) or ice-slushy (-1°C) sports drink was given at 3.5mlkg(-1) body mass every 15min during exercise. VIP and rectal temperature increased during exercise (mean±standard deviation: 4.6±4.4pmolL(-1), P=0.005; and 1.3±0.4°C, P<0.001 respectively) and were moderately associated (r=0.35, P=0.008). While rectal temperature and VIP were not different between trials, ice-slushy significantly reduced heat storage (P=0.010) and skin temperature (time×trial interaction P=0.038). It appears that VIP does not provide the signal linking cold beverage ingestion and lower skin temperature in the heat. PMID:25526655

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  7. Sepsis-induced elevation in plasma serotonin facilitates endothelial hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yicong; Hadden, Coedy; Cooper, Anthonya; Ahmed, Asli; Wu, Hong; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Mayeux, Philip R.; Kilic, Fusun

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpermeability of the endothelial barrier and resulting microvascular leakage are a hallmark of sepsis. Our studies describe the mechanism by which serotonin (5-HT) regulates the microvascular permeability during sepsis. The plasma 5-HT levels are significantly elevated in mice made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). 5-HT-induced permeability of endothelial cells was associated with the phosphorylation of p21 activating kinase (PAK1), PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of vimentin (P-vimentin) filaments, and a strong association between P-vimentin and ve-cadherin. These findings were in good agreement with the findings with the endothelial cells incubated in serum from CLP mice. In vivo, reducing the 5-HT uptake rates with the 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor, paroxetine blocked renal microvascular leakage and the decline in microvascular perfusion. Importantly, mice that lack SERT showed significantly less microvascular dysfunction after CLP. Based on these data, we propose that the increased endothelial 5-HT uptake together with 5-HT signaling disrupts the endothelial barrier function in sepsis. Therefore, regulating intracellular 5-HT levels in endothelial cells represents a novel approach in improving sepsis-associated microvascular dysfunction and leakage. These new findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to intracellular/extracellular 5-HT ratio in sepsis and refine current views of these signaling processes during sepsis. PMID:26956613

  8. Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in plasma and small intestine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shu-Guang; Wu, Wan-Chun; Han, Zhen; Wang, Meng-Ya

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin (CCK) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma and small intestine, and to explore the relationship between small intestinal motor disorders and gastrointestinal hormones under psychological stress. METHODS: Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into psychological stress group and control group. A mouse model with psychological stress was established by housing the mice with a hungry cat in separate layers of a two-layer cage. A semi-solid colored marker (carbon-ink) was used for monitoring small intestinal transit. CCK and VIP levels in plasma and small intestine in mice were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited (52.18±19.15% vs 70.19±17.79%, P<0.01) in mice after psychological stress, compared to the controls. Small intestinal CCK levels in psychological stress mice were significantly lower than those in the control group (0.75±0.53 μg/g vs 1.98±1.17 μg/g, P<0.01), whereas plasma CCK concentrations were not different between the groups. VIP levels in small intestine were significantly higher in psychological stress mice than those in the control group (8.45±1.09 μg/g vs 7.03±2.36 μg/g, P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in plasma VIP levels between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Psychological stress inhibits the small intestinal transit, probably by down-regulating CCK and up-regulating VIP expression in small intestine. PMID:15655834

  9. Plasma nitrite rather than nitrate reflects regional endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity but lacks intrinsic vasodilator action.

    PubMed

    Lauer, T; Preik, M; Rassaf, T; Strauer, B E; Deussen, A; Feelisch, M; Kelm, M

    2001-10-23

    The plasma level of NO(x), i.e., the sum of NO(2)- and NO(3)-, is frequently used to assess NO bioavailability in vivo. However, little is known about the kinetics of NO conversion to these metabolites under physiological conditions. Moreover, plasma nitrite recently has been proposed to represent a delivery source for intravascular NO. We therefore sought to investigate in humans whether changes in NO(x) concentration are a reliable marker for endothelial NO production and whether physiological concentrations of nitrite are vasoactive. NO(2)- and NO(3)- concentrations were measured in blood sampled from the antecubital vein and brachial artery of 24 healthy volunteers. No significant arterial-venous gradient was observed for either NO(2)- or NO(3)-. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) stimulation with acetylcholine (1-10 microg/min) dose-dependently augmented venous NO(2)- levels by maximally 71%. This effect was paralleled by an almost 4-fold increase in forearm blood flow (FBF), whereas an equieffective dose of papaverine produced no change in venous NO(2)-. Intraarterial infusion of NO(2)- had no effect on FBF. NOS inhibition (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine; 4-12 micromol/min) dose-dependently reduced basal NO(2)- and FBF and blunted acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and NO release by more than 80% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, venous NO(3)- and total NO(x) remained unchanged as did systemic arterial NO(2)- and NO(3)- levels during all these interventions. FBF and NO release showed a positive association (r = 0.85; P < 0.001). These results contradict the current paradigm that plasma NO(3)- and/or total NO(x) are generally useful markers of endogenous NO production and demonstrate that only NO(2)- reflects acute changes in regional eNOS activity. Our results further demonstrate that physiological levels of nitrite are vasodilator-inactive. PMID:11606734

  10. Oxidized plasma albumin promotes platelet-endothelial crosstalk and endothelial tissue factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Pasterk, Lisa; Lemesch, Sandra; Leber, Bettina; Trieb, Markus; Curcic, Sanja; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Schuligoi, Rufina; Schicho, Rudolf; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a class of pro-inflammatory pathogenic mediators, accumulate in subjects with chronic kidney disease. Whether AOPPs contribute to coagulation abnormalities, which are frequently seen in uremic patients, is unknown. Here we report that AOPPs activate platelets via a CD36-mediated signaling pathway. Activation of signaling pathways by AOPP-platelet interaction resulted in the expression of several platelet activation markers and rapidly induced the expression of CD40 ligand, triggering platelet adhesion to endothelial cells and promoting endothelial tissue factor expression. AOPPs and serum tissue factor levels were considerably increased in end stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis and a significant correlation of AOPPs and serum tissue factor was found. Interestingly, serum levels of AOPPs and tissue factor were substantially lower in stable kidney transplant patients when compared with hemodialysis patients. Given that CD36 is known to transduce the effects of oxidized lipids into platelet hyperactivity, our findings reveal previously unknown pro-thrombotic activities of oxidized plasma albumin via a CD36 dependent pathway. PMID:26905525

  11. DIET QUALITY SCORES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the mechanisms linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between several diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Diet-quality scores on the Healthy Eating Index (H...

  12. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  13. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters. PMID:26936382

  14. Effect of plasma membrane fluidity on serotonin transport by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Block, E.R.; Edwards, D. )

    1987-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of plasma membrane fluidity of lung endothelial cells on serotonin transport, porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were incubated for 3 h with either 0.1 mM cholesterol hemisuccinate, 0.1 mM cis-vaccenic acid, or vehicle (control), after which plasma membrane fluidity and serotinin transport were measured. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure fluidity in the plasma membrane. Serotonin uptake was calculated from the disappearance of ({sup 14}C)-serotonin from the culture medium. Cholesterol decreased fluidity in the subpolar head group and central and midacyl side-chain regions of the plasma membrane and decreased serotonin transport, whereas cis-vaccenic acid increased fluidity in the central and midacyl side-chain regions of the plasma membrane and also increased serotonin transport. Cis-vaccenic acid had no effect of fluidity in the subpolar head group region of the plasma membrane. These results provide evidence that the physical state of the central and midacyl chains within the pulmonary artery endothelial cell plasma membrane lipid bilayer modulates transmembrane transport of serotonin by these cells.

  15. Surface modification of coronary stents with SiCOH plasma nanocoatings for improving endothelialization and anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Shen, Yang; Tang, Chaojun; Wu, Xue; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Guixue

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of intravascular stent play a crucial role in preventing in-stent restenosis (ISR). In this study, SiCOH plasma nanocoatings were used to modify the surfaces of intravascular stents to improve their endothelialization and anticoagulation properties. SiCOH plasma nanocoatings with thickness of 30-40 nm were deposited by low-temperature plasmas from a gas mixture of trimethysilane (TMS) and oxygen at different TMS:O2 ratios. Water contact angle measurements showed that the SiCOH plasma nanocoating surfaces prepared from TMS:O2  = 1:4 are hydrophilic with contact angle of 29.5 ± 1.9°. The SiCOH plasma nanocoated 316L stainless steel (316L SS) wafers were first characterized by in vitro adhesion tests for blood platelets and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The in vitro test results showed that the SiCOH plasma nanocoatings prepared from TMS:O2  = 1:4 had excellent hemo- and cytocompatibility. With uncoated 316L SS stents as the control, the SiCOH plasma nanocoated 316L SS stents were implanted into rabbit abdominal artery model for in vivo evaluation of re-endothelialization and ISR inhibition. After implantation for 12 weeks, the animals testing results showed that the SiCOH plasma nanocoatings accelerated re-endothelialization and inhibited ISR with lumen reduction of 26.3 ± 10.1%, which were considerably less than the 41.9 ± 11.6% lumen reduction from the uncoated control group. PMID:24919787

  16. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, U.; Witte, L.D.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1989-03-15

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) bound to the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Studies were performed to investigate whether human plasma lipoproteins and/or free fatty acids would release LPL which was bound to endothelial cells. Purified bovine milk LPL was incubated with cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells resulting in the association of enzyme activity with the cells. When the cells were then incubated with media containing chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), a concentration-dependent decrease in the cell-associated LPL enzymatic activity was observed. In contrast, incubation with media containing low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins produced a much smaller decrease in the cell-associated enzymatic activity. The addition of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin to the media also reduced enzyme activity associated with the endothelial cells. To determine whether the decrease in LPL activity was due to release of the enzyme from the cells or inactivation of the enzyme, studies were performed utilizing radioiodinated bovine LPL. Radiolabeled LPL protein was released from endothelial cells by chylomicrons, VLDL, and by free fatty acids (i.e. oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin). The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells. Inhibition of LPL enzymatic activity by use of a specific monoclonal antibody, reduced the extent of release of /sup 125/I-LPL from the endothelial cells by the added VLDL. These results demonstrated that LPL enzymatic activity and protein were removed from endothelial cells by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and oleic acid.

  17. Identification of DNA-binding proteins on human umbilical vein endothelial cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, T M; Frampton, G; Cameron, J S

    1993-01-01

    The binding of anti-DNA antibodies to the endothelial cell is mediated through DNA, which forms a bridge between the immunoglobulin and the plasma membrane. We have shown that 32P-labelled DNA bound to the plasma membrane of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by a saturable process, which could be competitively inhibited by non-radiolabelled DNA. In addition, DNA-binding was enhanced in HUVEC that had been treated with IL-1 alpha or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). DNA-binding proteins of mol. wt 46,000, 92,000, and 84,000 were identified by the binding of 32P-labelled DNA to plasma membrane proteins separated on SDS-PAGE. DNA-binding proteins of mol. wt 46,000 and 84,000 were also present in the cytosol and nucleus. Murine anti-DNA MoAb410 bound to a single band, at mol. wt 46,000, of plasma membrane protein, in the presence of DNA. Our results showed that DNA-binding proteins are present in different cellular fractions of endothelial cells. DNA-binding proteins on the cell membrane could participate in the in situ formation of immune deposits; and their presence in the cell nucleus suggests a potential role in the modulation of cell function. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8419070

  18. Endothelial Inflammatory Transcriptional Responses Induced by Plasma Following Inhalation of Diesel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Schisler, Jonathan C.; Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Madden, Michael; Channell, Meghan M.; Campen, Matthew J.; Willis, Monte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Air pollution, especially emissions derived from traffic sources, is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, it remains unclear how inhaled factors drive extrapulmonary pathology. Objectives Previously, we found that canonical inflammatory response transcripts were elevated in cultured endothelial cells treated with plasma obtained after exposure compared with pre-exposure samples or filtered air (sham) exposures. While the findings confirmed the presence of bioactive factor(s) in the plasma after diesel inhalation, we wanted to better examine the complete genomic response to investigate 1) major responsive transcripts and 2) collected response pathways and ontogeny that may help to refine this method and inform the pathogenesis. Methods We assayed endothelial RNA with gene expression microarrays, examining the responses of cultured endothelial cells to plasma obtained from 6 healthy human subjects exposed to 100 μg/m3 diesel exhaust or filtered air for 2 h on separate occasions. In addition to pre-exposure baseline samples, we investigated samples obtained immediately-post and 24h-post exposure. Results Microarray analysis of the coronary artery endothelial cells challenged with plasma identified 855 probes that changed over time following diesel exhaust exposure. Over-representation analysis identified inflammatory cytokine pathways were upregulated both at the 2 and 24 h condition. Novel pathways related to FOX transcription factors and secreted extracellular factors were also identified in the microarray analysis. Conclusions These outcomes are consistent with our recent findings that plasma contains bioactive and inflammatory factors following pollutant inhalation. The specific study design implicates a novel pathway related to inflammatory blood borne components that may drive the extrapulmonary toxicity of ambient air pollutants. PMID:25942053

  19. Plasma asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a rat model of endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Magné, Joëlle; Huneau, Jean-François; Borderie, Didier; Mathé, Véronique; Bos, Cécile; Mariotti, François

    2015-09-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction, an early hallmark of atherogenesis. While higher levels of circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA), endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthesis, have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the role that ADMA and SDMA play in the initiation of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced endothelial dysfunction remains still controversial. In the present study, we studied the changes of circulating ADMA and SDMA in a rat model of acutely hyperhomocysteinemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In healthy rats, endothelium-related vascular reactivity (measured as acetylcholine-induced transient decrease in mean arterial blood pressure), plasma ADMA and SDMA, total plasma homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine and glutathione were measured before and 2, 4 and 6 h after methionine loading or vehicle. mRNA expression of hepatic dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1), a key protein responsible for ADMA metabolism, was measured 6 h after the methionine loading or the vehicle. Expectedly, methionine load induced a sustained increase in tHcy (up to 54.9 ± 1.9 µM) and a 30 % decrease in vascular reactivity compared to the baseline values. Plasma ADMA and SDMA decreased transiently after the methionine load. Hepatic mRNA expression of DDAH1, cathepsin D, and ubiquitin were significantly lower 6 h after the methionine load than after the vehicle. The absence of an elevation of circulating ADMA and SDMA in this model suggests that endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperhomocysteinemia cannot be explained by an up-regulation of protein arginine methyltransferases or a down-regulation of DDAH1. In experimental endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperhomocysteinemia, down-regulation of the proteasome is likely to dampen the release of ADMA and SDMA in the circulation. PMID:25792109

  20. Plasma membrane microdomains regulate TACE-dependent TNFR1 shedding in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Alessio; Esposito, Bianca; Giampietri, Claudia; Ziparo, Elio; Pober, Jordan S; Filippini, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Upon stimulation by histamine, human vascular endothelial cells (EC) shed a soluble form of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) that binds up free TNF, dampening the inflammatory response. Shedding occurs through proteolytic cleavage of plasma membrane-expressed TNFR1 catalysed by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). Surface expressed TNFR1 on EC is largely sequestered into specific plasma membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts/caveolae. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of these domains in TACE-mediated TNFR1 shedding in response to histamine. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells derived EA.hy926 cells respond to histamine via H1 receptors to shed TNFR1. Both depletion of cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and small interfering RNA knockdown of the scaffolding protein caveolin-1 (cav-1), treatments that disrupt caveolae, reduce histamine-induced shedding of membrane-bound TNFR1. Moreover, immunoblotting of discontinuous sucrose gradient fractions show that TACE, such as TNFR1, is present within low-density membrane fractions, concentrated within caveolae, in unstimulated EA.hy926 endothelial cells and co-immunoprecipitates with cav-1. Silencing of cav-1 reduces the levels of both TACE and TNFR1 protein and displaces TACE, from low-density membrane fractions where TNFR1 remains. In summary, we show that endothelial lipid rafts/caveolae co-localize TACE to surface expressed TNFR1, promoting efficient shedding of sTNFR1 in response to histamine. PMID:21645239

  1. Synthetic phospholipids as specific substrates for plasma endothelial lipase.

    PubMed

    Papillon, Julien P N; Pan, Meihui; Brousseau, Margaret E; Gilchrist, Mark A; Lou, Changgang; Singh, Alok K; Stawicki, Todd; Thompson, James E

    2016-08-01

    We designed and prepared synthetic phospholipids that generate lyso-phosphatidylcholine products with a unique mass for convenient detection by LC-MS in complex biological matrices. We demonstrated that compound 4, formulated either as a Triton X-100 emulsion or incorporated in synthetic HDL particles can serve as a substrate for plasma EL with useful specificity. PMID:27344207

  2. Measurement of the phospholipase activity of endothelial lipase in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debapriya; Lei, Xia; Josekutty, Joby; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jin, Weijun

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major negative regulator of plasma HDL levels in mice, rabbits, and most probably, humans. Although this regulatory function is critically dependent on EL's hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids, as yet there is no phospholipase assay specific for EL in plasma. We developed such an assay for the mouse enzyme using a commercially available phospholipid-like fluorescent substrate in combination with an EL neutralizing antibody. The specificity of the assay was established using EL knockout mice and its utility demonstrated by detection of an increase in plasma EL phospholipase activity following exposure of wild-type mice to lipopolysaccharide. The assay revealed that murine pre-heparin plasma does not contain measurable EL activity, indicating that the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids by EL in vivo likely occurs on the cell surface. PMID:23103358

  3. Interaction of platelets, fibrinogen and endothelial cells with plasma deposited PEO-like films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhilu; Wang, Jin; Li, Xin; Tu, Qiufen; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2012-02-01

    For blood-contacting biomedical implants like retrievable vena cava filters, surface-based diagnostic devices or in vivo sensors, limiting thrombosis and cell adhesion is paramount, due to a decrease even failure in performance. Plasma deposited PEO-like films were investigated as surface modifications. In this work, mixed gas composed of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme) vapor and oxygen was used as precursor. It was revealed that plasma polymerization under high ratio of oxygen/tetraglyme led to deposition of the films that had high content of ether groups. This kind of PEO-like films had good stability in phosphate buffer solution. In vitro hemocompatibility and endothelial cell (EC) adhesion revealed low platelet adhesion, platelet activation, fibrinogen adhesion, EC adhesion and proliferation on such plasma deposited PEO-like films. This made it a potential candidate for the applications in anti-fouling surfaces of blood-contacting biomedical devices.

  4. Plasma Biomarkers of Inflammation, Endothelial Function and Hemostasis in Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Stewart J; Doubal, Fergus N; Chappell, Francesca M; Valdés-Hernández, Maria C; Wang, Xi; Rumley, An; Lowe, Gordon D.O; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-01-01

    Background The cause of lacunar ischemic stroke, a clinical feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), is largely unknown. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction have been implicated. Plasma biomarkers could provide mechanistic insights but current data are conflicting. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are an important imaging biomarker of SVD. It is unknown if plasma biomarkers add predictive capacity beyond age and vascular risk factors in explaining WMH. Methods We prospectively recruited patients presenting with non-disabling ischemic stroke, classifying them clinically and with the help of MRI as lacunar or cortical. We measured biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and hemostasis for >1 month after stroke and compared biomarker levels between stroke subtypes. We quantitatively calculated WMH. We used multiple linear regression analysis to model WMH as a function of age, sex, hypertension and smoking (the baseline model). We fitted exploratory models using plasma biomarkers as predictor variables to assess model improvement over baseline. Results We recruited 125 patients. The lacunar group (n = 65) had lower tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels in unadjusted (7.39 vs. 8.59 ng/ml, p = 0.029) and adjusted (p = 0.035) analyses compared with the cortical group (n = 60). There were no significant differences in the other plasma biomarkers. The results for t-PA were consistent with an updated meta-analysis, although the effect remains non-significant (standardized mean difference −0.08 (95% CI −0.25 to 0.09)). The baseline regression model explained 29% of the variance in quantitative WMH (R2 0.289). Inflammatory biomarkers showed minor improvement over baseline (R2 0.291), but the other plasma biomarkers did not improve the baseline model. Conclusion Plasma t-PA levels appear to differ between lacunar and cortical stroke subtypes, late after stroke, independent of age, sex and vascular risk factors and may reflect endothelial

  5. Suppression of angiogenesis by atmospheric pressure plasma in human aortic endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Hyeonyu; Kim, Kijung; Kim, Mina; Shim, Eunyoung; Kim, Sunja; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has been recognized as a promising tool for cancer therapy based on its ability to remove cancer cells by causing apoptosis and necrosis. However, the effect of APP on the neighboring tissues of tumors remains unknown. Moreover, the role of APP on the vessels near tumors could be very important, because once a tumor becomes vascularized, the potential for metastasis can increase dramatically. We show in the present study that APP can induce cell cycle arrest in endothelial cells and further suppress the angiogenesis process. These results strongly support the use of APP in cancer treatment.

  6. Endothelium-Dependent Hyperpolarization and Endothelial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Félétou, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The endothelium controls vascular tone not only by releasing various vasoactive substances but also by another pathway associated with the hyperpolarization of both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells and is termed endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). These responses involve an increase in the endothelial intracellular Ca concentration by the activation of transient receptor potential channels (predominantly TRPV4) followed by the opening of Ca-activated K channels of small and intermediate conductance (SKCa and IKCa). These channels show a distinct subcellular distribution. SKCa are widely distributed over the plasma membrane but segregates at sites of homocellular endothelial junctions, whereas IKCa are preferentially expressed in the myoendothelial projections. Following KCa activation, smooth muscle hyperpolarization is evoked by electrical coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions and/or by the potassium efflux that subsequently activates smooth muscle Kir2.1 and/or Na/K-ATPase. Alteration of the EDH contributes to the endothelial dysfunctions observed in various pathologies or conversely compensates for the loss in NO bioavailability. A better characterization of EDH should allow determining whether new druggable targets can be identified for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26657714

  7. The effects of plasma electrolytically oxidized NiTi on in vitro endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Huan, Z; Yu, H; Li, H; Ruiter, M S; Chang, J; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J; de Vries, C J M; Fratila-Apachitei, L E

    2016-05-01

    The role of biomaterials surface in controlling the interfacial biological events leading to implant integration is of key importance. In this study, the effects of NiTi surfaces treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) have been investigated. The changes in NiTi surface morphology and chemistry were assessed by SEM, XPS and cross-section TEM/EDX analyzes whereas the effects of the resultant surfaces on in vitro endothelialization and cell junction proteins have been evaluated by life/dead staining, SEM, cells counting, qPCR and immunofluorescence. The findings indicated that the PEO-treated NiTi, with a microporous morphology and oxide dominated surface chemistry, supports viability and proliferation of HUVECs. Numerous thin filopodia probing the microporous surface assisted cells attachment. In addition, claudin-5 and occludin have been upregulated and expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin was not suppressed on PEO-treated NiTi relative to the reference electropolished surfaces. The results of this study suggest that novel NiTi surfaces may be developed using the PEO process, which can be of benefit to atherosclerosis treatment. PMID:26878287

  8. Anti-angiogenic action of plasma hyaluronan binding protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ji Won; Song, Hyun Seok; Moon, Eun-Joung; Park, Shi-Young; Son, Myung Jin; Jung, Seung Youn; Kim, Ji Tae; Nam, Do-Hyun; Choi-Miura, Nam-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2006-07-01

    The kringle domain is a triple loop structure present in angiostatin and endostatin. The disulfide bond-linked kringle architectures have been known to be essential for anti-angiogenic activity. Plasma hyaluronan binding protein (PHBP) is a novel serine protease which consists of three epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains, a kringle domain, and a serine protease domain. PHBP can be cleaved autocatalytically to generate activity and is highly expressed in the human blood and liver. To determine the anti-angiogenic activities of PHBP, we purified recombinant mouse PHBP from stable cell line overexpressing PHBP and used protein in vivo and in vitro angiogenesis assays. We found that recombinant PHBP inhibits not only angiogenesis in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay but also the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced proliferation, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependant manner. Moreover, we found that the kringle domain of PHBP was essential for the anti-angiogenic action of PHBP by the deletion mutants. These findings unravel a new function of PHBP as an inhibitor of the proangiogenic phenotype of vascular endothelial cells and demonstrate that the kringle domain of PHBP might be a potent novel inhibitor of activated endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16773202

  9. Effect of standard chemotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy on plasma markers and endothelial cells in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramcharan, K S; Lip, G Y H; Stonelake, P S; Blann, A D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of the endothelium in angiogenesis and cancer is undisputed, and its integrity may be assessed by laboratory markers such as circulating endothelial cells (CECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), plasma von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble E selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiogenin. Antiantigenic therapy may be added to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy as a new treatment modality. We hypothesised that additional antiangiogenic therapy acts in a contrasting manner to that of standard chemotherapy on the laboratory markers. Methods: We recruited 68 patients with CRC, of whom 16 were treated with surgery alone, 32 were treated with surgery followed by standard chemotherapy (5-flurouracil), and 20 were treated with surgery followed by standard chemotherapy plus anti-VEGF therapy (Avastin). Peripheral blood was taken before surgery, and again 3 months and 6 months later. CD34+/CD45−/CD146+ CECs and CD34+/CD45−/CD309[KDR]+ EPCs were measured by flow cytometry, plasma markers by ELISA. Results: In each of the three groups, CECs and EPCs fell at 3 months but were back at pre-surgery levels at 6 months (P<0.05). VEGF was lower in both 3-and 6-month samples in the surgery-only and surgery plus standard chemotherapy groups (P<0.05), but in those on surgery followed by standard chemotherapy plus anti-VEGF therapy, low levels at 3 months (P<0.01) increased to pre-surgery levels at 6 months. In those having surgery and standard chemotherapy, soluble E selectin was lower, whereas angiogenin was higher at 6 months than at baseline (both P<0.05). Conclusions: We found disturbances in endotheliod cells regardless of treatment, whereas VEGF returned to levels before surgery in those on antiangiogenic therapy. These observations may have clinical and pathophysiological implications. PMID:25211664

  10. Amelioration of cardiac function and activation of anti-inflammatory vasoactive peptides expression in the rat myocardium by low level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Manchini, Martha Trindade; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; Santana, Eduardo Tadeu; Antônio, Ednei Luis; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Montemor, Jairo; Crajoinas, Renato Oliveira; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Silva, José Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:24991808

  11. Prognostic role of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Kim, Richard; Quintini, Cristiano; Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Diago, Teresa; Eghtesad, Bijan; Miller, Charles; Fung, John; Tan, Ann; Menon, K V Narayanan; Aucejo, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is pivotal in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of circulating VEGF levels in patients undergoing liver resection or locoregional therapy (LRT) for HCC. We investigated the significance of preoperative plasma VEGF levels in patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation (LT) at a Western transplant center. Pre-LT plasma VEGF levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunoassay for 164 patients with HCC undergoing LT. The preoperative plasma VEGF level was correlated with clinicopathological variables and overall and recurrence-free post-LT survival. A higher pre-LT plasma VEGF level was significantly associated with pre-LT LRT (P = 0.01), multiple tumors (P = 0.02), a total tumor diameter ≥ 5 cm (P = 0.01), bilobar tumor distribution (P = 0.03), tumor vascular invasion (VI; P < 0.001), and HCC beyond the Milan criteria (P < 0.001). Patients with a plasma VEGF level > 44 pg/mL had significantly worse overall and disease-free survival than those with VEGF levels ≤ 44 pg/mL (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, a plasma VEGF level > 44 pg/mL was independently associated with tumor VI (P < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 2.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-4.14, P = 0.03). In conclusion, in patients with chronic end-stage liver disease and HCC, a pre-LT plasma VEGF level > 44 pg/mL may be a predictor of tumor VI and recurrence-free post-LT survival. PMID:25283528

  12. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  13. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  14. Baroreflex buffering and susceptibility to vasoactive drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Lipp, Axel; Schroder, Christoph; Arnold, Guy; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overall effect of vasoactive drugs on blood pressure is determined by a combination of the direct effect on vascular tone and an indirect baroreflex-mediated effect, a baroreflex buffering of blood pressure. Differences in baroreflex function affect the responsiveness to vasoactive medications, particularly baroreflex buffering of blood pressure; however, the magnitude is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized baroreflex function and responses to vasoactive drugs in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, patients with essential hypertension, patients with monogenic hypertension and brachydactyly, patients with multiple system atrophy, and control subjects. We used phenylephrine sensitivity during ganglionic blockade as a measure of baroreflex buffering. Phenylephrine (25 microg) increased systolic blood pressure 6+/-1.6 mm Hg in control subjects, 6+/-1.1 mm Hg in orthostatic intolerance patients, 18+/-3.9 mm Hg in patients with essential hypertension, 31+/-3.4 mm Hg in patients with monogenic hypertension, and 25+/-3.4 mm Hg in patients with multiple system atrophy. Similar differences in sensitivities between groups were observed with nitroprusside. The sensitivity to vasoactive drugs was highly correlated with baroreflex buffering function and to a lesser degree with baroreflex control of heart rate. In control subjects, sensitivities to nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusions were correlated with baroreflex heart rate control and sympathetic nerve traffic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with an important effect of baroreflex blood pressure buffering on the sensitivity to vasoactive drugs. They suggest that even moderate changes in baroreflex function may have a substantial effect on the sensitivity to vasoactive medications.

  15. Biocompatibility of surfactant-templated polyurea-nanoencapsulated macroporous silica aerogels with plasma platelets and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Venkitachalam, Subramaniam M; Jarrett, Ellen; Staggs, Sarah; Leventis, Nicholas; Lu, Hongbing; Rubenstein, David A

    2010-03-15

    The recently synthesized polyurea-nanoencapsulated surfactant-templated aerogels (X-aerogels) are porous materials with significantly improved mechanical strengths. Surface-wise they resemble polyurethane, a common biocompatible material, but their biocompatibility has never been investigated. As lightweight and strong materials, if X-aerogels also have acceptable biocompatibility, they may be used in many implantable devices. The goal of this study was to investigate their biocompatibility toward platelets, blood plasma, and vascular endothelial cells, in terms of cell activation and inflammatory responses. Platelets were incubated with X-aerogel and platelet activation was measured through CD62P and phosphatidylserine expression. Platelet aggregation was also measured. Contact with X-aerogel did not induce platelet activation or impair aggregation. To determine X-aerogel-induced inflammation, plasma anaphylatoxin C3a level was measured after incubation with X-aerogel. Results showed that X-aerogel induced no changes in plasma C3a levels. SEM and SDS-PAGE were used to examine cellular/protein deposition on X-aerogel samples after plasma incubation. No structural change or organic deposition was detected. Furthermore, X-aerogel samples did not induce any significant changes in vascular endothelial cell culture parameters after 5 days of incubation. These observations suggest that X-aerogels have a suitable biocompatibility toward platelets, plasma, and vascular endothelial cells, and they have potential for use in blood implantable devices. PMID:19358258

  16. Increased plasma neopterin levels are associated with reduced endothelial function and arterial elasticity in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-Y; Tong, X-Z; Xia, W-H; Xie, W-L; Yu, B-B; Zhang, B; Chen, L; Tao, J

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of hypertensive vascular injury. Neopterin is a novel marker of immune activation produced mainly by activated macrophages. Few data are available to show the association between neopterin and vascular function in hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between neopterin levels related to arterial stiffness and endothelial function in patients with hypertension, and their changes after blood pressure-lowering treatment. Twenty-four hypertensive patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Plasma neopterin levels were higher in hypertensive patients compared with their counterparts (log-neopterin: 0.77±0.18 versus 0.61±0.16, P=0.003). Increased neopterin levels were correlated with increased brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV; control: r=0.659, P<0.001; hypertension: r=0.487, P=0.021), and inversely associated with impaired brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD; control: r=-0.735, P<0.001; hypertension: r=-0.557, P=0.005). Fifteen hypertensives received 3 months of standard antihypertensive treatment. Three months later, their plasma neopterin levels decreased (log-neopterin: 0.63±0.17 versus 0.50±0.19, P=0.001), whereas arterial elasticity (baPWV: 1764±101 versus 1685±96 cm s(-1), P=0.272) and endothelial function (FMD: 5.92±1.43% versus 7.73±1.31%, P<0.05) were improved. The decline in neopterin levels was linearly correlated with baPWV decrease (r=0.800, P<0.001), FMD improvement (r=0.670, P=0.006) and blood pressure reduction (r=0.548, P=0.042). Our present study demonstrated for the first time that neopterin is closely correlated with vascular dysfunctions, and measurement of plasma neopterin levels might be used as a surrogate biomarker for the clinical evaluation of vascular damage and risk stratification of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension. PMID

  17. Myeloperoxidase Interacts with Endothelial Cell-Surface Cytokeratin 1 and Modulates Bradykinin Production by the Plasma Kallikrein-Kinin System

    PubMed Central

    Astern, Joshua M.; Pendergraft, William F.; Falk, Ronald J.; Jennette, J. Charles; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Mahdi, Fakhri; Preston, Gloria A.

    2007-01-01

    During an inflammatory state, functional myeloperoxidase (MPO) is released into the vessel as a result of intravascular neutrophil degradation. One mechanism of resulting cellular injury involves endothelial internalization of MPO, which causes oxidative damage and impairs endothelial signaling. We report the discovery of a protein that facilitates MPO internalization, cytokeratin 1 (CK1), identified using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. CK1 interacts with MPO in vitro, even in the presence of 100% human plasma, thus substantiating biological relevance. Immunofluorescent microscopy confirmed that MPO added to endothelial cells can co-localize with endogenously expressed CK1. CK1 acts as a scaffolding protein for the assembly of the vasoregulatory plasma kallikrein-kinin system; thus we explored whether MPO and high molecular weight kininogen (HK) reside on CK1 together or whether they compete for binding. The data support cooperative binding of MPO and HK on cells such that MPO masked the plasma kallikrein cleavage site on HK, and MPO-generated oxidants caused inactivation of both HK and kallikrein. Collectively, interactions between MPO and the components of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system resulted in decreased bradykinin production. This study identifies CK1 as a facilitator of MPO-mediated vascular responses and thus provides a new paradigm by which MPO affects vasoregulatory systems. PMID:17591979

  18. Significance of plasma nitric oxide/endothelial-1 ratio for prediction of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Akira; Matsui, Takemi; Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Takase, Bonpei; Satomura, Kimio

    2005-01-01

    Vascular tone is regulated by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant vasoconstrictor peptide that constricts vascular smooth muscle, whereas nitric oxide (NO) is the primary vasodilator peptide that relaxes vascular smooth muscle. In this study, the authors examined whether NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful marker for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), by comparison with evaluation based on vascular endothelial (VE) function. They measured plasma NOX and ET-1 by using ENO-200 and radioimmunoassay, in 38 subjects with normal (NL) coronary arteries (NL group; mean age, 60 +/-12 years) and 25 subjects with CAD (CAD group; mean age, 69 +/- 6 years). VE function (randomized endothelium-dependent [D] and endothelium-independent [I] VE function) was assessed by measuring brachial artery (BA) diameter by using high-resolution ultrasound (7.5 MHz). Soon after these procedures, symptom-limited exercise testing was performed. There were no statistically significant differences in serum lipid concentrations or VED function between the groups. However, the CAD group had a significantly lower NO/ET-1 ratio (1.2 +/- 1.1 vs 2.7 +/- 2.2, p < 0.01) and BA diameter after sublingual nitroglycerin (VEID function: 6 +/- 7% vs 10 +/- 4%, p < 0.05). As expected, the ST segment and treadmill exercise duration were significantly lower in the CAD group. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by plasma NO/ET-1 ratio (> or =2 .0) were 90% and 85%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity for detecting CAD by ST depression (> or =1 mm) were 80% and 78%, respectively. The present results suggest that plasma NO/ET-1 ratio is a useful biological marker for predicting CAD. PMID:15889192

  19. Blood-nerve barrier: distribution of anionic sites on the endothelial plasma membrane and basal lamina of dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

    1991-09-01

    Previous investigations of the blood-nerve barrier have correlated the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels, compared to those of nerve trunks, with the presence of fenestrations and open intercellular junctions. Recent studies have demonstrated reduced endothelial cell surface charge in blood vessels showing greater permeability. To determine the distribution of anionic sites on the plasma membranes and basal laminae of endothelial cells in dorsal root ganglia, cationic colloidal gold and cationic ferritin were used. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of endothelial microdomains with differing labelling densities. Labelling indicated that caveolar and fenestral diaphragms and basal laminae are highly anionic at physiological pH, luminal plasma membranes and endothelial processes are moderately charged and abluminal plasma membranes are weakly anionic. Tracers did not occur in caveolae or cytoplasmic vesicles. In vitro tracer experiments at pH values of 7.3, 5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 indicated that the anionic charge on the various endothelial domains was contributed by chemical groups with differing pKa values. In summary, the labelling of ganglionic and sciatic nerve vessels was similar except for the heavy labelling of diaphragms in a minority of endoneurial vessels in ganglia. This difference is likely to account in part for the greater permeability of ganglionic endoneurial vessels. The results are discussed with regard to the blood-nerve and -brain barriers and vascular permeability in other tissues and a comparison made between the ultrastructure and anionic microdomains of epi-, peri- and endoneurial vessels of dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves. PMID:1960538

  20. Discovery of XEN445: a potent and selective endothelial lipase inhibitor raises plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoyi; Dean, Richard; Jia, Qi; Zenova, Alla; Zhong, Jing; Grayson, Celene; Xie, Clark; Lindgren, Andrea; Samra, Pritpaul; Sojo, Luis; van Heek, Margaret; Lin, Linus; Percival, David; Fu, Jian-Min; Winther, Michael D; Zhang, Zaihui

    2013-12-15

    Endothelial lipase (EL) activity has been implicated in HDL metabolism and in atherosclerotic plaque development; inhibitors are proposed to be efficacious in the treatment of dyslipidemia related cardiovascular disease. We describe here the discovery of a novel class of anthranilic acids EL inhibitors. XEN445 (compound 13) was identified as a potent and selective EL inhibitor, that showed good ADME and PK properties, and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in raising plasma HDLc concentrations in mice. PMID:24211162

  1. Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways.

    PubMed

    Baluk, P; Bolton, P; Hirata, A; Thurston, G; McDonald, D M

    1998-06-01

    Exposure of sensitized individuals to antigen can induce allergic responses in the respiratory tract, manifested by early and late phases of vasodilatation, plasma leakage, leukocyte influx, and bronchoconstriction. Similar responses can occur in the skin, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. The early-phase response involves mast cell mediators and the late-phase response is leukocyte dependent, but the mechanism of leakage is not understood. We sought to identify the leaky blood vessels, to determine whether these vessels contained endothelial gaps, and to analyze the relationship of the gaps to adherent leukocytes, using biotinylated lectins or silver nitrate to stain the cells in situ and Monastral blue as a tracer to quantify plasma leakage. Most of the leakage occurred in postcapillary venules (< 40-microns diameter), whereas most of the leukocyte migration (predominantly neutrophils) occurred in collecting venules. Capillaries and arterioles did not leak. Endothelial gaps were found in the leaky venules, both by silver nitrate staining and by scanning electron microscopy, and 94% of the gaps were distinct from sites of leukocyte adhesion or migration. We conclude that endothelial gaps contribute to both early and late phases of plasma leakage induced by antigen, but most leakage occurs upstream to sites of leukocyte adhesion. PMID:9626051

  2. Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways.

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, P.; Bolton, P.; Hirata, A.; Thurston, G.; McDonald, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of sensitized individuals to antigen can induce allergic responses in the respiratory tract, manifested by early and late phases of vasodilatation, plasma leakage, leukocyte influx, and bronchoconstriction. Similar responses can occur in the skin, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. The early-phase response involves mast cell mediators and the late-phase response is leukocyte dependent, but the mechanism of leakage is not understood. We sought to identify the leaky blood vessels, to determine whether these vessels contained endothelial gaps, and to analyze the relationship of the gaps to adherent leukocytes, using biotinylated lectins or silver nitrate to stain the cells in situ and Monastral blue as a tracer to quantify plasma leakage. Most of the leakage occurred in postcapillary venules (< 40-microns diameter), whereas most of the leukocyte migration (predominantly neutrophils) occurred in collecting venules. Capillaries and arterioles did not leak. Endothelial gaps were found in the leaky venules, both by silver nitrate staining and by scanning electron microscopy, and 94% of the gaps were distinct from sites of leukocyte adhesion or migration. We conclude that endothelial gaps contribute to both early and late phases of plasma leakage induced by antigen, but most leakage occurs upstream to sites of leukocyte adhesion. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626051

  3. TREM-1 and Pentraxin-3 Plasma Levels and Their Association with Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Obesity, and Endothelial Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkwan; Gozal, David; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common health problem in children and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) plays an important role in innate immunity and amplifies inflammatory responses. Pentraxin-3 is predominantly released from macrophages and vascular endothelial cells, plays an important role in atherogenesis, and has emerged as a biomarker of CVD risk. Thus, we hypothesized that plasma TREM-1 and pentraxin-3 levels would be elevated in children with OSA. Methods: One hundred six children (mean age: 8.3 ± 1.6 y) were included after they underwent overnight polysomnographic evaluation and a fasting blood sample was drawn the morning after the sleep study. Endothelial function was assessed with a modified hyperemic test after cuff-induced occlusion of the brachial artery. Plasma TREM-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were assayed using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Circulating microparticles (MPs) were assessed using flow cytometry after staining with cell-specific antibodies. Results: Children with OSA had significantly higher TREM-1 and pentraxin-3 levels (versus controls: P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). Plasma TREM-1 was significantly correlated with both body mass index (BMI)-z score and the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in univariate models. Pentraxin-3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI-z score (r = -0.245, P < 0.01), and positively associated with endothelial MPs and platelet MPs (r = 0.230, P < 0.01 and r = 0.302, P < 0.01). Both plasma TREM-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were independently associated with AHI in multivariate models after controlling for age, sex, race, and BMI-z score (P < 0.001 for TREM-1 and P < 0.001 for pentraxin-3). However, no significant associations emerged between TREM-1, pentraxin-3, and endothelial function. Conclusions: Plasma TREM-1 and pentraxin-3 levels are elevated in pediatric OSA, and may play a role in

  4. Assessment of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Fresh versus Frozen Platelet Rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Nada; Goubran, Fikry; BadrEldin Hasan, Basma; Kamel, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is hemoconcentration with platelets concentration above baseline values and high concentration of many growth factors. The aim of this study was to assess freezing effect on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release from PRP using two different activation methods to simplify its use in different clinical applications. PRP was prepared using two-centrifugation steps method from 12 qualified blood donors. VEGF concentrations were measured in fresh PRP and after freezing/thawing for one and three weeks with two methods of activation using (i) calcium gluconate and (ii) calcium gluconate and thrombin. Platelets count was significantly increased compared to baseline whole blood values in all fresh and frozen PRP samples (p value was <0.05). No significant difference was found between VEGF concentrations after activating fresh and frozen-thawed PRP samples for one and three weeks by calcium alone or calcium with thrombin, and also no significant difference was found when freezing period was extended from one to three weeks. Our results showed that platelets count does not correlate with variable levels of VEGF. PRP could be prepared once and preserved frozen for at least three weeks for the next treatment sessions and activation with thrombin addition to calcium will not augment the growth factor release. PMID:26301115

  5. Measures of endothelial dysfunction in plasma of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    von Känel, Roland; Hepp, Urs; Traber, Rafael; Kraemer, Bernd; Mica, Ladislav; Keel, Marius; Mausbach, Brent T; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2008-04-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) confers an increased cardiovascular risk. In 14 otherwise healthy patients with PTSD and in 14 age- and gender-matched non-PTSD controls, we investigated whether the categorical diagnosis of PTSD and severity of PTSD symptom clusters (i.e. re-experiencing, avoidance, arousal, and overall score) would be associated with plasma concentrations of three markers of endothelial dysfunction [soluble tissue factor (sTF), von Willebrand factor (VWF), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1]. Compared with controls, patients had significantly higher sTF; this difference became nonsignificant when controlling for psychological distress. VWF and sICAM-1 levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. In the entire sample virtually all PTSD symptom clusters correlated significantly and positively with sTF and VWF but not with sICAM-1. The correlation between symptoms of re-experiencing and sTF was significantly different between patients and controls. Controlling for symptoms of anxiety and depression (i.e. psychological distress) rendered most associations between PTSD symptom clusters and sTF nonsignificant, whereas controlling for age retained significance of associations with VWF. Posttraumatic stress showed a continuous relationship with sTF and VWF, with the former relationship being partly affected by psychological distress. This suggests one mechanism by which posttraumatic stress could contribute to atherosclerosis. PMID:18252265

  6. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by both the 50 and 100 ppm treatments of T. cacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. PMID:26955771

  7. Cholesterol-dependent syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 clustering regulates caveolar fusion with the endothelial plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Predescu, Sanda A; Predescu, Dan N; Shimizu, Kayo; Klein, Irene K; Malik, Asrar B

    2005-11-01

    We determined the organization of target (t) SNARE proteins on the basolateral endothelial plasma membrane (PM) and their role in the mechanism of caveolar fusion. Studies were performed in a cell-free system involving endothelial PM sheets and isolated biotin-labeled caveolae. We monitored the fusion of caveolae with the PM by the detection of biotin-streptavidin complexes using correlative high resolution fluorescence microscopy and gold labeling electron microscopy on ultrathin sections of PM sheets. Imaging of PM sheets demonstrated and biochemical findings showed that the t-SNARE proteins present in endothelial cells (SNAP-23 and syntaxin-4) formed cholesterol-dependent clusters in discrete areas of the PM. Upon fusion of caveolae with the target PM, 50% of the caveolae co-localized with the t-SNARE clusters, indicating that these caveolae were at the peak of the fusion reaction. Fluorescent streptavidin staining of PM sheets correlated with the ultrastructure in the same area. These findings demonstrate that t-SNARE clusters in the endothelial target PM serve as the fusion sites for caveolae during exocytosis. PMID:16118213

  8. Plasma membrane localization and function of the estrogen receptor α variant (ER46) in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Haynes, M. Page; Bender, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) α variants have been identified in an array of nonendothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that estrogen rapidly induces nitric oxide release via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway in EA.hy926 cells (immortalized human endothelial cells), which express a 46-kDa ER. We now confirm that, due to alternative splicing, the 46-kDa endothelial cell protein (ER46) is an amino-terminal truncated product of full-length ERα (ER66). ER46 is expressed in the plasma membrane, cytosol, and nucleus of resting, estrogen-deprived cells. Flow cytometric and immunofluorescence microscopic analyses demonstrated that the ER46 C but not N terminus is Ab-accessible in the plasma membrane. Inhibition of palmitoylation with tunicamycin and [3H]palmitic acid labeling demonstrated an estrogen-induced, palmitoylation-dependent plasma membrane ER46 recruitment, with reorganization into caveolae. In reconstituted, estrogen-stimulated COS-7 (ER-null) cells, membrane ER46 more efficiently triggered membrane eNOS phosphorylation than ER66. Conversely, ER66 more efficiently mediated estrogen response element reporter-gene transactivation than ER46. These results demonstrate that ER46 is localized and further dynamically targeted to the plasma membrane in a palmitoylation-dependent manner. ER46 more efficiently modulates membrane-initiated estrogen actions, including eNOS activation, than full-length ER66. These findings may have important implications in vascular-specific targeting of estrogen receptor agonists. PMID:12682286

  9. Endothelial Microparticles (EMP) for the Assessment of Endothelial Function: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study on Possible Interference of Plasma Lipids

    PubMed Central

    van Ierssel, Sabrina H.; Hoymans, Vicky Y.; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Jorens, Philippe G.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) reflect the condition of the endothelium and are of increasing interest in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Recently, increased numbers of EMP following oral fat intake, possibly due to acute endothelial injury, have been reported. On the other hand, the direct interference of lipids with the detection of EMP has been suggested. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipid-rich solutions, commonly administered in clinical practice, on the detection, both in vitro and in vivo, of EMP. Methods For the in vitro assessment, several lipid-rich solutions were added to whole blood of healthy subjects (n = 8) and patients with coronary heart disease (n = 5). EMP (CD31+/CD42b−) were detected in platelet poor plasma by flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, healthy volunteers were evaluated on 3 different study-days: baseline evaluation, following lipid infusion and after a NaCl infusion. EMP quantification, lipid measurements and peripheral arterial tonometry were performed on each day. Results Both in vitro addition and in vivo administration of lipids significantly decreased EMP (from 198.6 to 53.0 and from 272.6 to 90.6/µl PPP, respectively, p = 0.001 and p = 0.012). The EMP number correlated inversely with the concentration of triglycerides, both in vitro and in vivo (r = −0.707 and −0.589, p<0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). The validity of EMP as a marker of endothelial function is supported by their inverse relationship with the reactive hyperemia index (r = −0.758, p = 0.011). This inverse relation was confounded by the intravenous administration of lipids. Conclusion The confounding effect of high circulating levels of lipids, commonly found in patients that receive intravenous lipid-based solutions, should be taken into account when flow cytometry is used to quantify EMP. PMID:22359595

  10. Binding of human coronary artery endothelial cells to plasma-treated titanium dioxide nanotubes of different diameters.

    PubMed

    Flašker, Ajda; Kulkarni, Mukta; Mrak-Poljšak, Katjuša; Junkar, Ita; Čučnik, Saša; Žigon, Polona; Mazare, Anca; Schmuki, Patrik; Iglič, Aleš; Sodin-Semrl, Snezna

    2016-05-01

    Nanoscale topography in improving vascular response in vitro was established previously on various titanium surfaces. In the present study different surface nanotopographies that is different diameters of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated by electrochemical anodization and conditioned with highly reactive gaseous oxygen plasma. The morphology of different diameter NTs was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while changes in chemical composition on the surface before and after plasma treatment were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) on those conditioned surfaces was studied in regard to cell proliferation, released IL-6 protein and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM). We show that HCAEC function is dependent on the diameter of the TiO2 NTs, functioning far less optimally when bound to 100 nm TiO2 NTs as compared to Ti foil, 15 nm NTs or 50 nm NTs. There were improved, morphological cell shape changes, observed with IFM, between HCAEC growing on oxygen-rich plasma-treated versus nontreated 100 nm NTs. These endothelialized conditioned Ti nanosurfaces could elucidate optimization conditions necessary for vascular implants in coronary arteries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1113-1120, 2016. PMID:26748552

  11. Plasma-derived and synthetic high-density lipoprotein inhibit tissue factor in endothelial cells and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Remaley, Alan T; Vaisman, Boris; Calabresi, Laura; Gomaraschi, Monica

    2016-01-15

    HDL (high-density lipoproteins) exert anti-thrombotic activities by preventing platelet adhesion and activation and by stimulating the protein C pathway and fibrinolysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of plasma-derived and synthetic HDL on endothelial and monocyte expression of TF (tissue factor), the primary initiator of coagulation. HDL inhibited TF expression and activity in stimulated endothelial cells and monocytes in a dose-dependent way. Synthetic HDL fully retain the ability to inhibit TF expression in a dose-dependent manner; lipid-free apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) was not effective and neither was sphingosine 1-phosphate involved. HDL-mediated TF inhibition was due to a modulation of cellular cholesterol content through the interaction with SR-BI (scavenger receptor BI); downstream, HDL inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the repression of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway responsible for TF expression. In vivo, human apoA-I-transgenic mice displayed a reduced aortic TF expression compared with wild-type animals and TF plasma levels were increased in subjects with low HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol) levels compared with high HDL-C subjects. Thus the anti-thrombotic activity of HDL could also be mediated by the inhibition of TF expression and activity in endothelial cells and monocytes; synthetic HDL retain the inhibitory activity of plasma-derived HDL, supporting the hypothesis that synthetic HDL infusion may be beneficial in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26556891

  12. Oxidative Stress-Dependent Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamez-Mendez, Ana María; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is involved in several cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial Endothelium vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agonists play a key role in regulation of vascular tone. In this study, we evaluated coronary vascular response in an 8 weeks diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice model. Coronary perfusion pressure in response to acetylcholine in isolated hearts from obese mice showed increased vasoconstriction and reduced vasodilation responses compared with control mice. Vascular nitric oxide assessed in situ with DAF-2 DA showed diminished levels in coronary arteries from obese mice in both basal and acetylcholine-stimulated conditions. Also, released prostacyclin was decreased in heart perfusates from obese mice, along with plasma tetrahydrobiopterin level and endothelium nitric oxide synthase dimer/monomer ratio. Obesity increased thromboxane A2 synthesis and oxidative stress evaluated by superoxide and peroxynitrite levels, compared with control mice. Obese mice treated with apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, reversed all parameters to normal levels. These results suggest that after 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, the increase in oxidative stress lead to imbalance in vasoactive substances and consequently to endothelial dysfunction in coronary arteries. PMID:26381906

  13. Plasma functionalization of polycarbonaturethane to improve endothelialization--Effect of shear stress as a critical factor for biocompatibility control.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Karin; Thomas, Ulrich; Gessner, André; Wehner, Daniel; Schmid, Thomas; Schmid, Christof; Lehle, Karla

    2016-04-01

    Medical devices made of polycarbonaturethane (PCU) combine excellent mechanical properties and little biological degradation, but restricted hemocompatibility. Modifications of PCU might reduce platelet adhesion and promote stable endothelialization. PCU was modified using gas plasma treatment, binding of hydrogels, and coupling of cell-active molecules (modified heparin, anti-thrombin III (ATIII), argatroban, fibronectin, laminin-nonapeptide, peptides with integrin-binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif). Biocompatibility was verified with static and dynamic cell culture techniques. Blinded analysis focused on improvement in endothelial cell (EC) adhesion/proliferation, anti-thrombogenicity, reproducible manufacturing process, and shear stress tolerance of ECs. EC adhesion and antithrombogenicity were achieved with 9/35 modifications. Additionally, 6/9 stimulated EC proliferation and 3/6 modification processes were highly reproducible for endothelialization. The latter modifications comprised immobilization of ATIII (A), polyethyleneglycole-diamine-hydrogel (E) and polyethylenimine-hydrogel connected with modified heparin (IH). Under sheer stress, only the IH modification improved EC adhesion within the graft. However, ECs did not arrange in flow direction and cell anchorage was restricted. Despite large variation in surface modification chemistry and improved EC adhesion under static culture conditions, additional introduction of shear stress foiled promising preliminary data. Therefore, biocompatibility testing required not only static tests but also usage of physiological conditions such as shear stress in the case of vascular grafts. PMID:26762398

  14. Immobilization of DNA aptamers via plasma polymerized allylamine film to construct an endothelial progenitor cell-capture surface.

    PubMed

    Qi, Pengkai; Yan, Wei; Yang, Ying; Li, Yalong; Fan, Yi; Chen, Junying; Yang, Zhilu; Tu, Qiufen; Huang, Nan

    2015-02-01

    The endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) capture stent has drawn increasing attentions and become one of the most promising concepts for the next generation vascular stent. In this regard, it is of great significance to immobilize a molecule with the ability to bind EPC for rapid in vivo endothelialization with high specificity. In this work, a facile two-step method aimed at constructing a coating with specific EPC capturing aptamers is reported. The processes involves as the first-step deposition of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) on a substrate to introduce amine groups, followed by the electrostatic adsorption of a 34 bases single strand DNA sequence to the PPAam surface as a second step (PPAam-DNA). Grazing incidence attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful immobilization of the aptamers. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) real time monitoring result shows that about 175 ng/cm(2) aptamers were conjugated onto the PPAam surface. The interactions between the modified surfaces and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and murine induced EPCs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were also investigated. It was demonstrated that PPAam-DNA samples could capture more EPCs, and present a cellular friendly surface for the proliferation of both EPCs and ECs but no effect on the hyperplasia of SMCs. Also, the co-culture results of 3 types of cells confirmed that the aptamer could specifically bond EPCs rather than ECs and SMCs, suggesting the competitive adhesion advantage of EPCs to ECs and SMCs. These data demonstrate that the EPC aptamer has large potential for designing an EPC captured stent and other vascular grafts with targeted in situ endothelialization. PMID:25575347

  15. Release of oxytocin and vasopressin by intracerebroventricular vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Bardrum, B; Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J; Fuchs, A R

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)ergic nerves innervate both the neurohypophysis and the hypothalamus. To test the hypothesis that VIP is a releasing factor for neurohypophyseal hormones, rats were given intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of VIP in doses varying from 0.3 pmol/kg.min to 3 nmol/kg.min for 5 min (0.001-10 micrograms/rat). Serial blood samples were drawn from the vena cava for measurement of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (AVP), and VIP by RIA. After the VIP infusions mean plasma OT and AVP levels rose in a dose-dependent manner; the rise was significant for both hormones at the dose of 300 pmol/kg.min. Peak levels after infusion of 3 nmol/kg.min were greater for OT than AVP [96.1 +/- 14.7 vs. 33.9 +/- 9 microU/ml (mean +/- SE); n = 6]. In addition, the concentration of plasma OT increased more promptly than that of AVP. Plasma OT was significantly raised over control values at 5 min, whereas plasma AVP was not increased until 15 min after the VIP infusion began. The concentration of VIP in peripheral plasma rose somewhat after icv infusions (maximum, 300 pmol/liter 30 min after 10 micrograms/rat), but the rise was only 5% of that observed after systemic infusions of equimolar doses of VIP (maximum, 6000 pmol/liter 5 min after 10 micrograms/rat). Peak plasma OT levels after administration of 3 nmol/kg.min VIP were significantly higher after icv than after systemic infusion of the same dose of VIP reported previously. Intravenous injection of 0.5 ml VIP antiserum with a binding capacity of VIP of 2.3 micrograms/ml before the icv administration of VIP (1 microgram/rat) did not prevent the VIP-induced rise in plasma OT and AVP. These observations suggest a central site of action for VIP in OT and AVP release, probably in the hypothalamus. The results are in harmony with the hypothesis that endogenous VIP is a physiological regulator of OT and AVP release in rats. PMID:3168920

  16. Evaluation of osteoinductive and endothelial differentiation potential of Platelet-Rich Plasma incorporated Gelatin-Nanohydroxyapatite Fibrous Matrix.

    PubMed

    J, Anjana; Kuttappan, Shruthy; Keyan, Kripa S; Nair, Manitha B

    2016-05-01

    In this study, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was incorporated into gelatin-nanohydroxyapatite fibrous scaffold in two forms (PRP gel as coating on the scaffold [PCSC] and PRP powder within the scaffold [PCSL] and investigated for (a) growth factor release; (b) stability of scaffold at different temperature; (c) stability of scaffold before and after ETO sterilization; and (d) osteogenic and endothelial differentiation potential using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). PCSC demonstrated a high and burst growth factor release initially followed by a gradual reduction in its concentration, while PCSL showed a steady state release pattern for 30 days. The stability of growth factors released from PCSL was not altered either through ETO sterilization or through its storage at different temperature. PRP-loaded scaffolds induced the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenic and endothelial lineage without providing any induction factors in the cell culture medium and the differentiation rate was significantly higher when compared to the scaffolds devoid of PRP. PCSC performed better than PCSL. In general, PRP in combination with composite fibrous scaffold could be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 771-781, 2016. PMID:26821772

  17. Decreased neutrophil thromboxane A2 and endothelial PGI2 production in the postoperative period. An in vitro assay for detection of neutrophil and plasma dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, M M; Hartzstark, Z; Shlomai, Z; Gross, D; Matzner, Y; Eldor, A; Vlodavsky, I; Bassat, H B

    1988-01-01

    Severe trauma results in reversible abnormalities in neutrophil function, but the specific role in the pathogenesis of postoperative sepsis is undetermined. Twenty adult patients undergoing elective surgical procedures were studied. Blood samples were obtained prior to and 24 hours after operation. Blood neutrophils were isolated and incubated (10(7) cells/mL) on bovine vascular endothelial cell monolayers. Untreated plasma or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) or 65 C inactivated plasma was added, and TxB2 and 6-keto PGF1 alpha production measured after 2 hours. Endothelial damage was detected by light and scanning electron microscopy beginning 2 and 4 hours after treatment. Preoperatively, neutrophil TxB2 release was less than 200 pg/mL; following ZAP it was 2153 pg/mL (p less than 0.001), with untreated plasma 1055 pg/mL (p less than 0.005) and inactivated plasma 764 pg/mL (p less than 0.01). Neutrophil TxB2 release on a plastic dish was not different from incubation on endothelium. Endothelial 6-keto PGF1 alpha release following addition of untreated plasma preoperatively was 1308 pg/mL (p less than 0.01), and with ZAP 1305 pg/mL (p less than 0.01). Activated neutrophils did not alter 6-keto PGF1 alpha production. Postoperatively, neutrophil TxB2 production in response to ZAP was 1092 pg/mL, which was significantly reduced compared to the preoperative response (p less than 0.01). Endothelial damage by activated neutrophils in the postoperative period demonstrated on scanning electron microscopy was also reduced; 6-keto PGF1 alpha release in the postoperative period inducted by ZAP was 569 pg/mL and by untreated plasma 549 pg/mL, which was significantly lower than in the preoperative period (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.05, respectively). No difference in chemotaxis was demonstrated. It is concluded that operative trauma is followed by lowered neutrophil TxB2 release, appearance of a plasmatic factor that depresses endothelial 6-keto PGF1 alpha production, as

  18. Granulocyte proteases do not process endothelial cell-derived unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers to plasma vWF in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M D; Vu, C; Nolasco, L; Moake, J L

    1991-06-01

    The unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULvWF) multimers present within endothelial cells and platelets are larger than the vWF multimers normally found in adult human plasma. Furthermore, ULvWF multimers are cleared rapidly from the circulation if they are released by intense endothelial cell stimulation. The mechanisms by which the ULvWF multimers are processed to large plasma vWF multimers are not known. It has been demonstrated that granulocyte proteases are capable of decreasing vWF multimer size in vitro, and that some patients with myeloproliferative syndromes have a relative absence of large plasma vWF multimers in sodium citrate-anticoagulated plasma samples. In order to assess the influence of granulocyte proteases on vWF multimer size, we evaluated the vWF multimeric patterns in 94 plasma samples from 60 patients with neutrophil counts that were either considerably elevated or extremely reduced. In 83 of 94 plasma samples, the vWF multimeric patterns were normal. No patients with very low neutrophil counts had ULvWF multimers present. These observations suggest that granulocyte proteases are not likely to be involved in vivo in the processing of ULvWF multimers from endothelial cells to the smaller vWF forms in circulation. PMID:2069167

  19. Lipidomic analyses of female mice lacking hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase indicate selective modulation of plasma lipid species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Kuwano, Takashi; Lagor, William R; Albert, Carolyn J; Brenton, Siobhan; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, David A; Brown, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) share overlapping and complementary roles in lipoprotein metabolism. The deletion of HL and EL alleles in mice raises plasma total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations. However, the influence of HL and EL in vivo on individual molecular species from each class of lipid is not known. We hypothesized that the loss of HL, EL, or both in vivo may affect select molecular species from each class of lipids. To test this hypothesis, we performed lipidomic analyses on plasma and livers from fasted female wild-type, HL-knockout, EL-knockout, and HL/EL-double knockout mice. Overall, the loss of HL, EL, or both resulted in minimal changes to hepatic lipids; however, select species of CE were surprisingly reduced in the livers of mice only lacking EL. The loss of HL, EL, or both reduced the plasma concentrations for select molecular species of triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and free fatty acid. On the other hand, the loss of HL, EL, or both raised the plasma concentrations for select molecular species of phosphatidylcholine, cholesteryl ester, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, ceramide, plasmanylcholine, and plasmenylcholine. The increased plasma concentration of select ether phospholipids was evident in the absence of EL, thus suggesting that EL might exhibit a phospholipase A2 activity. Using recombinant EL, we showed that it could hydrolyse the artificial phospholipase A2 substrate 4-nitro-3-(octanoyloxy)benzoic acid. In summary, our study shows for the first time the influence of HL and EL on individual molecular species of several classes of lipids in vivo using lipidomic methods. PMID:24777581

  20. Endogenous vasoactive substances and oxygen-derived free radicals in pulpal haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Okabe, E

    1994-01-01

    An adequate blood supply to the dental pulp is essential to the health of the tooth. A recent concept is that repeated stimulation of sensitive teeth may induce pulpal changes; this could occur through induction of neurogenic inflammation and alteration of pulpal blood flow. One possibility is that production of oxygen-derived free radicals at sites of inflammation contributes to alterations in local blood flow. The first target of free radicals, generated in several pathological processes, is the vascular system (essentially the endothelium). Although the exact mechanism by which free radicals induce changes in vascular conductance is still uncertain, they may act directly on vascular smooth muscle or modify vascular tone by interacting with the production and/or biological activity of endogenous vasoactive mediators. Recent data indicate that the oxygen-derived, free radical-generating system can decrease pulpal blood flow in the dog via endothelial dysfunction when applied locally in deep dentinal cavities. In addition to the part played by oxygen-derived free radicals, the measurement of pulpal blood flow and the effects of endogenous vasoactive substances on flow are discussed. PMID:7702466

  1. Histamine, a vasoactive agent with vascular disrupting potential, improves tumour response by enhancing local drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Brunstein, F; Rens, J; van Tiel, S T; Eggermont, A M M; ten Hagen, T L M

    2006-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-based isolated limb perfusion (ILP) is an approved and registered treatment for sarcomas confined to the limbs in Europe since 1998, with limb salvage indexes of 76%. TNF improves drug distribution in solid tumours and secondarily destroys the tumour-associated vasculature (TAV). Here we explore the synergistic antitumour effect of another vasoactive agent, histamine (Hi), in doxorubicin (DXR)-based ILP and evaluate its antivascular effects on TAV. We used our well-established rat ILP model for in vivo studies looking at tumour response, drug distribution and effects on tumour vessels. In vitro studies explored drug interactions at cellular level on tumour cells (BN-175) and Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). There was a 17% partial response and a 50% arrest in tumour growth when Hi was combined to DXR, without important side effects, against 100% progressive disease with DXR alone and 29% arrest in tumour growth for Hi alone. Histology documented an increased DXR leakage in tumour tissue combined to a destruction of the TAV, when Hi was added to the ILP. In vitro no synergy between the drugs was observed. In conclusion, Hi is a vasoactive drug, targeting primarily the TAV and synergises with different chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17106443

  2. In Vitro Hematological and In Vivo Vasoactivity Assessment of Dextran Functionalized Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy D.; Frame, Mary D.; Dewar, Anthony M.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    The intravenous, intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of water solubilized graphene nanoparticles for biomedical applications will result in their interaction with the hematological components and vasculature. Herein, we have investigated the effects of dextran functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (GNP-Dex) on histamine release, platelet activation, immune activation, blood cell hemolysis in vitro, and vasoactivity in vivo. The results indicate that GNP-Dex formulations prevented histamine release from activated RBL-2H3 rat mast cells, and at concentrations ≥ 7 mg/ml, showed a 12–20% increase in levels of complement proteins. Cytokine (TNF-Alpha and IL-10) levels remained within normal range. GNP-Dex formulations did not cause platelet activation or blood cell hemolysis. Using the hamster cheek pouch in vivo model, the initial vasoactivity of GNP-Dex at concentrations (1–50 mg/ml) equivalent to the first pass of a bolus injection was a brief concentration-dependent dilation in arcade and terminal arterioles. However, they did not induce a pro-inflammatory endothelial dysfunction effect. PMID:24002570

  3. Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hua; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) plays important roles in many biological functions, such as, stimulation of contractility in the heart, vasodilation, promoting neuroendocrine-immune communication, lowering arterial blood pressure, and anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory activity. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and degenerative bone disease, which is one of the most common causes of disability and most common in both sexes as people become older. Interestingly VIP can prevent chronic cartilage damage and joint remodeling. This review article provides update information on the association of VIP and OA and its treatment. Evidences suggest that VIP is down-regulated in synovial fluid of OA, and VIP down-regulation leads to increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that might contribute to the pathogenesis of OA; however contradictory reports also exist suggesting that accumulation of VIP in joints can also contribute OA. A number of studies indicated that up-regulation of VIP can counteract the action of pro-inflammatory stimuli and alleviate the pain in OA. More clinical investigations are necessary to determine the biology of VIP and its therapeutic potential in OA that might represent the future standards of care for OA. PMID:27553659

  4. Endothelial Cell Sensitization by Death Receptor Fractions of an Anti-Dengue Nonstructural Protein 1 Antibody Induced Plasma Leakage, Coagulopathy, and Mortality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Ying-Chen; Lien, Te-Sheng; King, Chwan-Chuen; Shih, Yung-Luen; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Wang, Teng-Yi; Li, Chen-Ru; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-09-15

    The mechanisms leading to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) remain elusive. DHF preferentially occurs during secondary dengue infections, suggesting that aberrant immune responses are involved in its development. We previously demonstrated that the autoantibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1; anti-NS1 Igs) induce plasma leakage and mortality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. However, the involved pathogenic Ig fractions of anti-NS1 Igs remain unclear. In this study, the autoreactive Igs in patients with DHF and in NS1-immunized rabbits crossreacted with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (death receptor [DR]4). Challenges with the DENV in a subcytotoxic dose sensitized endothelial cells to apoptosis. Treatments with the autoantibodies induced proapoptotic activities and suppressed the surface expression of endothelial anticoagulant thrombomodulin. Combined treatments comprising the DENV and DR4 affinity-purified fractions of anti-NS1 IgGs (anti-NS1-DR4 Ig), but not preimmune control IgGs, in subcytotoxic doses led to apoptosis in endothelial cells. Treatments with the anti-NS1-DR4 Ig led to plasma leakage, coagulopathy, and morality in mice with warfarinized anticoagulant suppression. These results suggest that DR4-induced endothelial cell sensitization through NS1-elicited autoantibodies exacerbates anticoagulant suppression, vascular injury, and plasma leakage. Detecting and blocking anti-DR Igs in patients may be novel strategies for managing severe DENV infection. PMID:26259584

  5. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  6. Hypoxia directly increases serotonin transport by porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, G.B.; Block, E.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Alterations in the physical state and composition of membrane lipids have been shown to interfere with a number of critical cellular and membrane functions including transmembrane transport. The authors have reported that hypoxia has profound effects upon the physical state and lipid composition of the PAEC plasma membrane bilayer and have suggested that this is responsible for increased serotonin uptake by these cells. In order to determine whether hypoxia has a direct effect on the plasma membrane transport of serotonin, they measured serotonin transport activity (1) in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from normoxic (20% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2}) and hypoxic (0% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2}) PAEC and (2) in PAEC plasma membrane vesicles that were exposed directly to normoxia or hypoxia. A 24-h exposure of PAEC to hypoxia resulted in a 40% increase in specific serotonin transport by plasma membrane vesicles derived from these cells. When plasma membrane vesicles were isolated and then directly exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 1 h at 37C, a 31% increase in specific 5-HT transport was observed in hypoxic vesicles. Hypoxia did not alter the Km of serotonin transport (normoxia = 3.47 {mu}M versus hypoxia = 3.76 {mu}M) but markedly increased the maximal rate of transport (V{sup max}) (normoxia = 202.4 pmol/min/mg protein versus hypoxia = 317.9 pmol/min/mg protein). These results indicate that hypoxia increases serotonin transport in PAEC by a direct effect on the plasma membrane leading to an increase in the effective number of transporter molecules without alteration in transporter affinity for serotonin.

  7. Age- and glycemia-related miR-126-3p levels in plasma and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Spazzafumo, Liana; Gobbi, Mirko; Prattichizzo, Francesco; Recchioni, Rina; Marcheselli, Fiorella; Sala, Lucia La; Galeazzi, Roberta; Rippo, Maria Rita; Fulgenzi, Gianluca; Angelini, Sabrina; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Brugè, Francesca; Tiano, Luca; Genovese, Stefano; Ceriello, Antonio; Boemi, Massimo; Franceschi, Claudio; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Testa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Circulating miR-126-3p levels were determined in 136 healthy subjects (CTRs) aged 20-90 years and 193 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DMs) aged 40-80 years, to explore the combined effect of age and glycemic state on miR-126-3p expression. Moreover, intra/extracellular miR-126-3p levels were measured in human endothelial cells (HUVECs) undergoing senescence under normo/hyper-glycemic conditions. Plasma miR-126-3p was significantly higher in the oldest compared with the youngest CTRs (<45 vs. >75 years; relative expression: 0.27±0.29 vs. 0.48±0.39, p=0.047). Age-based comparison between CTRs and T2DM demonstrated significantly different miR-126-3p levels only in the oldest (0.48±0.39 vs. 0.22±0.23, p<0.005). After multiple adjustments, miR-126-3p levels were seen to be lower in patients with poor glycemic control, compared with age-matched CTRs. The age-related increase in plasma miR-126-3p found in CTRs was paralleled by a 5/6-fold increase in intra/extracellular miR-126-3p in in vitro-cultured HUVECs undergoing senescence. Notably, significant down-regulation of SPRED-1 protein, a validated miR-126-3p target, was found in senescent HUVECs. Moreover, miR-126-3p expression was down-regulated in intermediate-age HUVECs grown in high-glucose medium until senescence. Aging/senescence-associated miR-126-3p up-regulation is likely a senescence-associated compensatory mechanism that is blunted when endothelial cells are exposed to high glucose levels, a phenomenon that probably occurs in vivo in T2DM patients. PMID:25324472

  8. Alkylglycerols reduce serum complement and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Parri, A; Fitó, Montserrat; Torres, C F; Muñoz-Aguayo, D; Schröder, H; Cano, J F; Vázquez, L; Reglero, G; Covas, María-Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Alkylglycerols (AKGs), isolated or present in shark liver oil have anti-inflammatory properties. Complement 3 (C3) and 4 (C4) participate in lipid metabolism and in obesity, contributing to the metabolic syndrome and to the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. In a randomized, controlled, crossover study, 26 non-diabetes obese individuals were assigned two preparations with low (LAC, 10 mg AKGs) and high (HAC, 20 mg AKGs) AKG content. Intervention periods were of 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods in which shark liver oil was avoided. Cholesterol, C3, C4, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) decreased in a linear trend (P < 0.01) from baseline (control) to LAC and HAC. Values after HAC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus both baseline and after LAC. No adverse effects were observed or reported. Data from this pilot study open a promising field for the study of the beneficial effects of AKGs on cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals. PMID:27188987

  9. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Johanna M.; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L.; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C.; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M.; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U.; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Methods Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. Results The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. Conclusion VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples. PMID:26730574

  10. Proteolytic Enzymes Clustered in Specialized Plasma-Membrane Domains Drive Endothelial Cells’ Migration

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Monica; Carfì Pavia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In vitro cultured endothelial cells forming a continuous monolayer establish stable cell-cell contacts and acquire a “resting” phenotype; on the other hand, when growing in sparse conditions these cells acquire a migratory phenotype and invade the empty area of the culture. Culturing cells in different conditions, we compared expression and clustering of proteolytic enzymes in cells having migratory versus stationary behavior. In order to observe resting and migrating cells in the same microscopic field, a continuous cell monolayer was wounded. Increased expression of proteolytic enzymes was evident in cell membranes of migrating cells especially at sprouting sites and in shed membrane vesicles. Gelatin zymography and western blotting analyses confirmed that in migrating cells, expression of membrane-bound and of vesicle-associated proteolytic enzymes are increased. The enzymes concerned include MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, seprase, DPP4 (DiPeptidyl Peptidase 4) and uPA. Shed membrane vesicles were shown to exert degradative activity on ECM components and produce substrates facilitating cell migration. Vesicles shed by migrating cells degraded ECM components at an increased rate; as a result their effect on cell migration was amplified. Inhibiting either Matrix Metallo Proteases (MMPs) or Serine Integral Membrane Peptidases (SIMPs) caused a decrease in the stimulatory effect of vesicles, inhibiting the spontaneous migratory activity of cells; a similar result was also obtained when a monoclonal antibody acting on DPP4 was tested. We conclude that proteolytic enzymes have a synergistic stimulatory effect on cell migration and that their clustering probably facilitates the proteolytic activation cascades needed to produce maximal degradative activity on cell substrates during the angiogenic process. PMID:27152413

  11. Inflammatory and Vasoactive Effects of Serum Following Inhalation of Varied Complex Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Aragon, Mario J; Chrobak, Izabela; Brower, Jeremy; Roldan, Luis; Fredenburgh, Laura E; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cardiovascular disease is associated with air pollution exposure in epidemiology and toxicology studies. Inhaled toxicants can induce changes in serum bioactivity that impact endothelial inflammatory gene expression in vitro and impair vasorelaxation ex vivo, which are common precursors to atherosclerosis. Comparisons between single pollutants and common combustion mixtures, in terms of driving such serum inflammatory and vasoactive effects, have not been characterized. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-h period of contrasting pollutant atmospheres: road dust, mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; a combination of gasoline and diesel engine emissions) particulate matter, mixed vehicle emissions gases, road dust plus ozone, road dust plus MVE, and hardwood smoke. Serum obtained from mice 24 h after these exposures was used as a stimulus to assess inflammatory potential in two assays: incubated with primary murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells for 4 h to measure inflammatory gene expression or applied to naïve aortic rings in an ex vivo myographic preparation. Road dust and wood smoke exposures were most potent at inducing inflammatory gene expression, while MVE atmospheres and wood smoke were most potent at impairing vasorelaxation to acetylcholine. Responses are consistent with recent reports on MVE toxicity, but reveal novel serum bioactivity related to wood smoke and road dust. These studies suggest that the compositional changes in serum and resultant bioactivity following inhalation exposure to pollutants may be highly dependent on the composition of mixtures. PMID:25900702

  12. [Vasoactive and inotropic drugs in acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Laiglesia, Fernando José; Camafort-Babkowski, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Vasoactive and inotropic drugs provide effective symptomatic and hemodynamic relief in the short term but can increase mortality in the long-term. Consequently, their use should be restricted to the indications described in clinical practice guidelines. The present article reviews the main drugs and the available evidence on their use. PMID:24930084

  13. [Vasoactive prostanoids and inhibitors of blood coagulation in pregnancy-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Peterseim, H; Kemkes-Matthes, B

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of changes in the plasma levels of vasoactive prostanoids and inhibitors of blood coagulation in normal pregnancy and in cases of pregnancy induced hypertension. Levels of the coagulation inhibitors antithrombin III, protein C, Protein S as well as the prostaglandin metabolites thromboxane B2 and 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha were measured between 13 and 37 weeks gestation in 36 primigravidae. In 8 of the examined patients persistently raised blood pressure values of 140/90 and above were measured after 20 weeks of gestation. Our results indicated that an imbalance of vasoactive prostanoids may precede the appearance of clinical symptoms of PIH. The determination of coagulation factors before blood pressure is elevated has no predictive value regarding the later development of PIH. The reduced levels of protein C associated with our PIH group are considered to be the result of an activated coagulation followed by consumption of clotting factors. Reduced measured levels of protein S in normotensive as well as hypertensive pregnancies offer an explanation for the increased risk of thromboembolic disease. This increased susceptibility to thromboembolic disorders is further enhanced by the altered balance between the platelet aggregator and vasoconstrictor thromboxane A2 and its antagonist prostacyclin. PMID:8048287

  14. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A promotes TF procoagulant activity in human endothelial cells by Akt-NF-κB axis.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Plinio; Conte, Stefano; Pellegrino, Grazia; Ziviello, Francesca; Barra, Giusi; De Palma, Raffaele; Leonardi, Antonio; Trimarco, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloproteinase with a controversial role in pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. It seems involved in progression of atherosclerosis and is widely represented in atherosclerotic plaque. PAPP-A plasma levels are elevated in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), thus it has been suggested that it might be a prognostic marker for developing major cardiovascular events. However, the pathophysiological link(s) between PAPP-A and ACS are still unknown. Several studies have indicated that tissue factor (TF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ACS by triggering the formation of intracoronary thrombi following endothelial injury. This study investigates whether PAPP-A, at concentrations measurable in ACS patients, might induce TF expression in human endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC). In HUVEC, PAPP-A induced TF-mRNA transcription as demonstrated by real time PCR and expression of functionally active TF as demonstrated by FACS analysis and pro-coagulant activity assay. PAPP-A induced TF expression through the activation of Akt/NF-κB axis, as demonstrated by luciferase assay and by suppression of TF-mRNA transcription as well as of TF expression/activity by Akt and NF-κB inhibitors. These data indicate that PAPP-A promotes TF expression in human endothelial cells and support the hypothesis that this proteinase, besides being involved in progression of atherosclerosis, does not represent an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events, but it rather might play an "active" role in the pathophysiology of ACS as an effector molecule able to induce a pro-thrombotic phenotype in endothelial cells. PMID:27007282

  15. High plasma levels of soluble endothelial protein C receptor are associated with increased mortality among children with cerebral malaria in Benin.

    PubMed

    Moussiliou, Azizath; Alao, Maroufou J; Denoeud-Ndam, Lise; Tahar, Rachida; Ezimegnon, Sem; Sagbo, Gratien; Amoussou, Annick; Luty, Adrian J F; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-05-01

    Loss of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) occurs at the sites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte sequestration in patients with or who died from cerebral malaria. In children presenting with different clinical syndromes of malaria, we assessed the relationships between endogenous plasma soluble EPCR (sEPCR) levels and clinical presentation or mortality. After adjustment for age, for treatment before admission, and for a known genetic factor, sEPCR level at admission was positively associated with cerebral malaria (P = .011) and with malaria-related mortality (P = .0003). Measuring sEPCR levels at admission could provide an early biological marker of the outcome of cerebral malaria. PMID:25425698

  16. The effect of parachlorophenylalanine and active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide on reproductive activities of broiler breeder hens photostimulated with green light.

    PubMed

    Mobarkey, Nader; Avital, Natalie; Heiblum, Rachel; Rozenboim, Israel

    2013-04-01

    Photostimulation of retinal photoreceptors appears to inhibit reproductive activity in birds. In the present study, the involvement of serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide was investigated in relation to reproductive failure associated with retinal photostimulation. Hens at 23 wk of age were divided into six rooms equipped with individual cages. At 24 wk of age, three rooms were photostimulated (14L:10D) with white light (control). Three rooms had two parallel lighting systems, red (660 nm) and green (560 nm), which were both on during 6 h of the 14-h light period. Upon photostimulation, the red light was turned off after 6 h, and the green light was left on for a total of 14 h (Green). Five hens from each room served as controls, five hens were immunized against vasoactive intestinal peptide, and five hens received parachlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis. Parachlorophenylalanine treatment increased reproductive performance and mRNA expression of GnRH-I, LH-beta and FSH-beta (P < 0.05) in the Green group to levels which did not differ from those of the White (control) group. Immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide reduced plasma concentration and pituitary mRNA expression of prolactin but did not affect expression of gonadal axis genes. Collectively, the results suggest that retinal photostimulation inhibits the reproductive axis through serotonin and not through vasoactive intestinal peptide. PMID:23325814

  17. Plasma Levels of Endothelial Microparticles Bearing Monomeric C-reactive Protein are Increased in Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jeffrey R; Trial, JoAnn; Nambi, Vijay; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Taffet, George E; Entman, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) as an indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has shown limited sensitivity. We demonstrate that two isoforms of CRP (pentameric, pCRP and monomeric, mCRP) present in soluble form or on microparticles (MPs) have different biological effects and are not all measured by clinical CRP assays. The high-sensitivity CRP assay (hsCRP) did not measure pCRP or mCRP on MPs, whereas flow cytometry did. MPs derived from endothelial cells, particularly those bearing mCRP, were elevated in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients compared to controls. The numbers of mCRP(+) endothelial MPs did not correlate with hsCRP measurements of soluble pCRP, indicating their independent modulation. In controls, statins lowered mCRP(+) endothelial MPs. In a model of vascular inflammation, mCRP induced endothelial shedding of MPs and was proinflammatory, while pCRP was anti-inflammatory. mCRP on endothelial MPs may be both an unmeasured indicator of, and an amplifier of, vascular disease, and its detection might improve risk sensitivity. PMID:26891844

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in the plasma-activated platelets rich (P-APR) of healthy controls and colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Girolamo; Coviello, Maria; Patruno, Rosa; Valerio, Paolo; Martino, Domenico; Milella, Pietro; Catalano, Vittorio; Scotto, Francesco; De Ceglie, Antonella; Quaranta, Michele; Ribatti, Domenico; Pellecchia, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a key role in tumour angiogenesis. Our preliminary published data suggest that plasma-activated platelets rich (P-APR) rather than other plasma compartments (i.e. plasma, plasma-platelets poor) or serum is the more suitable blood fraction for measuring VEGF in a miscellaneous series of gastrointestinal cancer patients. The aim of this confirmatory study was to assess VEGF in P-APR blood compartments of 30 healthy control subjects (HCS) and a homogeneous series of 62 colorectal cancer patients (CRCP), prospectively collected, to evaluate its possible clinical-biological significance. Samples of plasma (P) in both sodium citrate (SC) and sodium citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole (CTAD) were collected from venous blood. After the centrifugation and separation methods VEGF levels were detected by ELISA in P-APR. The best differentiation between HCS and CRCP in VEGF level was seen for P-APRCTAD (median value: 255 pg/ml versus 142 pg/ml; p=0.000 by Mann-Whitney U test). No significant correlation among the P-APR VEGF concentrations and the main clinical pathological features was found. We suggest that P-APRCTAD fraction, obtained according to well standardised conditions, could represent the suitable blood compartment for the assessment of VEGF as marker of malignant intestinal transformation. PMID:15375505

  19. Surface wettability of plasma SiOx:H nanocoating-induced endothelial cells' migration and the associated FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wang, Guixue; Huang, Xianliang; Zhang, Qin; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Chaojun; Yu, Qingsong; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2012-02-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and migration are essential processes in re-endothelialization of implanted biomaterials. There is no clear relationship and mechanism between EC adhesion and migration behaviour on surfaces with varying wettabilities. As model substrates, plasma SiO(x):H nanocoatings with well-controlled surface wettability (with water contact angles in the range of 98.5 ± 2.3° to 26.3 ± 4.0°) were used in this study to investigate the effects of surface wettability on cell adhesion/migration and associated protein expressions in FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways. It was found that EC adhesion/migration showed opposite behaviour on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces promoted EC migration but were anti-adhesions). The number of adherent ECs showed a maximum on hydrophilic surfaces, while cells adhered to hydrophobic surfaces exhibited a tendency for cell migration. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor targeting the Y-397 site of FAK could significantly inhibit cell adhesion/migration, suggesting that EC adhesion and migration on surfaces with different wettabilities involve (p)FAK and its downstream signalling pathways. Western blot results suggested that the FAK-Rho GTPases signalling pathways were correlative to EC migration on hydrophobic plasma SiO(x):H surfaces, but uncertain to hydrophilic surfaces. This work demonstrated that surface wettability could induce cellular behaviours that were associated with different cellular signalling events. PMID:21715399

  20. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and plasma homocysteine concentration in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    YI, XIN; ZHOU, YANLI; JIANG, DINGSHENG; LI, XIAOYAN; GUO, YI; JIANG, XUEJUN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct an updated meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to estimate the effect of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). An extensive search of PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs that compared folic acid with placebo therapy. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a measure of the correlation between folic acid supplementation and endothelial function/plasma homocysteine concentration. Of the 377 patients included in this analysis, 191 patients underwent folic acid supplementation and 186 individuals underwent placebo treatment. Compared with the use of a placebo, folic acid supplementation alone exhibited significant efficacy on increasing flow-mediated dilation (FMD; MD, 57.72 μm; 95% CI, 50.14–65.31; P<0.05) and lowering the concentration of plasma homocysteine (MD, −3.66 μmol/l; 95% CI, −5.44–−1.87; P<0.05; I2, 87%). There was no significant change in the response to end diastolic diameter, glyceryl-trinitrate diameter, heart rate, baseline and peak hyperemic flow and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the folic acid and placebo groups (P>0.05). Therefore, the meta-analysis indicated that 5 mg folic acid daily supplementation for >4 weeks significantly improved FMD and lowered the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with CAD. However, more RCTs are required in order to confirm these observations. PMID:24940394

  1. Pharmacological characterization of the receptors mediating vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced vasodilation in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1986-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-contain nerve fibers associated with blood vessels are widely distributed, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. VIP has been shown to be a potent vasodilator in a variety of vascular preparations. The authors have evaluated VIP, the VIP fragment 10-28, and several related peptides including PHI-27, PHM-27 and secretin in terms of their potencies in (1) stimulating the synthesis of cyclic AMP, using the method of Shimizu, in aortic rings; and (2) reversing norepinephrine induced contraction in aortic rings. The authors results indicate that VIP is the most potent of the peptides in both experimental protocols and that the rank order potencies of the various peptides are consistent between the two parameters measured. The authors are currently conducting radioligand binding studies with (/sup 125/I)VIP to further characterize the receptors involved. Additionally, the authors experiments in rat aorta indicate that the presence of the endothelial layer is not required for VIP receptor mediated effects to occur. A potential role for synthetic compounds with high specificity for the VIP receptor in treating hypertension is suggested.

  2. A Novel Vasoactive Proline-Rich Oligopeptide from the Skin Secretion of the Frog Brachycephalus ephippium.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Vasconcelos, Andreanne Gomes; Comerma-Steffensen, Simón Gabriel; Jesus, Joilson Ramos; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Costa-Neto, Claudio Miguel; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araújo; Paulo, Michele; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria; Bemquerer, Marcelo Porto; Oliveira, Aldeidia Pereira; Simonsen, Ulf; Leite, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Proline-rich oligopeptides (PROs) are a large family which comprises the bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs). They inhibit the activity of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and have a typical pyroglutamyl (Pyr)/proline-rich structure at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. Furthermore, PROs decrease blood pressure in animals. In the present study, the isolation and biological characterization of a novel vasoactive BPP isolated from the skin secretion of the frog Brachycephalus ephippium is described. This new PRO, termed BPP-Brachy, has the primary structure WPPPKVSP and the amidated form termed BPP-BrachyNH2 inhibits efficiently ACE in rat serum. In silico molecular modeling and docking studies suggest that BPP-BrachyNH2 is capable of forming a hydrogen bond network as well as multiple van der Waals interactions with the rat ACE, which blocks the access of the substrate to the C-domain active site. Moreover, in rat thoracic aorta BPP-BrachyNH2 induces potent endothelium-dependent vasodilatation with similar magnitude as captopril. In DAF-FM DA-loaded aortic cross sections examined by confocal microscopy, BPP-BrachyNH2 was found to increase the release of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, BPP-BrachyNH2 was devoid of toxicity in endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures. In conclusion, the peptide BPP-BrachyNH2 has a novel sequence being the first BPP isolated from the skin secretion of the Brachycephalidae family. This opens for exploring amphibians as a source of new biomolecules. The BPP-BrachyNH2 is devoid of cytotoxicity and elicits endothelium-dependent vasodilatation mediated by NO. These findings open for the possibility of potential application of these peptides in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26661890

  3. A Novel Vasoactive Proline-Rich Oligopeptide from the Skin Secretion of the Frog Brachycephalus ephippium

    PubMed Central

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Vasconcelos, Andreanne Gomes; Comerma-Steffensen, Simón Gabriel; Jesus, Joilson Ramos; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Pires, Osmindo Rodrigues; Costa-Neto, Claudio Miguel; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araújo; Paulo, Michele; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria; Bemquerer, Marcelo Porto; Oliveira, Aldeidia Pereira; Simonsen, Ulf; Leite, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Proline-rich oligopeptides (PROs) are a large family which comprises the bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs). They inhibit the activity of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and have a typical pyroglutamyl (Pyr)/proline-rich structure at the N- and C-terminus, respectively. Furthermore, PROs decrease blood pressure in animals. In the present study, the isolation and biological characterization of a novel vasoactive BPP isolated from the skin secretion of the frog Brachycephalus ephippium is described. This new PRO, termed BPP-Brachy, has the primary structure WPPPKVSP and the amidated form termed BPP-BrachyNH2 inhibits efficiently ACE in rat serum. In silico molecular modeling and docking studies suggest that BPP-BrachyNH2 is capable of forming a hydrogen bond network as well as multiple van der Waals interactions with the rat ACE, which blocks the access of the substrate to the C-domain active site. Moreover, in rat thoracic aorta BPP-BrachyNH2 induces potent endothelium-dependent vasodilatation with similar magnitude as captopril. In DAF-FM DA-loaded aortic cross sections examined by confocal microscopy, BPP-BrachyNH2 was found to increase the release of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, BPP-BrachyNH2 was devoid of toxicity in endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures. In conclusion, the peptide BPP-BrachyNH2 has a novel sequence being the first BPP isolated from the skin secretion of the Brachycephalidae family. This opens for exploring amphibians as a source of new biomolecules. The BPP-BrachyNH2 is devoid of cytotoxicity and elicits endothelium-dependent vasodilatation mediated by NO. These findings open for the possibility of potential application of these peptides in the treatment of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26661890

  4. Evaluation of von Willebrand Factor and von Willebrand Factor Propeptide in Models of Vascular Endothelial Cell Activation, Perturbation, and/or Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brott, David A.; Katein, Anne; Thomas, Heath; Lawton, Michael; Montgomery, Robert R.; Richardson, Rudy J.; Louden, Calvert S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologically, vasoactive agents targeting endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells (SMC) are known to cause acute drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) and the resulting pathology is due to endothelial cell (EC) perturbation, activation, and/or injury. Alteration in EC structure and/or function may be a critical event in vascular injury and, therefore, evaluation of the circulatory kinetic profile and secretory pattern of EC-specific proteins such as VWF and VWFpp could serve as acute vascular injury biomarkers. In rat and dog models of DIVI, this profile was determined using pharmacologically diverse agents associated with functional stimulation/perturbation (DDAVP), pathological activation (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]/endotoxin), and structural damage (fenoldopam [FD], dopamine [DA], and potassium channel opener (PCO) ZD6169). In rats, FD caused moderate DIVI and time-related increase in plasma VWF levels ∼33% while in control rats VWF increased ∼5%. In dogs, VWF levels transiently increased ∼30% when there was morphologic evidence of DIVI by DA or ZD6169. However, in dogs, VWFpp increased >60-fold (LPS) and >6-fold (DDAVP), respectively. This was in comparison to smaller dynamic 1.38-fold (LPS) and 0.54-fold (DDAVP) increases seen in plasma VWF. Furthermore, DA was associated with a dose-dependent increase in plasma VWFpp. In summary, VWF and VWFpp can discriminate between physiological and pathological perturbation, activation, and injury to ECs. PMID:24499802

  5. Exercise training improves endothelial function in young prehypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Darren T; Casey, Darren P; Martin, Jeffrey S; Emerson, Blaze D; Braith, Randy W

    2015-01-01

    Prehypertensives exhibit marked endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the ability of exercise to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in prehypertensives is grossly underinvestigated. This prospective randomized and controlled study examined the separate effects of resistance and endurance training on conduit artery endothelial function in young prehypertensives. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP]=120–139 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]=80–89 mmHg) but otherwise healthy men and women and 15 normotensive matched time-controls (NMTC); n = 15) between 18 and 35 y of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to either a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). The treatment groups performed exercise training three days per week for eight weeks. The control groups did not initiate exercise programs throughout the study. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, biomarkers of enodothelial function and peripheral blood pressure were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP (9.6 ± 3.6 and 11.9 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and DBP (8.0 ± 5.1 and 7.2 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise training improved brachial artery FMD absolute diameter, percent dilation and normalized percent dilation by 30%, 34% and 19% for PHRT, P < 0.05; and by 54%, 63% and 75% for PHET, P < 0.05; respectively. PHRT and PHET increased plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (19% and 22%, respectively; P < 0.05), NOx (19% and 23%, respectively; P < 0.05), and reduced endothelin-1 by (16% and 24%, respectively; P < 0.01). This study provides novel evidence that resistance and endurance exercise separately have beneficial effects on resting

  6. Exercise training improves endothelial function in young prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Beck, Darren T; Casey, Darren P; Martin, Jeffrey S; Emerson, Blaze D; Braith, Randy W

    2013-04-01

    Prehypertensives exhibit marked endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the ability of exercise to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in prehypertensives is grossly underinvestigated. This prospective randomized and controlled study examined the separate effects of resistance and endurance training on conduit artery endothelial function in young prehypertensives. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP]=120-139 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]=80-89 mmHg) but otherwise healthy men and women and 15 normotensive matched time-controls (NMTC); n = 15) between 18 and 35 y of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to either a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). The treatment groups performed exercise training three days per week for eight weeks. The control groups did not initiate exercise programs throughout the study. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, biomarkers of enodothelial function and peripheral blood pressure were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP (9.6 ± 3.6 and 11.9 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and DBP (8.0 ± 5.1 and 7.2 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise training improved brachial artery FMD absolute diameter, percent dilation and normalized percent dilation by 30%, 34% and 19% for PHRT, P < 0.05; and by 54%, 63% and 75% for PHET, P < 0.05; respectively. PHRT and PHET increased plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (19% and 22%, respectively; P < 0.05), NO x (19% and 23%, respectively; P < 0.05), and reduced endothelin-1 by (16% and 24%, respectively; P < 0.01). This study provides novel evidence that resistance and endurance exercise separately have beneficial effects on resting

  7. Plasma haemostatic markers, endothelial function and ambulatory blood pressure changes with home versus hospital cardiac rehabilitation: the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K W; Blann, A D; Jolly, K; Lip, G Y H

    2006-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation is an accepted therapeutic intervention in patients after myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation. The effects of cardiac rehabilitation programmes, whether home based or hospital based, on haemostatic indices (as reflected by fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, fibrin D‐dimer (an index of thrombogenesis), von Willebrand factor (vWf, an index of endothelial damage/dysfunction), soluble P‐selectin (an index of platelet activation)), vasomotor function (using flow‐mediated dilatation (FMD)) and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in patients with coronary heart disease are unknown. Methods 81 patients (66 men, mean (SD) 59 (11) years) after myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation were randomised to comprehensive hospital‐based (n = 40) or home‐based (n = 41) cardiac rehabilitation. Plasma levels of vWf, D‐dimer, fibrinogen, soluble P‐selectin and plasma viscosity, as well as FMD and 24‐h ABP, were measured at baseline and after 3 months of cardiac rehabilitation. Results In patients who completed cardiac rehabilitation, levels of vWf, fibrinogen and D‐dimer were significantly lower and FMD improved (all p⩽0.001), whereas levels were unchanged in controls. Significant reductions were also observed in 24‐h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean aortic pressure after completion of cardiac rehabilitation (all p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the hospital‐based and home‐based cardiac rehabilitation programmes on these indices. Conclusions Cardiac rehabilitation improves haemostasis, endothelial function and ABP in patients with coronary heart disease, with no significant differences between home‐based and hospital‐based cardiac rehabilitation programmes. These effects may contribute to the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation programmes on CV outcomes. PMID:16807272

  8. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Linagliptin Preserves Endothelial Function in Mesenteric Arteries from Type 1 Diabetic Rats without Decreasing Plasma Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Salheen, Salheen M.; Panchapakesan, Usha; Pollock, Carol A.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin on the mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries from STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both normal and diabetic animals received linagliptin (2 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for a period of 4 weeks. To measure superoxide generation in mesenteric arteries, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence was used. ACh-induced relaxation of mesenteric arteries was assessed using organ bath techniques and Western blotting was used to investigate protein expression. Pharmacological tools (1μM TRAM-34, 1μM apamin, 100 nM Ibtx, 100 μM L-NNA, 10 μM ODQ) were used to distinguish between NO and EDH-mediated relaxation. Linagliptin did not affect plasma glucose, but did decrease vascular superoxide levels. Diabetes reduced responses to ACh but did not affect endothelium-independent responses to SNP. Linagliptin improved endothelial function indicated by a significant increase in responses to ACh. Diabetes impaired the contribution of both nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) to endothelium-dependent relaxation and linagliptin treatment significantly enhanced the contribution of both relaxing factors. Western blotting demonstrated that diabetes also increased expression of Nox2 and decreased expression and dimerization of endothelial NO synthase, effects that were reversed by linagliptin. These findings demonstrate treatment of type 1 diabetic rats with linagliptin significantly reduced vascular superoxide levels and preserved both NO and EDH-mediated relaxation indicating that linagliptin can improve endothelial function in diabetes independently of any glucose lowering activity. PMID:26618855

  9. The vascular dysfunction in the α-galactosidase A knockout mouse is an endothelial cell, plasma membrane-based defect

    PubMed Central

    Park, James L; Whitesall, Steven E; D'Alecy, Louis G; Shu, Liming; Shayman, James A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Fabry disease results from an X-linked mutation in the lysosomal α-galactosidase A (Gla). Defective Gla results in multi-organ accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs), especially in the vascular endothelium, the major accumulating GSL being globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Excessive endothelial Gb3 accumulation is associated with increased thrombosis, atherogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanism(s) by which endothelial dysfunction occurs, however, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the vasculopathy associated with a murine model of Fabry disease.Vascular reactivity was performed in vessels from wildtype (Gla +/0) and Gla knockout (Gla -/0) mice. Conscious blood pressure and heart rate were measured in the Gla +/0 and Gla -/0 mice by telemetry.The present study demonstrates that vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractions were blunted in the Gla -/0 mice to phenylephrine and serotonin, but not to U46619. Endothelium-dependent contraction and receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine were significantly attenuated in vessels from Gla -/0 mice. However, receptor-independent endothelium-dependent relaxation to the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, remained intact in vessels from Gla -/0 mice. Furthermore, VSM reactivity was normal in the aortas from Gla -/0 mice in the absence of endothelium. These changes in vascular function were observed without changes in whole-animal blood pressure or heart rate.These results suggest that the vasculopathy associated with Fabry disease is localized to the endothelium despite the accumulation of GSLs throughout the vasculature. PMID:18565198

  10. Metabolism of glycosylated human salivary amylase: in vivo plasma clearance by rat hepatic endothelial cells and in vitro receptor mediated pinocytosis by rat macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Niesen, T.E.; Alpers, D.H.; Stahl, P.D.; Rosenblum, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    Salivary-type amylase normally comprises about 60% of the amylase activity in human serum, but only a small fraction is a glycosylated isoenzyme (amylase A). In contrast, 1/3 of amylase in human saliva is glycosylated. Since glycosylation can affect circulatory clearance, we studied the clearance of amylase A in rats and its uptake by rat alveolar macrophages. Following intravenous injection, /sup 125/I-labeled amylase A disappeared rapidly from plasma (t 1/2 . 9 min) and accumulated in the liver. Simultaneous injection of mannose-albumin slowed its clearance to a rate comparable to that of /sup 125/I-labeled nonglycosylated salivary amylase (t 1/2 . 45 min). In contrast, galactose-albumin had no effect. Electron microscope autoradiography of the liver following injection of /sup 125/I-labeled amylase A revealed a localization of grains over the hepatic endothelial cells. In vitro studies indicated that amylase A is taken up by alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated pinocytosis. Uptake was linear over time, saturable, and inhibited by mannan and mannose-albumin, but not by galactose-albumin. We conclude that amylase A, which is a naturally occurring human glycoprotein with at most three terminal L-fucose residues per molecule, is recognized in rats by a mannose receptor located on hepatic endothelial cells. We speculate that this receptor, by rapidly clearing circulating amylase A, may be responsible for the low level of amylase A in human serum.

  11. Plasma endothelial protein C receptor influences innate immune response in ovarian cancer by decreasing the population of natural killer and TH17 helper cells

    PubMed Central

    AZZAZENE, DALEL; THAWADI, HAMDA AL; FARSI, HALEMA AL; BESBES, SAMAHER; GEYL, CAROLINE; MIRSHAHI, SHAHSOLTAN; PARDO, JULIA; FAUSSAT, ANNE MARIE; JEANNETTE, SORIA; THERWATH, AMU; PUJADE-LAURAINE, ERIC; MIRSHAHI, MASSOUD

    In spite of the growing importance of endothelial protein C receptor/active protein C (EPCR/aPC) in tumor biology, their impact on immunological homeostasis remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to assess whether soluble plasma endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR), which is a regulator of circulating aPC, is involved in innate immune response in cancer patients. In the Ovcar-3 ovarian cancer line, the role of aPC in secretion of cytokines was analyzed. In parallel, in 33 patients, with a diagnosis of ovarian epithelial cancer, sEPCR was quantified, blood immune cell phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry and plasma cytokines were evaluated using a protein array. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r) and coefficient significance was determined by a statistical hypothesis test (α=0.05). Our results show that i) aPC induced the secretion of several cytokines in Ovcar-3 cells; ii) 61% of patients exhibited a concentration of plasma sEPCR well above the baseline (normal plasma level, 100±28 ng/ml); iii) comparing immune cell phenotypes in patients having a normal level of sEPCR with those having a high level of sEPCR, it was found that sEPCR levels were correlated with high intensity of cells expressing CD45ra, CD3, CD8, CD25 and low intensity of cells expressing CD56 (NK cells), CD294 (TH2 cells), IL-2, IL-10, IL-17a (TH17 cells), IL-21 (TH21 cells) and CD29 markers (r ≥0.60); and iv) high levels of sEPCR correlate with high levels of plasma bioactive proteins such as insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGFII), IL-13rα, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1α) and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) that have already been proposed as biomarkers for ovarian cancer and particularly those with poor prognosis. In conclusion, sEPCR produced by ovarian cancer cells, by modulating circulating aPC, influences the secretory behavior of tumor cells (cytokines and interleukins). Consequently, sEPCR in turn acts on the innate immune response by

  12. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A; Haisler, William L; Neeley, Shane K; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  13. A high-throughput in vitro ring assay for vasoactivity using magnetic 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hubert; Gage, Jacob A.; Haisler, William L.; Neeley, Shane K.; Shen, Tsaiwei; Hebel, Chris; Barthlow, Herbert G.; Wagoner, Matthew; Souza, Glauco R.

    2016-01-01

    Vasoactive liabilities are typically assayed using wire myography, which is limited by its high cost and low throughput. To meet the demand for higher throughput in vitro alternatives, this study introduces a magnetic 3D bioprinting-based vasoactivity assay. The principle behind this assay is the magnetic printing of vascular smooth muscle cells into 3D rings that functionally represent blood vessel segments, whose contraction can be altered by vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. A cost-effective imaging modality employing a mobile device is used to capture contraction with high throughput. The goal of this study was to validate ring contraction as a measure of vasoactivity, using a small panel of known vasoactive drugs. In vitro responses of the rings matched outcomes predicted by in vivo pharmacology, and were supported by immunohistochemistry. Altogether, this ring assay robustly models vasoactivity, which could meet the need for higher throughput in vitro alternatives. PMID:27477945

  14. Effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, F.M.; Mayhan, W.G.; Williams, J.K.; Heistad, D.D. )

    1988-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine effects of vasoactive stimuli on blood flow to choroid plexus. The authors used microspheres to measure blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum in anesthetized dogs and rabbits. A critical assumption of the microsphere method is that microspheres do not pass through arteriovenous shunts. Blood flow values obtained with simultaneous injection of 15- and 50-{mu}m microspheres were similar, which suggest that shunting of 15-{mu}m microspheres was minimal. Blood flow to choroid plexus under control conditions was 287 {plus minus} 26 (means {plus minus} SE) ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in dogs and 385 {plus minus} 73 ml {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} 100 g{sup {minus}1} in rabbits. Consecutive measurements under control conditions indicated that values for blood flow are reproducible. Adenosine did not alter blood flow to cerebrum but increased blood flow to choroid plexus two- to threefold in dogs and rabbits. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not affect blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum but decreased blood flow to choroid plexus by {approx} 50%. The authors suggest that (1) the microsphere method provides reproducible valid measurements of blood flow to the choroid plexus in dogs and rabbits and (2) vasoactive stimuli may have profoundly different effects on blood flow to choroid plexus and cerebrum.

  15. [Investigation of vasoactive agents with indole skeletons at Richter Ltd].

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, Egon; Bíró, Katalin; Kukorelli, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of agents with indol skeleton was started in Richter Ltd. 50 years ago. This paper presents the results obtained by Richter's scientists. At first, a vasoactive alcaloid, vincamine was extracted from the leaves of Vinca minor in industrial quantity in 1955. This agent selectively improves the cerebral blood supply. Vincamine (Devincan) is used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders from 1959. Vinpocetine (Cavinton), the most powerful vasoactive compound was produced by transforming the chemical structure of vincamine. Cavinton is a cis(3S,16S)-derivate of vincamine having antianoxic, antiischaemic and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, it is frequently used in the therapy of cerebral disorders of vascular origin. Cavinton was introduced into clinical practice in 1978. At present, Cavinton tablets are approved in 47 countries. The third compound, vintoperol is a trans(3S,16R)-derivate of vincamine. Vintoperol proved to be a powerful enhancer of blood flow in the lower extremities. Because of its toxic side effects the agent is not used in clinical practice. PMID:12426785

  16. Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

  17. Plasma Levels of Osteopontin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Association with Clinical Features and Parameters of Tumor Burden in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Valković, Toni; Babarović, Emina; Lučin, Ksenija; Štifter, Sanja; Aralica, Merica; Pećanić, Sanja; Seili-Bekafigo, Irena; Duletić-Načinović, Antica; Nemet, Damir; Jonjić, Nives

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine the plasma levels of osteopontin (OPN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and find possible association between them and main clinical features and parameters of tumor burden in patient with multiple myeloma (MM). Plasma levels of OPN and VEGF were determined in 44 newly diagnosed MM patients and 24 healthy persons by ELISA method. These values were compared with the presence of anemia, renal dysfunction, and bone lesions as myeloma related clinical manifestations and with serum beta-2 microglobulin and Durie-Salmon clinical stage as prognosticators related to tumor mass. The value of OPN was significantly higher in MM patients with evident bone lesions (P = 0.03) and there was also a positive correlation with serum beta-2 microglobulin (r = 0.366; P = 0.04). Furthermore, patients with lower Durie-Salmon stage had significantly lower OPN and VEGF levels (P = 0.05; P = 0.04, resp.). Our preliminary results found positive association between plasma level of OPN, tumor burden, and bone destruction. Further analysis should provide information about the possible use of OPN as useful clinical biomarker for monitoring bone disease and tumor mass, as well as a prognostic factor, or a possible target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24995304

  18. Vasoactive neuroendocrine responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sather, T M

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that peripheral vasoconstriction and orthostatic tolerance are associated with increased circulating plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, vasopressin and renin-angiotensin. Sixteen men were categorized as having high (HT, n=9) or low (LT, n=7) tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) based on whether the endpoint of their pre-syncopal-limited LBNP (peak LBNP) exposure exceeded -60 mmHg. The two groups were matched for age, height, weight, leg volume, blood volume and maximal oxygen uptake, as well as baseline blood volume and plasma concentrations of vasoactive hormones. Peak LBNP induced similar reductions in mean arterial pressure in both groups. The reduction in leg arterial pulse volume (measured by impedance rheography), an index of peripheral vascular constriction, from baseline to peak LBNP was greater (P<0.05) in the HT group (-0.041 +/- 0.005 ml 100 ml-1) compared to the reduction in the LT group (-0. 025 +/- 0.003 ml 100 ml-1). Greater peak LBNP in the HT group was associated with higher (P<0.05) average elevations in plasma concentrations of vasopressin (pVP, Delta=+7.2 +/- 2.0 pg ml-1) and plasma renin-angiotensin (PRA, Delta=+2.9 +/- 1.3 ng Ang II ml-1 h-1) compared to average elevations of pVP (+2.2 +/- 1.0 pg ml-1) and PRA (+0.1 +/- 0.1 ng Ang II ml-1 h-1) in the LT group. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations were increased (P<0.05) from baseline to peak LBNP in both HT and LT groups, with no statistically distinguishable difference between groups. These data suggest that the renin-angiotensin and vasopressin systems may contribute to sustaining arterial pressure and orthostatic tolerance by their vasoconstrictive actions. PMID:10792410

  19. Vasoactive neuroendocrine responses associated with tolerance to lower body negative pressure in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Sather, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that peripheral vasoconstriction and orthostatic tolerance are associated with increased circulating plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, vasopressin and renin-angiotensin. Sixteen men were categorized as having high (HT, n=9) or low (LT, n=7) tolerance to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) based on whether the endpoint of their pre-syncopal-limited LBNP (peak LBNP) exposure exceeded -60 mmHg. The two groups were matched for age, height, weight, leg volume, blood volume and maximal oxygen uptake, as well as baseline blood volume and plasma concentrations of vasoactive hormones. Peak LBNP induced similar reductions in mean arterial pressure in both groups. The reduction in leg arterial pulse volume (measured by impedance rheography), an index of peripheral vascular constriction, from baseline to peak LBNP was greater (P<0.05) in the HT group (-0.041 +/- 0.005 ml 100 ml-1) compared to the reduction in the LT group (-0. 025 +/- 0.003 ml 100 ml-1). Greater peak LBNP in the HT group was associated with higher (P<0.05) average elevations in plasma concentrations of vasopressin (pVP, Delta=+7.2 +/- 2.0 pg ml-1) and plasma renin-angiotensin (PRA, Delta=+2.9 +/- 1.3 ng Ang II ml-1 h-1) compared to average elevations of pVP (+2.2 +/- 1.0 pg ml-1) and PRA (+0.1 +/- 0.1 ng Ang II ml-1 h-1) in the LT group. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations were increased (P<0.05) from baseline to peak LBNP in both HT and LT groups, with no statistically distinguishable difference between groups. These data suggest that the renin-angiotensin and vasopressin systems may contribute to sustaining arterial pressure and orthostatic tolerance by their vasoconstrictive actions.

  20. Endothelium-derived vasoactive mediators and renal glomerular function.

    PubMed

    Ballermann, B J; Marsden, P A

    1991-12-01

    Glomerular endothelial cells are located in extremely close proximity to glomerular mesangial cells, without intervening basement membrane. This close apposition of the two cell types suggest that interactions between the cells should readily occur. Given that endothelial cells are known to produce mediators which regulate the tone of underlying vascular smooth muscle cells, the hypothesis that glomerular endothelial cells can produce endothelium-derived relaxation factor and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 was examined. Pure cultures of glomerular endothelial cells were established in vitro. The cells expressed a number of characteristics that identified them as endothelial cells, namely Factor VIII related antigen, angiotensin I converting enzyme, and uptake of acetylated LDL. The glomerular endothelial cells responded to the calcium-mobilizing agonists bradykinin, ATP, thrombin and platelet activating factor with a significant rise in cytosolic calcium concentrations. Under basal conditions, the glomerular endothelial cells produced a mediator pharmacologically indistinguishable from EDRF, which raised cGMP levels in co-incubated mesangial cells approximately 4 to 5-fold. The calcium-mobilizing agonists further stimulated EDRF release by glomerular endothelial cells. Glomerular endothelial cells in culture were also found to express mRNA for endothelin-1, and to secrete this peptide into their supernatant. Furthermore, the calcium-mobilizing agonists markedly stimulated endothelin-1 release by activating endothelin-1 gene transcription. Glomerular mesangial cells respond to EDRF with a rise in cytosolic cGMP concentration and relaxation, and to endothelin-1 with a rise in cytosolic calcium concentration and contraction. It is therefore proposed that local release of EDRF and endothelin-1 by glomerular endothelial cells may participate in the regulation of glomerular hemodynamics through alterations in mesangial cell contractile tone. PMID:1794204

  1. Nanocomposite Ti/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films from reactive magnetron sputtering as growth support for osteoblast-like and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grinevich, Andrey; Bacakova, Lucie; Choukourov, Andrei; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Pihosh, Yuriy; Slavinska, Danka; Noskova, Lenka; Skuciova, Maria; Lisa, Vera; Biederman, Hynek

    2009-03-15

    Nanocomposite Ti/hydrocarbon plasma polymer (Ti/ppCH) films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering of titanium target in n-hexane, argon, or a mixture of these two gases. The resultant films were heterogeneous, with inorganic regions of nanometer scale distributed within a plasma polymer matrix. The titanium content was controlled by adjusting the argon/n-hexane ratio in the working gas. In the pure n-hexane atmosphere, the Ti concentration was found to be below 1 at %, whereas in pure argon it reached 20 at %, as measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis (RBS/ERDA). A high level of titanium oxidation is detected with TiO(2), substoichiometric titania, and titanium carbide, composing an inorganic phase of the composite films. In addition, high hydrogen content is detected in films rich with titanium. Ti-deficient and Ti-rich films proved equally good substrates for adhesion and growth of cultured human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells. In these cells, the population densities on days 1, 3, and 7 after seeding, spreading area on day 1, formation of talin-containing focal adhesion plaques as well as concentrations of talin and osteocalcin (per mg of protein) were comparable to the values obtained in cells on the reference cell culture materials, represented by microscopic glass coverslips or a polystyrene dish. An interesting finding was made when the Ti/ppCH films were seeded with calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells of the line CPAE. The cell population densities, the spreading area and also the concentration of von Willebrand factor, a marker of endothelial cell maturation, were significantly higher on Ti-rich than on Ti-deficient films. On Ti-rich films, these parameters were also higher or similar in comparison with the reference cell culture materials. Thus, both types of films could be used for coating bone implants, of which the Ti-rich film remains effective in enhancing the endothelialization of blood

  2. Changes in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor at 8 weeks after sorafenib administration as predictors of survival for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Shuya; Muraoka, Masaru; Nakata, Toru; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Yasui, Yutaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Hosokawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Takashi; Ueda, Ken; Kuzuya, Teiji; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Itakura, Jun; Takahashi, Yuka; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2014-01-01

    Background A new predictive biomarker for determining prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who receive sorafenib is required, because achieving a reduction in tumor size with sorafenib is rare, even in patients who have a favorable prognosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor is a sorafenib target. In the current study, the authors examined changes in plasma VEGF concentrations during sorafenib treatment and determined the clinical significance of VEGF as a prognostic indicator in patients with HCC. Methods Plasma VEGF concentrations were serially measured in 63 patients with advanced HCC before and during sorafenib treatment. A plasma VEGF concentration that decreased >5% from the pretreatment level at 8 weeks was defined as a “VEGF decrease.” An objective tumor response was determined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1 month after the initiation of therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Results Patients who had a VEGF decrease at week 8 (n = 14) had a longer median survival than those who did not have a VEGF decrease (n = 49; 30.9 months vs 14.4 months; P = .038). All patients who had a VEGF decrease survived for >6 months, and the patients who had both a VEGF decrease and an α-fetoprotein response (n = 6) survived during the observation period (median, 19.7 months; range, 6.5-31.0 months). In univariate analyses, a VEGF decrease, radiologic findings classified as progressive disease, and major vascular invasion were associated significantly with 1-year survival; and, in multivariate analysis, a VEGF decrease was identified as an independent factor associated significantly with survival. Conclusions A plasma VEGF concentration decrease at 8 weeks after starting sorafenib treatment may predict favorable overall survival in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:24122122

  3. Differential expression of vasoactive mediators in microparticle-challenged lungs of chickens that differ in susceptibility to pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hamal, Krishna R; Wideman, Robert F; Anthony, Nicholas B; Erf, Gisela F

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites) in fast growing meat-type chickens (broilers) is characterized by the onset of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) leading to right-sided congestive heart failure and terminal ascites. Intravenous microparticle (MP) injection is a tool used by poultry geneticists to screen for the broilers that are resistant (RES) or susceptible (SUS) to IPAH in a breeding population. MPs occlude pulmonary arterioles and initiate focal inflammation, causing local tissues and responding leukocytes to release vasoactive mediators such as serotonin (5-HT), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and nitric oxide (NO). RT-PCR was used to examine the differences between RES and SUS broilers in terms of gene expression of ET-1, ET receptor types A and B (ET(A) and ET(B)), the serotonin transporter (SERT), serotonin receptors (5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2B)), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) in the lungs of these broilers before (0 h) and after (2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) MP injection. In SUS broilers MP injection elicited higher (P < 0.05) pulmonary expression of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2B), and ET-1, which promote vasoconstriction and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). In RES broilers the MP injection elicited higher expression of eNOS, iNOS, and ET(B), which promote vasodilation and inhibit PASMC proliferation. These observations support the hypothesis that the resistance of broiler chickens to IPAH may be due to the higher expression of vasoactive mediators that favor enhanced vasodilation and attenuated vasoconstriction during MP injection challenges to the pulmonary vasculature. PMID:19907003

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  5. Endothelial Rac1 is essential for hematogenous metastasis to the lung.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongyi; Shi, Wei; Wu, Junsong; Xu, Chengyun; Wang, Jirong; Shao, Yanan; Wu, Ximei; Zhang, Zhongmiao

    2015-07-10

    A variety of vasoactive stimuli induce endothelial permeability through Rac1, a membrane of Rho small GTPases. Here, we determine whether tumor-secreted vasoactive stimulant through Rac1 inducing permeability contributes to hematogenous metastasis. Activation of Rac1 was assayed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), transendothelial passages were measured by Transwell chambers, and hematogenously metastatic mouse model was generated by intravenous injection with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC). LLC secreted abundant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture media and sera of mice bearing LLC xenografts or metastatic LLC, and VEGF activated Rac1 through VEGF receptors/PI3Kβ signaling cascade, resulting in hyperoxidative stress and consequent hyperpermeability in HUVEC. Moreover, in co-culture of LLC and HUVEC, significant increases in endothelial permeability and transendothelial migration of LLC were robustly attenuated by either anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody or Rac1 knockdown in HUVEC. Finally, in metastatic mouse model, deletion of one copy of Rac1 in endothelium not only significantly attenuated LLC-induced vascular permeability, but robustly reduced the metastasis of LLC to lungs. This study supports that tumor-secreted vasoactive stimuli activate Rac1 to induce permeability and consequent transendothelial migration of tumor cells, and that loss of Rac1 function in endothelium is an effective therapeutic intervention for hematogenous metastasis. PMID:25991673

  6. Endothelial Rac1 is essential for hematogenous metastasis to the lung

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junsong; Xu, Chengyun; Wang, Jirong; Shao, Yanan; Wu, Ximei; Zhang, Zhongmiao

    2015-01-01

    A variety of vasoactive stimuli induce endothelial permeability through Rac1, a membrane of Rho small GTPases. Here, we determine whether tumor-secreted vasoactive stimulant through Rac1 inducing permeability contributes to hematogenous metastasis. Activation of Rac1 was assayed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), transendothelial passages were measured by Transwell chambers, and hematogenously metastatic mouse model was generated by intravenous injection with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC). LLC secreted abundant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture media and sera of mice bearing LLC xenografts or metastatic LLC, and VEGF activated Rac1 through VEGF receptors/PI3Kβ signaling cascade, resulting in hyperoxidative stress and consequent hyperpermeability in HUVEC. Moreover, in co-culture of LLC and HUVEC, significant increases in endothelial permeability and transendothelial migration of LLC were robustly attenuated by either anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody or Rac1 knockdown in HUVEC. Finally, in metastatic mouse model, deletion of one copy of Rac1 in endothelium not only significantly attenuated LLC-induced vascular permeability, but robustly reduced the metastasis of LLC to lungs. This study supports that tumor-secreted vasoactive stimuli activate Rac1 to induce permeability and consequent transendothelial migration of tumor cells, and that loss of Rac1 function in endothelium is an effective therapeutic intervention for hematogenous metastasis. PMID:25991673

  7. The role of vasoactive agents in shock therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, P

    1976-05-01

    Vasoactive agents may have vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, cardiac stimulatory, or combined effects on the cardiovascular system. The intensity or degree of therapeutic effect differs with each agent. Table 1 provides a relative ranking of each discussed compound's effect regarding its ability to produce one or more of the listed effects. The effects of vasoconstrictor drugs such as methoxamine, phenylephrine, and norepinephrine have been generally unfavorable in shock because of the inhibition of tissue perfusion which results from their use. Debate still exists, however, and these agents have been shown to provide some benefit in selected cases. The rationale that shock results at least in part because of intense vasoconstriction has led to the usage of vasodilators in therapy. Currently isoproterenol, a beta adrenergic stimulating agent, is being used to elicit vasodilation in lieu of alpha blockage because the alpha blocking drugs phenoxybenzamine and chlorpromazine have longer, more irreversible effects. The merit of isoproterenol has to be evaluated in light light of its cardiac stimulatory effect. With the current antishock drugs, those which possess cardiac stimulatory effects seem to be most effective with the exception of those with alpha stimulatory properties. The importance of cardiac stimulation in treating shock is related to the fact that in many forms of shock a decrease in cardiac function is evident. Drugs which effect increases in cardiac performance will increase cardiac output and tissue perfusion. The increased excitability of the heart caused by many of the drugs is a drawback, but compounds such as dopamine seem to have less excitatory effect than does isoproterenol. It may be that vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and cardiac stimulation are all contributory to the alleviation of shock. However, it is important to remember that the use of vasoactive agents must be reserved for those deteriorating shock states in which primary and secondary

  8. Selective biological response of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells on cold-plasma-modified polyester vascular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Blanchemain, N; Aguilar, M R; Chai, F; Jimenez, M; Jean-Baptiste, E; El-Achari, A; Martel, B; Hildebrand, H F; Roman, J San

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the hemocompatibility and the selectivity according to cells of non-woven poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) membranes. Non-woven PET membranes were modified by a combined plasma-chemical process. The surface of these materials was pre-activated by cold-plasma treatment and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was grafted by the in situ free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA). The extent of this reaction and the number of carboxylic groups incorporated were evaluated by colorimetric titration using toluidine blue O. All samples were characterized by SEM, AFM and thermogravimetric analysis, and the mechanical properties of the PAA grafted sample were determined. A selective cell response was observed when human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) or human pulmonary micro vascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) were seeded on the modified surfaces. HPASMC proliferation decreased about 60%, while HPMEC proliferation was just reduced about 10%. PAA grafted samples did not present hemolytic activity and the platelet adhesion decreased about 28% on PAA grafted surfaces. PMID:22002636

  9. Association between endothelial nitric oxide gene intron 4a4b VNTR polymorphism and plasma homocysteine concentrations in Tunisian male patients with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jemaa, Riadh; Kallel, Amani; Sediri, Yousra; Abdessalem, Salem; Mourali, Mohamed Sami; Feki, Moncef; Mechmeche, Rachid; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, not all prospective studies support an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels and coronary artery disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role in various events during atherogenesis, and in vitro data suggest that NO may modulate total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, whereas polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide (NOS3) gene have been reported to be related to an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and hyperhomocysteinemia, but the results have been controversial. We hypothesized that the NOS3 synthase 4a4b VNTR polymorphism is a determinant of tHcy concentrations and tested this in 310 patients with MI and 250 controls. The NOS3 gene intron 4a4b VNTR polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. There was no significant difference in the homocysteine levels between patients with MI and controls. The frequencies of the NOS34b4b, 4b4a, and 4a4a genotypes in the MI group were significantly different from those in the control group. In patients with MI, plasma tHcy concentrations were significantly different among the NOS3 genotypes (13.5±4.5, 18.5±3.9, and 20.4±2.1 μmol/L for 4b4b, 4a4b, and 4a4a genotypes, respectively; P<.001). However, no significant difference was observed for tHcy concentrations in the control group. In conclusion, the NOS34a4b gene polymorphism (presence of 4a allele) is associated with MI and influences plasma tHcy concentrations in patients with MI in the Tunisian male population. PMID:22652373

  10. Adrenal cortical responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1987-01-01

    1. Right adrenal and various cardiovascular responses to an intra-aortic infusion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; 4 micrograms min-1 kg-1) have been investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous adrenocorticotrophin, (ACTH1-24; 5 ng min-1 kg-1, i.v.). The adrenal clamp technique was employed in conscious calves in which the pituitary stalk had been cauterized 3-4 days previously. 2. The i.v. infusion of ACTH1-24 increased mean plasma ACTH concentration by between 1000 and 1100 pg ml-1 and mean right cortisol output by about 700 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of VIP produced a further rise in mean adrenal cortisol output, together with a consequential rise in mean arterial plasma cortisol concentration, without affecting the concentration of ACTH in the arterial plasma significantly. In the absence of ACTH the same infusion of VIP had no detectable effect on adrenal cortisol output. 3. In each of the above respects this intra-aortic infusion of VIP closely mimicked the effect of stimulation of the peripheral end of the right splanchnic nerve in these animals, as it also did by causing a substantial fall in adrenal vascular resistance in the absence, but not in the presence, of ACTH. 4. It is concluded that release of this peptide from splanchnic nerve terminals in the adrenal gland most probably accounts, at least in part, for the powerful adrenocortical steroidogenic response to splanchnic nerve stimulation, that occurs in the presence of submaximal doses of ACTH. PMID:2832592

  11. Distribution of hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactive neurons in the male native Thai chicken.

    PubMed

    Kamkrathok, Boonyarit; Sartsoongnoen, Natagarn; Prakobsaeng, Nattiya; Rozenboim, Israel; Porter, Tom E; Chaiseha, Yupaporn

    2016-08-01

    Avian prolactin (PRL) secretion is under stimulatory control by the PRL-releasing factor (PRF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The neuroendocrine regulation of the avian reproductive system has been extensively studied in females. However, there are limited data in males. The aim of this study was to elucidate the VIPergic system and its relationship to PRL and testosterone (T) in the male native Thai chicken. The distributions of VIP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and fibers were determined by immunohistochemistry. Changes in VIP-ir neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) areas were compared across the reproductive stages. Plasma levels of PRL and T were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and then compared across the reproductive stages. The results revealed that the highest accumulations of VIP-ir neurons were concentrated only within the IH-IN, and VIP-ir neurons were not detected within other hypothalamic nuclei. Within the IH-IN, VIP-ir neurons were low in premature and aging males and markedly increased in mature males. Changes in VIP-ir neurons within the IH-IN were directly mirrored with changes in PRL and T levels across the reproductive stages. These results suggested that VIP neurons in the IH-IN play a regulatory role in year-round reproductive activity in males. The present study also provides additional evidence that VIP is the PRF in non-seasonal, continuously breeding equatorial species. PMID:27269881

  12. Active immunization against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide decreases neuronal recruitment and inhibits reproduction in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Vistoropsky, Yulia; Heiblum, Rachel; Smorodinsky, Nechama-Ina; Barnea, Anat

    2016-08-15

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in adult brains of many vertebrates, and the hypothesis is that these phenomena contribute to the brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. In mammals, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is known to have many neuroprotective properties, but in the avian brain, although widely distributed, its role in neuronal recruitment is not yet understood. In the present study we actively immunized adult zebra finches against VIP conjugated to KLH and compared neuronal recruitment in their brains, with brains of control birds, which were immunized against KLH. We looked at two forebrain regions: the nidopallium caudale (NC), which plays a role in vocal communication, and the hippocampus (HC), which is involved in the processing of spatial information. Our data demonstrate that active immunization against VIP reduces neuronal recruitment, inhibits reproduction, and induces molting, with no change in plasma prolactin levels. Thus, our observations suggest that VIP has a direct positive role in neuronal recruitment and reproduction in birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2516-2528, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26801210

  13. Insulin stimulates endothelin-1 secretion from human endothelial cells and modulates its circulating levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ferri, C; Pittoni, V; Piccoli, A; Laurenti, O; Cassone, M R; Bellini, C; Properzi, G; Valesini, G; De Mattia, G; Santucci, A

    1995-03-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive and mitogenic peptide produced by the vascular endothelium. In this study, we evaluated whether insulin stimulates ET-1 secretion by human endothelial cells derived from umbilical cord veins and by human permanent endothelial hybrid cells Ea.hy 926. Moreover, to provide evidence that insulin may stimulate ET-1 secretion in vivo, plasma ET-1 levels were evaluated in 7 type II diabetic normotensive males (mean age, 54.3 +/- 4.0 yr) during 2-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (287 pmol insulin/m2.min-1) as well as in 12 obese hypertensive males (mean age, 44.2 +/- 4.6 yr) before and after a 12-week period of caloric restriction. Our results showed that insulin stimulated ET-1 release from cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. ET-1 release persisted for 24 h and was also observed at physiological insulin concentrations (10(-9) mol/L). The insulin-induced ET-1 secretion was inhibited by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, suggesting that it requires de novo protein synthesis rather than ET-1 release from intracellular stores. In the in vivo experiments, plasma ET-1 levels rapidly increased during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (from 0.76 +/- 0.18 pg/mL at time zero to 1.65 +/- 0.21 pg/mL at 60 min; P < 0.05) and persisted elevated until the end of insulin infusion (1.37 +/- 0.37 pg/mL at 120 min; P < 0.05 vs. time zero). In obese hypertensives, plasma ET-1 levels significantly decreased after 12 weeks of caloric restriction (from 0.85 +/- 0.51 to 0.48 +/- 0.28 pg/mL; P < 0.04). The decrease in body weight induced by caloric restriction was accompanied by a significant reduction in fasting insulin levels (from 167.2 +/- 94.0 to 98.9 +/- 44.9 pmol/L; P < 0.05) which correlated with the reduction in plasma ET-1 levels (r = 0.78; P < 0.003). In conclusion, our data show that insulin stimulates both in vitro and in vivo ET-1 secretion. Such interaction

  14. Endothelial Lessons.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on nine important lessons learned during more than thirty years of endothelial research. They include: the danger of hiding behind a word, the confusion generated by abbreviations, the need to define the physiological role of the response studied, the local role of endothelium- dependent responses, the strength of pharmacological analyses, endothelial dysfunction as consequence and cause of disease, the importance of rigorous protocols, the primacy of in vivo studies and the importance of serendipity. PMID:26638800

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well. PMID:26264619

  16. Actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin on chief cells prepared from guinea pig stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Sutliff, V.E.; Raufman, J.P.; Jensen, R.T.; Gardner, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin increased cellular cAMP and pepsinogen secretion in dispersed chief cells from guinea pig gastric mucosa. With each peptide there was a close correlation between the dose-response curve for changes in cellular cAMP and that for changes in pepsinogen secretion. Vasoactive intestinal peptide- (10-28) and secretin- (5-27) had no agonist activity and antagonized the actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin on cellular cAMP and pepsinogen secretion. Studies of binding of SVI-vasoactive intestinal peptide and of SV-secretin indicated that gastric chief cells possess four classes of binding sites for vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin and that occupation of two of these classes of binding sites correlates with the abilities of vasoactive intestinal peptide and secretin to increase cellular cAMP and pepsinogen secretion. What function, in any, is mediated by occupation by the other two classes of binding sites remains to be determined.

  17. Isolation and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, U S

    1984-06-01

    Methods for isolation, identification and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells are now routine. In the past, methods of isolation have used proteolytic enzymes to detach cells; thereafter, traditional methods for cell passaging have used trypsin/EDTA mixtures. Cells isolated and passaged using proteolytic enzymes have been useful in establishing the field and in verifying certain endothelial properties. However, there is a growing awareness of the role of endothelial cells in processing vasoactive substances, in responding to hormones and other agonists and in cell-cell interactions with other cell types of the vascular wall, with blood cells and with cellular products. Consequently, a new requirement has arisen for cells in vitro that maintain the differentiated properties of their counterparts in vivo. The deleterious effects of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes commonly used in cell culture on surface structures of endothelial cells such as enzymes, receptors and junctional proteins, as well as on extracellular layers such as the glycocalyx or "endothelial fuzz," have led to the development of methods that avoid use of proteolytic enzymes at both the isolation step and during subsequent subculture. This chapter describes traditional methods for isolating pulmonary endothelial cells but emphasizes newer approaches using mechanical harvest and scale-up using microcarriers. The new methods allow maintenance of long-term, large-scale cultures of cells that retain the full complement of surface properties and that maintain the cobblestone monolayer morphology and differentiated functional properties. Methods for identification of isolated cells are therefore also considered as methods for validation of cultures during their in vitro lifespan. PMID:6090112

  18. Human Pulmonary Endothelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alice R.

    1980-01-01

    Endothelial cells were cultured from various different human vessels, including aortas, pulmonary, ovarian, and umbilical arteries, and pulmonary, ovarian, and umbilical veins. The cultured cells were identified as endothelial cells by the presence of Factor VIII antigen and antiotensin I converting enzyme (kininase II). They retained these markers for at least five passages in culture, and some cells had them for seven passages or more. Endothelial cells from the various vessels were compared with respect to their ability to metabolize angiotensins I and II and bradykinin. Cells from arteries had three to five times the angiotensin I converting enzyme activity as cells from veins. The activity of angiotensinase A (aspartyl aminopeptidase) had a similar distribution, and cells from arteries were consistently more active than cells from veins. Cultures of endothelial cells from pulmonary and umbilical vessels formed prostacyclin in response to mechanical stimulation. Media from cell monolayers that were subjected to a change of medium and gentle agitation inhibited aggregation of human platelets. This inhibitory activity was generated within 2-5 min, and it was not formed by cells that were treated with indomethacin or tranylcypromine. Addition of prostaglandin (PG)H2 to indomethacin-treated cells restored the ability to form the inhibitor, but cells treated with tranylcypromine were not responsive to PGH2. In experiments where [14C]arachidonic acid was added to the cells before stimulation, the major metabolite identified by thin-layer chromatography was 6-keto PGF1α. Thus, it appears that pulmonary endothelial cells, as well as umbilical cord cells, can form prostacyclin. In experiments comparing the ability of arterial and venous cells to form prostacyclin, arterial cells were more active than venous cells. These studies of cells from various human vessels suggest that the vascular origin of cultured endothelial cells determines how they metabolize vasoactive

  19. Targeting of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 to Low Density Plasma Membrane Domains in Human Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessio, Alessio; Kluger, Martin S.; Li, Jie H.; Al-Lamki, Rafia; Bradley, John R.; Pober, Jordan S.

    2010-01-01

    TNFR1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1) localizes to caveolae of human endothelial-derived EA.hy926 cells. Transduced TNFR1 molecules lacking amino acid residues 229–244 (spanning the transmembrane/intercellular boundary) are expressed on the cell surface equivalently to full-length TNFR1 molecules but incompletely localize to caveolae. A peptide containing this sequence pulls down CAV-1 (caveolin-1) and TNFR1 from cell lysates but fails to do so following disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. We previously reported that methyl-β-cyclodextrin eliminates caveolae and blocks tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced internalization of TNFR1 but not TNF-induced activation of NF-κB in EA.hy926 cells. Both CAV-1 and FLOT-2 (flotillin-2), organizing proteins of caveolae and lipid rafts, respectively, associate with caveolae in EA.hy926 cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CAV-1 but not FLOT-2 strikingly reduces caveolae number. Both knockdowns reduce total TNFR1 protein expression, but neither prevents TNFR1 localization to low density membrane domains, TNF-induced internalization of TNFR1, or NF-κB activation by TNF. Both CAV-1 and FLOT-2 knockdowns reduce TNF-mediated activation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). However, both knockdowns reduce expression of TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor-2) protein, and small interfering RNA targeting of TRAF2 also selectively inhibits SAPK activation. We conclude that TNFR1 contains a membrane-proximal sequence that targets the receptor to caveolae/lipid rafts. Neither TNFR1 targeting to nor internalization from these low density membrane domains depends upon CAV-1 or FLOT-2. Furthermore, both NF-κB and SAPK activation appear independent of both TNFR1 localization to low density membrane domains and to TNF-induced receptor internalization. PMID:20511226

  20. Angiogenic tube formation of bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on patterns formed by H2/He plasma treatment of the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane film.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisoo; Ha, Myunghoon; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Heonyong; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Jung, Donggeun

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process to generate new vessels, is necessary for normal development in children as well as the wound healing and the tumor growth in adults. Therefore, it is physiologically and/or pathophysiologically significant to monitor angiogenesis. However, classical in vitro methods to evaluate angiogenesis take a long time and are expensive. Here, the authors developed a novel method to analyze the angiogenesis in a simple and economical way, using patterned films. In this study, the authors fabricated a plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) thin film deposited by capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system with various plasma powers. The patterned PPHMDSO film was plasma treated by 10:90 H2/He mixture gas through a metal shadow mask. The films were characterized by water contact angle, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Our results show that the PPHMDSO film suppresses the cell adhesion, whereas surface modified PPHMDSO film enhances the cell adhesion and proliferation. From cell culture experiments, the authors found that the patterned film with 300 μm line interval was most efficient to evaluate the tube formation, a sapient angiogenic indicator. This patterned film will provide an effective and promising method for evaluating angiogenesis. PMID:25724221

  1. Intake of cooked tomato sauce preserves coronary endothelial function and improves apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J protein profile in high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Casaní, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; González, Alicia; Badimon, Lina

    2015-07-01

    Intake of tomatoes has been linked with healthy diets (eg, Mediterranean diet). However, it remains unknown whether tomato intake exerts protective effects on the vasculature. The aim of this study was to determine whether medium-term supplementation with cooked tomato sauce (CTS) Mediterranean style (sofrito) attenuates diet-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction in an animal model with clinical impact and explore the mechanisms behind the effects. Pigs (N = 18) were fed a 10-day hypercholesterolemic diet. Half of the animals were given a supplement of 100 g/d of CTS (21.5 mg lycopene per day). Coronary responses to escalating doses of vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine, calcium ionophore, and sodium nitroprusside) and L-NG-monomethylarginine (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] inhibitor) were measured using flow Doppler. In the coronary arteries, we investigated eNOS gene expression and activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression, and oxidative DNA damage. In the circulation, we investigated lipoprotein resistance to oxidation and the differential proteomic protein profile. In dyslipidemic animals, CTS intake prevented diet-induced impairment of receptor-operated and nonreceptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. These beneficial effects were associated with enhanced eNOS transcription and activation and diminished DNA damage in the coronary arteries. CTS-fed animals showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant potential and plasma lycopene levels of 0.16 mg/L. Interestingly, improved HDL functionality was associated with protein profile changes in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J. Lipids levels and MCP-1 expression were not affected by CTS. We report that CTS intake protects against low-density lipoprotein-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative damage, enhancing eNOS expression and activity, and improving HDL functionality. PMID:25514506

  2. Endothelial Cell Proteomic Response to Rickettsia conorii Infection Reveals Activation of the Janus Kinase (JAK)-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-Inferferon Stimulated Gene (ISG)15 Pathway and Reprogramming Plasma Membrane Integrin/Cadherin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingxin; Valbuena, Gustavo; Walker, David H; Gazi, Michal; Hidalgo, Marylin; DeSousa, Rita; Oteo, Jose Antonio; Goez, Yenny; Brasier, Allan R

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia conorii is the etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, a re-emerging infectious disease with significant mortality. This Gram-negative, obligately intracellular pathogen is transmitted via tick bites, resulting in disseminated vascular endothelial cell infection with vascular leakage. In the infected human, Rickettsia conorii infects endothelial cells, stimulating expression of cytokines and pro-coagulant factors. However, the integrated proteomic response of human endothelial cells to R. conorii infection is not known. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic profiling of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with established R conorii infection versus those stimulated with endotoxin (LPS) alone. We observed differential expression of 55 proteins in HUVEC whole cell lysates. Of these, we observed induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1, MX dynamin-like GTPase (MX1), and ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier, indicating activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway occurs in R. conorii-infected HUVECs. The down-regulated proteins included those involved in the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. A highly specific biotinylated cross-linking enrichment protocol was performed to identify dysregulation of 11 integral plasma membrane proteins that included up-regulated expression of a sodium/potassium transporter and down-regulation of α-actin 1. Analysis of Golgi and soluble Golgi fractions identified up-regulated proteins involved in platelet-endothelial adhesion, phospholipase activity, and IFN activity. Thirty four rickettsial proteins were identified with high confidence in the Golgi, plasma membrane, or secreted protein fractions. The host proteins associated with rickettsial infections indicate activation of interferon-STAT signaling pathways; the disruption of cellular adhesion and alteration of antigen presentation pathways in response to rickettsial infections are distinct from

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide entrains circadian rhythms in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Marpegan, Luciano; Krall, Thomas J; Herzog, Erik D

    2009-04-01

    Many mammalian cell types show daily rhythms in gene expression driven by a circadian pacemaker. For example, cultured astrocytes display circadian rhythms in Period1 and Period2 expression. It is not known, however, how or which intercellular factors synchronize and sustain rhythmicity in astrocytes. Because astrocytes are highly sensitive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuropeptide released by neurons and important for the coordination of daily cycling, the authors hypothesized that VIP entrains circadian rhythms in astrocytes. They used astrocyte cultures derived from knock-in mice containing a bioluminescent reporter of PERIOD2 (PER2) protein, to assess the effects of VIP on the rhythmic properties of astrocytes. VIP induced a dose-dependent increase in the peak-to-trough amplitude of the ensemble rhythms of PER2 expression with maximal effects near 100 nM VIP and threshold values between 0.1 and 1 nM. VIP also induced dose- and phase-dependent shifts in PER2 rhythms and daily VIP administration entrained bioluminescence rhythms of astrocytes to a predicted phase angle. This is the first demonstration that a neuropeptide can entrain glial cells to a phase predicted by a phase-response curve. The authors conclude that VIP potently entrains astrocytes in vitro and is a candidate for coordinating daily rhythms among glia in the brain. PMID:19346450

  4. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide entrains circadian rhythms in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marpegan, Luciano; Krall, Thomas J.; Herzog, Erik D.

    2009-01-01

    Many mammalian cell types show daily rhythms in gene expression driven by a circadian pacemaker. For example, cultured astrocytes display circadian rhythms in Period1 and Period2 expression. It is not known, however, how or which intercellular factors synchronize and sustain rhythmicity in astrocytes. Because astrocytes are highly sensitive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuropeptide released by neurons and important for the coordination of daily cycling, we hypothesized that VIP entrains circadian rhythms in astrocytes. We used astrocyte cultures derived from knock-in mice containing a bioluminescent reporter of PERIOD2 (PER2) protein, to assess the effects of VIP on the rhythmic properties of astrocytes. VIP induced a dose-dependent increase in the peak-to-trough amplitude of the ensemble rhythms of PER2 expression with maximal effects near 100nM VIP and threshold values between 0.1 and 1 nM. VIP also induced dose- and phase-dependent shifts in PER2 rhythms and daily VIP administration entrained bioluminescence rhythms of astrocytes to a predicted phase angle. This is the first demonstration that a neuropeptide can entrain glial cells to a phase predicted by a phase response curve. We conclude that VIP potently entrains astrocytes in vitro and is a candidate for coordinating daily rhythms among glia in the brain. PMID:19346450

  5. Pharmacodynamics and toxicity of vasoactive intestinal peptide for intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xu; Cao, De-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Ai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the nasal route for the delivery of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) to the brain and to evaluate the toxicity of VIP nasal spray. Mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with the aggregated Abeta25-35 to mimic Alzheimer's disease. Following administration, different groups of mice were treated over one week, and their spatial learning and memory capacities were evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The toxicity of VIP nasal spray was evaluated by examining the morphology of individual rat nasal mucosa cilia and the pathology of rat nasal mucosa. Rats receiving intranasal VIP (40 microg/ml) showed good spatial memory relative to the Abeta25-35 model group, but the escape latency did not show any statistically significant difference. Intranasal administration of VIP nasal spray (200 microg/ml) improved deficits in spatial memory to the point that test animals receiving intranasal VIP showed no statistically significant differences from the normal control group in escape latency. This indicated that the nasal spray method could increase the quantity of VIP entering the brain and protect the central nervous systems of mice. Toxicity evaluation showed that the preparation could cause minor irritation, which resolved spontaneously within a week at the end of treatment. In conclusion, VIP can be delivered successfully to the brain using the intranasal route. PMID:23444784

  6. How cholesterol regulates endothelial biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhongkui; Staiculescu, Marius C.; Hampel, Paul; Levitan, Irena; Forgacs, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    As endothelial cells form the barrier between blood flow and surrounding tissue, many of their functions depend on mechanical integrity, in particular those of the plasma membrane. As component and organizer of the plasma membrane, cholesterol is a regulator of cellular mechanical properties. Disruption of cholesterol balance leads to impairment of endothelial functions and eventually to disease. The mechanical properties of the membrane are strongly affected by the cytoskeleton. As Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key mediator between the membrane and cytoskeleton, it also affects cellular biomechanical properties. Typically, PIP2 is concentrated in cholesterol-rich microdomains, such as caveolae and lipid rafts, which are particularly abundant in the endothelial plasma membrane. We investigated the connection between cholesterol and PIP2 by extracting membrane tethers from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at different cholesterol levels and PIP2 conditions. Our results suggest that in BAEC the role of PIP2, as a mediator of membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion, is regulated by cholesterol. Our findings confirm the specific role of cholesterol in endothelial cells and may have implications for cholesterol-dependent vascular pathologies. PMID:23162471

  7. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-2, and soluble angiopoietin receptor tie-2 in diabetic retinopathy: effects of laser photocoagulation and angiotensin receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Lip, P L; Chatterjee, S; Caine, G J; Hope-Ross, M; Gibson, J; Blann, A D; Lip, G Y H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) may be a response to abnormal angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and the soluble angiopoietin receptor tie-2. The authors hypothesised the following: (a) there are differences in plasma levels of these growth factors in different grades of diabetic retinopathy; and (b) that the effects of intervention with panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for PDR, and angiotensin receptor blockade (using eprosartan) for patients with other grades of diabetic retinopathy will be to reduce levels of the growth factors. Methods: Cross sectional and interventional study (using PRP and eprosartan) in diabetic patients. VEGF, Ang-2, and tie-2 were measured by ELISA. Results: VEGF (p<0.001) and Ang-2 levels (p<0.001) were significantly higher in 93 diabetic patients compared to 20 healthy controls, with the highest levels in grade 2 and grade 3 diabetic retinopathy (p<0.05). Tie-2 was lower in diabetics compared to controls (p = 0.008), with no significant differences between the diabetic subgroups. Overall, VEGF significantly correlated with Ang-2 (p<0.001) and tie-2 (p = 0.004) but the correlation between Ang-2 and tie-2 levels was not significant (p = 0.065). Among diabetic patients only, VEGF levels were significantly correlated with Ang-2 (p<0.001) and tie-2 (p<0.001); the correlation between Ang-2 and tie-2 levels was also significant (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant effects of laser photocoagulation on plasma VEGF, Ang-2, and tie-2 in the 19 patients with PDR, or any effects of eprosartan in the 28 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Increased plasma levels of VEGF and Ang-2, as well as lower soluble tie-2, were found in diabetic patients. The highest VEGF and Ang-2 levels were seen among patients with pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy, but there was no relation of tie-2 to the

  8. The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in scavenging singlet oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, B.R.; Misra, H.P. )

    1990-02-26

    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a highly basic 28 amino acid peptide, has a widespread distribution in the body. The functional specificity of this peptide not only includes its potent vasodilatory activity, but also its role in protecting lungs against acute injury, in preventing T-lymphocyte proliferation and in modulating immune function. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible antioxidant properties of VIP. The authors found that VIP up to 50 {mu}g/ml had no inhibitory effect on its reduction of cytochrome C by xanthine and xanthine oxidase, indicating that the peptide does not have significant O{sub 2} scavenging ability. However, VIP was found to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the {sup 1}O{sub 2} dependent 2, 2, 6, 6 tetramethyl piperidine oxide (TEMPO) formation. {sup 1}O{sub 2} was produced by rose benzal photosensitizing system and was detected as TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct (TEMPO) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic technique. The formation of TEMPO signal was strongly inhibited by {beta}-carotene, histidine as well as azide, but not by superoxide dismutase (48 {mu}g/ml), catalase (20 {mu}g/ml) and mannitol (6mM), indicating that TEMPO signal was a TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct. These results indicate that VIP has potent antioxidant activity and may serve as a singlet O{sub 2} scavenger, thus it may modulate the oxidative tissue injury caused by this reactive oxygen species.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in rat liver after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, L G; Couvineau, A; Rodriguez-Pena, M S; Juarranz, M G; Rodriguez-Henche, N; Arilla, E; Laburthe, M; Prieto, J C

    1992-01-01

    We describe the status of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in regenerating liver. VIP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was markedly decreased in proliferating liver 3 days after partial (70%) hepatectomy. This was associated with a reduced efficacy of VIP (53% compared with controls), with no change in the potency of the peptide (ED50 0.8 nM). In contrast, forskolin- and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (Gpp[NH]p)-stimulated enzyme activities were not decreased after hepatectomy. The expression of Gs protein subunits (alpha and beta) was studied by cholera toxin-catalysed ADP ribosylation of alpha s and by immunoblotting of alpha s and beta subunits. Both subunits were increased in regenerating liver, further suggesting that the decreased response to VIP was not related to a decreased expression of Gs proteins. In fact, the reduced adenylate cyclase response to VIP in regenerating liver was associated with quantitative and structural changes in VIP receptors. Equilibrium binding data obtained with 125I-VIP indicated the presence of two classes of binding sites, the Kds of which were not altered after hepatectomy. In contrast, changes in binding capacity (Bmax.) were as follows: 0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 pmol/mg of protein for high-affinity sites in control and hepatectomized rats respectively; and 2.3 +/- 0.2 and 0.65 +/- 0.03 pmol/mg of protein for low-affinity sites in control and hepatectomized rats respectively. Moreover, affinity labelling experiments showed that the M(r) value of 125I-VIP-receptor complexes was higher in regenerating liver than in quiescent hepatocytes, e.g. 58,000 and 53,000 respectively. It is concluded that VIP receptors are altered in regenerating liver, resulting in a decreased response of adenylate cyclase to the neuropeptide. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:1322136

  10. Induction of endothelial cell proliferation and von Willebrand factor expression and secretion by leukemic plasma of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia before and after inhibition of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Minoo; Mohsen Razavi, Seyed; Hayat, Parisa

    2016-09-01

    Although certain evidence has indicated a role for angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of hematopoietic malignancies, its role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prognosis is yet to be defined. To our knowledge, the effects of CLL plasma on cell culture have not been addressed. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CLL plasma on cell cycle regulation and von Willebrand factor (vWF) secretion, and expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures (HUVECs). Since nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor has been a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer, we inhibited NF-κB using small interfering RNA to clarify if there is a role for this factor in probable effects. The cells were treated with the plasma of patients with CLL. Subsequently, cell cycle phase distribution, vWF secretion, expression, and storage were detected using ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining. In addition, NF-κB was inhibited using small interfering RNA. Plasma treatment promoted cell cycle progression by decreasing the cell number in G1 phase, while increasing the cell number in S phase and G2M phase. A significant increase of vWF expression, secretion, and storage was found, associated with the vWF levels of patients' plasma. We found that induction of cell cycle promotion, but not vWF expression and secretion, was partially suppressed by this inhibition. We found that endothelial cell cycle and vWF expression and secretion affected by CLL plasma and NF-κB play a role in the former. These findings would be useful for understanding the prognostic importance of plasma angiogenic factor levels in CLL. PMID:27472040

  11. Requirement of oestrogens for the sensitivity of prolactin cells to vasoactive intestinal peptide in rats and man.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, M; Rubessa, S; Simonazzi, E; Zanagnolo, V; Falsetti, L; Memo, M; Spano, P F

    1992-02-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a prolactin-releasing hormone which is involved in the multifactorial modulation of prolactin secretion in mammals. Intravenous injection of VIP (1 microgram/kg) to fertile women increased plasma prolactin levels and heart rate and reduced diastolic pressure. The same treatment to menopausal women caused similar cardiovascular effects but did not modify plasma prolactin levels. In contrast, TRH (200 micrograms, i.v.) induced a significant increase in plasma prolactin levels in both fertile and menopausal women. The relevance of oestrogens in affecting VIP-stimulated prolactin secretion was evaluated in vitro by measuring prolactin release from pituitary cells of control and ovariectomized rats. The sensitivity of rat mammotrophs to VIP, but not to TRH, was completely suppressed 3 or 4 weeks after ovariectomy. Furthermore, implantation of rats with a silastic capsule containing oestradiol-17 beta during ovariectomy, preserved the cell responsiveness to VIP. The prolactin-releasing property of VIP was also restored when pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats were cultured for 3 days in the presence of 10 nmol oestradiol-17 beta/l before being used for prolactin release experiments. The present study shows that the ability of prolactin-secreting cells to respond to the stimulatory action of VIP requires high levels of circulating oestrogens, both in man and rats. PMID:1541929

  12. The relationship between oxidised LDL, endothelial progenitor cells and coronary endothelial function in patients with CHD

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Jonathan; Kennedy, Simon; Ahmed, Nadeem; Hayhurst, James; McClure, John D; Berry, Colin; Wadsworth, Roger M; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2016-01-01

    Objective The balance between coronary endothelial dysfunction and repair is influenced by many protective and deleterious factors circulating in the blood. We studied the relationship between oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and coronary endothelial function in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods 33 patients with stable CHD were studied. Plasma oxLDL was measured using ELISA, coronary endothelial function was assessed using intracoronary acetylcholine infusion and EPCs were quantified using flow cytometry for CD34+/KDR+ cells. Results Plasma oxLDL correlated positively with the number of EPCs in the blood (r=0.46, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between the number of circulating EPCs and coronary endothelial function (r=0.42, p=0.04). There was no significant correlation between oxLDL and coronary endothelial function. Conclusions Plasma levels of oxLDL are associated with increased circulating EPCs in the blood of patients with CHD, which may reflect a host-repair response to endothelial injury. Patients with stable CHD had a high prevalence of coronary endothelial dysfunction, which was associated with lower numbers of circulating EPCs, suggesting a mechanistic link between endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26848395

  13. Responsiveness of human varicose saphenous veins to vasoactive agents

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Friedrich; Hoffmann, Christine; Schuller-Petrovic, Sanja

    2001-01-01

    Aims To test in vitro the constrictor and relaxation responsiveness of variously diseased segments of human saphenous vein from patients with varicose vein disease. Methods The vein segments were derived (i) from the inguinal saphenous vein (valvularly incompetent and slightly dilated; tissue A); (ii) from the distal end of the lower leg just above the medial ankle (competent; tissue B); (iii) from a tributary to the long saphenous vein just below the knee (dilated, incompetent and overtly varicose; tissue C). The contractile responses were tested with phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic receptor agonist) and aescin, a clinically used phlebotonic drug derived from horse chestnut extract. Relaxant responses were tested with acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Results Both contractile agents contracted vein segments from the inguinal and ankle area with similar potency and efficacy, but were virtually without effect in the overtly varicose segments from the calf. EC50 values (molar concentration of the agonist that produces 50% of the maximum effect) in tissues A and B were 2.9 ± 0.3 and 2.5 ± 0.5 µmol l−1 (phenylephrine) and 9.4 ± 1.0 and 15.9 ± 2.5 µmol l−1 (aescin); the corresponding maximum effects (maximum effect, percent of KCl-induced contraction) were 76 ± 3 and 70 ± 4% (phenylephrine) and 70 ± 2 and 71 ± 3% (aescin) (P = NS in both cases for A vs B). In tissue C, the maximum effects were 5 ± 5% (phenylephrine) and 10 ± 7% (aescin) of KCl-induced contraction (not significantly different from zero). Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was similar for vein segments from locations A and B, whereas sodium nitroprusside was more effective in tissue B than A. Conclusions These findings support the notion that abnormalities within the venous wall affect venous smooth muscle contractility. Since competent and incompetent clinically normal vessels show normal contractile responses, whereas varicose vessels are not responsive to vasoactive drugs, it is

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in brain: localization in and release from isolated nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Giachetti, A; Said, S I; Reynolds, R C; Koniges, F C

    1977-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was present in synaptosomal (nerve ending) preparations from cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and striatum of rat brain in higher concentrations than in these tissues as a whole. The total content and relative specific activity of the peptide increased with progressive purification of the synaptosomal fractions and generally followed the distribution of known synaptosomal constituents--dopamine, norepinephrine, and lactate dehydrogenase (L-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27). The peptide was also released from synaptosomal pellets with increased K+ concentration, and this release was Ca2+-dependent. The findings suggest a role for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a transmitter or modulator of synaptic function. Images PMID:269401

  15. [The computerized electroencephalogram in evaluating the action of vasoactive and eumetabolic drugs in chronic cerebrovascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Martucci, N; Bocola, V; Mearelli, S; Agnoli, A

    1980-01-01

    In this work the authors estimated the effect, on cortical bioelectric activity, of two groups of drugs commonly used in the so-called chronic vascular cerebropathies. Through the computerized analysis of EEG the authors estimated vasoactive drugs (papaverine hydrochloride and xanthinol-nicotinate) and eumetabolic drugs (cytidin, uridin, cytidin + 1-glutamine association) in two groups of subjects (healthy volunteers and patients suffering from stabilized conditions of acute cerebrovascular insufficiency). As to vasoactive drugs, a different action of papaverine hydrochloride as compared to xanthinol-nicotinate was pointed out. Eumetabolic drugs showed an action of electroencephalographic activation statistically significant only if administered associated between them and with glutamine. PMID:6110238

  16. Endothelial progenitor cells accelerate the resolution of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Dong; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) causes high morbidity and mortality. Successful resolution of DVT-related thrombi is the key point in the treatment of DVT. Recently, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) which are multipotent progenitor cells mainly residing in human bone marrow have emerged as a promising therapeutic choice for DVT-related thrombus resolution. In this review, we discussed the mobilization and homing property of EPCs into the sites of thrombosis, mechanisms of EPCs in DVT-related thrombus resolution from the aspects of promoting endothelial regeneration, revascularization, vasoactive and angiogenic factor secretion, proteinase generation, thrombus propagation and recurrence prevention, and vein wall remodeling. In addition, we also provide suggestions on EPCs as a therapeutic choice for thrombus resolution. PMID:26187355

  17. Vasoactivity and antioxidant properties of Microdesmis keayana roots.

    PubMed

    Zamblé, Alexis; Yao, Datté; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Sahpaz, Sevser; Offoumou, Michel; Bordet, Régis; Duriez, Patrick; Brunet, Claude; Bailleul, François

    2006-03-01

    Endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression increases in the corpora cavernosum, penile arteries and arterioles during erection. But eNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO), the product of its catalytic action, are inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially by superoxide anion. ROS are involved in the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and are responsible for some of the pathologies linked to erectile dysfunction (i.e. hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc.). While investigating Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard (Pandaceae) (syn. Microdesmis puberula Hook.f. ex. Planch.), used in African traditional medicine for erectile dysfunction, the hypotensive and the vasorelaxing properties of the aqueous extract of Microdesmis keayana (AEMK) were, respectively, tested using normotensive rabbits and aorta strips of guinea pigs in an organ bath experience. Interaction of AEMK in endothelial production of eNOS was measured by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis. The scavenging activities versus ROS, such as superoxide anion (O(2)(.-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydroxyl radical (HO.) were evaluated. Action of AEMK on cellular generation of superoxide anion was also tested in a physiopathology model of oxidative burst using human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. The results showed that Microdesmis keayana roots had significant hypotensive and vasorelaxing properties. These properties are due to both antioxidant activities and stimulation of eNOS mRNA expression. Therefore, AEMK stimulated indirectly NO production in the vascular bed. PMID:16289601

  18. Aspirate from human stented saphenous vein grafts induces epicardial coronary vasoconstriction and impairs perfusion and left ventricular function in rat bioassay hearts with pharmacologically induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Helmut R; Baars, Theodor; Kahlert, Philipp; Kleinbongard, Petra

    2016-08-01

    Stent implantation into aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVG) releases particulate debris and soluble vasoactive mediators, for example, serotonin. We now analyzed effects of the soluble mediators released into the coronary arterial blood during stent implantation on vasomotion of isolated rat epicardial coronary artery segments and on coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary blood was retrieved during percutaneous SVG intervention using a distal occlusion/aspiration protection device in nine symptomatic patients with stable angina pectoris and a flow-limiting SVG stenosis. The blood was separated into particulate debris and plasma. Responses to coronary plasma were determined in isolated rat epicardial coronary arteries and in isolated, constant pressure-perfused rat hearts (±nitric oxide synthase [NOS] inhibition and ±serotonin receptor blockade, respectively). Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation induced a stronger vasoconstriction of rat epicardial coronary arteries (52 ± 8% of maximal potassium chloride induced vasoconstriction [% KClmax = 100%]) than plasma taken before stent implantation (12 ± 8% of KClmax); NOS inhibition augmented this vasoconstrictor response (to 110 ± 15% and 24 ± 9% of KClmax). Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation reduced in isolated perfused rat hearts only under NOS inhibition coronary flow by 17 ± 3% and left ventricular developed pressure by 25 ± 4%. Blockade of serotonin receptors abrogated these effects. Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation induces vasoconstriction in isolated rat epicardial coronary arteries and reduces coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts with pharmacologically induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27482071

  19. Endothelial Lipase Concentrations Are Increased in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated with Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Badellino, Karen O; Wolfe, Megan L; Reilly, Muredach P; Rader, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL), a new member of the lipase family, has been shown to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism and atherosclerosis in mouse models. We hypothesized that EL concentrations would be associated with decreased HDL-C and increased atherosclerosis in humans. Methods and Findings Healthy individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (n = 858) were recruited as part of the Study of the Inherited Risk of Atherosclerosis. Blood was drawn in the fasting state before and, in a subgroup (n = 510), after administration of a single dose of intravenous heparin. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically, lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Plasma EL mass was measured using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median EL mass in pre-heparin plasma was 442 (interquartile range = 324–617) ng/ml. Median post-heparin mass was approximately 3-fold higher, 1,313 (888–1,927) ng/ml. The correlation between pre-heparin EL mass and post-heparin EL mass was 0.46 (p < 0.001). EL mass concentrations in both pre- and post-heparin plasma significantly correlated with all NCEP ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome factors: waist circumference (r = 0.28 and 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001 for each), blood pressure (r = 0.18 and 0.24, p < 0.001 for each), triglycerides (r = 0.22, p < 0.001; and 0.13, p = 0.004), HDL cholesterol (r = –0.11, p = 0.002; and –0.18, p < 0.001), and fasting glucose (r = 0.11 and 0.16, p = 0.001 for both). EL mass in both routine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, p = 0.01) and post-heparin (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003) plasma was associated with CAC as determined by ordinal regression after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, vasoactive medications, hormone replacement therapy (women), and established cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions We report, to our

  20. Platelet rich plasma enhances the immunohistochemical expression of platelet derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the synovium of the meniscectomized rat models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Almasry, Shaima M; Soliman, Hala M; El-Tarhouny, Shereen A; Algaidi, Sami A; Ragab, Ehab M

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out on a rat model of surgically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) to assess the histological and immunohistochemical changes in the synovial membrane and to evaluate the effects of intra-articular injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in such cases. Forty five male albino rats were divided into 3 equal groups; control, surgically-induced OA and surgically-induced OA followed by intra-articular injection of PRP. Knee joints were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with anti-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-A) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the area percentages of immunostaining were measured by digital image analysis. Serum levels of PDGF-A and VEGF were analyzed by ELISA. The osteoarthritis research society international (OARSI) score was significantly higher in OA (2433.8±254) than in control (230.4±37.8; p<0.001) and in PRP-treated tissues (759.7±45.8; p<0.001). The immunostained area percentages for PDGF-A was significantly higher in PRP-treated tissues (20.6±2.4) than in OA (11.06±1.3; p=0.007) and in control tissues (4.1±0.78; p<0.001). Likewise, the immunostained area percentage for VEGF was significantly higher in PRP-treated tissues (22.5±1.6) than in OA (14.9±1; p=0. 002) and in control tissues (6.5±0.7; p<0.001). ELISA analysis revealed a significant increase in serum levels of the PDGF-A and VEGF after intraarticular PRP injection when compared to the other groups (p<0.000). The present study concluded that intra-articular injection of PRP could produce optimizing effects in surgically induced OA in the form of; decreasing the OARSI score, improving the inflammatory events in synovium and modulating the PDGF-A and VEGF serum levels and synovial tissue immunoexpression. These effects could be reflected positively on the associated chondral defect. PMID:25466931

  1. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  2. [Regional vasoactive and metabolic therapy of patients with severe cranio-cerebral traumas].

    PubMed

    Lapshin, V N; Shakh, B N; Teplov, V M; Smirnov, D B

    2012-01-01

    In patients with severe cranio-cerebral traumas an investigation was performed of the efficiency of using vasoactive therapy in complex treatment directed to earlier recovery of the microcirculatory blood flow and aerobic metabolism in ischemic parts of the brain. PMID:22880433

  3. Effect of continuous regional vasoactive agent infusion on liver metastasis blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, M. J.; Carnochan, P.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    1997-01-01

    Regionally administered vasopressors might increase tumour chemotherapy uptake by differentially constricting normal and tumour blood vessels, leading to a selective increase in blood flow to the tumour. In this study, we compared the effects of the vasopressors angiotensin II, vasopressin and endothelin I and the vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by continuously measuring liver parenchymal and tumour blood flow during a 30-min regional vasoactive infusion in a rat HSN liver metastasis model. Vasopressin and angiotensin II produced a vasoconstriction that decreased despite continued infusion, while endothelin I infusion led to prolonged vasoconstriction with a more gradual onset. CGRP infusion resulted in increased vessel conductance but a reduction in blood flow due to systemic hypotension. The tumour to normal flow ratio (TNR) was transiently increased during infusion of all pressors, but only endothelin I produced sufficient change to result in a rise in average TNR throughout pressor infusion. Continuous liver and tumour blood flow measurement throughout vasoactive infusion demonstrated that the extent and the duration of blood flow change varied with the agents assessed. No vasoactive agent increased tumour blood flow, but endothelin I had the most suitable vasoactive properties for enhancing tumour uptake of continuously infused chemotherapy. PMID:9365170

  4. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide and inhibin on reproductive performance of young White Leghorn roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2011-10-01

    The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gonadal inhibin have long been considered putative regulators of reproduction in hens. However, their role in young roosters remains unclear. We studied the effect of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, and a combination of both hormones on reproduction in young White Leghorn roosters. At 13 wk of age, White Leghorn roosters (n = 60) were split into 4 groups (n = 15). One group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against both VIP and inhibin, and the fourth, untreated, served as a control. Active immunization against VIP enhanced reproductive parameters as manifested by increased semen quality, plasma steroid levels, and mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I, pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), and decreased mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic VIP, pituitary prolactin, and testicular LH receptor. In contrast, immunization against inhibin decreased reproductive parameters such as semen quality, plasma steroid levels, mRNA gene expression of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone and testicular inhibin. The combined treatment showed the greatest increase in semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I, pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone, pituitary LH, and testicular LH receptor. Moreover, it significantly reduced mRNA gene expression of hypothalamic VIP and pituitary prolactin and mildly reduced that of testicular inhibin. These results suggest that VIP plays a negative role, at a young age, in reproduction of roosters that is similar to that in hens and that inhibin is as important in reproductive function in young roosters as in mammals. PMID:21934016

  5. Genistein attenuates low temperature induced pulmonary hypertension in broiler chicks by modulating endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Mingyu; Wu, Zhenlong; Guo, Yuming

    2010-12-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by high pulmonary blood pressure, vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. In the present study, we investigated whether genistein would prevent the development of low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension in broilers. Hemodynamic parameters, vascular remodeling, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1 content in lung tissue were evaluated. The results demonstrated that genistein significantly reduced pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppressed pulmonary arterial vascular remodeling without affecting broilers' performance. The beneficial effects appeared to be mediated by restoring endothelial function especially endothelial nitric oxide and endothelin-1, two critical vasoactive molecules that associated with the development of hypertension. Genistein supplementation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:20854807

  6. Time-course gene expression data on the transcriptional effects of Aminaphtone on ECV304 endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Giulia; Bellocchi, Chiara; Todoerti, Katia; Saporiti, Federica; Piacentini, Luca; Scorza, Raffaella; Colombo, Gualtiero I

    2016-09-01

    We previously showed that Aminaphtone, a drug used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, modulates several vasoactive factors, such as endothelin-1 and adhesion molecules. Here, we provide data of time-course experiments about the effects of Aminaphtone on gene expression at the genome-wide level in human endothelial cells undergoing cytokine stimulation in vitro. ECV-304 endothelial cells were incubated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the presence or absence of Aminaphtone for 1, 3, and 6 h. Gene expression profiles were analyzed by microarray. This article contains complete data on the genes significantly modulated by the drug over time. The data are supplemental to our original research article reporting detailed analysis of the actions of Aminaphtone on IL-1β stimulated endothelial cells at the molecular level, "Gene expression profiling reveals novel protective effects of Aminaphtone on ECV304 endothelial cells" (Salazar et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27508230

  7. Isolation and amino acid sequences of opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and cholecystokinin octapeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J; Yu, J; Rattan, S; Yalow, R S

    1992-01-01

    Evolutionary history suggests that the marsupials entered South America from North America about 75 million years ago and subsequently dispersed into Australia before the separation between South America and Antarctica-Australia. A question of interest is whether marsupial peptides resemble the corresponding peptides of Old or New World mammals. Previous studies had shown that "little" gastrin of the North American marsupial, the opossum, is identical in length to that of the New World mammals, the guinea pig and chinchilla. In this report, we demonstrate that opossum cholecystokinin octapeptide, like that of the Australian marsupials, the Eastern quoll and the Tamar wallaby, is identical to the cholecystokinin octapeptide of Old World mammals and differs from that of the guinea pig and chinchilla. However, opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide differs from the usual Old World mammalian vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in five sites: [sequence; see text]. PMID:1542675

  8. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Human Small-Cell Lung Cancer Proliferation in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruno, Kaname; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

    1998-11-01

    Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive, rapidly growing and metastasizing, and highly fatal neoplasm. We report that vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits the proliferation of SCLC cells in culture and dramatically suppresses the growth of SCLC tumor-cell implants in athymic nude mice. In both cases, the inhibition was mediated apparently by a cAMP-dependent mechanism, because the inhibition was enhanced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in proportion to increases in intracellular cAMP levels, and the inhibition was abolished by selective inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. If confirmed in clinical trials, this antiproliferative action of vasoactive intestinal peptide may offer a new and promising means of suppressing SCLC in human subjects, without the toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide may participate in the vasodilation of the dog hepatic artery

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, G.; Kiss, J.Z.; Papp, M.; Vizi, E.S.

    1986-08-01

    The possible direct action of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on dog hepatic arterial wall or on the noradrenergic innervation of the artery was investigated in vitro. In addition, VIP-containing nerve fibers and terminals were located in the wall of the artery with immunochemical staining. Direct evidence showed that VIP did not affect the release of (TH)norepinephrine but reduced the response of the isolated hepatic artery to electrical field stimulation and exogenous norepinephrine. This suggest that the effect of VIP is postjunctional on the smooth muscle of the artery. VIP-containing nerve fibers and varicosities were observed in the adventitial and medial layer of the arterial wall. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that vasoactive intestinal peptide is a physiological mediator of vasodilation in the hepatic artery.

  10. Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, but not endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, reduces blood flow and aerobic energy turnover in the exercising human leg.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva

    2007-06-01

    Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 +/- 17 microg min(-1)), Indo + N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (double blockade) and Indo + L-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 +/- 0.10 l min(-1) and 25 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 4%, respectively) and triple (26 +/- 4 and 28 +/- 3%, respectively) blockade (P<0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O(2) delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P<0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O(2) extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O(2) extraction, leg was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P<0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma. PMID:17347273

  11. Interaction of vasoactive substances released by platelet-activating factor in the rat perfused heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, W. M.; Man, R. Y.

    1991-01-01

    1. The coronary vascular effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) have been intensively studied and it has been proposed that they are mediated by the release of vasoactive substances. In this study, a cascade perfusion model using two rat perfused hearts was developed to investigate the properties of PAF-released vasoactive substances and the interplay of these substances. The properties of the vasoactive substances after an injection of PAF (100 pmol) in the rat perfused heart were examined by collecting the effluent from the first heart for the perfusion of a second (recipient) heart. The presence of vasoconstrictor substances in the effluent was characterized by an increase in the perfusion pressure of the recipient heart. 2. Previous exposure of the recipient heart of PAF (100 pmol) abolished the response of the heart to subsequent administration of PAF, but did not affect the response of the recipient heart to the effluent. This suggested that the coronary vasoconstrictor response of the recipient heart was not due to the presence of PAF in the effluent but to other vasoactive substances. 3. Pretreatment of the recipient heart with the leukotriene receptor antagonist, L-649,923 (5 microM), partially reduced the vasoconstrictor effect of the effluent. Pretreatment of the first heart with indomethacin (2.8 microM) also partially reduced the vasoconstrictor effect of the effluent. The combination of indomethacin pretreatment of the first heart and L-649,923 pretreatment of the recipient heart completely abolished the vasoconstrictor effect of the effluent suggesting that both prostaglandins and leukotrienes are involved in the vasoconstrictor effect of the effluent. 4. Pretreatment of both hearts with L-649,923 or the first heart with the leukotriene synthesis inhibitor (MK-886, 10 microM) completely abolished the vasoconstrictor effect of the effluent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810604

  12. The endothelial glycocalyx: composition, functions, and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Reitsma, Sietze; Slaaf, Dick W.; Vink, Hans; van Zandvoort, Marc A. M. J.

    2007-01-01

    This review aims at presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the composition and functions of the endothelial glycocalyx. The endothelial glycocalyx is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins, covering the endothelium luminally. Both endothelium- and plasma-derived soluble molecules integrate into this mesh. Over the past decade, insight has been gained into the role of the glycocalyx in vascular physiology and pathology, including mechanotransduction, hemostasis, signaling, and blood cell–vessel wall interactions. The contribution of the glycocalyx to diabetes, ischemia/reperfusion, and atherosclerosis is also reviewed. Experimental data from the micro- and macrocirculation alludes at a vasculoprotective role for the glycocalyx. Assessing this possible role of the endothelial glycocalyx requires reliable visualization of this delicate layer, which is a great challenge. An overview is given of the various ways in which the endothelial glycocalyx has been visualized up to now, including first data from two-photon microscopic imaging. PMID:17256154

  13. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K. )

    1990-11-15

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling.

  14. Molecular determinants of endothelial transcytosis and their role in endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Predescu, Sanda A; Predescu, Dan N; Malik, Asrar B

    2007-10-01

    Caveolae transcytosis with its diverse mechanisms-fluid phase, adsorptive, and receptor-mediated-plays an important role in the continuous exchange of molecules across the endothelium. We will discuss key features of endothelial transcytosis and caveolae that have been studied recently and have increased our understanding of caveolae function in transcytosis at the molecular level. During transcytosis, caveolae "pinch off" from the plasma membrane to form discrete vesicular carriers that shuttle to the opposite front of endothelial cells, fuse with the plasma membrane, and discharge their cargo into the perivascular space. Endothelial transcytosis exhibits distinct properties, the most important being rapid and efficient coupling of endocytosis to exocytosis on opposite plasma membrane. We address herein the membrane fusion-fission reactions that underlie transcytosis. Caveolae move across the endothelial cells with their cargo predominantly in the fluid phase through an active process that bypasses the lysosomes. Endothelial transcytosis is a constitutive process of vesicular transport. Recent studies show that transcytosis can be upregulated in response to pathological stimuli. Transcytosis via caveolae is an important route for the regulation of endothelial barrier function and may participate in different vascular diseases. PMID:17644753

  15. The impact of microgravity and hypergravity on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Maier, Jeanette A M; Cialdai, Francesca; Monici, Monica; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The endothelial cells (ECs), which line the inner surface of vessels, play a fundamental role in maintaining vascular integrity and tissue homeostasis, since they regulate local blood flow and other physiological processes. ECs are highly sensitive to mechanical stress, including hypergravity and microgravity. Indeed, they undergo morphological and functional changes in response to alterations of gravity. In particular microgravity leads to changes in the production and expression of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules, which mainly result from changes in the remodelling of the cytoskeleton and the distribution of caveolae. These molecular modifications finely control cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis. This review summarizes the state of the art on how microgravity and hypergravity affect cultured ECs functions and discusses some controversial issues reported in the literature. PMID:25654101

  16. The Impact of Microgravity and Hypergravity on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Jeanette A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The endothelial cells (ECs), which line the inner surface of vessels, play a fundamental role in maintaining vascular integrity and tissue homeostasis, since they regulate local blood flow and other physiological processes. ECs are highly sensitive to mechanical stress, including hypergravity and microgravity. Indeed, they undergo morphological and functional changes in response to alterations of gravity. In particular microgravity leads to changes in the production and expression of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules, which mainly result from changes in the remodelling of the cytoskeleton and the distribution of caveolae. These molecular modifications finely control cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis. This review summarizes the state of the art on how microgravity and hypergravity affect cultured ECs functions and discusses some controversial issues reported in the literature. PMID:25654101

  17. Acute effects of ingestion of a novel whey-derived extract on vascular endothelial function in overweight, middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Kupchak, Brian R; Volk, Brittanie M; Mah, Eunice; Shkreta, Aida; Liptak, Cary; Ptolemy, Adam S; Kellogg, Mark S; Bruno, Richard S; Seip, Richard L; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-03-14

    Whey protein intake reduces CVD risk, but little is known whether whey-derived bioactive peptides regulate vascular endothelial function (VEF). We determined the impact of a whey-derived extract (NOP-47) on VEF in individuals with an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Men and women with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) (n 21, age 55 (sem 1·3) years, BMI 27·8 (sem 0·6) kg/m2, FMD 3·7 (sem 0·4) %) completed a randomised, cross-over study to examine whether ingestion of NOP-47 (5 g) improves postprandial VEF. Brachial artery FMD, plasma amino acids, insulin, and endothelium-derived vasodilators and vasoconstrictors were measured for 2 h after ingestion of NOP-47 or placebo. Acute NOP-47 ingestion increased FMD at 30 min (4·6 (sem 0·5) %) and 120 min (5·1 (sem 0·5) %) post-ingestion (P< 0·05, time × trial interaction), and FMD responses at 120 min were significantly greater in the NOP-47 trial compared with placebo (4·3 (sem 0·5) %). Plasma amino acids increased at 30 min following NOP-47 ingestion (P< 0·05). Serum insulin increased at 15, 30 and 60 min (P< 0·001) following NOP-47 ingestion. No changes were observed between the trials for plasma NO∙ and prostacyclin metabolites or endothelin-1. Ingestion of a rapidly absorbed extract derived from whey protein improved endothelium-dependent dilation in older adults by a mechanism independent of changes in circulating vasoactive compounds. Future investigation is warranted in individuals at an increased CVD risk to further elucidate potential health benefits and the underlying mechanisms of extracts derived from whey. PMID:22691263

  18. The phacoemulsification procedure. II. Corneal endothelial changes.

    PubMed

    Polack, F M; Sugar, A

    1976-06-01

    The effect of phacoemulsification, with the Cavitron-Kelman instrument, on the corneal endothelium of rabbit and cats was studied by scanning electron microscopy and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. The various steps of the procedure were examined separately. Irrigation of the anterior chamber of the eye with balanced salt solution (Plasma-Lyte) for ten minutes caused no cell damage. Ultrasound and irrigation alone for four to six minutes caused increased permeability to NBT. Edema of endothelial cells and cell junction disruption occurred after eight minutes of anterior chamber irrigation with Plasma-Lyte. Uncomplicated phacoemulsification produced moderate cellular edema with scattered loss of endothelial cells. Destruction of endothelial cells was frequent after phacoemulsification, it appeared to be due to lens nucleus manipulation in the anterior chamber, instrumentation, and needle contact. From two to five days postoperatively, intercellular edema, altered cell morphology, and mosaic pattern were seen. However, it gradually recovered and seven to ten days later the endothelium appeared normal. PMID:931690

  19. Interaction of recombinant octameric hemoglobin with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Caroline; Domingues-Hamdi, Élisa; Prin-Mathieu, Christine; Menu, Patrick; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) may generate oxidative stress, vasoconstriction and inflammation. To reduce these undesirable vasoactive properties, we increased hemoglobin (Hb) molecular size by genetic engineering with octameric Hb, recombinant (r) HbβG83C. We investigate the potential side effects of rHbβG83C on endothelial cells. The rHbβG83C has no impact on cell viability, and induces a huge repression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transcription, a marker of vasomotion. No induction of Intermolecular-Adhesion Molecule 1 and E-selectin (inflammatory markers) transcription was seen. In the presence of rHbβG83C, the transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (oxidative stress marker) is weakly increased compared to the two other HBOCs (references) or Voluven (control). This genetically engineered octameric Hb, based on a human Hb βG83C mutant, leads to little impact at the level of endothelial cell inflammatory response and thus appears as an interesting molecule for HBOC development. PMID:25543885

  20. Insulin attenuates intracellular calcium responses and cell contraction caused by vasoactive agents.

    PubMed

    Inishi, Y; Okuda, T; Arakawa, T; Kurokawa, K

    1994-05-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on cultured rat mesangial cell responses to vasoactive agents. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the Fura-2 method in suspended mesangial cells. Pretreatment of mesangial cells with insulin (from 0.05 to 5 micrograms/ml) attenuated Ca2+ transients by platelet activating factor (PAF) in a dose dependent and a time dependent manner. Insulin also attenuated sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i elicited by PAF. Basal [Ca2+]i was not affected by insulin pretreatment. Since the effective dose of insulin (0.5 microgram/ml or higher) is much higher than the physiological concentration, the effects of insulin may be via IGF-I receptor. Indeed, IGF-I (50 ng/ml) similarly attenuated [Ca2+]i responses to PAF. Moreover, insulin pretreatment attenuated [Ca2+]i responses evoked by angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1. In addition, the pretreatment with insulin or IGF-I inhibited mesangial cell contraction in response to Ang II. The suppression of [Ca2+]i responses to vasoactive agents by insulin was abolished when extracellular Ca2+ was removed. These data suggest that insulin, probably via IGF-I receptor, attenuates [Ca2+]i responses and cell contraction of mesangial cells induced by vasoactive agents. It is likely that the change in Ca2+ influx from outside to inside the cell underlie the effect of insulin. The modification of mesangial cell function through IGF-I receptor may play a role in the regulation of glomerular hemodynamics. PMID:8072243

  1. Deficient Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Innervation in the Sweat Glands of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz-Erian, Peter; Dey, Richard D.; Flux, Marinus; Said, Sami I.

    1985-09-01

    The innervation of acini and ducts of eccrine sweat glands by immunoreactive, vasoactive intestinal peptide--containing nerve fibers was sharply reduced in seven patients with cystic fibrosis compared to eight normal subjects. The decrease in innervation by this neuropeptide, which has been shown to promote blood flow and the movement of water and chloride across epithelial surfaces in other systems, may be a basic mechanism for the decreased water content and relative impermeability of the epithelium to chloride and other ions that characterize cystic fibrosis.

  2. [Need for rheologically active, vasoactive and metabolically active substances in the initial treatment of acute acoustic trauma].

    PubMed

    Pilgramm, M; Schumann, K

    1986-10-01

    Two rheologically active and 8 vasoactive and metabolically active substances were compared in eight independent studies, some of which were randomised and double blind, on 400 patients who had suffered acute acoustic trauma. The control group was given saline. Spontaneous recovery was excluded as far as possible. The following substances were tested: Dextran 40, hydroxyethyl starch 40/0.5, naftidrofurylhydrogenoxalate, Vinpocetin, betahistine, pentoxifylline, flunaricine, Regeneresen AU 4 and 0.9% saline. All groups showed superior results to the control group in both long-term and short-term tests with respect to hearing gain and tinnitis improvement. The rheologically effective substances showed no statistically significant variations. None of the vasoactive or metabolically active substances used as adjunctive therapy improved the results achieved with rheologically effective substances alone. These results demonstrate that acute acoustic trauma can be most effectively treated by rheologically active substances; vasoactive and metabolically active substances are unnecessary. Hyperbaric oxygenation is advantageous as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:2432041

  3. Robust linear parameter-varying control of blood pressure using vasoactive drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luspay, Tamas; Grigoriadis, Karolos

    2015-10-01

    Resuscitation of emergency care patients requires fast restoration of blood pressure to a target value to achieve hemodynamic stability and vital organ perfusion. A robust control design methodology is presented in this paper for regulating the blood pressure of hypotensive patients by means of the closed-loop administration of vasoactive drugs. To this end, a dynamic first-order delay model is utilised to describe the vasoactive drug response with varying parameters that represent intra-patient and inter-patient variability. The proposed framework consists of two components: first, an online model parameter estimation is carried out using a multiple-model extended Kalman-filter. Second, the estimated model parameters are used for continuously scheduling a robust linear parameter-varying (LPV) controller. The closed-loop behaviour is characterised by parameter-varying dynamic weights designed to regulate the mean arterial pressure to a target value. Experimental data of blood pressure response of anesthetised pigs to phenylephrine injection are used for validating the LPV blood pressure models. Simulation studies are provided to validate the online model estimation and the LPV blood pressure control using phenylephrine drug injection models representing patients showing sensitive, nominal and insensitive response to the drug.

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates protein phosphorylation in a colonic epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    The T/sub 84/ colonic epithelial cell line was used to examine protein phosphorylation during neurohumoral stimulation of ion transport. T/sub 84/ cell monolayers grown on collagen-coated filters were mounted in Ussing chambers to measure ion transport stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide. Maximal stimulation of active secretion occurred after 8-10 min of stimulation. Protein phosphorylation events accompanying stimulated secretion were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to resolve phosphoproteins from monolayers previously labeled using /sup 32/P/sub i/. Within 8 min of exposure to vasoactive intestinal peptide, several phosphorylation events were detected, including a two- to fivefold increase in /sup 32/P incorporation into four soluble proteins with apparent molecular weights of 17,000, 18,000, 23,000, and 37,000. The same phosphorylation response occurs in monolayers stimulated by dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), suggesting that cAMP mediates these intracellular events. This study indicates that changes in protein phosphorylation accompany the secretory action of vasocactive intestinal peptide and suggests that T/sub 84/ cells offer a useful model for studying the possibility that such phosphorylation events regulate enterocyte ion transport.

  5. The role of endothelial insulin signaling in the regulation of vascular tone and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Vicent, David; Ilany, Jacob; Kondo, Tatsuya; Naruse, Keiko; Fisher, Simon J.; Kisanuki, Yaz Y.; Bursell, Sven; Yanagisawa, Masashi; King, George L.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Insulin receptors (IRs) on vascular endothelial cells have been suggested to participate in insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis. To directly address the role of insulin action in endothelial function, we have generated a vascular endothelial cell IR knockout (VENIRKO) mouse using the Cre-loxP system. Cultured endothelium of VENIRKO mice exhibited complete rearrangement of the IR gene and a more than 95% decrease in IR mRNA. VENIRKO mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio, grew normally, were fertile, and exhibited normal patterns of vasculature in the retina and other tissues. Glucose homeostasis under basal condition was comparable in VENIRKO mice. Both eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA levels, however, were reduced by approximately 30–60% in endothelial cells, aorta, and heart, while vascular EGF expression was maintained at normal levels. Arterial pressure tended to be lower in VENIRKO mice on both low- and high-salt diets, and on a low-salt diet VENIRKO mice showed insulin resistance. Thus, inactivation of the IR on endothelial cell has no major consequences on vascular development or glucose homeostasis under basal conditions, but alters expression of vasoactive mediators and may play a role in maintaining vascular tone and regulation of insulin sensitivity to dietary salt intake. PMID:12727929

  6. Endothelial heterogeneity in the umbilico-placental unit: DNA methylation as an innuendo of epigenetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Casanello, Paola; Schneider, Daniela; Herrera, Emilio A.; Uauy, Ricardo; Krause, Bernardo J.

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium is a multifunctional heterogeneous tissue playing a key role in the physiology of every organ. To accomplish this role the endothelium presents a phenotypic diversity that is early prompted during vascular development, allowing it to cope with specific requirements in a time- and site-specific manner. During the last decade several reports show that endothelial diversity is also present in the umbilico-placental vasculature, with differences between macro- and microvascular vessels as well as arterial and venous endothelium. This diversity is evidenced in vitro as a higher angiogenic capacity in the microcirculation; or disparity in the levels of several molecules that control endothelial function (i.e., receptor for growth factors, vasoactive mediators, and adhesion molecules) which frequently are differentially expressed between arterial and venous endothelium. Emerging evidence suggests that endothelial diversity would be prominently driven by epigenetic mechanisms which also control the basal expression of endothelial-specific genes. This review outlines evidence for endothelial diversity since early stages of vascular development and how this heterogeneity is expressed in the umbilico-placental vasculature. Furthermore a brief picture of epigenetic mechanisms and their role on endothelial physiology emphasizing new data on umbilical and placental endothelial cells is presented. Unraveling the role of epigenetic mechanisms on long term endothelial physiology and its functional diversity would contribute to develop more accurate therapeutic interventions. Altogether these data show that micro- versus macro-vascular, or artery versus vein comparisons are an oversimplification of the complexity occurring in the endothelium at different levels, and the necessity for the future research to establish the precise source of cells which are under study. PMID:24723887

  7. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and inhibin on reproductive performance of aging White Leghorn roosters.

    PubMed

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing fertility in aging domestic roosters is a well-known phenomenon. Aging is manifested by a decrease in plasma testosterone level, testis function, and spermatogenesis, resulting in a low level of fertility. The roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and testicular inhibin in this aging process are not clear. The effects of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, or the combination of both hormones on the reproduction of aging White Leghorn (WL) roosters were assayed. In experiment 1a, 60 White Leghorn roosters (67 wk of age) were divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group). The first group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against VIP and inhibin, and the fourth served as a control. Active immunization against VIP decreased semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH receptor, VIP, and prolactin (Prl). Immunization against inhibin increased some of the semen quality parameters and FSH mRNA gene expression but decreased inhibin gene expression. In experiment 1b, at 94 wk of age, we took the actively immunized against VIP group and the control group and divided them into 2 subgroups (n = 7 or 8): the first group was injected with 1 mg of ovine Prl (oPrl) daily for 7 d, and the second group served as a control. Administration of oPrl to previously VIP-immunized birds significantly elevated semen quality parameters. We suggest that VIP, Prl, and inhibin have an important effect on the reproductive axis in aging roosters. Active immunization against VIP-depressed reproductive activity and Prl administration restored their reproduction, indicating that both VIP and Prl are essential for reproduction in aging roosters. Immunization against inhibin improved FSH mRNA gene expression, suggesting a negative role of inhibin on FSH secretion in aging roosters. Not all semen quality parameters

  8. Clostridium difficile suppresses colonic vasoactive intestinal peptide associated with altered motility.

    PubMed

    Nassif, A; Longo, W E; Sexe, R; Stratton, M; Standeven, J; Vernava, A M; Kaminski, D L

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether Clostridium difficile toxin alters colonic tissue levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) at the expense of changes in colonic motility in the isolated perfused rabbit left colon. Colonic inflammation was induced by the intracolonic administration of 10(-8) M C. difflcile toxin. Strain gauge transducers were sewn onto the serosal surface of the colon to evaluate colonic motility. C. difflcile administration produced histologic changes consistent with epithelial damage. This was associated with an increased production of prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxane B(2). Tissue levels of VIP but not substance P were significantly reduced. This was associated with an increased number of contractions per minute and an average force of each colonic contraction. These results suggest that tissue levels of VIP are suppressed by C. difflcile and may participate in colonic dysmotility during active inflammation. PMID:18475679

  9. The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on adrenal steroid hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers have been demonstrated in the rat adrenal cortex in close association with zona glomerulosa cells. We have studied the effects of VIP on steroid hormone secretion from the outer zones of the normal rat adrenal cortex. Intact capsule-glomerulosa preparations, consisting of the capsule, zona glomerulosa, and a small portion of the zona fasciculata were perifused in vitro. The secretory responsiveness was assessed by measuring aldosterone and corticosterone release following stimulation with the physiological secretagogues ACTH and angiotensin II. The distribution of adrenal VIP receptors was assessed by in vitro autoradiography of {sup 125}I-VIP binding. {sup 125}I-VIP (0.75 and 2.0 nM) binding was concentrated in the capsule and zone glomerulosa, coincident with the distribution of VIP nerve fibers which aborize extensively in this region. The specificity of this binding was demonstrated using unlabelled VIP, ACTH and angiotensin II.

  10. Near infrared transillumination imaging of breast cancer with vasoactive inhalation contrast

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sanhita S.; Kim, Hanyoup; Comstock, Christopher; Faris, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of vasoactive gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can provide strong changes in tissue hemodynamics. In this report, we present a preliminary clinical study aimed at assessing the feasibility of inhalation-based contrast with near infrared continuous wave transillumination for breast imaging. We describe a method for fitting the transient absorbance that provides the wavelength dependence of the optical pathlength as parametrized by tissue oxygenation and scatter power as well as the differential changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. We also present a principal component analysis data reduction technique to assess the dynamic response from the tissue that uses coercion to provide single temporal eigenvalues associated with both oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin changes. PMID:21258467

  11. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  12. ACE2 and vasoactive peptides: novel players in cardiovascular/renal remodeling and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Torres, Evelyn; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Mondaca-Ruff, David; Azocar, Andrés; Castro, Pablo F; Jalil, Jorge E; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Ocaranza, María Paz

    2015-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key component of cardiovascular physiology and homeostasis due to its influence on the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling. Deregulation of this system contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Numerous studies have generated new perspectives about a noncanonical and protective RAS pathway that counteracts the proliferative and hypertensive effects of the classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin (Ang) II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis. The key components of this pathway are ACE2 and its products, Ang-(1-7) and Ang-(1-9). These two vasoactive peptides act through the Mas receptor (MasR) and AT2R, respectively. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes have opposite effects to those of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis, such as decreased proliferation and cardiovascular remodeling, increased production of nitric oxide and vasodilation. A novel peptide from the noncanonical pathway, alamandine, was recently identified in rats, mice and humans. This heptapeptide is generated by catalytic action of ACE2 on Ang A or through a decarboxylation reaction on Ang-(1-7). Alamandine produces the same effects as Ang-(1-7), such as vasodilation and prevention of fibrosis, by interacting with Mas-related GPCR, member D (MrgD). In this article, we review the key roles of ACE2 and the vasoactive peptides Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-9) and alamandine as counter-regulators of the ACE-Ang II axis as well as the biological properties that allow them to regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular and renal remodeling. PMID:26275770

  13. Postulated Vasoactive Neuropeptide Autoimmunity in Fatigue-Related Conditions: A Brief Review and Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and gulf war syndrome (GWS) are characterised by prolonged fatigue and a range of debilitating symptoms of pain, intellectual and emotional impairment, chemical sensitivities and immunological dysfunction. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) surprisingly may have certain features in common with these conditions. Post-infection sequelae may be possible contributing factors although ongoing infection is unproven. Immunological aberration may prove to be associated with certain vasoactive neuropeptides (VN) in the context of molecular mimicry, inappropriate immunological memory and autoimmunity. Adenylate cyclase-activating VNs including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) act as hormones, neurotransmitters, neuroregulators, immune modulators and neurotrophic substances. They and their receptors are potentially immunogenic. VNs are widely distributed in the body particularly in the central and peripheral nervous systems and have been identified in the gut, adrenal gland, blood cells, reproductive system, lung, heart and other tissues. They have a vital role in maintaining cardio-respiratory function, thermoregulation, memory, concentration and executive functions such as emotional responses including social cues and appropriate behaviour. They are co-transmitters for a number of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and gaseous transmitters, are potent immune regulators with primarily anti-inflammatory activity, and have a significant role in protection of the nervous system against toxic assault as well as being important in the maintenance of homeostasis. This paper describes a biologically plausible mechanism for the development of certain fatigue-related syndromes based on loss of immunological tolerance to these VNs or their receptors following infection, other events or de novo resulting in significant

  14. Vasoactive properties of CORM-3, a novel water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Roberta; Hammad, Jehad; Clark, James E; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Friebe, Andreas; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    1 Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory characteristics. We have recently discovered that certain transition metal carbonyls are capable of releasing CO in biological fluids and modulate physiological functions via the delivery of CO. Because the initial compounds identified were not water soluble, we have synthesized new CO-releasing molecules that are chemically modified to allow solubility in water. The aim of this study was to assess the vasoactive properties of tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) in vitro and in vivo. 2 CORM-3 produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine, exerting significant vasodilatation starting at concentrations of 25-50 microm. Inactive CORM-3, which does not release CO, did not affect vascular tone. 3 Blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (glibenclamide) or guanylate cyclase activity (ODQ) considerably reduced CORM-3-dependent relaxation, confirming that potassium channels activation and cGMP partly mediate the vasoactive properties of CO. In fact, increased levels of cGMP were detected in aortas following CORM-3 stimulation. 4 The in vitro and in vivo vasorelaxant activities of CORM-3 were further enhanced in the presence of YC-1, a benzylindazole derivative which is known to sensitize guanylate cyclase to activation by CO. Interestingly, inhibiting nitric oxide production or removing the endothelium significantly decreased vasodilatation by CORM-3, suggesting that factors produced by the endothelium influence CORM-3 vascular activities. 5 These results, together with our previous findings on the cardioprotective functions of CORM-3, indicate that this molecule is an excellent prototype of water-soluble CO carriers for studying the pharmacological and biological features of CO. PMID:15148243

  15. Vasoactive properties of CORM-3, a novel water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Roberta; Hammad, Jehad; Clark, James E; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Friebe, Andreas; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory characteristics. We have recently discovered that certain transition metal carbonyls are capable of releasing CO in biological fluids and modulate physiological functions via the delivery of CO. Because the initial compounds identified were not water soluble, we have synthesized new CO-releasing molecules that are chemically modified to allow solubility in water. The aim of this study was to assess the vasoactive properties of tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) in vitro and in vivo. CORM-3 produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine, exerting significant vasodilatation starting at concentrations of 25–50 μM. Inactive CORM-3, which does not release CO, did not affect vascular tone. Blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (glibenclamide) or guanylate cyclase activity (ODQ) considerably reduced CORM-3-dependent relaxation, confirming that potassium channels activation and cGMP partly mediate the vasoactive properties of CO. In fact, increased levels of cGMP were detected in aortas following CORM-3 stimulation. The in vitro and in vivo vasorelaxant activities of CORM-3 were further enhanced in the presence of YC-1, a benzylindazole derivative which is known to sensitize guanylate cyclase to activation by CO. Interestingly, inhibiting nitric oxide production or removing the endothelium significantly decreased vasodilatation by CORM-3, suggesting that factors produced by the endothelium influence CORM-3 vascular activities. These results, together with our previous findings on the cardioprotective functions of CORM-3, indicate that this molecule is an excellent prototype of water-soluble CO carriers for studying the pharmacological and biological features of CO. PMID:15148243

  16. Insulin nonattenuation of vasoactive agent-induced responses in mesangial cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Inishi, Y; Okuda, T; Arakawa, T; Yasuda, C; Ohara, M; Kurokawa, K

    1995-03-01

    We recently found that insulin attenuates intracellular calcium transients and cell contraction caused by vasoactive agents in cultured rat mesangial cells. Because altered glomerular function may be causally related to the evolution of hypertension, we examined in the present study the effects of insulin on the functions of mesangial cells derived from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of 4- and 8-weeks of age. Age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as controls. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with Fura-2 method in suspended mesangial cells. Pretreatment of mesangial cells with 5 micrograms/ml insulin for 120 minutes did not affect basal [Ca2+]i in either WKY or SHR mesangial cells. However, insulin pretreatment significantly attenuated [Ca2+]i transients to vasoactive agents in WKY mesangial cells. In contrast, [Ca2+]i transients to these agents were not attenuated by insulin in SHR mesangial cells. Additionally, SHR mesangial cell contraction in response to angiotensin II (Ang II) was not altered by insulin, while WKY mesangial cell contraction to Ang II was, as in normal Wistar rats, significantly reduced by insulin. Since we previously showed the possibility that the attenuation of calcium signal by insulin is via insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor, we also examined the effect of IGF-I. In contrast to WKY mesangial cells, IGF-I-induced attenuation of [Ca2+]i responses to platelet activating factor was absent in SHR mesangial cells. [125I]-IGF-I binding in SHR mesangial cells was not significantly different from that in WKY mesangial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7752589

  17. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R.; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells. PMID:26977592

  18. Endothelial cell transfusion ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Pacurari, Maricica; Xing, Dongqi; Hilgers, Rob H. P.; Guo, Yuan Yuan; Yang, Zhengqin

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is prevalent in chronic kidney disease. This study tested the hypothesis that transfusion of rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham surgery or 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Five weeks after Nx, EC (1.5 × 106 cells/rat) or vehicle were transfused intravenously. One week later, vascular reactivity of mesenteric artery was assessed on a wire myograph. Sensitivity of endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and maximum vasodilation were impaired by Nx and improved by EC transfusion. Using selective pharmacological nitric oxide synthase isoform inhibitors, we demonstrated that the negative effect of Nx on endothelial function and rescue by EC transfusion are, at least in part, endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine was increased by Nx and decreased by EC transfusion, whereas mRNA expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases 1 (DDAH1) was decreased by Nx and restored by EC transfusion. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that local expression of DDAH1 is decreased by Nx and increased by EC transfusion. In conclusion, EC transfusion attenuates Nx-induced endothelium-dependent vascular dysfunction by regulating DDAH1 expression and enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. These results suggest that EC-based therapy could provide a novel therapeutic strategy to improve vascular function in chronic kidney disease. PMID:23955716

  19. Impact of type 2 diabetes on the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors type 1 and type 2 in patients with peripheral arterial disease*

    PubMed Central

    Wieczór, Radosław; Gadomska, Grażyna; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Budzyński, Jacek; Fabisiak, Jacek; Suppan, Karol; Pulkowski, Grzegorz; Rość, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes coexistent with lower extremity artery disease (peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) can be observed in numerous patients. The mechanism compensating for ischemia and contributing to healing is angiogenesis—the process of forming new blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to assess the likely impact of type 2 diabetes on the plasma levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)) and angiogenesis inhibitors (soluble VEGF receptors type 1 and type 2 (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2)) in patients with PAD. Methods: Among 46 patients with PAD under pharmacological therapy (non-invasive), we identified, based on medical history, a subgroup with coexistent type 2 diabetes (PAD-DM2+, n=15) and without diabetes (PAD-DM2−, n=31). The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. Plasma levels of VEGF-A, sVEGFR-1, and sVEGFR-2 were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: The subgroups of PAD-DM2+ and PAD-DM2− revealed significantly higher concentrations of VEGF-A (P=0.000 007 and P=0.000 000 1, respectively) and significantly lower sVEGFR-2 levels (P=0.02 and P=0.000 01, respectively), when compared with the control group. Patients with PAD and coexistent diabetes tended to have a lower level of VEGF-A and higher levels of sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 comparable with non-diabetic patients. Conclusions: The coexistence of type 2 diabetes and PAD is demonstrated by a tendency to a lower plasma level of proangiogenic factor (VEGF-A) and higher levels of angiogenesis inhibitors (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2) at the same time. Regardless of the coexistence of type 2 diabetes, hypoxia appears to be a crucial factor stimulating the processes of angiogenesis in PAD patients comparable with healthy individuals, whereas hyperglycemia may have a negative impact on angiogenesis in lower limbs. PMID:26537213

  20. Cytokine release and endothelial dysfunction: a perfect storm in orbivirus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Although bluetongue viruses (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) are closely related, there are differences in susceptibility to these viruses both between and within a species. White‑tailed deer are susceptible to disease by both BTV and EHDV, sheep are susceptible to BTV, but resistant to EHDV, and cattle can be infected with both viruses but disease is usually subclinical. Host genetics probably play a role in the disease outcome, but cytokine and endothelial responses are likely to determine if subclinical or clinical disease develops. Dendritic macrophages deliver virus to lymph nodes following the bite of an infected Culicoides. The virus then disseminates to many organs replicating in mononuclear phagocytes and endothelium. Initially, an interferon‑1 response probably determines if the disease develops. Replication in mononuclear cells and endothelium results in the release of cytokines and vasoactive mediators, and may result in endothelial cell death leading to the clinical features of fever, hyperaemia, exudation of fluid, and haemorrhage. Disease outcome may also be linked to virus binding Toll‑like receptor‑3 and upregulation of endothelial surface receptors potentiating cytokine release and allowing transmigration of inflammatory cells, respectively. Despite a wealth of information, host genetics involved in resistance to BTV and EHDV and how variations in cytokines and endothelial responses determine clinical outcome still need further elucidation. PMID:26741244

  1. High-Yield Method for Isolation and Culture of Endothelial Cells from Rat Coronary Blood Vessels Suitable for Analysis of Intracellular Calcium and Nitric Oxide Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nistri, Silvia; Mazzetti, Luca; Failli, Paola

    2002-01-01

    We describe here a method for isolating endothelial cells from rat heart blood vessels by means of coronary microperfusion with collagenase. This methods makes it possible to obtain high amounts of endothelial cells in culture which retain the functional properties of their in vivo counterparts, including the ability to uptake fluorescently-labeled acetylated low-density lipoproteins and to respond to vasoactive agents by modulating intracellular calcium and by upregulating intrinsic nitric oxide generation. The main advantages of our technique are: (i) good reproducibility, (ii) accurate sterility that can be maintained throughout the isolation procedure and (iii) high yield of pure endothelial cells, mainly due to microperfusion and temperature-controlled incubation with collagenase which allow an optimal distribution of this enzyme within the coronary vascular bed. PMID:12734571

  2. Endothelin and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Tomoh; Sawamura, Tatsuya

    2006-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) produced in endothelial cells are leading molecules which regulate vascular function. Failure of the physiological balance between these two molecules is usually referred to as endothelial dysfunction. ET was initially identified as a potent vasoconstrictive peptide. Three ET isoforms and two ET receptors have been identified. One of the isoforms, ET-1, plays a significant role in many cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to induce endothelial dysfunction. The endothelial receptor for oxLDL was cloned, and named lectin-like oxidized receptor-1 (LOX-1). Activation of LOX-1 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), and acivates a transcriptional factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), resulting in down-regulation of NO and up-regulation of ET-1. LOX-1 might be a key molecule in the generation of endothelial dysfunction. In endothelial dysfunction, ET-1 is an aggravating factor of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25792766

  3. Fibrinogen induces endothelial cell permeability

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Neetu; Roberts, Andrew M.; Dean, William L.; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2010-01-01

    Many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders are accompanied by an increased blood content of fibrinogen (Fg), a high molecular weight plasma adhesion protein. Fg is a biomarker of inflammation and its degradation products have been associated with microvascular leakage. We tested the hypothesis that at pathologically high levels, Fg increases endothelial cell (EC) permeability through extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and by inducing F-actin formation. In cultured ECs, Fg binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and to α5β1 integrin, caused phosphorylation of ERK. Subsequently, F-actin formation increased and coincided with formation of gaps between ECs, which corresponded with increased permeability of ECs to albumin. Our data suggest that formation of F-actin and gaps may be the mechanism for increased albumin leakage through the EC monolayer. The present study indicates that elevated un-degraded Fg may be a factor causing microvascular permeability that typically accompanies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. PMID:17849175

  4. Human dermal mast cells contain and release tumor necrosis factor alpha, which induces endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L J; Trinchieri, G; Waldorf, H A; Whitaker, D; Murphy, G F

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-alpha within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-alpha protein and TNF-alpha mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-alpha. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion. Images PMID:1709737

  5. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    PubMed Central

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  6. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  7. Endothelial Function in the Time of the Giants: Paul M. Vanhoutte Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Heistad, Donald D.

    2010-01-01

    Paul Vanhoutte is one of the fathers of vascular biology. Among his great contributions, he demonstrated that endothelium modulates vasomotor response to vasoactive products (including serotonin) that are released when platelets aggregate in an artery. He found in arteries ex vivo that when endothelium is dysfunctional, in atherosclerosis or hypertension, normal relaxation to aggregation of platelets is impaired, and vessels may contract. He proposed that this mechanism may predispose to vasospasm. Our experiments in vivo indicated that atherosclerosis greatly potentiates vasoconstrictor responses to serotonin in the limb, brain, and eye of monkeys. We proposed that transient ischemic attacks may be mediated by platelet-induced vasospasm. We observed endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerotic monkeys, with improvement of endothelial function when hypercholesterolemia was corrected. Recently, we have studied the aortic valve (which has unique endothelium) in hypercholesterolemic mice, to examine the pathophysiology of aortic valvular stenosis. Oxidative stress is increased in stenotic valves, and severe aortic stenosis develops in about one-third of old, hypercholesterolemic mice. In stenotic aortic valves from humans, there is increased oxidative stress near calcified regions of the valves. Oxidative stress may trigger expression of pro-calcific genes in the aortic valve. Finally, we have used gene transfer of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) to study endothelial effects of oxidative stress. Gene transfer of normal ecSOD improves endothelial dysfunction in several disease states, but gene transfer of ecSODR213G, a gene variant of ecSOD that is common in humans, fails to improve endothelial function. Gene transfer approaches may be useful to study mechanisms by which gene variants predispose to endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. PMID:19033817

  8. Multi-organ functional imaging with /sup 201/TI: a new noninvasive method for rapid assessment of vasoactive drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Gachon, P.; Moins, N.; Maublant, J.

    1982-11-01

    A new method for rapid and noninvasive assessment of vasoactive drugs is described, using scintigraphic imaging with /sup 201/TI in anesthetized dogs. The scintigraphic images were processed to evaluate the effects of the vasoactive agents studied upon the biodistribution of /sup 201/TI in the whole body of dogs. The calculation of the functional parameter was based upon the comparison of the cell by cell increase of the tracor uptake following two different injections: the first in the basal state, the second after treatment with a vasoactive drug. Six drugs were tested and their effects evaluated in heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, and skeletal muscles. The most marked effects on myocardium were observed with dipyridamole and the ionophore grisorixin, two coronary vasodilators, which induced a strong increase in the /sup 201/TI myocardial uptake (168.9 +/- 31.6% and 194.9 +/- 34.2% respectively). The results obtained in the other organs with all the drugs tested were in accord with their known hemodynamic properties, and so confirm the usefulness of this method.

  9. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Leblanc, G.C.; Trimmer, B.A.; Landis, S.C.

    1987-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues.

  10. Evolution of endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Price, Francis W; Price, Marianne O

    2013-11-01

    Endothelial keratoplasty has evolved into a popular alternative to penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction. Although the earliest iterations were challenging and were not widely adopted, the iteration known as Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) has gained widespread acceptance. DSEK combines a simplified technique for stripping dysfunctional endothelium from the host cornea and microkeratome dissection of the donor tissue, a step now commonly completed in advance by eye bank technicians. Studies show that a newer endothelial keratoplasty iteration, known as Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), provides an even faster and better visual recovery than DSEK does. In addition, DMEK significantly reduces the risk of immunologic graft rejection episodes compared with that in DSEK or in PK. Although the DMEK donor tissue, consisting of the bare endothelium and Descemet membrane without any stroma, is more challenging to prepare and position in the recipient eye, recent improvements in instrumentation and surgical techniques are increasing the ease and the reliability of the procedure. DSEK successfully mitigates 2 of the main liabilities of PK: ocular surface complications and structural problems (including induced astigmatism and perpetually weak wounds), whereas DMEK further mitigates the 2 principal remaining liabilities of PK: immunologic graft reactions and secondary glaucoma from prolonged topical corticosteroid use. PMID:24104929

  11. Extended acclimatization is required to eliminate stress effects of periodic blood-sampling procedures on vasoactive hormones and blood volume in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, M R; Birmingham, J M; Patel, B; Whelan, G A; Krebs-Brown, A J; Hockings, P D; Osborne, J A

    2002-10-01

    Important in all experimental animal studies is the need to control stress stimuli associated with environmental change and experimental procedures. As the stress response involves alterations in levels of vasoactive hormones, ensuing changes in cardiovascular parameters may confound experimental outcomes. Accordingly, we evaluated the duration required for dogs (n = 4) to acclimatized to frequent blood sampling that involved different procedures. On each sampling occasion during a 6-week period, dogs were removed from their pen to a laboratory area and blood was collected either by venepuncture (days 2, 15, 34, 41) for plasma renin activity (PRA), epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine, aldosterone, insulin, and atrial natriuretic peptide, or by cannulation (dogs restrained in slings; days 1, 8, 14, 22, 30, 33, 37, 40) for determination of haematocrit (HCT) alone (days 1 to 22) or HCT with plasma volume (PV; days 30 to 40). PRA was higher on days 2 and 15 compared with days 34 and 41 and had decreased by up to 48% by the end of the study (day 41 vs day 15; mean/SEM: 1.18/0.27 vs 2.88/0.79 ng ANG I/ml/h, respectively). EPI showed a time-related decrease from days 2 to 34, during which mean values had decreased by 51% (mean/SEM: 279/29 vs 134/20.9 pg/ml for days 2 and 34, respectively), but appeared stable from then on. None of the other hormones showed any significant variability throughout the course of the study. HCT was relatively variable between days 1 to 22 but stabilized from day 30, after which all mean values were approximately 6% lower than those between days 1 and 8. We conclude that an acclimatization period of at least 4 weeks is required to eliminate stress-related effects in dogs associated with periodic blood sampling. PMID:12396283

  12. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on vascular conductance are unaffected by anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bouder, T.G.; Huffman, L.J.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-12-01

    In rats anesthetized with ketamine and pentobarbital (KET/PB), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular conductance (VC) in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, whereas no changes in VC are observed in a number of other organs. Because anesthesia may alter the responsiveness of physiological systems, we compared the effects of VIP on organ VC in conscious or anesthetized rats. Chronically catheterized rats were studied in the conscious state or 30 min after induction of anesthesia with KET/PB, isoflurane, or Inactin. Blood flows were measured by the reference sample version of the radioactive microsphere (MS) technique using two MS injections ({sup 141}Ce-MS/{sup 85}Sr-MS). Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored and used in the calculation of VC. Organ VCs were similar under basal conditions in conscious and anesthetized rats. VIP infusion caused systemic hypotension and increased VCs in the salivary gland, pancreas, and thyroid gland, and these responses were largely unaffected by anesthesia. These results indicate that the anesthetics used do not alter basal VC or the responsiveness of the vasculature to exogenous VIP.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythms in mammalian olfactory bulb and olfaction.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jae-Eun Kang; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Wang, Thomas; Marpegan, Luciano; Holy, Timothy E; Herzog, Erik D

    2014-04-23

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the olfactory bulbs (OBs) function as an independent circadian system regulating daily rhythms in olfactory performance. However, the cells and signals in the olfactory system that generate and coordinate these circadian rhythms are unknown. Using real-time imaging of gene expression, we found that the isolated olfactory epithelium and OB, but not the piriform cortex, express similar, sustained circadian rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2). In vivo, PER2 expression in the OB of mice is circadian, approximately doubling with a peak around subjective dusk. Furthermore, mice exhibit circadian rhythms in odor detection performance with a peak at approximately subjective dusk. We also found that circadian rhythms in gene expression and odor detection performance require vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or its receptor VPAC2R. VIP is expressed, in a circadian manner, in interneurons in the external plexiform and periglomerular layers, whereas VPAC2R is expressed in mitral and external tufted cells in the OB. Together, these results indicate that VIP signaling modulates the output from the OB to maintain circadian rhythms in the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:24760863

  14. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Mediates Circadian Rhythms in Mammalian Olfactory Bulb and Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Wang, Thomas; Marpegan, Luciano; Holy, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the olfactory bulbs (OBs) function as an independent circadian system regulating daily rhythms in olfactory performance. However, the cells and signals in the olfactory system that generate and coordinate these circadian rhythms are unknown. Using real-time imaging of gene expression, we found that the isolated olfactory epithelium and OB, but not the piriform cortex, express similar, sustained circadian rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2). In vivo, PER2 expression in the OB of mice is circadian, approximately doubling with a peak around subjective dusk. Furthermore, mice exhibit circadian rhythms in odor detection performance with a peak at approximately subjective dusk. We also found that circadian rhythms in gene expression and odor detection performance require vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or its receptor VPAC2R. VIP is expressed, in a circadian manner, in interneurons in the external plexiform and periglomerular layers, whereas VPAC2R is expressed in mitral and external tufted cells in the OB. Together, these results indicate that VIP signaling modulates the output from the OB to maintain circadian rhythms in the mammalian olfactory system. PMID:24760863

  15. Vasoactive mediators and the progression from oedematous to necrotising experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Weidenbach, H; Lerch, M M; Gress, T M; Pfaff, D; Turi, S; Adler, G

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiological factors that determine the clinical severity of acute pancreatitis. Because impairment of pancreatic circulation and oxygenation is associated with greater disease severity and morphological damage in experimental pancreatitis it has been suggested that various vasoactive mediators might participate in the progression from the oedematous to the necrotising variety of the disease. This study used an animal model of acute pancreatitis induced by intravenous caeruleint (10 micrograms/kg/h for up to six hours), which does not entail either haemorrhage or significant necrosis of the pancreas. This study considered whether the administration or the inhibition of either nitric oxide, bradykinin, or adrenergic mediators can convert this mild variety into haemorrhagic and necrotising pancreatitis. Neither nitric oxide nor catecholamines were involved in the progression from oedematous to haemorrhagic pancreatitis. Their substitution, activation, and inhibition all failed to change the severity of the disease process. Bradykinin alone seemed to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic haemorrhage and necrosis. However, the inhibition of bradykinin and not its activation or substitution increased the severity of the disease. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7590444

  16. Immunoregulatory properties of vasoactive intestinal peptide in human T cell subsets: implications for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cañas, Irene; Juarranz, Yasmina; Santiago, Begoña; Martínez, Carmen; Gomariz, Rosa P; Pablos, José Luis; Leceta, Javier

    2008-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease whose pathogenesis is not completely understood. Unbalanced Th1/Th2 T-cell polarization has been suggested to play a pathogenetic role and therefore, modulation of T-cell polarization is a potential therapeutic target. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a broadly distributed peptide that exerts anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) murine model of RA, and ex vivo, in synovial cells from RA patients. In the present study, we have found that polyclonal stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from RA patients produces higher levels of inflammatory mediators and lower levels of Th1 cytokines than PBL from healthy controls; moreover, VIP has negligible effects on inflammatory mediators and Th1 cytokines produced by PBL from healthy controls but favours Th2 profile and enhanced IL-10 production after stimulation. VIP increases the levels of IL-10 and IL-4 in the supernatant of human CD4(+)CD45RA(+) cells cultured in a non-conditioned or a Th2-conditioned situation. In contrast, VIP does not modify the production of these cytokines in a Th1-conditioned medium. In summary, VIP can differentially modify the functional capacity of human lymphocytes by inducing Th2/Treg differentiation depending on their previous phenotype. PMID:17951026

  17. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Promotes Intestinal Barrier Homeostasis and Protection Against Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Conlin, Victoria S.; Morampudi, Vijay; Ryz, Natasha R.; Nasser, Yasmin; Bhinder, Ganive; Bergstrom, Kirk S.; Yu, Hong B.; Waterhouse, Chris C. M.; Buchan, Allison M. J.; Popescu, Oana E.; Gibson, William T.; Waschek, James A.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Jacobson, Kevan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder associated with changes in neuropeptide expression and function, including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP regulates intestinal vasomotor and secretomotor function and motility; however, VIP’s role in development and maintenance of colonic epithelial barrier homeostasis is unclear. Using VIP deficient (VIPKO) mice, we investigated VIP’s role in epithelial barrier homeostasis, and susceptibility to colitis. Colonic crypt morphology and epithelial barrier homeostasis were assessed in wildtype (WT) and VIPKO mice, at baseline. Colitic responses were evaluated following dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) or dextran-sodium sulfate (DSS) exposure. Mice were also treated with exogenous VIP. At baseline, VIPKO mice exhibited distorted colonic crypts, defects in epithelial cell proliferation and migration, increased apoptosis, and altered permeability. VIPKO mice also displayed reduced goblet cell numbers, and reduced expression of secreted goblet cell factors mucin 2 and trefoil factor 3. These changes were associated with reduced expression of caudal type homeobox 2 (Cdx2), a master regulator of intestinal function and homeostasis. DNBS and DSS-induced colitis were more severe in VIPKO than WT mice. VIP treatment rescued the phenotype, protecting VIPKO mice against DSS colitis, with results comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, VIP plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of colonic epithelial barrier integrity under physiological conditions and promotes epithelial repair and homeostasis during colitis. PMID:25932952

  18. Disrupted reproduction, estrous cycle, and circadian rhythms in female vasoactive intestinal peptide deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn Hsiao-Wei; Kuljis, Dika Ana; Azuma, Lauren; Wu, Yingfei; Truong, Danny; Wang, Huei-Bin; Colwell, Christopher Scott

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive cycle is gated by the circadian timing system and may be vulnerable to disruptions in the circadian system. Prior work suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are one pathway by which the circadian clock can influence the estrous cycle but the impact of the loss of this peptide on reproduction has not been assessed. In the present study, we first examine the impact of the genetic loss of the neuropeptide VIP on the reproductive success of female mice. Significantly, mutant females produced about half the offspring of their wild type sisters even when mated to the same males. We also find that VIP-deficient females exhibit a disrupted estrous cycle i.e. ovulation occurs less frequently and results in the release of fewer oocytes compared to controls. Circadian rhythms of wheel running activity are disrupted in the female mutant mice as are the spontaneous electrical activity of dorsal SCN neurons. On a molecular level, the VIP-deficient SCN tissue exhibit lower amplitude oscillations with altered phase relationships between the SCN and peripheral oscillators as measured by PER2-driven bioluminescence. The simplest explanation of our data is that the loss of VIP results in a weakened SCN oscillator which reduces the synchronization of the female circadian system. These results clarify one of the mechanisms by which disruption of the circadian system reduces female reproductive success. PMID:25252712

  19. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide and its receptors in the arteries of the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Sidawy, A.N.; Sayadi, H.; Harmon, J.W.; Termanini, B.; Andrews, B.; DePalma, R.G.; Korman, L.Y. )

    1989-08-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a widely distributed neurotransmitter whose dilatory effects on vascular smooth muscle are believed to be mediated via specific receptors. To determine the possible role of VIP in regulating specific vascular beds, we examined the relationship between arterial wall VIP content as determined by radioimmunoassay and VIP receptors mapped by autoradiography. Analysis of arteries from 12 adult New Zealand rabbits showed that VIP receptors were consistently located in the wall of all muscular arteries, and that the {sup 125}I-VIP grain density correlated with VIP content. {sup 125}I-VIP binding in the mesenteric, renal, and iliac arteries was abundant and their VIP content was 192 +/- 56, 51 +/- 5, and 74 +/- 23 fmole/mg protein, respectively. {sup 125}I-VIP binding to the thoracic aorta was indistinguishable from nonspecific binding, its VIP content being 15 +/- 2 fmole/mg protein. The abundance of VIP receptors and the high VIP levels associated with the mesenteric, renal, and iliac arteries suggest that VIP is a potential regulator of flow to the vascular beds supplied by these arteries. In contrast, the much lower density of receptors in the extracranial carotid, which is also a muscular artery, suggests that, in rabbits, control of carotid vasomotion may be less dependent on VIP innervation. Furthermore, these results suggest that VIP receptors and VIP-containing neurons are not uniformly distributed in the arterial vasculature and that VIP may have selective vasodilatory effects.

  20. Vasoactive-intestinal-Peptide (vip) modulates the growth fraction of epithelial skin cells.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1992-06-01

    Using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, modifications of the growth fraction due to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were determined by immunostaining with monoclonal antibody Ki67. In addition, the expression of VIP receptor and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor have been analysed. VIP (10-(7) to 10-(11) M) produced an almost doubling of the total number of Ki67-positive cells in cultures with 2% fetal calf serum (FCS), wheras it was ineffective in FCS-free and 10% FCS cultures. The nuclear Ki67-staining patterns were classified into four categories. In FCS-free cultures VIP induced a shift from type III (light nucleus, staining nuclei) to type II (multiple, intensely stained spots). In cultures with 2% FCS, VIP induced a shift from type II to type III. VIP receptor expression was facilitated by VIP, when cells were grown in a medium supplemented with 10% FCS. VIP increased EGF receptor expression in FCS-free cultures but decreased the number EGF receptor-positive cells in experiments with 2% FCS. In conclusion, VIP is capable to modulate the growth fraction and receptor expression of HaCaT cells in vitro. The effects are dependent on the concentration of FCS within the culture medium. The findings might be of interest for keratinocyte pathology in general and dermatooncology in particular. PMID:21584504

  1. Vasoactive actions of local anaesthetics on human isolated umbilical veins and arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Monuszko, E.; Halevy, S.; Freese, K.; Liu-Barnett, M.; Altura, B.

    1989-01-01

    1. An in vitro study, using helical preparations of human umbilical arteries and veins obtained from healthy women at term pregnancy, was designed to determine: (a) whether three local anaesthetics commonly utilized in obstetric anaesthesia (bupivacaine, 2-chloroprocaine, and lignocaine) can induce contraction or relaxation of resting umbilical vessels; (b) whether these agents can induce contraction or relaxation of umbilical vessels which have been previously induced to contract by a known activator, potassium chloride (KCl); and (c) the relative potency of these agents as compared to KCl. 2. The results indicate that: (a) these local anaesthetics are vasoactive on human umbilical vascular smooth muscle; (b) bupivacaine induces contraction in over 90% of the resting vessels examined, while 2-chloroprocaine consistently causes relaxation and lignocaine causes a small degree of contraction in 40% of vessels examined; (c) bupivacaine causes further contraction (or potentiation) of KCl-contracted muscle in 50% of the vessels studied, while 2-chloroprocaine and lignocaine both induce relaxation of these contracted vessels. PMID:2758218

  2. [Endothelial function test].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is thought to have pivotal roles for the development of hypertension, initiation/progression of hypertensive organ damages, and prognosis. In clinical setting, flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of brachial artery is used as a marker of endothelial function. However, well-trained sonographer is needed to conduct FMD measurement, and therefore, FMD has not been fully standardized (i.e., the reference value of FMD has not been established). Even so, FMD predicts future cardiovascular events. Lifestyle modifications (i.e., smoking cessation, exercise, or weight loss) and antihypertensive medication provide beneficial effects on endothelial function. Thus, FMD have a potential as a useful surrogate marker for the management of hypertension. PMID:26619655

  3. Endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombosis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Norbert; Keller, Christiane; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    Mildly elevated plasma homocysteine levels are an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic vascular disease in the coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial circulation. Endothelial dysfunction as manifested by impaired endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone and blood flow, by increased recruitment and adhesion of circulating inflammatory cells to the endothelium, and by a loss of endothelial cell antithrombotic function contributes to the vascular disorders linked to hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased vascular oxidant stress through imbalanced thiol redox status and inhibition of important antioxidant enzymes by homocysteine results in decreased bioavailability of the endothelium-derived signaling molecule nitric oxide via oxidative inactivation. This plays a central role in the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of homocysteine on endothelial function. Supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 has been demonstrated to be efficient in lowering mildly elevated plasma homocysteine levels and in reversing homocysteine-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity. Results from ongoing intervention trials will determine whether homocysteine-lowering therapies contribute to the prevention and reduction of atherothrombotic vascular disease and may thereby provide support for the causal relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and atherothrombosis. PMID:12553746

  4. Endothelial lipase: Its role in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Marie-Eve; Lamarche, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) has recently been identified as a new member of the triglyceride lipase gene family. EL shares a relatively high degree of homology with lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, but it appears to be more specific at hydrolyzing phospholipids than lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. EL is also the only identified lipase that is synthesized and expressed by endothelial cells. Data from in vitro and in vivo animal studies have suggested that EL may play a key role in modulating the metabolism of high density lipoproteins. Data are less consistent in clarifying how EL contributes to the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Investigations in humans are scarce. To date, increased plasma EL concentrations have been associated with a deteriorated lipoprotein-lipid profile along with elevated plasma triglyceride and apolipoprotein B concentrations, as well as with smaller low density lipoprotein particle size. Elevated proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome have also been observed among individuals with elevated plasma EL concentrations. Taken together, data suggest that EL is one of several key regulatory enzymes of lipoprotein-lipid metabolism and that a proinflammatory state, such as the metabolic syndrome, may be implicated in the processes relating plasma EL concentrations and lipoprotein concentrations. EL should thus be considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16498510

  5. Mechanisms regulating endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Sukriti, Sukriti; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yazbeck, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The endothelial monolayer partitioning underlying tissue from blood components in the vessel wall maintains tissue fluid balance and host defense through dynamically opening intercellular junctions. Edemagenic agonists disrupt endothelial barrier function by signaling the opening of the intercellular junctions leading to the formation of protein-rich edema in the interstitial tissue, a hallmark of tissue inflammation that, if left untreated, causes fatal diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this review, we discuss how intercellular junctions are maintained under normal conditions and after stimulation of endothelium with edemagenic agonists. We have focused on reviewing the new concepts dealing with the alteration of adherens junctions after inflammatory stimulus. PMID:25610592

  6. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  7. Wine and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet. PMID:15134380

  8. HBOC Vasoactivity: Interplay Between Nitric Oxide Scavenging and Capacity to Generate Bioactive Nitric Oxide Species

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Despite many advances in blood substitute research, the development of materials that are effective in maintaining blood volume and oxygen delivery remains a priority for emergency care and trauma. Clinical trials on hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have not provided information on the mechanism of toxicity, although all commercial formulations have safety concerns. Specifically, it is important to reconcile the different hypotheses of Hb toxicity, such as nitric oxide (NO) depletion and oxidative reactions, to provide a coherent molecular basis for designing a safe HBOC. Recent Advances: HBOCs with different sizes often exhibit differences in the degree of HBOC-induced vasoactivity. This has been attributed to differences in the degree of NO scavenging and in the extent of Hb extravasation. Additionally, it is appears that Hb can undergo reactions that compensate for NO scavenging by generating bioactive forms of NO. Critical Issues: Engineering modifications to enhance bioactive NO production can result in diminished oxygen delivery by virtue of increased oxygen affinity. This strategy can prevent the HBOC from fulfilling the intended goal on preserving oxygenation; however, the NO production effects will increase perfusion and oxygen transport. Future Directions: Hb modifications influence NO scavenging and the capacity of certain HBOCs to compensate for NO scavenging through nitrite-mediated reactions that generate bioactive NO. Based on the current understanding of these NO-related factors, possible synthetic strategies are presented that address how HBOC formulations can be prepared that: (i) effectively deliver oxygen, (ii) maintain tissue perfusion, and (iii) limit/reverse underlying inflammation within the vasculature. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2284–2297. PMID:23249305

  9. Modulation of Corpus Striatal Neurochemistry by Astrocytes and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) in Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    Yelkenli, İbrahim Halil; Ulupinar, Emel; Korkmaz, Orhan Tansel; Şener, Erol; Kuş, Gökhan; Filiz, Zeynep; Tunçel, Neşe

    2016-06-01

    The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In various neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes play direct, active, and critical roles in mediating neuronal survival and functions. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has neurotrophic actions and modulates a number of astrocytic activities. In this study, the effects of VIP on the striatal neurochemistry were investigated in parkinsonian rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated, unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned, and lesioned + VIP-administered (25 ng/kg i.p.) groups. VIP was first injected 1 h after the intrastriatal 6-OHDA microinjection and then every 2 days throughout 15 days. Extracellular striatal concentration of glutathione (GSH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (GLU), and lactate were measured in microdialysates by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantification of GABA and activity dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP)-expressing cells were determined by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/ADNP + glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that a 6-OHDA lesion significantly increased the density of astrocytes in the striatum and VIP treatment slightly reduced the gliosis. Extracellular concentration of GABA, GLU, and lactate levels did not change, but GSH level significantly increased in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. VIP treatment reduced GSH level comparable to sham-operated groups, but enhanced GABA and GLU levels. Our double labeling results showed that VIP primarily acts on neurons to increase ADNP and GAD expression for protection. These results suggest that, in the 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration model, astrocytes were possibly activated for forefront defensiveness by modulating striatal neurochemistry. PMID:27115671

  10. Roles of sphincter of Oddi motility and serum vasoactive intestinal peptide, gastrin and cholecystokinin octapeptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Xu, Jian; Cui, Xian-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Yi; Xian, Guo-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate roles of sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility played in pigment gallbladder stone formation in model of guinea pigs. METHODS: Thirty-four adult male Hartley guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups: the control group and pigment stone group. The pigment stone group was divided into 4 subgroups with 6 guinea pigs each according to time of sacrifice, and were fed a pigment lithogenic diet and sacrificed after 3, 6, 9 and 12 wk. SO manometry and recording of myoelectric activity of the guinea pigs were obtained by multifunctional physiograph at each stage. Serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) were detected at each stage in the process of pigment gallbladder stone formation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The incidence of pigment gallstone formation was 0%, 0%, 16.7% and 66.7% in the 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-wk group, respectively. The frequency of myoelectric activity decreased in the 3-wk group. The amplitude of myoelectric activity had a tendency to decrease but not significantly. The frequency of the SO decreased significantly in the 9-wk group. The SO basal pressure and common bile duct pressure increased in the 12-wk group (25.19 ± 7.77 mmHg vs 40.56 ± 11.81 mmHg, 22.35 ± 7.60 mmHg vs 38.51 ± 11.57 mmHg, P < 0.05). Serum VIP was significantly elevated in the 6- and 12-wk groups and serum CCK-8 was decreased significantly in the 12-wk group. CONCLUSION: Pigment gallstone-causing diet may induce SO dysfunction. The tension of the SO increased. The disturbance in SO motility may play a role in pigment gallstone formation, and changes in serum VIP and CCK-8 may be important causes of SO dysfunction. PMID:24782626

  11. Vasoactive intestinal peptide protects alveolar epithelial cells against hyperoxia via promoting the activation of STAT3.

    PubMed

    Ao, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Fang; Xu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress injury and death in alveolar epithelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of prolonged hyperoxia-induced lung impairment. A reduced survival of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) may lead to abnormal repair, resulting in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. Hyperoxia lung injury is associated with the secretion of various bioactive substances and the activation of multiple transcription factors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), as a pulmonary sensory neuropeptide, performs a vital function in regulating cell proliferation and cell death through signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). In the present study, we investigated the effects of VIP and STAT3 on AECIIs upon the exposure of hyperoxia. MLE-12 cells were random to air (21% oxygen), hyperoxia (95% oxygen) and VIP treatment with or without STAT3 siRNA transfection. The proliferation of AECIIs was detected by MTT cell proliferation assay. The apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by fluorescent dye JC-1 to understand mitochondrial and cell damage. The activation of STAT3 was assessed by western blot detection of phosphorylated STAT3. Compared with hyperoxia exposure alone, additional VIP treatment promoted cell proliferation, maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced the apoptosis and necrosis of AECIIs. The protective effects aforesaid were weakened after STAT3 expression was down regulated by siRNA. Cells with STAT3 siRNA transfection had a higher mortality and a sharper decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as a lower proliferation compared with wild-type cells after hyperoxia exposure with VIP administration. VIP interference, a protective management, could decrease hyperoxia-induced cell injury and death and improve the survival of AECIIs exposed to hyperoxia, which might be associated with the activation of STAT3. PMID:21334383

  12. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Excites GnRH Neurons in Male and Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Piet, Richard; Dunckley, Henry; Lee, Kiho; Herbison, Allan E

    2016-09-01

    A variety of external and internal factors modulate the activity of GnRH neurons to control fertility in mammals. A direct, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-mediated input to GnRH neurons originating from the suprachiasmatic nucleus is thought to relay circadian information within this network. In the present study, we examined the effects of VIP on GnRH neuron activity in male and female mice at different stages of the estrous cycle. We carried out cell-attached recordings in slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice and calcium imaging in slices from a mouse line expressing the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP3 selectively in GnRH neurons. We show that 50%-80% of GnRH neurons increase their firing rate in response to bath-applied VIP (1nM-1000nM) in both male and female mice and that this is accompanied by a robust increase in intracellular calcium concentrations. This effect is mediated directly at the GnRH neuron likely through activation of high-affinity VIP receptors. Because suprachiasmatic nucleus-derived timing cues trigger the preovulatory surge only on the afternoon of proestrus in female mice, we examined the effects of VIP during the estrous cycle at different times of day. VIP responsiveness in GnRH neurons did not vary significantly in diestrous and proestrous mice before or around the time of the expected preovulatory surge. These results indicate that the majority of GnRH neurons in male and female mice express functional VIP receptors and that the effects of VIP on GnRH neurons do not alter across the estrous cycle. PMID:27501185

  13. Regulation of cGMP synthesis in cultured podocytes by vasoactive hormones.

    PubMed

    Lewko, B; Gołos, M; Latawiec, E; Angielski, S; Stepinski, J

    2006-12-01

    The podocytes are highly differentiated cells playing a key role in glomerular filtration. Vasoactive factors including angiotensin II (Ang II) and cyclic guanosine 5' monophosphate (cGMP) are synthesized by these cells upon stimulation as well as in the basal state. In this study we have tested whether angiotensin II affects the total synthesis of cGMP in primary culture of rat podocytes. The cells were stimulated with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and/or a nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), in the absence or presence of Ang II. The cGMP synthesis was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). ANP or SNAP alone increased the cGMP synthesis in podocytes although the effects were not additive unless Ang II was present in the medium. Ang II suppressed the ANP-dependent cGMP synthesis whereas SNAP-dependent cGMP production remained unaffected. These effects were prevented by a non-specific antagonist of Ang II receptors (AT), saralasin. Adversely, PD123319, a specific inhibitor of AT2 receptors, augmented inhibition of ANP-dependent and enhanced the NO-dependent cGMP production. Probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP extrusion from the cells, suppressed the cGMP generation by both ANP and SNAP. We conclude that cGMP synthesis in cultured podocytes is modulated by angiotensin II and that two adversely acting receptors, AT1 and AT2 are involved in this effect. Additionally, production of cGMP might be intrinsically inhibited by cGMP accumulating inside the cells. PMID:17229984

  14. Serum Levels of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide as a Prognostic Marker in Early Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Carmen; Ortiz, Ana M.; Juarranz, Yasmina; Lamana, Amalia; Seoane, Iria V.; Leceta, Javier; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suitable biomarkers are essential for the design of therapeutic strategies in personalized medicine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties in autoimmune murine and ex vivo human models. Our aim was to study serum levels of VIP during the follow-up of an early arthritis (EA) cohort and to analyze its value as a biomarker predicting severity and therapeutic requirements. Methods Data from 91 patients on an EA register were analyzed (76% rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 24% undifferentiated arthritis, 73% women, and median age 54 years; median disease duration at entry, 5.4 months). We collected per protocol sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic data. VIP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay in sera harvested from the 91 patients (353 visits; 3.9 visit/patient) and from 100 healthy controls. VIP values below the 25th percentile of those assessed in healthy population were considered low. To determine the effect of independent variables on VIP levels, we performed a longitudinal multivariate analysis nested by patient and visit. A multivariate ordered logistic regression was modeled to determine the effect of low VIP serum levels on disease activity at the end of follow-up. Results VIP concentrations varied considerably across EA patients. Those fulfilling the criteria for RA had the lowest values in the whole sample, although no significant differences were observed compared with healthy donors. Disease activity, which was assessed using DAS28, inversely correlated with VIP levels. After a two-year follow-up, those patients with low baseline levels of VIP displayed higher disease activity and received more intensive treatment. Conclusion Patients who are unable to up-regulate VIP seem to have a worse clinical course despite receiving more intense treatment. Therefore, measurement of VIP levels may be suitable as a prognostic biomarker. PMID:24409325

  15. 17β-estradiol protects the lung against acute injury: possible mediation by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Sayyed A; Dickman, Kathleen G; Berisha, Hasan; Said, Sami I

    2011-12-01

    Beyond their classical role as a class of female sex hormones, estrogens (e.g. 17β-estradiol) exert important biological actions, both protective and undesirable. We have investigated the ability of estradiol to protect the lung in three models of acute injury induced by 1) oxidant stress due to the herbicide paraquat; 2) excitotoxicity, caused by glutamate agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate; and 3) acute alveolar anoxia. We also assessed the role of estrogen receptors (ER) ERα and ERβ and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating this protection. Isolated guinea pig or rat lungs were perfused in situ at constant flow and mechanically ventilated. The onset and severity of lung injury were monitored by increases in pulmonary arterial and airway pressures, wet/dry lung weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein content. Estradiol was infused into the pulmonary circulation, beginning 10 min before induction of injury and continued for 60-90 min. Lung injury was marked by significant increases in the above measurements, with paraquat producing the most severe, and excitotoxicity the least severe, injury. Estradiol significantly attenuated the injury in each model. Both ER were constitutively expressed and immunohistochemically demonstrable in normal lung, and their selective agonists reduced anoxic injury, the only model in which they were tested. As it protected against injury, estradiol rapidly and significantly stimulated VIP mRNA expression in rat lung. Estradiol attenuated acute lung injury in three experimental models while stimulating VIP gene expression, a known mechanism of lung protection. The up-regulated VIP expression could have partially mediated the protection by estrogen. PMID:22009726

  16. 17β-Estradiol Protects the Lung against Acute Injury: Possible Mediation by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Sayyed A.; Dickman, Kathleen G.; Berisha, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Beyond their classical role as a class of female sex hormones, estrogens (e.g. 17β-estradiol) exert important biological actions, both protective and undesirable. We have investigated the ability of estradiol to protect the lung in three models of acute injury induced by 1) oxidant stress due to the herbicide paraquat; 2) excitotoxicity, caused by glutamate agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate; and 3) acute alveolar anoxia. We also assessed the role of estrogen receptors (ER) ERα and ERβ and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating this protection. Isolated guinea pig or rat lungs were perfused in situ at constant flow and mechanically ventilated. The onset and severity of lung injury were monitored by increases in pulmonary arterial and airway pressures, wet/dry lung weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein content. Estradiol was infused into the pulmonary circulation, beginning 10 min before induction of injury and continued for 60–90 min. Lung injury was marked by significant increases in the above measurements, with paraquat producing the most severe, and excitotoxicity the least severe, injury. Estradiol significantly attenuated the injury in each model. Both ER were constitutively expressed and immunohistochemically demonstrable in normal lung, and their selective agonists reduced anoxic injury, the only model in which they were tested. As it protected against injury, estradiol rapidly and significantly stimulated VIP mRNA expression in rat lung. Estradiol attenuated acute lung injury in three experimental models while stimulating VIP gene expression, a known mechanism of lung protection. The up-regulated VIP expression could have partially mediated the protection by estrogen. PMID:22009726

  17. Endogenous inhibition of hippocampal LTD and depotentiation by vasoactive intestinal peptide VPAC1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Reis, Diana; Aidil-Carvalho, Maria de Fatima; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2014-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an important modulator of hippocampal synaptic transmission, influences exploration and hippocampal-dependent learning in rodents. Homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation are two plasticity phenomena implicated in learning of behavior flexibility and spatial novelty detection. In this study, we investigated the influence of endogenous VIP on LTD and depotentiation induced by low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz, 900 pulses) of the hippocampal CA1 area in vitro in juvenile and young adult rats, respectively. LTD and depotentiation were enhanced by the VIP receptor antagonist Ac-Tyr(1) , D-Phe(2) GRF (1-29), and the selective VPAC1 receptor antagonist, PG 97-269, but not the selective VPAC2 receptor antagonist, PG 99-465. This action was mimicked by an anti-VIP antibody, suggesting that VIP, and not pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), is the endogenous mediator of these effects. Selective inhibition of PAC1 receptors with PACAP (6-38) enhanced depotentiation, but not LTD. VPAC1 receptor blockade also revealed LTD in young adult rats, an effect abolished by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, evidencing an involvement of GABAergic transmission. We conclude that inhibition of LTD and depotentiation by endogenous VIP occurs through VPAC1 receptor-mediated mechanisms and suggest that disinhibition of pyramidal cell dendrites is the most likely physiological mechanism underlying this effect. As such, VPAC1 receptor ligands may be considered promising pharmacological targets for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in diseases involving altered GABAergic circuits and pathological saturation of LTP/LTD like Down's syndrome and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24935659

  18. Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on the wound healing of alkali-burned corneas

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Nese; Yildirim, Nilgun; Gurer, Firdevs; Basmak, Hikmet; Uzuner, Kubilay; Sahinturk, Varol; Gursoy, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on wound healing in experimental alkali burns of the cornea. METHODS Twenty-seven albino rabbits, weighing 3.2±0.75 kg were used. Alkali burns were induced on corneas by applying 10 mm Whatman paper No:50 soaked in 1 mol/L NaOH. They have further classified into 5 groups as follows: 1) control group given no treatment (n=5); 2) VIP given subconjunctivally (n=6); 3) VIP injected into anterior chamber (n=6); 4) NaCl 0.9% given subconjunctivally (n=5); 5) NaCl 0.9% given into the anterior chamber (n=5). All treatment protocols except control group were followed by topical eye drops composed of VIP at two hourly intervals for one week from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. RESULTS VIP treated groups of rabbits with alkali burns were found to have better wound healing findings histo-pathologically when compared to those of control group who have received no treatment on day 30. No differences were observed between groups in respect to degree of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) infiltration and degree of loss of amorphous substrate on day 15. However, PMNL infiltration and degree of loss of amorphous substrate were lower in Groups 2 and 3 when compared to that of control group on day 30 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION We have shown that VIP has positive effects on alkali induced corneal burns. VIP may inhibit PMNL migration to cornea through an immunomodulatory effect. Inhibition of PMNL migration might reduce the release of collagenases and this might prevent the extracellular amorphous substance loss. PMID:26949636

  19. Tissue viability imaging: microvascular response to vasoactive drugs induced by iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Joakim; Nilsson, Anders; Tesselaar, Erik; Nilsson, Gert; Sjöberg, Folke

    2009-09-01

    When one is studying the physiology of the cutaneous microcirculation there is a need for relevant non-invasive and versatile techniques. In this study we used a new optical device, the tissue viability imager (TiVi), to map changes in cutaneous microvascular concentrations of red blood cells during iontophoresis of vasoactive substances (noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (Phe) for vasoconstriction and acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for vasodilatation). We aimed to present data both individually and pooled, using a four-variable logistic dose response model that is commonly used in similar in vitro vascular studies. The accuracy of the TiVi was also investigated by calculating the coefficient of variation and comparing it with similar tests previously done using laser Doppler imaging. Tests were also performed using the TiVi and LDPI simultaneously to further compare the two methods. Results showed that the TiVi is capable of quantifying vascular responses to iontophorised noradrenaline and phenylephrine without the need to increase background flow first. Fitting the TiVi data to the dose response model resulted in ED(50)-values with narrow confidence intervals and acceptable r(2) values. Mean ED(50)-values for the TiVi did not differ significantly from similar values obtained using laser Doppler. Results further seem to suggest that when the blood perfusion increases during vasodilatation in skin the initial phase relies mainly on an increase in red blood cell concentration whereas the further perfusion increase is due to an increase in red blood cell velocity. PMID:19409397

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy of Stable Analogues of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide against Pathogens*

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Salinas, Jenny; Cavazzuti, Antonio; O'Valle, Francisco; Forte-Lago, Irene; Caro, Marta; Beverley, Stephen M.; Delgado, Mario; Gonzalez-Rey, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an anti-inflammatory neuropeptide recently identified as a potential antimicrobial peptide. To overcome the metabolic limitations of VIP, we modified the native peptide sequence and generated two stable synthetic analogues (VIP51 and VIP51(6–30)) with better antimicrobial profiles. Herein we investigate the effects of both VIP analogues on cell viability, membrane integrity, and ultrastructure of various bacterial strains and Leishmania species. We found that the two VIP derivatives kill various non-pathogenic and pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the parasite Leishmania major through a mechanism that depends on the interaction with certain components of the microbial surface, the formation of pores, and the disruption of the surface membrane. The cytotoxicity of the VIP derivatives is specific for pathogens, because they do not affect the viability of mammalian cells. Docking simulations indicate that the chemical changes made in the analogues are critical to increase their antimicrobial activities. Consequently, we found that the native VIP is less potent as an antibacterial and fails as a leishmanicidal. Noteworthy from a therapeutic point of view is that treatment with both derivatives increases the survival and reduces bacterial load and inflammation in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. Moreover, treatment with VIP51(6–30) is very effective at reducing lesion size and parasite burden in a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. These results indicate that the VIP analogues emerge as attractive alternatives for treating drug-resistant infectious diseases and provide key insights into a rational design of novel agents against these pathogens. PMID:24706753

  1. Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat anterior pituitary glands: Localization of binding to lactotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, I.E.; Rorstad, O.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been implicated as a physiological PRL-releasing factor; however, characterization of VIP receptors on normal pituitaries using radioligand-binding methods has been problematic. In this study we demonstrated specific receptors for VIP in anterior pituitary glands of female rats using HPLC-purified monoiodinated (Tyr(125I)10)VIP. Binding of VIP was reversible, saturable to receptor and radioligand, regulated by guanine nucleotides, and dependent on time and temperature. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated high and low affinity binding sites, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.19 +/- 0.03 and 28 +/- 16 nM, respectively. The corresponding maximum numbers of binding sites were 158 +/- 34 fmol/mg and 11.7 +/- 6.9 pmol/mg. Binding was specific, as peptides with structural homology to VIP were less than 100th as potent as VIP. The rank order of potency of the peptides tested was VIP greater than rat (r) peptide histidine isoleucine = human (h) PHI greater than rGRF greater than bovine GRF = porcine PHI = VIP-(10-28) greater than hGRF greater than secretin greater than apamin greater than glucagon. Radioligand binding was associated primarily with lactotrope-enriched fractions prepared by unit gravity sedimentation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. VIP stimulated PRL release from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells, with an ED50 of 1 nM. These results, comprising the first identification of specific VIP receptors in normal rat anterior pituitary tissue using radioligand-binding methods, provide additional support for a biological role of VIP in lactotrope function.

  2. Role of endothelial cells in antihyperalgesia induced by a triptan and β-blocker.

    PubMed

    Joseph, E K; Levine, J D

    2013-03-01

    While blood vessels have long been implicated in diverse pain syndromes (e.g., migraine headache, angina pectoris, vasculitis, and Raynaud's syndrome), underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent evidence supports a contribution of the vascular endothelium in endothelin-1-induced hyperalgesia, and its enhancement by repeated mechanical stimulation; a phenomenon referred to as stimulus-induced enhancement of (endothelin) hyperalgesia (SIEH). SIEH is thought to be mediated by release of ATP from endothelial cells, to act on P2X3 receptors on nociceptors. In the present study we evaluated the ability of another vasoactive hyperalgesic agent, epinephrine, to induce endothelial cell-dependent hyperalgesia and SIEH. We found that epinephrine also produces hyperalgesia and SIEH. Both P2X3 receptor antagonists, A317491 and octoxynol-9, which attenuate endothelial cell function, eliminated SIEH without affecting epinephrine hyperalgesia. We further evaluated the hypothesis that members of two important classes of drugs used to treat migraine headache, whose receptors are present in endothelial cells - the triptans and β blockers - have a vascular component to their anti-hyperalgesic action. For this, we tested the effect of ICI-118,551, a β₂-adrenergic receptor antagonist and sumatriptan, an agonist at 5-HT1B and 5-HT₁D receptors, on nociceptive effects of endothelin and epinephrine. ICI-118,551 inhibited endothelin SIEH, and attenuated epinephrine hyperalgesia and SIEH. Sumatriptan inhibited epinephrine SIEH and inhibited endothelin hyperalgesia and SIEH, while having no effect on epinephrine hyperalgesia or the hyperalgesia induced by a prototypical direct-acting inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E₂. These results support the suggestion that triptans and β-blockers interact with the endothelial cell component of the blood vessel to produce anti-hyperalgesia. PMID:23262231

  3. Role of Endothelial Cells in Antihyperalgesia Induced by a Triptan and β-blocker

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Levine, Jon D.

    2012-01-01

    While blood vessels have long been implicated in diverse pain syndromes (e.g., migraine headache, angina pectoris, vasculitis, and Raynaud’s syndrome), underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent evidence supports a contribution of the vascular endothelium in endothelin-1 induced hyperalgesia, and its enhancement by repeated mechanical stimulation; a phenomenon referred to as stimulus-induced enhancement of (endothelin) hyperalgesia (SIEH). SIEH is thought to be mediated by release of ATP from endothelial cells, to act on P2X3 receptors on nociceptors. In the present study we evaluated the ability of another vasoactive hyperalgesic agent, epinephrine, to induce endothelial cell dependent hyperalgesia and SIEH. We found that epinephrine also produces hyperalgesia and SIEH. Both a P2X3 receptor antagonist, A317491 and octoxynol-9, which attenuate endothelial cell function, eliminated SIEH without affecting epinephrine hyperalgesia. We further evaluated the hypothesis that members of two important classes of drugs used to treat migraine headache, whose receptors are present in endothelial cells - the triptans and beta blockers - have a vascular component to their anti-hyperalgesic action. For this, we tested the effect of ICI-118,551, a β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist and sumatriptan, an agonist at 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors, on nociceptive effects of endothelin and epinephrine. ICI-118,551 inhibited endothelin SIEH, and attenuated epinephrine hyperalgesia and SIEH. Sumatriptan inhibited epinephrine SIEH and inhibited endothelin hyperalgesia and SIEH, while having no effect on epinephrine hyperalgesia or the hyperalgesia induced by a prototypical direct-acting inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2. These results support the suggestion that triptans and beta-blockers interact with the endothelial cell component of the blood vessel to produce anti-hyperalgesia. PMID:23262231

  4. Cortisol regulates the paracrine action of macrophages by inducing vasoactive gene expression in endometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Thiruchelvam, Uma; Maybin, Jacqueline A; Armstrong, Gregory M; Greaves, Erin; Saunders, Philippa T K; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-06-01

    The human endometrium undergoes inflammation and tissue repair during menstruation. We hypothesized that the local availability of bioactive glucocorticoids plays an important role in immune cell-vascular cell interactions in endometrium during tissue repair at menstruation, acting either directly or indirectly via tissue resident macrophages. We sought to determine whether endometrial macrophages are direct targets for glucocorticoids; whether cortisol-treated macrophages have a paracrine effect on angiogenic gene expression by endometrial endothelial cells; and whether endometrial macrophages express angiogenic factors. Human endometrium (n = 41) was collected with ethical approval and subject consent. Donor peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with estradiol, progesterone, or cortisol. The effect of peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophage secretory products on the expression of angiogenic RNAs by endothelial cells was examined. Immunofluorescence was used to examine localization in macrophages and other endometrial cell types across the menstrual cycle. Endometrial macrophages express the glucocorticoid receptor. In vitro culture with supernatants from cortisol-treated peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages resulted in altered endometrial endothelial cell expression of the angiogenic genes, CXCL2, CXCL8, CTGF, and VEGFC These data highlight the importance of local cortisol in regulating paracrine actions of macrophages in the endometrium. CXCL2 and CXCL8 were detected in endometrial macrophages in situ. The expression of these factors was highest in the endometrium during the menstrual phase, consistent with these factors having a role in endometrial repair. Our data have indicated that activation of macrophages with glucocorticoids might have paracrine effects by increasing angiogenic factor expression by endometrial endothelial cells. This might reflect possible roles for macrophages in endometrial repair of the vascular bed

  5. The hyperpolarizing impact of glycine on endothelial cells may be anti-atherogenic.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    Studies to date indicate that endothelial cells express glycine-activated chloride channels, which promote hyperpolarization of the endothelial plasma membrane. If such channels are expressed by endothelial cells lining conduit arteries, glycine is likely to have anti-atherogenic activity. This reflects the fact that endothelial hyperpolarization promotes calcium influx, activating the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase, while also down-regulating the activity of the membrane-bound NADPH oxidase, chief endothelial source of superoxide. Since macrophages express glycine-activated chloride channels that suppress production of oxidants and cytokines, glycine may also oppose atherogenesis by influencing intimal macrophage function. In rats, supplemental glycine exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects attributed to chloride channel activation. Administration of large daily doses of glycine would appear to be practical and safe, and has already been shown to inhibit protein glycation in human diabetics. PMID:19232835

  6. Enhanced vascular permeability facilitates entry of plasma HDL and promotes macrophage-reverse cholesterol transport from skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Kareinen, Ilona; Cedó, Lídia; Silvennoinen, Reija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Jauhiainen, Matti; Julve, Josep; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-02-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway from macrophage foam cells initiates when HDL particles cross the endothelium, enter the interstitial fluid, and induce cholesterol efflux from these cells. We injected [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages into the dorsal skin of mice and measured the transfer of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol to feces [macrophage-RCT (m-RCT)]. Injection of histamine to the macrophage injection site increased locally vascular permeability, enhanced influx of intravenously administered HDL, and stimulated m-RCT from the histamine-treated site. The stimulatory effect of histamine on m-RCT was abolished by prior administration of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, indicating that the histamine effect was H1R-dependent. Subcutaneous administration of two other vasoactive mediators, serotonin or bradykinin, and activation of skin mast cells to secrete histamine and other vasoactive compounds also stimulated m-RCT. None of the studied vasoactive mediators affected serum HDL levels or the cholesterol-releasing ability of J774 macrophages in culture, indicating that acceleration of m-RCT was solely due to increased availability of cholesterol acceptors in skin. We conclude that disruption of the endothelial barrier by vasoactive compounds enhances the passage of HDL into interstitial fluid and increases the rate of RCT from peripheral macrophage foam cells, which reveals a novel tissue cholesterol-regulating function of these compounds. PMID:25473102

  7. Effect of Flow on Gene Regulation in Smooth Muscle Cells and Macromolecular Transport Across Endothelial Cell Monolayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Larry V.; Wagner, John E.; Papadaki, Maria; Whitson, Peggy A.; Eskin, Suzanne G.

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cells line all of the vessels of the circulatory system, providing a non-thrombogenic conduit for blood flow; they regulate many complex functions in the vasculature, such as coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation, vessel tone and growth, and leukocyte traffic; and they form the principal barrier to transport of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissue space. The permeability of endothelial cell changes with environmental stimuli; shear stress, in particular, applied either in vivo, or in vitro, induces changes in protein expression and secretion of vasoactive factors by endothelial cells. The ability to study the effects of shear on the macromolecular permeability of the cerebral vasculature is particularly important, since in no other place is the barrier function of the endothelium more important than in the brain. The endothelial cells of this organ have developed special barrier properties that keep the cerebral system from experiencing any drastic change in composition; together with glial cells, they form the blood brain barrier (BBB). We have studied the effect of flow on bovine BBB using flow chambers and tissue culture systems.

  8. Immunohistochemical evidence for the occurrence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-containing nerve fibres in human fetal abdominal paraganglia.

    PubMed

    Hervonen, A; Linnoila, I; Tainio, H; Vaalasti, A; Mascorro, J A

    1985-12-01

    The abdominal paraganglia in man represent a major source of catecholamines, and perhaps peptide hormones, during the fetal period. The nature of the innervation of the abdominal paraganglia was studied immunohistochemically by utilising antibodies to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, enkephalin, substance-P and somatostatin. The paraganglia showed an abundant network of VIP-immunoreactive fibres, and similar nerve fibres were found within nerve bundles of the preaortic sympathetic plexus. Occasionally, VIP-immunoreactive fibres were seen within the prevertebral ganglia, but stained cell bodies were never observed. It may be suggested that VIP-containing nerves could regulate a secretory response from fetal human abdominal paraganglia. PMID:3870718

  9. Regulation of Endothelial Permeability by Src Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guochang; Place, Aaron T.; Minshall, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    An important function of the endothelium is to regulate the transport of liquid and solutes across the semi-permeable vascular endothelial barrier. Two cellular pathways have been identified controlling endothelial barrier function. The normally restrictive paracellular pathway, which can become “leaky” during inflammation when gaps are induced between endothelial cells at the level of adherens and tight junctional complexes, and the transcellular pathway, which transports plasma proteins the size of albumin via transcytosis in vesicle carriers originating from cell surface caveolae. During non-inflammatory conditions, caveolae-mediated transport may be the primary mechanism of vascular permeability regulation of fluid phase molecules as well as lipids, hormones, and peptides that bind avidly to albumin. Src family protein tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the upstream signaling pathways that lead to endothelial hyperpermeability through both the paracellular and transcellular pathways. Endothelial barrier dysfunction not only affects vascular homeostasis and cell metabolism, but also governs drug delivery to underlying cells and tissues. In this review of the field, we discuss the current understanding of Src signaling in regulating paracellular and transcellular endothelial permeability pathways and effects on endogenous macromolecule and drug delivery. PMID:17897637

  10. Endothelial dysfunction and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Duvall, W Lane

    2005-03-01

    The vascular endothelium plays a crucial role in the physiology of blood vessels and the pathological processes of atherosclerotic disease and acute coronary syndromes. Endothelial dysfunction is the core problem; it is an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation caused by a loss of nitric oxide activity in the vessel wall, which results in impairment in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. Further understanding of its mechanisms of action and possible therapeutic targets will be of great importance. The group of antioxidant vitamins, A, C and E, would seem uniquely situated to reduce cardiovascular events by improving endothelial function by reducing the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the vessel wall and by preventing oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein. Unfortunately, despite extensive studies in both observational and randomized trials, the weight of evidence points to little or no benefit from antioxidant therapy. PMID:15770336

  11. Endothelial microparticles carrying hedgehog-interacting protein induce continuous endothelial damage in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Nie, Di-Min; Wu, Qiu-Ling; Zheng, Peng; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Ran; Li, Bei-Bei; Fang, Jun; Xia, Ling-Hui; Hong, Mei

    2016-05-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a marker of endothelial damage, are elevated in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), and that endothelial damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of aGVHD, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we detected the plasma EMP levels and endothelial damage in patients and mice with aGVHD in vivo and then examined the effects of EMPs derived from injured endothelial cells (ECs) on endothelial damage and the role of hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP) carried by EMPs in these effects in vitro. Our results showed that EMPs were persistently increased in the early posttransplantation phase in patients and mice with aGVHD. Meanwhile, endothelial damage was continuous in aGVHD mice, but was temporary in non-aGVHD mice after transplantation. In vitro, EMPs induced endothelial damage, including increased EC apoptosis, enhanced reactive oxygen species, decreased nitric oxide production and impaired angiogenic activity. Enhanced expression of HHIP, an antagonist for the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, was observed in patients and mice with aGVHD and EMPs from injured ECs. The endothelial damage induced by EMPs was reversed when the HHIP incorporated into EMPs was silenced with an HHIP small interfering RNA or inhibited with the SHH pathway agonist, Smoothened agonist. This work supports a feasible vicious cycle in which EMPs generated during endothelial injury, in turn, aggravate endothelial damage by carrying HHIP into target ECs, contributing to the continuously deteriorating endothelial damage in the development of aGVHD. EMPs harboring HHIP would represent a potential therapeutic target for aGVHD. PMID:27009877

  12. [The role of endothelial lipase in atherogenesis].

    PubMed

    Pierart Z, Camila; Serrano L, Valentina

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is synthetized by endothelial cells and its main substrates are lipoprotein phospholipids. Over expression of EL reduces high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and phospholipids, in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of the enzyme achieves the opposite effects. The synthesis of the enzyme is regulated by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor a. These inflammatory cytokines play a role in diabetes and vascular disease. An increase in vascular mechanical forces, that play a role in atherogenesis, also increase the synthesis of EL. There is expression of EL in endothelial cells, macrophages and muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries of humans. This evidence leads to the suspicion that EL plays a role in atherogenesis. There are also higher plasma levels of EL in subjects with type 2 diabetes, who are especially susceptible to the development of vascular lesions. Therefore the inhibition of EL could play an important role in HDL metabolism and could be a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:22689120

  13. Viscoelastic response of a model endothelial glycocalyx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijenhuis, Nadja; Mizuno, Daisuke; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2009-06-01

    Many cells cover themselves with a multifunctional polymer coat, the pericellular matrix (PCM), to mediate mechanical interactions with the environment. A particular PCM, the endothelial glycocalyx (EG), is formed by vascular endothelial cells at their luminal side, forming a mechanical interface between the flowing blood and the endothelial cell layer. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hyaluronan (HA) is involved in the main functions of the EG, mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress and molecular sieving. HA, due to its length, is the only GAG in the EG or any other PCM able to form an entangled network. The mechanical functions of the EG are, however, impaired when any one of its components is removed. We here used microrheology to measure the effect of the EG constituents heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, whole blood plasma and albumin on the high-bandwidth mechanical properties of a HA solution. Furthermore, we probed the effect of the hyaldherin aggrecan, a constituent of the PCM of chondrocytes, and very similar to versican (present in the PCM of various cells, and possibly in the EG). We show that components directly interacting with HA (chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan) can increase the viscoelastic shear modulus of the polymer composite.

  14. Cadherin selectivity filter regulates endothelial sieving properties

    PubMed Central

    Quadri, Sadiqa K.; Sun, Li; Islam, Mohammad Naimul; Shapiro, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis of endothelial protein sieving, the critical vascular barrier function that restricts flow of large plasma proteins into tissues while allowing small molecules and water to pass, is not understood. Here, we address this issue using a novel assay to detect macromolecular penetrance at microdomains of endothelial adherens junctions. Adherens junctions, as detected by cadherin-GFP expression, were distributed in the cell perimeter as high- or low-density segments. Low but not high-density segments permitted penetrance of a 70-kDa fluorescent dextran, a molecule of equivalent size to albumin. Expression of a cadherin mutant that abrogates strand–swap adhesive binding in the cadherin EC1 ectodomain, or alternatively of an α-actinin-1 mutant that inhibits F-actin bundling, increased both cadherin mobility and 70 kDa dextran penetrance at high-density segments. These findings suggest that adhesive interactions in the cadherin EC1 domain, which underlie adherens junction structure, are critical determinants of endothelial macromolecular sieving. PMID:23033075

  15. Effects of neonatal alcohol exposure on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Farnell, Yuhua Z.; Allen, Gregg C.; Neuendorff, Nichole; West, James R.; Wei-Jung, A. Chen; Earnest, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure produces long-term changes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that are presumably responsible for disturbances in the light–dark regulation of circadian behavior in adult rats, including the pattern of photoentrainment, rate of re-entrainment to shifted light–dark cycles, and phase-shifting responses to light. Because SCN neurons containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receive direct photic input via the retinohypothalamic tract and thus play an important role in the circadian regulation of the SCN clock mechanism by light, the present study examined the long-term effects of neonatal alcohol exposure on VIP neuronal populations within the SCN of adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to alcohol (EtOH; 3.0, 4.5, or 6.0 g/kg/day) or isocaloric milk formula (gastrostomy control; GC) on postnatal days 4–9 using artificial-rearing methods. At 2–3 months of age, animals from the suckle control (SC), GC, and EtOH groups were exposed to constant darkness (DD) and SCN tissue was harvested for subsequent analysis of either VIP mRNA expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization or of VIP-immunoreactive (ir) neurons using stereological methods. Neonatal alcohol exposure had no impact on VIP mRNA expression but dramatically altered immunostaining of neurons containing this peptide within the SCN of adult rats. The relative abundance of VIP mRNA and anatomical distribution of neurons expressing this transcript were similar among all control- and EtOH-treated groups. However, the total number and density of VIP-ir neurons within the SCN were significantly decreased by about 35% in rats exposed to alcohol at a dose of 6.0 g/kg/day relative to that observed in both control groups. These results demonstrate that VIP neuronal populations in the SCN are vulnerable to EtOH-induced insult during brain development. The observed alterations in SCN neurons containing VIP may have an impact

  16. Distinct Firing Properties of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-Expressing Neurons in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Hermanstyne, Tracey O.; Simms, Carrie L.; Carrasquillo, Yarimar; Herzog, Erik D.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Previous studies suggest a critical role for neurons expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in coordinating rhythmicity and synchronization in the SCN. Here we examined the firing properties of VIP-expressing SCN neurons in acute brain slices. Active and passive membrane properties were measured in VIP and in non-VIP neurons during the day and at night. Current-clamp recordings revealed that both VIP and non-VIP neurons were spontaneously active, with higher firing rates during the day than at night. Average firing frequencies, however, were higher in VIP neurons (3.1 ± 0.2 Hz, day and 2.4 ± 0.2 Hz, night) than in non-VIP neurons (1.8 ± 0.2 Hz, day and 0.9 ± 0.2 Hz, night), both day and night. The waveforms of individual action potentials in VIP and non-VIP neurons were also distinct. Action potential durations (APD50) were shorter in VIP neurons (3.6 ± 0.1 ms, day and 2.9 ± 0.1 ms, night) than in non-VIP neurons (4.4 ± 0.3 ms, day and 3.5 ± 0.2 ms, night) throughout the light-dark cycle. In addition, after hyper polarization (AHP) amplitudes were larger in VIP neurons (21 ± 0.8 mV, day and 24.9 ± 0.9 mV, night) than in non-VIP neurons (17.2 ± 1.1 mV, day and 20.5 ± 1.2 mV, night) during the day and at night. Furthermore, significant day/night differences were observed in APD50 and AHP amplitudes in both VIP and non-VIP SCN neurons, consistent with rhythmic changes in ionic conductances that contribute to shaping the firing properties of both cell types. The higher day and night firing rates of VIP neurons likely contribute to synchronizing electrical activity in the SCN. PMID:26712166

  17. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  18. A Vasoactive Role for Endogenous Relaxin in Mesenteric Arteries of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gooi, Jon H.; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone relaxin has striking effects on the vascular system. Specifically, endogenous relaxin treatment reduces myogenic reactivity through nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasorelaxation and increases arterial compliance in small resistance arteries. However, less is known about the vascular roles of endogenous relaxin, particularly in males. Therefore, we used male wild-type (Rln+/+) and relaxin knockout (Rln−/−) mice to test the hypothesis that passive wall properties and vascular reactivity in mesenteric arteries would be compromised in Rln−/− mice. Passive compliance was determined in arteries (n = 8–9) mounted on a pressure myograph and in Ca2+-free Krebs containing 2 mM EGTA. Passive volume compliance was significantly (P = 0.01) decreased in the mesenteric arteries of Rln−/− mice. Vascular reactivity was assessed using wire myography. In mesenteric arteries (n = 5) of Rln−/− mice, there was a significant (P<0.03) increase in sensitivity to the vasoconstrictors phenylephrine and thromboxane-mimetic U41669. This enhanced responsiveness to vasoconstrictors was abolished by endothelial denudation, and attributed to impaired NO and prostanoid pathways in Rln−/− mice. Sensitivity to the endothelial agonist acetylcholine was significantly (n = 7–9, P≤0.03) decreased, and this was abolished in the presence of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (2 µM). This indicates that prostanoid vasoconstrictor pathways were upregulated in the mesenteric arteries of Rln−/− mice. In summary, we demonstrate endothelial dysfunction and impaired arterial wall remodeling in male mice deficient in relaxin. Thus, our results highlight a role for endogenous relaxin in the maintenance of normal mesenteric artery structure and function in males. PMID:25243460

  19. Therapeutically targeting mitochondrial redox signalling alleviates endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cathal; Kenny, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant placentation generating placental oxidative stress is proposed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Unfortunately, therapeutic trials of antioxidants have been uniformly disappointing. There is provisional evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as a source of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Here we provide evidence that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates endothelial dysfunction and establish that directly targeting mitochondrial scavenging may provide a protective role. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to 3% plasma from women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial function with a subsequent significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation compared to cells exposed to plasma from women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Real-time PCR analysis showed increased expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α, TLR-9 and ICAM-1 respectively in endothelial cells treated with preeclampsia plasma. MitoTempo is a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, pre-treatment of cells with MitoTempo protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Furthermore MitoTempo significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide production in cells exposed to preeclampsia plasma by normalising mitochondrial metabolism. MitoTempo significantly altered the inflammatory profile of plasma treated cells. These novel data support a functional role for mitochondrial redox signaling in modulating the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and identifies mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants as potential therapeutic candidates. PMID:27604418

  20. Therapeutically targeting mitochondrial redox signalling alleviates endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Cathal; Kenny, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant placentation generating placental oxidative stress is proposed to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Unfortunately, therapeutic trials of antioxidants have been uniformly disappointing. There is provisional evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as a source of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Here we provide evidence that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates endothelial dysfunction and establish that directly targeting mitochondrial scavenging may provide a protective role. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to 3% plasma from women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia resulted in a significant decrease in mitochondrial function with a subsequent significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation compared to cells exposed to plasma from women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Real-time PCR analysis showed increased expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α, TLR-9 and ICAM-1 respectively in endothelial cells treated with preeclampsia plasma. MitoTempo is a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, pre-treatment of cells with MitoTempo protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Furthermore MitoTempo significantly reduced mitochondrial superoxide production in cells exposed to preeclampsia plasma by normalising mitochondrial metabolism. MitoTempo significantly altered the inflammatory profile of plasma treated cells. These novel data support a functional role for mitochondrial redox signaling in modulating the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and identifies mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants as potential therapeutic candidates. PMID:27604418

  1. CTRP9 induces mitochondrial biogenesis and protects high glucose-induced endothelial oxidative damage via AdipoR1 -SIRT1- PGC-1α activation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Li, Bin; Chen, Xu; Su, Jie; Wang, Hongbing; Yu, Shiqiang; Zheng, Qijun

    2016-09-01

    Vascular lesions caused by endothelial dysfunction are the most common and serious complication of diabetes. The vasoactive potency of CTRP9 has been reported in our previous study via nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the effect of CTRP9 on vascular endothelial cells remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the protection role of CTRP9 in the primary aortic vascular endothelial cells and HAECs under high-glucose condition. We found that the aortic vascular endothelial cells isolated from mice fed with a high fat diet generated more ROS production than normal cells, along with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, which was also found in HAECs treated with high glucose. However, the treatment of CTPR9 significantly reduced ROS production and increased the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, the expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, TFAM, ATP5A1 and SIRT1, and the activity of cytochrome c oxidase, indicating an induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Furthermore, silencing the expression of SIRT1 in HAECs impeded the effect of CTRP9 on mitochondrial biogenesis, while silencing the expression of AdipoR1 in HAECs reversed the expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1α. Based on these findings, this study showed that CTRP9 might induce mitochondrial biogenesis and protect high glucose-induced endothelial oxidative damage via AdipoR1-SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. PMID:27349872

  2. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Asdonk, Tobias; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  3. Absorption of kininogen from human plasma by Streptococcus pyogenes is followed by the release of bradykinin.

    PubMed Central

    Ben Nasr, A; Herwald, H; Sjöbring, U; Renné, T; Müller-Esterl, W; Björck, L

    1997-01-01

    H-kininogen (high-molecular-mass kininogen, HK) is the precursor of the vasoactive peptide hormone bradykinin (BK). Previous work has demonstrated that HK binds to Streptococcus pyogenes through M-proteins, fibrous surface proteins and important virulence factors of these bacteria. Here we find that M-protein-expressing bacteria absorb HK from human plasma. The HK bound to the bacteria was found to be cleaved, and analysis of the degradation pattern suggested that the cleavage of HK at the bacterial surface is associated with the release of BK. Moreover, addition of activated plasma prekallikrein to bacteria preincubated with human plasma, resulted in BK release. This mechanism, by which a potent vasoactive and proinflammatory peptide is generated at the site of infection, should influence the host-parasite relationship during S. pyogenes infections. PMID:9307013

  4. Structure and function of endothelial caveolae.

    PubMed

    Stan, Radu-Virgil

    2002-06-01

    Caveolae are spherical invaginations of the plasma membrane and associated vesicles that are found at high surface densities in most cells, endothelia included. Their structural framework has been shown to consist of oligomerized caveolin molecules interacting with cholesterol and sphingolipids. Caveolae have been involved in many cellular functions such as endocytosis, signal transduction, mechano-transduction, potocytosis, and cholesterol trafficking. Some confusion still persists in the field with respect to the relationship between caveolae and the lipid rafts, which have been involved in many of the above functions. In addition to all these, endothelial caveolae have been involved in capillary permeability by their participation in the process of transcytosis. This short review will focus on their structure and components, methods used to determine these components, and the role of caveolae in the transendothelial exchanges between blood plasma and the interstitial fluid. PMID:12112442

  5. Design and synthesis of boronic acid inhibitors of endothelial lipase.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel P; LeBlanc, Daniel F; Cromley, Debra; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J; Bachovchin, William W

    2012-02-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are homologous lipases that act on plasma lipoproteins. EL is predominantly a phospholipase and appears to be a key regulator of plasma HDL-C. LPL is mainly a triglyceride lipase regulating (V)LDL levels. The existing biological data indicate that inhibitors selective for EL over LPL should have anti-atherogenic activity, mainly through increasing plasma HDL-C levels. We report here the synthesis of alkyl, aryl, or acyl-substituted phenylboronic acids that inhibit EL. Many of the inhibitors evaluated proved to be nearly equally potent against both EL and LPL, but several exhibited moderate to good selectivity for EL. PMID:22225633

  6. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Ken; Hiruma, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Yoji; Tanaka, Masaru; Sawada, Rumi; Niimi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs) can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials. PMID:27348615

  7. (-)-Epicatechin-induced recovery of mitochondria from simulated diabetes: Potential role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Rodríguez, Alonso; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    (-)-Epicatechin increases indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells and myocardium. We investigated endothelial nitric oxide synthase involvement on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in human coronary artery endothelial cells cultured in normal-glucose and high-glucose media, as well as to restore indicators of cardiac mitochondria from the effects of simulated diabetes. Here, we demonstrate the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase on (-)-epicatechin-induced increases in mitochondrial proteins, transcription factors and sirtuin 1 under normal-glucose conditions. In simulated diabetes endothelial nitric oxide synthase function, mitochondrial function-associated and biogenesis-associated indicators were adversely impacted by high glucose, effects that were reverted by (-)-epicatechin. As an animal model of type 2 diabetes, 2-month old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Fasting and fed blood glucose levels were increased and NO plasma levels decreased. High-fat-diet-fed mice myocardium revealed endothelial nitric oxide synthase dysfunction, reduced mitochondrial activity and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. The administration of 1 mg/kg (-)-epicatechin for 15 days by oral gavage shifted these endpoints towards control mice values. Results suggest that endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates (-)-epicatechin-induced increases of indicators associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in endothelial cells. (-)-Epicatechin also counteracts the negative effects that high glucose or simulated type 2 diabetes has on endothelial nitric oxide synthase function. PMID:26993496

  8. Mineralocorticoid Receptors Modulate Vascular Endothelial Function in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Segal, Mark S.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity increases linearly with age and is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) contribute to impaired vascular endothelial function in cardiovascular disease; however, their role in uncomplicated human obesity is unknown. Because plasma aldosterone levels are elevated in obesity and adipocytes may be a source of aldosterone, we hypothesized that MR modulate vascular endothelial function in older adults in an adiposity-dependent manner. To test this hypothesis, we administered MR blockade (Eplerenone; 100 mg/day) for 1 month in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to 22 older adults (10 men, 55–79 years) varying widely in adiposity (body mass index: 20–45 kg/m2) but who were free from overt cardiovascular disease. We evaluated vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD] via ultrasonography) and oxidative stress (plasma F2-isoprostanes and vascular endothelial cell protein expression of nitrotyrosine and NADPH oxidase p47phox) during placebo and MR blockade. In the whole group, oxidative stress (P>0.05) and FMD did not change with MR blockade (6.39±0.67 vs. 6.23±0.73 %, P=0.7, placebo vs. Eplerenone). However, individual improvements in FMD in response to Eplerenone were associated with higher total body fat (body mass index: r=0.45, P=0.02 and DXA-derived % body fat: r=0.50, P=0.009) and abdominal fat (total: r=0.61, P=0.005, visceral: r=0.67, P=0.002 and subcutaneous: r=0.48, P=0.03). In addition, greater improvements in FMD with Eplerenone were related with higher baseline fasting glucose (r=0.53, P=0.01). MR influence vascular endothelial function in an adiposity-dependent manner in healthy older adults. PMID:23786536

  9. Soluble Vascular Endothelial Cadherin as a New Biomarker of Irradiation in Highly Irradiated Baboons with Bone Marrow Protection.

    PubMed

    Hérodin, Francis; Voir, Diane; Vilgrain, Isabelle; Courçon, Marie; Drouet, Michel; Boittin, François-Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Vascular endothelial cadherin is the main component of adherens junctions enabling cohesion of the endothelial monolayer in vessels. The extracellular part of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) can be cleaved, releasing soluble fragments in blood (sVE-cadherin). In some diseases with endothelial dysfunction, a correlation between increased blood sVE-cadherin levels and disease state has been proposed. Irradiation is known to induce endothelial damage, but new serum biomarkers are needed to evaluate endothelial damage after irradiation. Here, the authors investigated whether sVE-cadherin may be an interesting biomarker of irradiation in highly irradiated baboons with bone marrow protection. sVE-cadherin was detected in the plasma of young as well as old baboons. Plasma sVE-cadherin levels significantly decrease a few days after irradiation but recover in the late time after irradiation. Kinetic analysis of plasma sVE-cadherin levels suggests a correlation with white blood cell counts in both the acute phase of irradiation and during hematopoietic recovery, suggesting that plasma sVE-cadherin levels may be partly linked to the disappearance and recovery of white blood cells. Interestingly, after hematopoietic recovery was completed, sVE-cadherin levels were found to exceed control values, suggesting that plasma sVE-cadherin may represent a new biomarker of endothelial damage or neovascularization in the late time after irradiation. PMID:27115227

  10. Imidazolineoxyl N-oxide induces COX-2 in endothelial cells: role of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Mercedes; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose; Rodriguez, Cristina; Siguero, Laura; Seriola, Cristina; Romero, Jose-Maria; Vila, Luis

    2012-01-01

    cPTIO (2-[4-carboxyphenyl]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) exerts beneficial actions on systemic inflammatory response. Besides its nitric oxide (NO) scavenging properties cPTIO could exert beneficial effects through modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. We studied the effect of cPTIO on the biosynthesis of vasoactive prostaglandins (PG) by endothelial cells. Human cord umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with cPTIO, and expression of cycloxygenase (COX) isoenzymes in terms of mRNA and protein was determined by real-time-PCR and immunoblotting. Release of PGE2 (as index of untransformed PGH2 release) and 6-oxo-PGF1alpha (PGI2 stable metabolite) was determined by enzyme-immunoassay. cPTIO significantly increases the release of untransformed PGH2 associated to the induction of COX-2 expression. Experiments with NO-synthase inhibitors and radical scavengers showed that induction of COX-2 by cPTIO was mediated by free radical species, likely caused by the mobilization of NO from cellular stores. Finally, using specific signal-transduction inhibitors we show the involvement of Src/PI3-K/PKC pathway. Additional effects other than a direct NO scavenging activity may confer therapeutic advantages to cPTIO as compared with NO-synthase inhibitors for the treatment of systemic inflammation-associated vascular hyporeactivity. PMID:22652668

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transfer enhances dilation of newborn piglet pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Aschner, J L; Kovacs, N; Perciaccante, J V; Figueroa, J P; Thrikawala, N; Robins, G S; Busija, D W

    1999-07-01

    We determined the expression and functional correlate of in vitro transfection with a recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the gene for bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase (AdCMVeNOS) or Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (AdCMVLacZ) in pulmonary endothelial cells (EC), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and pulmonary arteries (PA) from newborn piglets. AdCMVeNOS and AdCMVeLacZ vectors, grown in 293-cell monolayers, were purified by double-cesium gradient ultracentrifugation. Cell cultures and PA were incubated with increasing vector titers for 30 or 60 min, followed by incubation in fresh medium for 18 h at 37 degrees C. LacZ expression was assessed by histochemical staining; eNOS expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Functional eNOS expression was determined by measurement of cGMP and quantification of the relaxation response to bradykinin (BK). In PA, LacZ transgene expression was preferentially localized to the adventitia and endothelium. Increased eNOS protein expression was observed in EC and VSMC transfected with AdCMVeNOS. Functional studies revealed increased cGMP abundance in cultured cells and enhanced relaxation to BK in AdCMVeNOS-transfected PA. These studies demonstrate that gene transfer with AdCMVeNOS results in functional expression and altered vasoactive responses in the neonatal pulmonary vasculature. Gene transfer with replication-deficient adenovirus vectors is a useful tool for the study of targeted genes in vascular biology. PMID:10409217

  12. Protection Effect of Endomorphins on Advanced Glycation End Products Induced Injury in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Liping; Niu, Ruilan; Tian, Limin; Zhang, Qi; Quan, Jinxing; Liu, Hua; Wei, Suhong; Guo, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Endomorphins (EMs) have a very important bridge-function in cardiovascular, endocrinological, and neurological systems. This study is to investigate the effects of EMs on the synthesis and secretion of vasoactive substances induced by advanced glycation end products in primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Firstly, HUVECs were stimulated with AGEs-bovine serum albumin (AGEs-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), or both AGEs-BSA and EMs together, respectively. Then, HUVEC survival rate was calculated by MTT assay, the levels of NO, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by colorimetric analysis, and the contents of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA levels of eNOS and ET-1 were measured by RT-PCR. The expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was detected by immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that the mRNA expression and secretion of eNOS were significantly enhanced after incubation with EMs compared to those with AGEs-BSA, while the secretion of NO and iNOS, mRNA expression, and secretion of ET-1 had opposite changes. The fluorescence intensity of p38MAPK in nuclear was decreased after pretreatment with EMs compared to incubation with AGEs-BSA. Conclusion. The present study suggests that EMs have certain protection effect on AGEs-BSA-induced injury in HUVEC. PMID:23671848

  13. Gene expression profiling reveals novel protective effects of Aminaphtone on ECV304 endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Giulia; Bellocchi, Chiara; Todoerti, Katia; Saporiti, Federica; Piacentini, Luca; Scorza, Raffaella; Colombo, Gualtiero I

    2016-07-01

    Aminaphtone, a drug used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), showed a remarkable role in the modulation of several vasoactive factors, like endothelin-1 and adhesion molecules. We analysed in vitro the effects of Aminaphtone on whole-genome gene expression and production of different inflammatory proteins. ECV-304 endothelial cells were stimulated with IL-1β 100U/ml in the presence or absence of Aminaphtone 6μg/ml. Gene expression profiles were compared at 1, 3, and 6h after stimulation by microarray. Supernatants of ECV-304 cultures were analysed at 3, 6, 12, and 24h by multiplex ELISA for production of several cytokine and chemokines. Microarrays showed a significant down-regulation at all times of a wide range of inflammatory genes. Aminaphtone appeared also able to modulate the regulation of immune response process (down-regulating cytokine biosynthesis, transcripts involved in lymphocyte differentiation and cell proliferation, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction) and to regulate genes engaged in homeostasis, secretion, body fluid levels, response to hypoxia, cell division, and cell-to-cell communication and signalling. Results were confirmed and extended analysing the secretome, which showed significant reduction of the release of 14 cytokines and chemokines. These effects are predicted to be mediated by interaction with different transcription factors. Aminaphtone was able to modulate the expression of inflammatory molecules relevant to the pathogenesis of several conditions in which the endothelial dysfunction is the main player and early event, like scleroderma, lung fibrosis, or atherosclerosis. PMID:27083548

  14. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  15. A Multi-Layered Computational Model of Coupled Elastin Degradation, Vasoactive Dysfunction, and Collagenous Stiffening in Aortic Aging

    PubMed Central

    Valentín, A.; Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Arterial responses to diverse pathologies and insults likely occur via similar mechanisms. For example, many studies suggest that the natural process of aging and isolated systolic hypertension share many characteristics in arteries, including loss of functional elastin, decreased smooth muscle tone, and altered rates of deposition and/or cross-linking of fibrillar collagen. Our aim is to show computationally how these coupled effects can impact evolving aortic geometry and mechanical behavior. Employing a thick-walled, multi-layered constrained mixture model, we suggest that a coupled loss of elastin and vasoactive function are fundamental mechanisms by which aortic aging occurs. Moreover, it is suggested that collagenous stiffening, although itself generally an undesirable process, can play a key role in attenuating excessive dilatation, perhaps including the enlargement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. PMID:21380570

  16. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the taste organs of teleost fish and frog.

    PubMed

    Witt, M

    1995-02-01

    Using immunohistochemistry, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was visualized in taste bud cells of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the European catfish, Silurus glanis, by means of light and electron microscopy. Intracellular membrane systems, presumably smooth endoplasmic reticulum, of light (sensory) cells, but not of dark (supporting) cells and basal cells, were densely labelled with antibody. In the frog (four species: Rana temporaria, R. ridibunda, R. arvalis, R. pipiens), taste bud cells did not label. However, the dense basal nerve fibre plexus, some subepithelial ganglionic cells, but no ascending intragemmal fibres, were immunoreactive. In fish, the results support evidence that VIP is involved in the modulation of taste transduction at the level of receptor cells. In the frog, an indirect, possibly vasodilatatory effect on taste perception may be considered. PMID:7775201

  17. Immunohistochemical evidence for the occurrence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-containing nerve fibres in human fetal abdominal paraganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Hervonen, A; Linnoila, I; Tainio, H; Vaalasti, A; Mascorro, J A

    1985-01-01

    The abdominal paraganglia in man represent a major source of catecholamines, and perhaps peptide hormones, during the fetal period. The nature of the innervation of the abdominal paraganglia was studied immunohistochemically by utilising antibodies to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, enkephalin, substance-P and somatostatin. The paraganglia showed an abundant network of VIP-immunoreactive fibres, and similar nerve fibres were found within nerve bundles of the preaortic sympathetic plexus. Occasionally, VIP-immunoreactive fibres were seen within the prevertebral ganglia, but stained cell bodies were never observed. It may be suggested that VIP-containing nerves could regulate a secretory response from fetal human abdominal paraganglia. Images Fig. 1 Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-11 PMID:3870718

  18. New insights in endothelial and smooth muscle cell communication.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Víctor Arana; De Haro, Roberto; Sosa-Melgarejo, Jorge; Méndez, José D

    2007-01-01

    Based on immunohistochemical techniques against connexins and the intercellular flux of staining molecules, it has previously been shown that electrotonic communication occurs among endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, this due to the presence of myoendothelial gap junctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the density of myoendothelial contacts in the left coronary and internal mammary arteries as well as in the left saphenous vein by means of electron microscopy, the distance between both cells participating in an myoendothelial contact with a semi-automatic image analysis system and the presence of homocellular and heterocellular gap junctions between endothelial and smooth muscle cells by using the immunohistochemical technique and confocal microscopy in thoracic aorta were also analyzed. The results are that all blood vessels studied present myoendothelial contacts, while density studies show that they are more abundant in the saphenous vein. The myoendothelial contact distance is constant and in no case the cytoplasmic processes reach the plasma membrane of the partner cell toward which they are advanced. Homocellular gap junctions were found between smooth muscle cells and between endothelial cells. Heterocellular gap junctions were absent, evidencing the possibility that signaling molecules between endothelial and smooth muscle cells may be transferred through plasma membranes as was once thought and not necessarily by electrotonic communication. PMID:17383847

  19. Dengue virus NS1 triggers endothelial permeability and vascular leak that is prevented by NS1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Beatty, P Robert; Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Killingbeck, Sarah S; Glasner, Dustin R; Hopkins, Kaycie; Harris, Eva

    2015-09-01

    The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to DENV4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause up to ~100 million cases of dengue annually worldwide. Severe disease is thought to result from immunopathogenic processes involving serotype cross-reactive antibodies and T cells that together induce vasoactive cytokines, causing vascular leakage that leads to shock. However, no viral proteins have been directly implicated in triggering endothelial permeability, which results in vascular leakage. DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted and circulates in patients' blood during acute infection; high levels of NS1 are associated with severe disease. We show that inoculation of mice with DENV NS1 alone induces both vascular leakage and production of key inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, simultaneous administration of NS1 with a sublethal dose of DENV2 results in a lethal vascular leak syndrome. We also demonstrate that NS1 from DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 triggers endothelial barrier dysfunction, causing increased permeability of human endothelial cell monolayers in vitro. These pathogenic effects of physiologically relevant amounts of NS1 in vivo and in vitro were blocked by NS1-immune polyclonal mouse serum or monoclonal antibodies to NS1, and immunization of mice with NS1 from DENV1 to DENV4 protected against lethal DENV2 challenge. These findings add an important and previously overlooked component to the causes of dengue vascular leak, identify a new potential target for dengue therapeutics, and support inclusion of NS1 in dengue vaccines. PMID:26355030

  20. Differential regulation of angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2 during dengue virus infection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells: implications for endothelial hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Ong, Siew Pei; Ng, Mah Lee; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2013-12-01

    Infection with dengue virus (DV) can result in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, where patients suffer from bleeding and plasma leakage involving endothelial cells. Angiopoietins (Ang) 1 and 2 are important angiogenic factors that affect endothelial barrier integrity. In this study, DV was observed to induce endothelial leakage at multiplicity of infection of 10 in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with interendothelial gap formation. Immunostaining of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and zona occludin 1 (ZO-1) showed the absence of these endothelial junctional proteins at the cell-cell contact zones between adjacent cells. In addition, Ang1 that is required for protecting against endothelial hyperpermeability was found to be down-regulated during DV infection. Treatment with increasing concentrations of recombinant Ang1 was shown to prevent DV-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in a dose-dependent manner by preventing the down-regulation of VE-cadherin and ZO-1 at cell membrane. In contrast, the expression of Ang2, the natural antagonist of Ang1, was observed to be up-regulated during DV infection. Recombinant Ang2 added to HUVEC at non-toxic concentrations showed decreased in transendothelial electrical resistance reading and the down-regulation of VE-cadherin and ZO-1. These findings suggest that DV reduces the expression of Ang1 and enhances the expression of Ang2 in endothelial cells and that this imbalance of Ang 1 and Ang 2 may play a contributing role to the increased permeability of human primary endothelial cells during DV infection. PMID:23989887

  1. Interaction of human endothelial cells and nickel-titanium materials modified with silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A.; Antonova, Larisa V.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.; Matveeva, Vera G.; Sergeeva, Evgeniya A.

    2015-10-01

    The paper studies the influence of chemical and phase compositions of NiTi surface layers modified with Si ions by plasma immersion implantation on their interaction with endothelial cells. It is shown that certain technological modes of Si ion implantation enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. It is found that the Si-modified NiTi surface is capable of stimulating the formation of capillary-like structures in the cell culture.

  2. Interaction of human endothelial cells and nickel-titanium materials modified with silicon ions

    SciTech Connect

    Lotkov, Aleksandr I. Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A. Antonova, Larisa V. Matveeva, Vera G. Sergeeva, Evgeniya A.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.

    2015-10-27

    The paper studies the influence of chemical and phase compositions of NiTi surface layers modified with Si ions by plasma immersion implantation on their interaction with endothelial cells. It is shown that certain technological modes of Si ion implantation enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. It is found that the Si-modified NiTi surface is capable of stimulating the formation of capillary-like structures in the cell culture.

  3. Caveolae protect endothelial cells from membrane rupture during increased cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jade P.X.; Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Howard, Gillian; Chadwick, Jessica; Shvets, Elena; Cowburn, Andrew S.; Dunmore, Benjamin J.; Crosby, Alexi; Morrell, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Caveolae are strikingly abundant in endothelial cells, yet the physiological functions of caveolae in endothelium and other tissues remain incompletely understood. Previous studies suggest a mechanoprotective role, but whether this is relevant under the mechanical forces experienced by endothelial cells in vivo is unclear. In this study we have sought to determine whether endothelial caveolae disassemble under increased hemodynamic forces, and whether caveolae help prevent acute rupture of the plasma membrane under these conditions. Experiments in cultured cells established biochemical assays for disassembly of caveolar protein complexes, and assays for acute loss of plasma membrane integrity. In vivo, we demonstrate that caveolae in endothelial cells of the lung and cardiac muscle disassemble in response to acute increases in cardiac output. Electron microscopy and two-photon imaging reveal that the plasma membrane of microvascular endothelial cells in caveolin 1−/− mice is much more susceptible to acute rupture when cardiac output is increased. These data imply that mechanoprotection through disassembly of caveolae is important for endothelial function in vivo. PMID:26459598

  4. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 mediates TNFα-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Haines, RJ; Beard, RS; Wu, MH

    2014-01-01

    A key event in the progression of systemic inflammation resulting from severe trauma or shock involves microvascular hyperpermeability, which leads to excessive plasma fluid and proteins accumulating in extravascular space resulting in tissue edema. The precise molecular mechanism of the hyperpermeability response is not completely understood. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also known as breast tumor kinase BRK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase related to Src-family proteins. Although it has also been shown that PTK6 participates in regulating epithelial barrier function, the role of PTK6 in endothelial barrier function has not been reported. In this study, we hypothesized that PTK6 is 1) expressed in vascular endothelial cells, and 2) contributes to vascular endothelial hyperpermeability in response to TNFα. Results showed that PTK6 was detected in mouse endothelial cells at the level of protein and mRNA. In addition, PTK6 knockdown attenuated TNFα induced decrease in endothelial barrier function as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and in vitro transwell albumin-flux assays. Furthermore, we showed that TNFα treatment of endothelial cells increased active PTK6 association with p120-catenin at endothelial cell-cell junctions. Further analysis using immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that PTK6 knockdown attenuated TNFα induced VE-cadherin internalization as well as promoting its association with p120-catenin. Our study demonstrates a novel role of PTK6 in mediating endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25446122

  5. Role of endothelial cells in bovine mammary gland health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Valerie E; Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    The bovine mammary gland is a dynamic and complex organ composed of various cell types that work together for the purpose of milk synthesis and secretion. A layer of endothelial cells establishes the blood-milk barrier, which exists to facilitate the exchange of solutes and macromolecules necessary for optimal milk production. During bacterial challenge, however, endothelial cells divert some of their lactation function to protect the underlying tissue from damage by initiating inflammation. At the onset of inflammation, endothelial cells tightly regulate the movement of plasma components and leukocytes into affected tissue. Unfortunately, endothelial dysfunction as a result of exacerbated or sustained inflammation can negatively affect both barrier integrity and the health of surrounding extravascular tissue. The objective of this review is to highlight the role of endothelial cells in supporting milk production and regulating optimal inflammatory responses. The consequences of endothelial dysfunction and sustained inflammation on milk synthesis and secretion are discussed. Given the important role of endothelial cells in orchestrating the inflammatory response, a better understanding of endothelial function during mastitis may support development of targeted therapies to protect bovine mammary tissue and mammary endothelium. PMID:26303748

  6. Towards a comprehensive endothelial biomarkers profiling and endothelium-guided pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Maria; Suraj, Joanna; Kus, Kamil; Kij, Agnieszka; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic significance in cardiovascular disease, but the endothelial phenotype is still not measured routinely to stratify the cardiovascular risk and tailor therapy. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), the gold-standard technique for the functional assessment of endothelial function that is increasingly used in clinical settings measures the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent function only. However, the endothelial dysfunction involves a plethora of pathophysiologically important biochemical changes beyond alterations in the NO bioavailability. Still, in many diseases, some plasma protein biomarkers reflecting the pro-thrombotic and the pro-inflammatory endothelial phenotypes have poor selectivity, specificity, and a weak predictive value if they are used alone. Therefore, a multi biomarker strategy seems to be a reasonable and promising alternative. Here, we propose a multi-biomarker strategy to diagnose the endothelial dysfunction and to monitor the efficacy of an endothelium-targeted therapy. This strategy is based on the panel of endothelial biomarkers, reflecting various aspects and mechanisms of dysfunctional endothelium. The potential of an advanced analytical platform like the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry-based multiple reaction monitoring for simultaneous quantification of multiple endothelial biomakers is also discussed. PMID:26321280

  7. Expression of an insulin-regulatable glucose carrier in muscle and fat endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilaró, Senen; Palacín, Manuel; Pilch, Paul F.; Testar, Xavier; Zorzano, Antonio

    1989-12-01

    INSULIN rapidly stimulates glucose use in the major target tissues, muscle and fat, by modulating a tissue-specific glucose transporter isoform1-6. Access of glucose to the target tissue is restricted by endothelial cells which line the walls of nonfenestrated capillaries of fat and muscle7. Thus, we examined whether the capillary endothelial cells are actively involved in the modulation of glucose availability by these tissues. We report here the abundant expression of the muscle/fat glucose transporter isoform in endothelial cells, using an immunocytochemical analysis with a monoclonal antibody specific for this isoform1. This expression is restricted to endothelial cells from the major insulin target tissues, and it is not detected in brain and liver where insulin does not activate glucose transport. The expression of the muscle/fat transporter isoform in endothelial cells is significantly greater than in the neighbouring muscle and fat cells. Following administration of insulin to animals in vivo, there occurs a rapid increase in the number of muscle/fat transporters present in the lumenal plasma membrane of the capillary endothelial cells. These results document that insulin promotes the translocation of the muscle/fat glucose transporter in endothelial cells. It is therefore likely that endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of glucose use by the major insulin target tissues in normal and diseased states.

  8. Increased Vitreous Shedding of Microparticles in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Stimulates Endothelial Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chahed, Sadri; Leroyer, Aurélie S.; Benzerroug, Mounir; Gaucher, David; Georgescu, Adriana; Picaud, Serge; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Gaudric, Alain; Tedgui, Alain; Massin, Pascale; Boulanger, Chantal M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy is associated with progressive retinal capillary activation and proliferation, leading to vision impairment and blindness. Microparticles are submicron membrane vesicles with biological activities, released following cell activation or apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that proangiogenic microparticles accumulate in vitreous fluid in diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Levels and cellular origin of vitreous and plasma microparticles from control (n = 26) and diabetic (n = 104) patients were analyzed by flow cytometry, and their proangiogenic activity was assessed by in vitro thymidine incorporation and neovessel formation in subcutaneous Matrigel plugs in mice. RESULTS Microparticles of endothelial, platelet, photoreceptor, and microglial origin were identified in vitreous samples. Levels of photoreceptor and microglial microparticles were undetectable in plasmas but were comparable in diabetic and control vitreous samples. Vitreous platelet and endothelial microparticles levels were increased in diabetic patients and decreased following panretinal laser photocoagulation or intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injection in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The ratio of vitreous to plasma microparticle levels was calculated to estimate local formation versus potential plasma leakage. In PDR, the endothelial microparticles ratio—but not that for platelet—was greater than 1.0, indicating local formation of endothelial microparticles from retinal vessels and permeation of platelet microparticles from plasma. Isolated vitreous microparticles stimulated by 1.6-fold endothelial proliferation and increased new vessel formation in mice. CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrates that vitreous fluid contains shed membrane microparticles of endothelial, platelet, and retinal origin. Vitreous microparticles levels are increased in patients with diabetic retinopathy, where they could contribute to disease

  9. Endothelial CXCR7 Regulates Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Stacer, Amanda C.; Fenner, Joseph; Cavnar, Stephen P.; Xiao, Annie; Zhao, Shuang; Chang, S. Laura; Salomonnson, Anna; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7 (ACKR3) functions as a scavenger receptor for chemokine CXCL12, a molecule that promotes multiple steps in tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and multiple other malignancies. While normal vascular endothelium expresses low levels of CXCR7, marked upregulation of CXCR7 occurs in tumor vasculature in breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate effects of endothelial CXCR7 in breast cancer, we conditionally deleted this receptor from vascular endothelium of adult mice, generating CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND animals. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice appeared phenotypically normal, although these animals exhibited a modest 35 ± 3% increase in plasma CXCL12 as compared with control. Using two different syngeneic, orthotopic tumor implant models of breast cancer, we discovered that CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice had significantly greater local recurrence of cancer following resection, elevated numbers of circulating tumor cells, and more spontaneous metastases. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice also showed greater experimental metastases following intracardiac injection of cancer cells. These results establish that endothelial CXCR7 limits breast cancer metastasis at multiple steps in the metastatic cascade, advancing understanding of CXCL12 pathways in tumor environments and informing ongoing drug development targeting CXCR7 in cancer. PMID:26119946

  10. Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water (/sup 3/HHO) and /sup 14/C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for /sup 3/HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D/sub 2/), and the extracellular material (D/sub 1/) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for /sup 3/HHO was higher than that for AP and for both /sup 3/HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes.

  11. Endothelial mitochondria and heart disease.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sean Michael

    2010-10-01

    The endothelium is vital to the proper functioning in the heart, in particular due to its production of nitric oxide (NO) which regulates vascular tone. Damage to the endothelium contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, and hence to possible myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure. Like most cells, endothelial cells contain mitochondria, despite their having relatively little dependence on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production. However, endothelial mitochondria are centrally involved in maintaining the fine regulatory balance between mitochondrial calcium concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and NO. This raises the question of whether damage to endothelial mitochondria would have repercussions in terms of the development of heart disease. In fact, increasingly nuanced techniques enabling restricted transgenic expression of antioxidant proteins in mice has demonstrated that mitochondrial ROS do contribute to endothelial damage. New pharmaceutical approaches designed to target protective molecules such as ROS scavengers to the mitochondria promise to be effective in preventing heart disease. As well as protecting cardiomyocytes, these drugs may have the added benefit of preventing damage to the endothelial mitochondria. However, much remains to be done in understanding the contribution that mitochondria make to endothelial function. PMID:20558442

  12. NHERF-2 maintains endothelial homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit K.; Vohra, Pawan K.; E, Guangqi; Prakash, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-2 (NHERF-2) is an integral component of almost all endothelial cells (ECs), yet its endothelial function is not known. Here, we found that NHERF-2, is a key regulator of endothelial homeostasis because NHERF-2–silenced ECs proliferate at a much higher rate even in the absence of mitogens such as VEGF compared with control ECs. We further show that the hyperproliferation phenotype of NHERF-2–silenced EC is because of an accelerated cell cycle that is probably caused by a combination of the following factors: increased cytoplasmic calcium, increased expression of c-Myc, increased expression of cyclin D1, and reduced expression of p27. Using an experimental mouse model of human hemangioma, we found that the endothelial neoplasms derived from NHERF-2–silenced cells were much larger in volume than those derived from control cells. Thus, NHERF-2 is a negative regulator of endothelial proliferation and may have important roles in endothelial homeostasis and vascular modeling. PMID:22343917

  13. Apoptosis and calcification of vascular endothelial cell under hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kuaifa; Chen, Zhujun; Liu, Meng; Peng, Jian; Wu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is found that increase in Hcy level in blood can directly or indirectly cause vascular endothelial cell injury and induce vascular calcification. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell injury and vascular calcification has not been studied thoroughly. This paper carried out experiment for research aiming at discussing the effect and action mechanism of Hhcy on endothelial cells and vascular calcification. Firstly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and then intervened by Hcy of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mmol/L) and at different action time (3, 6, 12, 24 h). Then apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen were detected by flow cytometry. At the same time, the model for the culture of rat vascular calcification was set up and induced into Hhcy so as to detect the total plasma Hcy level and judge vascular calcification degree. The results showed that with the increase in Hcy concentration and extension of action period, the apoptosis rate and generation of reactive oxygen of HUVECs all significantly increased, and the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.01). In animal calcification model, mass of black particle deposition was seen after Von Kossa staining of rat vessels in calcification group. Compared with the control group, the vascular calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content in calcification group all increased (P < 0.01). The content of plasma lipid conjugated olefine from highest to lowest wasas follows: calcification plus homoetheionin, homoetheionin, and calcification group. There was no significant difference between the calcification group and control group. All these findings suggested that Hcy could induce the apoptosis of endothelial cells and its effect degree depended on its concentration and action period; Hhcy could promote the calcification of blood vessels, and its mechanism might relate with the strengthening of

  14. Effect of certain variables on the tumor and tissue distribution of tracers. Salicylates and vasoactive drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.; Stern, P.; Gordon, R.; Dabbs, J.

    1981-03-01

    Attempts were made to increase the viable tumor concentration of 54Mn and 67Ga in a rat hepatoma model by administering rat angiotensin, tolazoline, and salicylates. Salicylates increased the tumor concentrations of 54Mn and improved 65Mn viable tumor/background ratios. 67Ga was not affected by the salicylates. The salicylate effect appeared to be mediated by intracellular mechanisms rather than alterations in plasma protein binding. Rat angiotensin slightly increased the concentrations of 67Ga in the tumors but not enough to suggest that it would be useful clinically. Tolazoline did not increase tumor uptake of the tracers.

  15. F-actin-rich contractile endothelial pores prevent vascular leakage during leukocyte diapedesis through local RhoA signalling

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Niels; Schimmel, Lilian; Oort, Chantal; van Rijssel, Jos; Yin, Taofei; Ma, Bin; van Unen, Jakobus; Pitter, Bettina; Huveneers, Stephan; Goedhart, Joachim; Wu, Yi; Montanez, Eloi; Woodfin, Abigail; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2016-01-01

    During immune surveillance and inflammation, leukocytes exit the vasculature through transient openings in the endothelium without causing plasma leakage. However, the exact mechanisms behind this intriguing phenomenon are still unknown. Here we report that maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity during leukocyte diapedesis requires local endothelial RhoA cycling. Endothelial RhoA depletion in vitro or Rho inhibition in vivo provokes neutrophil-induced vascular leakage that manifests during the physical movement of neutrophils through the endothelial layer. Local RhoA activation initiates the formation of contractile F-actin structures that surround emigrating neutrophils. These structures that surround neutrophil-induced endothelial pores prevent plasma leakage through actomyosin-based pore confinement. Mechanistically, we found that the initiation of RhoA activity involves ICAM-1 and the Rho GEFs Ect2 and LARG. In addition, regulation of actomyosin-based endothelial pore confinement involves ROCK2b, but not ROCK1. Thus, endothelial cells assemble RhoA-controlled contractile F-actin structures around endothelial pores that prevent vascular leakage during leukocyte extravasation. PMID:26814335

  16. F-actin-rich contractile endothelial pores prevent vascular leakage during leukocyte diapedesis through local RhoA signalling.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Niels; Schimmel, Lilian; Oort, Chantal; van Rijssel, Jos; Yin, Taofei; Ma, Bin; van Unen, Jakobus; Pitter, Bettina; Huveneers, Stephan; Goedhart, Joachim; Wu, Yi; Montanez, Eloi; Woodfin, Abigail; van Buul, Jaap D

    2016-01-01

    During immune surveillance and inflammation, leukocytes exit the vasculature through transient openings in the endothelium without causing plasma leakage. However, the exact mechanisms behind this intriguing phenomenon are still unknown. Here we report that maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity during leukocyte diapedesis requires local endothelial RhoA cycling. Endothelial RhoA depletion in vitro or Rho inhibition in vivo provokes neutrophil-induced vascular leakage that manifests during the physical movement of neutrophils through the endothelial layer. Local RhoA activation initiates the formation of contractile F-actin structures that surround emigrating neutrophils. These structures that surround neutrophil-induced endothelial pores prevent plasma leakage through actomyosin-based pore confinement. Mechanistically, we found that the initiation of RhoA activity involves ICAM-1 and the Rho GEFs Ect2 and LARG. In addition, regulation of actomyosin-based endothelial pore confinement involves ROCK2b, but not ROCK1. Thus, endothelial cells assemble RhoA-controlled contractile F-actin structures around endothelial pores that prevent vascular leakage during leukocyte extravasation. PMID:26814335

  17. Mechanically induced intercellular calcium communication in confined endothelial structures.

    PubMed

    Junkin, Michael; Lu, Yi; Long, Juexuan; Deymier, Pierre A; Hoying, James B; Wong, Pak Kin

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling in the diverse vascular structures is regulated by a wide range of mechanical and biochemical factors to maintain essential physiological functions of the vasculature. To properly transmit information, the intercellular calcium communication mechanism must be robust against various conditions in the cellular microenvironment. Using plasma lithography geometric confinement, we investigate mechanically induced calcium wave propagation in networks of human umbilical vein endothelial cells organized. Endothelial cell networks with confined architectures were stimulated at the single cell level, including using capacitive force probes. Calcium wave propagation in the network was observed using fluorescence calcium imaging. We show that mechanically induced calcium signaling in the endothelial networks is dynamically regulated against a wide range of probing forces and repeated stimulations. The calcium wave is able to propagate consistently in various dimensions from monolayers to individual cell chains, and in different topologies from linear patterns to cell junctions. Our results reveal that calcium signaling provides a robust mechanism for cell-cell communication in networks of endothelial cells despite the diversity of the microenvironmental inputs and complexity of vascular structures. PMID:23267827

  18. Caveolae, Caveolins, Cavins, and Endothelial Cell Function: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Caveolae are cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-rich flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane which are particularly abundant in vascular endothelium and present in all other cell types of the cardiovascular system, including vascular smooth-muscle cells, macrophages, cardiac myocytes, and fibroblasts. Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. When caveolae were discovered, their functional role was believed to be limited to transport across the endothelial cell barrier. Since then, however, a large body of evidence has accumulated, suggesting that these microdomains are very important in regulating many other important endothelial cell functions, mostly due to their ability to concentrate and compartmentalize various signaling molecules. Over the course of several years, multiple studies involving knockout mouse and small interfering RNA approaches have considerably enhanced our understanding of the role of caveolae and caveolin-1 in regulating many cardiovascular functions. New findings have been reported implicating other caveolar protein components in endothelial cell signaling and function, such as the understudied caveolin-2 and newly discovered cavin proteins. The aim of this review is to focus primarily on molecular and cellular aspects of the role of caveolae, caveolins, and cavins in endothelial cell signaling and function. In addition, where appropriate, the possible implications for the cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology will be discussed. PMID:22232608

  19. Zinc and dexamethasone induce metallothionein accumulation by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briske-Anderson, M.; Bobilya, D.J.; Reeves, P.G. )

    1991-03-11

    Several tissues increase their metallothionein (MT) concentration when exposed to elevated amounts of plasma Zn. Endothelial cells form the blood vessels that supply all tissues and constitute a barrier between cells of tissues and the blood. This study examined the ability of endothelial cells to synthesize MT and accumulate Zn in response to high amounts of Zn and dexamethasone. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to confluence in Minimum Essential Medium with Earle's salts and 10% fetal calf serum. The monolayer was maintained for 2 d prior to use in medium containing EDTA-dialyzed serum. This low Zn medium was replaced with one containing 1, 6, 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 {mu}M Zn and incubated for 24 hr before harvesting the cells. MT was quantified by the cadmium binding assay. Cellular Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption after a nitric acid digestion. The MT concentration was elevated in response to Zn concentrations of 100 {mu}M or more. Cellular Zn concentration was elevated when media Zn was 25 {mu}M or more. MT and cellular Zn concentrations were positively correlated. In another study, inclusion of 0.1 {mu}M dexamethasone in the media increased concentration at all Zn concentrations studied. However, the inclusion of 0.3 {mu}M cis-platinum had no effect. In conclusion, endothelial cells in culture respond to elevated amounts of Zn and dexamethasone in the media by accumulating Zn and MT.

  20. Radial keratotomy associated endothelial degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Ollerton, Andrew; Semnani, Rodmehr T; Hsu, Maylon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the presentation and clinical course of eyes with a history of radial keratotomy (RK) and varying degrees of endothelial degeneration. Methods Retrospective case series were used. Results Thirteen eyes (seven patients) were identified with clinical findings of significant guttata and a prior history of RK. The mean age of presentation for cornea evaluation was 54.3 years (range: 38–72 years), averaging 18.7 years (range: 11–33 years) after RK. The presentation of guttata varied in degree from moderate to severe. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/25 to 20/80. All patients had a history of bilateral RK, except one patient who did not develop any guttata in the eye without prior RK. No patients reported a family history of Fuch’s Dystrophy. One patient underwent a penetrating keratoplasty in one eye and a Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the other eye. Conclusions RK may induce a spectrum of endothelial degeneration. In elderly patients, the findings of guttata may signify comorbid Fuch’s dystrophy in which RK incisions could potentially hasten endothelial decomposition. In these select patients with stable cornea topography and prior RK, DSAEK may successfully treat RK endothelial degeneration. PMID:22347792

  1. Risk factors, endothelial cell turnover and lipid transport in atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, S J

    1996-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain to be the 4th rank of top ten causes of mortality in Taiwan in recent years. Atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, which often culminating in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, are responsible for the majority of these death. One of the prominent features of atherosclerotic lesion is local accumulation of lipids, mainly in the forms of cholesteryl ester and free cholesterol, either within cells or extracellularly in matrix. Repeated endothelial injury and enhanced lipid infiltration are critical events in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma lipoproteins may enter the arterial wall through endothelium, either transcellularly via vesicular transport or paracellularly via intercellular junction. Our previous studies have demonstrated that most of the arterial endothelial cells in mitosis are associated with the leakage of fluorescently labeled albumin and low density lipoproteins. Subsequently, such transendothelial leakage of macromolecules is also shown to be associated with endothelial cell death as assessed by immunocytochemical staining for IgG. These findings suggested that transiently leaky junctions occurring during endothelial cell turnover may provide potentially important pathways for increasing transport or leakage of macromolecules, including atherogenic LDL, across the vascular endothelium. Electron microscopic study using horseradish peroxidase as a tracer revealed markedly widening of intercellular junctions around endothelial cells in mitosis providing direct evidence in support of "cell turnover-leaky junction" theory for the localization of atherogenesis. Hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are well-known major risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In a series of investigations, we examined the hypothesis that hypertension smoking, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia increase the arterial endothelial cell turnover and hence

  2. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide modulates trophoblast-derived cell line function and interaction with phagocytic cells through autocrine pathways.

    PubMed

    Vota, Daiana; Paparini, Daniel; Hauk, Vanesa; Toro, Ayelén; Merech, Fatima; Varone, Cecilia; Ramhorst, Rosanna; Pérez Leirós, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Trophoblast cells migrate and invade the decidual stroma in a tightly regulated process to maintain immune homeostasis at the maternal-placental interface during the first weeks of pregnancy. Locally synthesized factors modulate trophoblast cell function and their interaction with maternal leukocytes to promote the silent clearance of apoptotic cells. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a pleiotropic polypeptide with trophic and anti-inflammatory effects in murine pregnancy models. We explored the effect of VIP on two human first trimester trophoblast cell lines, particularly on their migration, invasiveness and interaction with phagocytic cells, and the signalling and regulatory pathways involved. We found that VIP enhanced trophoblast cell migration and invasion through the activation of high affinity VPAC receptors and PKA-CRE signalling pathways. VIP knocked-down trophoblast cells showed reduced migration in basal and leukemic inhibitor factor (LIF)-elicited conditions. In parallel, VIP-silenced trophoblast cells failed to induce the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies and the expression of immunosuppressant markers by human monocytes. Our results suggest that VIP-mediated autocrine pathways regulate trophoblast cell function and contribute to immune homeostasis maintenance at placentation and may provide new clues for therapeutic intervention in pregnancies complicated by defective deep placentation. PMID:27212399

  3. Modulation of cholinergic neural bronchoconstriction by endogenous nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide in human airways in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J K; Belvisi, M G; Fox, A J; Miura, M; Tadjkarimi, S; Yacoub, M H; Barnes, P J

    1993-01-01

    Human airway smooth muscle possesses an inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic neural bronchodilator response mediated by nitric oxide (NO). In guinea pig trachea both endogenous NO and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) modulate cholinergic neural contractile responses. To identify whether endogenous NO or VIP can modulate cholinergic contractile responses in human airways in vitro, we studied the effects of specific NO synthase inhibitors and the peptidase alpha-chymotrypsin on contractile responses evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) at three airway levels. Endogenous NO, but not VIP, was shown to inhibit cholinergic contractile responses at all airway levels but this inhibition was predominantly in trachea and main bronchus and less marked in segmental and subsegmental bronchi. To elucidate the mechanism of this modulation we then studied the effects of endogenous NO on acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by EFS from tracheal smooth muscle strips. We confirmed that release was neural in origin, frequency dependent, and that endogenous NO did not affect ACh release. These findings show that endogenous NO, but not VIP, evoked by EFS can inhibit cholinergic neural responses via functional antagonism of ACh at the airway smooth muscle and that the contribution of this modulation is less marked in lower airways. PMID:8349813

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites and fibers in the brain of the pigeon Columba livia: An autoradiographic and immunohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.R.; Dietl, M.M.; Charnay, Y.; Martin, J.L.; Bouras, C.; Palacios, J.M.; Magistretti, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binding sites in the pigeon brain was examined by in vitro autoradiography on slide-mounted sections. A fully characterized monoiodinated form of VIP, which maintains the biological activity of the native peptide, was used throughout this study. The highest densities of binding sites were observed in the hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, auditory field L of neostriatum, area corticoidea dorsolateralis and temporo-parieto-occipitalis, area parahippocampalis, tectum opticum, nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami, and in the periventricular area of the hypothalamus. Lower densities of specific binding occurred in the neostriatum, hyperstriatum ventrale and nucleus septi lateralis, dorsolateral area of the thalamus, and lateral and posteromedial hypothalamus. Very low to background levels of VIP binding were detected in the ectostriatum, paleostriatum primitivum, paleostriatum augmentatum, lobus parolfactorius, nucleus accumbens, most of the brainstem, and the cerebellum. The distribution of VIP-containing fibers and terminals was examined by indirect immunofluorescence using a polyclonal antibody against porcine VIP. Fibers and terminals were observed in the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, area parahippocampalis, hippocampus, hyperstriatum accessorium, hyperstriatum dorsale, archistriatum, tuberculum olfactorium, nuclei dorsolateralis and dorsomedialis of the thalamus, and throughout the hypothalamus and the median eminence. Long projecting fibers were visualized in the tractus septohippocampalis. In the brainstem VIP immunoreactive fibers and terminals were observed mainly in the substantia grisea centralis, fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, lemniscus lateralis, and in the area surrounding the nuclei of the 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.

  5. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide modulates trophoblast-derived cell line function and interaction with phagocytic cells through autocrine pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vota, Daiana; Paparini, Daniel; Hauk, Vanesa; Toro, Ayelén; Merech, Fatima; Varone, Cecilia; Ramhorst, Rosanna; Pérez Leirós, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Trophoblast cells migrate and invade the decidual stroma in a tightly regulated process to maintain immune homeostasis at the maternal-placental interface during the first weeks of pregnancy. Locally synthesized factors modulate trophoblast cell function and their interaction with maternal leukocytes to promote the silent clearance of apoptotic cells. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a pleiotropic polypeptide with trophic and anti-inflammatory effects in murine pregnancy models. We explored the effect of VIP on two human first trimester trophoblast cell lines, particularly on their migration, invasiveness and interaction with phagocytic cells, and the signalling and regulatory pathways involved. We found that VIP enhanced trophoblast cell migration and invasion through the activation of high affinity VPAC receptors and PKA-CRE signalling pathways. VIP knocked-down trophoblast cells showed reduced migration in basal and leukemic inhibitor factor (LIF)-elicited conditions. In parallel, VIP-silenced trophoblast cells failed to induce the phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies and the expression of immunosuppressant markers by human monocytes. Our results suggest that VIP-mediated autocrine pathways regulate trophoblast cell function and contribute to immune homeostasis maintenance at placentation and may provide new clues for therapeutic intervention in pregnancies complicated by defective deep placentation. PMID:27212399

  6. Distribution of vasotocin- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the brain of blue tit (Cyanistes coeruleus)

    PubMed Central

    Montagnese, Catherine M.; Székely, Tamás; Csillag, András; Zachar, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus) are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT) and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping. The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species. PMID:26236200

  7. Comparison of the effects of different vasoactive and antiplatelet drugs on perforator flap viability. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Demir, Bülent; Engin, Murat Sinan; Keleş, Musa Kemal; Küçüker, İsmail; Yosma, Engin

    2016-02-01

    Perforator flaps are very popular in the reconstruction of soft tissue defects. As these flaps generally depend on a single perforator, drugs that increase the perfusion of the flap and/or prevent vascular complications may increase flap survival. In this study, we compared the effects of systemically administered hydralazine (arterial vasodilator via potassium channels), nifedipine (arterial vasodilator via calcium channels), piracetam (antiplatelet and regulator of microcirculation) and alprostadil (vasodilator, antiplatelet, rheological and cytoprotective) on flap survival in a rat epigastric artery perforator flap model. The percentage of necrosis was measured on each flap and evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (Anova). Histopathological analyses were also performed. Mean flap survival area was 3.85 cm(2) in the control group. Mean flap survival area was 4.88 cm(2) in the nifedipine group, 4.69 cm(2) in the hydralazine group, 10.55 cm(2) in the piracetam group and 11.3 cm(2) in the alprostadil group. When compared with the control group, all drugs except hydralazine improved flap survival; piracetam and alprostadil yielded significantly better results than nifedipine. Only the alprostadil group showed signs of improved vascularity in the histological analysis. As far as perforator flap survival is concerned, drugs that regulate the microcirculation by a combination of different antiaggregation mechanisms appear more beneficial than single action vasodilators. Alprostadil, a synthetic PGE-1 analogue, has combined antiplatelet and vasoactive effects that further increase flap survival. PMID:27117026

  8. Effects of aortic pressure and vasoactive agents on the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum in canine isolated thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ohhira, A; Ohhashi, T

    1992-01-01

    1. We have developed a new preparation for continuously measuring changes in vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum of the canine isolated thoracic aorta perfused at a constant flow rate with Krebs-bicarbonate solution. 2. An increase of more than 150 mmHg in aortic pressure caused a significant increase in the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum. 3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline and dopamine caused dose-dependent increases in the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum. The decreasing order of potency in the vasoconstrictor responses was as follows: 5-HT >> NA = adrenaline >> dopamine. The 5-HT- and adrenaline-induced vasoconstrictor responses were inhibited by methysergide and by phentolamine plus propranolol, respectively. 4. Acetylcholine (ACh), isoprenaline (ISP), histamine (His), ATP, ADP and adenosine produced dose-related decreases in the vascular resistance of aortic vasa vasorum perfused with the Krebs solution containing 10(-5) M-NA. The decreasing order of potency in the response was as follows: ACh = ISP > His >> adenosine = ATP = ADP. The ACh-, ISP- and His-induced vasodilator responses were antagonized by atropine, propranolol and famotidine, respectively. 5. The results suggest that the preparation described is useful for studying the regulation of vascular resistance of aortic vasa vasorum and that aortic pressure and vasoactive compounds may directly regulate the vascular resistance of the vasa vasorum in canine isolated thoracic aorta. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1464829

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells via CREB/MITF/tyrosinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-Hua; Yao, Cheng; Oh, Jang-Hee; Park, Chi-Hyun; Tian, Yu-Dan; Han, Mira; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ho; Jin, Zhe-Hu; Lee, Dong Hun

    2016-08-26

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), one of the major skin neuropeptides, has been suggested to have active roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, which can commonly cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. However, the effect of VIP on melanogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we showed that the melanin contents, tyrosinase activity, and gene expression of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were significantly increased by treatment with VIP in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the stimulatory melanogenic effect was further examined in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMns). In addition, phosphorylated levels of CRE-binding protein (CREB) and protein kinase A (PKA) were markedly increased after VIP treatment, but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), or Akt, indicating the possible PKA-CREB signaling pathway involved in VIP-induced melanogenesis. This result was further verified by the fact that VIP induced increased melanin synthesis, and protein levels of phosphorylated CREB, MITF, tyrosinase were significantly attenuated by H89 (a specific PKA inhibitor). These data suggest that VIP-induced upregulation of tyrosinase through the CREB-MITF signaling pathway plays an important role in finding new treatment strategy for skin inflammatory diseases related pigmentation disorders. PMID:27343558

  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide requires parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C to entrain circadian rhythms to a predictable phase

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungwon; Irwin, Robert P.; Allen, Charles N.; Tsai, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Circadian oscillations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) depend on transcriptional repression by Period (PER)1 and PER2 proteins within single cells and on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) signaling between cells. Because VIP is released by SCN neurons in a circadian pattern, and, after photic stimulation, it has been suggested to play a role in the synchronization to environmental light cycles. It is not known, however, if or how VIP entrains circadian gene expression or behavior. Here, we tested candidate signaling pathways required for VIP-mediated entrainment of SCN rhythms. We found that single applications of VIP reset PER2 rhythms in a time- and dose-dependent manner that differed from light. Unlike VIP-mediated signaling in other cell types, simultaneous antagonism of adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities was required to block the VIP-induced phase shifts of SCN rhythms. Consistent with this, VIP rapidly increased intracellular cAMP in most SCN neurons. Critically, daily VIP treatment entrained PER2 rhythms to a predicted phase angle within several days, depending on the concentration of VIP and the interval between VIP applications. We conclude that VIP entrains circadian timing among SCN neurons through rapid and parallel changes in adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activities. PMID:21389307

  11. Characterization of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor in rat submandibular gland: radioligand binding assay in membrane preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-09-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor in membranes from rat submandibular gland was studied using radioligand binding assays with /sup 125/I-VIP and various unlabeled competing ligands. In addition to the necessity of working within the parameters under which all radioligand binding assays should be performed, binding studies with /sup 125/I-VIP, as with other peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, are subject to additional technical difficulties. Specific problems that were addressed included radioligand proteolysis, the identification of an effective protease inhibitor (leupeptin) and the deleterious effects of a commonly used inhibitor (bacitracin); avid radioligand absorption to incubation tubes that was eliminated by precoating of the tubes with a combination of polyethylenimine and an organosilane; and a disproportionate effect of increasing membrane protein concentration on affinity estimates. Under optimized conditions, the affinity (Kd) and density Bmax values for /sup 125/I-VIP obtained from saturation assays (76 pM, 2.0 pmol/mg) were in excellent agreement. Membrane protein (or receptor) levels beyond the linear portion of the receptor concentration curve are often used in radioligand binding assays. Results from /sup 125/I-VIP binding studies at elevated receptor concentrations revealed the predicted marked decrease in receptor affinity. In addition, the rank order potency of unlabeled ligands in inhibition binding assays was changed. The optimization of the assay for measuring VIP receptors in submandibular gland membrane provides a reliable method for studying the role of receptor regulation in stimulus-secretion coupling for this neuropeptide.

  12. Traumatic corneal endothelial rings from homemade explosives.

    PubMed

    Ng, Soo Khai; Rudkin, Adam K; Galanopoulos, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic corneal endothelial rings are remarkably rare ocular findings that may result from blast injury. We present a unique case of bilateral traumatic corneal endothelial rings secondary to blast injury from homemade explosives. PMID:23474743

  13. Endothelial cell nitric oxide production in acute chest syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, S I; Klings, E S; Hendra, K P; Upchurch, G R; Rishikof, D C; Loscalzo, J; Farber, H W

    1999-10-01

    Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is the most common form of acute pulmonary disease associated with sickle cell disease. To investigate the possibility that alterations in endothelial cell (EC) production and metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) products might be contributory, we measured NO products from cultured pulmonary EC exposed to red blood cells and/or plasma from sickle cell patients during crisis. Exposure to plasma from patients with ACS caused a 5- to 10-fold increase in S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) and a 7- to 14-fold increase in total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) production by both pulmonary arterial and microvascular EC. Increases occurred within 2 h of exposure to plasma in a concentration-dependent manner and were associated with increases in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and eNOS enzymatic activity, but not with changes in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) III or NOS II transcripts, inducible NOS (iNOS) protein nor iNOS enzymatic activity. RSNO and NO(x) increased whether plasma was obtained from patients with ACS or other forms of vasoocclusive crisis. Furthermore, an oxidative state occurred and oxidative metabolites of NO, particularly peroxynitrite, were produced. These findings suggest that altered NO production and metabolism to damaging oxidative molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of ACS. PMID:10516198

  14. RhoB controls endothelial barrier recovery by inhibiting Rac1 trafficking to the cell border.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; García-Weber, Diego; Barroso, Susana; Feito, Jorge; Ortega, María C; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Reglero-Real, Natalia; Fernández-Martín, Laura; Durán, Maria C; Alonso, Miguel A; Correas, Isabel; Cox, Susan; Ridley, Anne J; Millán, Jaime

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial barrier dysfunction underlies chronic inflammatory diseases. In searching for new proteins essential to the human endothelial inflammatory response, we have found that the endosomal GTPase RhoB is up-regulated in response to inflammatory cytokines and expressed in the endothelium of some chronically inflamed tissues. We show that although RhoB and the related RhoA and RhoC play additive and redundant roles in various aspects of endothelial barrier function, RhoB specifically inhibits barrier restoration after acute cell contraction by preventing plasma membrane extension. During barrier restoration, RhoB trafficking is induced between vesicles containing RhoB nanoclusters and plasma membrane protrusions. The Rho GTPase Rac1 controls membrane spreading and stabilizes endothelial barriers. We show that RhoB colocalizes with Rac1 in endosomes and inhibits Rac1 activity and trafficking to the cell border during barrier recovery. Inhibition of endosomal trafficking impairs barrier reformation, whereas induction of Rac1 translocation to the plasma membrane accelerates it. Therefore, RhoB-specific regulation of Rac1 trafficking controls endothelial barrier integrity during inflammation. PMID:27138256

  15. Retinal Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Stimulates Recruitment of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhatwadekar, Ashay D.; Glenn, Josephine V.; Curtis, Tim M.; Grant, Maria B.; Stitt, Alan W.; Gardiner, Tom A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Bone marrow–derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair although it is uncertain how local endothelial cell apoptosis influences their reparative function. This study was conducted to determine how the presence of apoptotic bodies at sites of endothelial damage may influence participation of EPCs in retinal microvascular repair. Methods Microlesions of apoptotic cell death were created in monolayers of retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) by using the photodynamic drug verteporfin. The adhesion of early-EPCs to these lesions was studied before detachment of the apoptotic cells or after their removal from the wound site. Apoptotic bodies were fed to normal RMECs and mRNA levels for adhesion molecules were analyzed. Results Endothelial lesions where apoptotic bodies were left attached at the wound site showed a fivefold enhancement in EPC recruitment (P < 0.05) compared with lesions where the apoptotic cells had been removed. In intact RMEC monolayers exposed to apoptotic bodies, expression of ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin was upregulated by 5- to 15-fold (P < 0.05– 0.001). EPCs showed a characteristic chemotactic response (P < 0.05) to conditioned medium obtained from apoptotic bodies, whereas analysis of the medium showed significantly increased levels of VEGF, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α when compared to control medium; SDF-1 remained unchanged. Conclusions The data indicate that apoptotic bodies derived from retinal capillary endothelium mediate release of proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines and induce adhesion molecule expression in a manner that facilitates EPC recruitment. PMID:19474402

  16. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Amy G.; Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y.; Cabrales, Pedro; Kistler, Erik B.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Subramaniam, Shankar; Acharya, Seetharama A.; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC) restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb) products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool) and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC); in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow) by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb) accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites. PMID:25350267

  17. Key endothelial cell angiogenic mechanisms are stimulated by the circulating milieu in sickle cell disease and attenuated by hydroxyurea

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Flavia C. M.; Traina, Fabiola; Almeida, Camila B.; Leonardo, Flavia C.; Franco-Penteado, Carla F.; Garrido, Vanessa T.; Colella, Marina P.; Soares, Raquel; Olalla-Saad, Sara T.; Costa, Fernando F.; Conran, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    As hypoxia-induced inflammatory angiogenesis may contribute to the manifestations of sickle cell disease, we compared the angiogenic molecular profiles of plasma from sickle cell disease individuals and correlated these with in vitro endothelial cell-mediated angiogenesis-stimulating activity and in vivo neovascularization. Bioplex demonstrated that plasma from patients with steady-state sickle cell anemia contained elevated concentrations of pro-angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-D and placental growth factor) and displayed potent pro-angiogenic activity, significantly increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like structure formation. In vivo neovascularization of Matrigel plugs was significantly greater in sickle cell disease mice than in non-sickle cell disease mice, consistent with an up-regulation of angiogenesis in the disease. In plasma from patients with hemoglobin SC disease without proliferative retinopathy, anti-angiogenic endostatin and thrombospondin-2 were significantly elevated. In contrast, plasma from hemoglobin SC individuals with proliferative retinopathy had a pro-angiogenic profile and more significant effects on endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation than plasma from patients without retinopathy. Hydroxyurea therapy was associated with significant reductions in plasma angiogenic factors and inhibition of endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms and neovascularization. Thus, individuals with sickle cell anemia or hemoglobin SC disease with retinopathy present a highly angiogenic circulating milieu, capable of stimulating key endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms. Combination anti-angiogenic therapy to prevent the progression of unregulated neovascularization and associated manifestations in sickle cell disease, such as pulmonary hypertension, may be indicated; furthermore, the

  18. The Novel Methods for Analysis of Exosomes Released from Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinju; Guo, Runmin; Yang, Yi; Jacobs, Bradley; Chen, Suhong; Iwuchukwu, Ifeanyi; Gaines, Kenneth J.; Chen, Yanfang; Simman, Richard; Lv, Guiyuan; Wu, Keng; Bihl, Ji C.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes (EXs) are cell-derived vesicles that mediate cell-cell communication and could serve as biomarkers. Here we described novel methods for purification and phenotyping of EXs released from endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by combining microbeads and fluorescence quantum dots (Q-dots®) techniques. EXs from the culture medium of ECs and EPCs were isolated and detected with cell-specific antibody conjugated microbeads and second antibody conjugated Q-dots by using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) system. The sensitivities of the cell origin markers for ECs (CD105, CD144) and EPCs (CD34, KDR) were evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity were determined by using positive and negative markers for EXs (CD63), platelets (CD41), erythrocytes (CD235a), and microvesicles (Annexin V). Moreover, the methods were further validated in particle-free plasma and patient samples. Results showed that anti-CD105/anti-CD144 and anti-CD34/anti-KDR had the highest sensitivity and specificity for isolating and detecting EC-EXs and EPC-EXs, respectively. The methods had the overall recovery rate of over 70% and were able to detect the dynamical changes of circulating EC-EXs and EPC-EXs in acute ischemic stroke. In conclusion, we have developed sensitive and specific microbeads/Q-dots fluorescence NTA methods for EC-EX and EPC-EX isolation and detection, which will facilitate the functional study and biomarker discovery. PMID:27118976

  19. Dietary flavanol intervention lowers the levels of endothelial microparticles in coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Horn, Patrick; Amabile, Nicolas; Angeli, Franca S; Sansone, Roberto; Stegemann, Berthold; Kelm, Malte; Springer, Matthew L; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian

    2014-04-14

    Current evidence suggests that regenerative v. degenerative endothelial responses can be integrated in a clinical endothelial phenotype, reflecting the net result between damage from risk factors and endogenous repair capacity. We have previously shown that a cocoa flavanol (CF) intervention can improve endothelial function and increase the regenerative capacity of the endothelium by mobilising circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CF can lower the levels of circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP), markers of endothelial integrity, along with improvements in endothelial function. The levels of EMP in the frozen plasma samples of CAD patients were measured along with endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation, FMD); n 16, FMD data published previously), and these data were compared with those of young (n 12) and age-matched (n 12) healthy control subjects. The CAD patients exhibited significantly increased levels of EMP along with impaired FMD when compared with the healthy control subjects. The levels of CD144⁺ and CD31⁺/41⁻ EMP were inversely correlated with FMD (r -0.67, P=0.01 and r -0.59, P=0.01, respectively). In these CAD patients, the levels of EMP were measured after they had consumed a drink containing 375 mg of CF (high-CF intervention, HiFI) or 9 mg of CF (macro- and micronutrient-matched low-CF control, LoFl) twice daily over a 30-d period in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study. After 1 month of HiFI, the levels of CD31⁺/41⁻ and CD144⁺ EMP decreased (-25 and -23%, respectively), but not after LoFl. Our data show that flavanols lower the levels of EMP along with higher endothelial function, lending evidence to the novel concept that flavanols may improve endothelial integrity. PMID:24286443

  20. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids. PMID:23973200

  1. Angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction is temporally linked with increases in interleukin-6 and vascular macrophage accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gomolak, Jessica R.; Didion, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is associated with vascular hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction and activation of a number of inflammatory molecules, however the linear events involved in the development of hypertension and endothelial dysfunction produced in response to Ang II are not well defined. The goal of this study was to examine the dose- and temporal-dependent development of endothelial dysfunction in response to Ang II. Blood pressure and responses of carotid arteries were examined in control (C57Bl/6) mice and in mice infused with 50, 100, 200, 400, or 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II for either 14 or 28 Days. Infusion of Ang II was associated with graded and marked increases in systolic blood pressure and plasma Ang II concentrations. While low doses of Ang II (i.e., 50 and 100 ng/kg/min) had little to no effect on blood pressure or endothelial function, high doses of Ang II (e.g., 1000 ng/kg/min) were associated with large increases in arterial pressure and marked impairment of endothelial function. In contrast, intermediate doses of Ang II (200 and 400 ng/kg/min) while initially having no effect on systolic blood pressure were associated with significant increases in pressure over time. Despite increasing blood pressure, 200 ng/kg/min had no effect on endothelial function, whereas 400 ng/kg/min produced modest impairment on Day 14 and marked impairment of endothelial function on Day 28. The degree of endothelial dysfunction produced by 400 and 1000 ng/kg/min Ang II was reflective of parallel increases in plasma IL-6 levels and vascular macrophage content, suggesting that increases in arterial blood pressure precede the development of endothelial dysfunction. These findings are important as they demonstrate that along with increases in arterial pressure that increases in IL-6 and vascular macrophage accumulation correlate with the impairment of endothelial function produced by Ang II. PMID:25400581

  2. Analysis of endothelial barrier function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuping; Alexander, J Steven

    2011-01-01

    Increased microvascular solute permeability underlies many forms of pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation. Endothelial monolayer cultures provide an excellent model system which allows systemic and mechanistic study of endothelial barrier function and paracellular permeability in vitro. The endothelial-specific complexus adherens junction protein VE-cadherin and their intracellular complex form pericellular structures along the cell borders which are critical to regulate endothelial barrier function by controlling pericellular permeability of vasculature. Here, we describe methods for both visualizing and quantifying junctional permeability and barrier changes in endothelial monolayers in vitro. PMID:21874457

  3. Endothelial cells in dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Kelley, James F

    2014-09-01

    Therapies to prevent or reverse endothelial dysfunction and vascular leak found in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have not been identified. In this review we summarize dengue viruses and the spectrum of human disease and highlight evidence of endothelial cell dysfunction in DHF based on studies in patients and mouse and tissue culture models. Evidence suggests that both virus antigen and host immune response, can cause endothelial cell dysfunction and weaken endothelial barrier integrity. We suggest possible therapeutic interventions and highlight how therapies targeting altered endothelial function might be evaluated in animal models and in patients with DHF. PMID:25025934

  4. The SKW 6.4 line of human B lymphocytes specifically binds and responds to vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P P; Sreedharan, S P; Kishiyama, J L; Goetzl, E J

    1993-05-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP1-28) is a neuromediator recognized by high-affinity receptors on human lymphocytes, which inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, and suppresses immunoglobulin production by mitogen-stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes. The direct interactions of VIP1-28 with B cells were studied in the SKW 6.4 line of EBV-transformed human B cells, that express a mean (+/- SD) of 6116 +/- 969 receptors for [125I]VIP1-28 with a mean Kd of 59 nM, that decreases to 12 nM after exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 B cells stimulated optimally with 100 ng/ml of PMA, but not unstimulated secretion of IgM, was suppressed significantly by 10(-12) M to 10(-9) M VIP1-28 and up to a mean maximum (+/- SD) of 40 +/- 2% by 10(-10) M VIP1-28. VIP1-28 elicited concomitant increases in intracellular cyclic AMP up to a mean maximum of 163% at 10(-10) M VIP1-28. The requirement for specific signal transduction by the occupied VIP receptors to inhibit IgM secretion was demonstrated by the lack of effect of VIP4-28 on both cyclic AMP concentration and IgM secretion, despite the equal affinity of binding of VIP4-28 and VIP1-28. The effects of VIP on immunoglobulin secretion by stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes thus may be due in part to a direct action on B cells. PMID:8509142

  5. The SKW 6.4 line of human B lymphocytes specifically binds and responds to vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, P P; Sreedharan, S P; Kishiyama, J L; Goetzl, E J

    1993-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP1-28) is a neuromediator recognized by high-affinity receptors on human lymphocytes, which inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, and suppresses immunoglobulin production by mitogen-stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes. The direct interactions of VIP1-28 with B cells were studied in the SKW 6.4 line of EBV-transformed human B cells, that express a mean (+/- SD) of 6116 +/- 969 receptors for [125I]VIP1-28 with a mean Kd of 59 nM, that decreases to 12 nM after exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 B cells stimulated optimally with 100 ng/ml of PMA, but not unstimulated secretion of IgM, was suppressed significantly by 10(-12) M to 10(-9) M VIP1-28 and up to a mean maximum (+/- SD) of 40 +/- 2% by 10(-10) M VIP1-28. VIP1-28 elicited concomitant increases in intracellular cyclic AMP up to a mean maximum of 163% at 10(-10) M VIP1-28. The requirement for specific signal transduction by the occupied VIP receptors to inhibit IgM secretion was demonstrated by the lack of effect of VIP4-28 on both cyclic AMP concentration and IgM secretion, despite the equal affinity of binding of VIP4-28 and VIP1-28. The effects of VIP on immunoglobulin secretion by stimulated mixed mononuclear leucocytes thus may be due in part to a direct action on B cells. PMID:8509142

  6. Protective effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on bone destruction in the collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Juarranz, Yasmina; Abad, Catalina; Martinez, Carmen; Arranz, Alicia; Gutierrez-Cañas, Irene; Rosignoli, Florencia; Gomariz, Rosa P; Leceta, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis accompanied by destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) prevents experimental arthritis in animal models by downregulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory components of the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the protective effect of VIP on bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. We have studied the expression of different mediators implicated in bone homeostasis, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11 and IL-17. Circulating cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA and the local expression of mediators were determined by RT-PCR in mRNA extracts from joints. VIP treatment resulted in decreased levels of circulating IL-6, IL-1beta and TNFalpha, and increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10. CIA-mice treated with VIP presented a decrease in mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-11 in the joints. The ratio of RANKL to OPG decreased drastically in the joint after VIP treatment, which correlated with an increase in levels of circulating OPG in CIA mice treated with VIP. In addition, VIP treatment decreased the expression of mRNA for RANK, iNOS and COX-2. To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved, we tested the activity of NFkappaB and AP-1, two transcriptional factors closely related to joint erosion, by EMSA in synovial cells from CIA mice. VIP treatment in vivo was able to affect the transcriptional activity of both factors. Our data indicate that VIP is a viable candidate for the development of treatments for RA. PMID:16207319

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide loss leads to impaired CNS parenchymal T-cell infiltration and resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Abad, Catalina; Tan, Yossan-Var; Lopez, Robert; Nobuta, Hiroko; Dong, Hongmei; Phan, Phu; Feng, Ji-Ming; Campagnoni, Anthony T; Waschek, James A

    2010-11-01

    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to inhibit macrophage proinflammatory actions, promote a positive Th2/Th1 balance, and stimulate regulatory T-cell production. The fact that this peptide is highly efficacious in animal models of inflammatory diseases such as collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggests that the endogenous peptide might normally provide protection against such pathologies. We thus studied the response of VIP-deficient (i.e., VIP KO) mice to myelin oligodendrocyte protein-induced EAE. Surprisingly, VIP KO mice were almost completely resistant to EAE, with delayed onset and mild or absent clinical profile. Despite this, flow cytometric analyses and antigen-rechallenge experiments indicated that myelin oligodendrocyte protein-treated VIP KO mice exhibited robust Th1/Th17 cell inductions and antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine responses. Moreover, adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from immunized VIP KO mice to WT recipients resulted in full-blown EAE, supporting their encephalitogenic potential. In contrast, transfer of encephalitogenic WT cells to VIP KO hosts did not produce EAE, suggesting that loss of VIP specifically affected the effector phase of the disease. Histological analyses indicated that CD4 T cells entered the meningeal and perivascular areas of VIP-deficient mice, but that parenchymal infiltration was strongly impaired. Finally, VIP pretreatment of VIP KO mice before immunization was able to restore their sensitivity to EAE. These results indicate that VIP plays an unanticipated permissive and/or proinflammatory role in the propagation of the inflammatory response in the CNS, a finding with potential therapeutic relevance in autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:20978211

  8. How Can a Radiologist Reveal More Practical Information Using Dynamic Study of Cavernosal Artery After Injection of Vasoactive Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Morteza; Gharib, Mohammad Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erection is a dynamic multi-stage neurovascular phenomenon consisting of 4 phases. Conventional protocol of color Doppler study can easily overlook these ongoing dynamic events. Objectives: Here, we tried to designate patterns for these dynamic spectral waveform changes of cavernosal arteries in patients with erectile dysfunction and subsequently better describe the extent of their underlying problem. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 59 men who were referred for post-intracavernosal injection (ICI) color Doppler investigation of suspected erectile dysfunction (ED). The demographic data and medical history were recorded. Afterwards, first scan injection was done. Then scanning of cavernosal arteries was started about one minute after the injection and was continued thereafter. For better description of temporal changes in the waveform of cavernosal arteries, new patterns were defined and used. Patients were also classified based on previously known etiologic categories (i.e. arterial insufficiency, venous leak, mixed type, and normal response). Results: The mean age was 45.6 ± 13.1 (24 to 74 ) years. Twenty-two were normal responders [considered as non-organic causes (37.3% of all patients)], 27 were classified as venous leakage, eight had arterial insufficiency and two were mixed type. Maximum PSV occurred before the fifth minute in 47 patients (92.2%). Eight patients completed all phases of erection in the first 5 minutes. We defined 8 patterns for the temporal changes in cavernosal arterial waveform. Pattern 5 was the most common pattern of venous leak; while, patterns 3 and 4 were considered as the uncommon group. Six patients demonstrated the uncommon patterns of venous leak (22.2%). Hypertension was more prevalent in the uncommon pattern of venous leak. Conclusions: We highlight the considerable role of continuous evaluation starting one minute after intra cavernosal with ICI injection of the vasoactive agent for better description of the

  9. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and thromboxane release in guinea-pig lung.

    PubMed Central

    Ciabattoni, G.; Montuschi, P.; Currò, D.; Togna, G.; Preziosi, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. Exogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) infused into the pulmonary artery of isolated and ventilated lungs of guinea-pigs decreased, in a dose-dependent fashion (1.0-10.0 nmol), airway resistance and thromboxane B2 (TXB2, the stable hydrolysis product of TXA2) release in the perfusion medium. Prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis, as reflected by the release of its stable hydrolysis product 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha, was unaffected. Pretreatment with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4c (3.5 x 10(-5) M) did not modify the bronchodilatory effect of VIP or its inhibitory action on TXB2 release. 2. Basal release of immunoreactive VIP from perfused lungs decreased from an initial value of 0.96 +/- 0.10 ng min-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean) in the first 2 min to an average of 0.58 +/- 0.10 ng min-1 in the following 15-20 min. 3. Antigen challenge with ovalbumin (0.1%) in sensitized lungs caused an anaphylactic reaction in 45% of tested lungs, concomitant with a 5 fold increase in both VIP and TXB2 release. Tetrodotoxin pretreatment (10(-6) M) reduced basal VIP release by > 80% and abolished the VIP increase observed during anaphylaxis, without modifying TXB2 release or the bronchoconstrictor response. 4. Indomethacin (10(-6) M) inhibited TXB2 synthesis and release by > 90%, delayed the bronchoconstrictor response and blunted the increased VIP release during lung anaphylaxis, without influencing basal VIP release. 5. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4c (3.5 x 10(-5) M) blunted the increase of TXB2 and VIP release from guinea-pig lung and attenuated the bronchoconstrictor response following ovalbumin challenge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8495242

  10. Nitric oxide, and not vasoactive intestinal peptide, as the main neurotransmitter of vagally induced relaxation of the guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, K M; Warner, T D; Bishop, A E; Polak, J M; Vane, J R

    1994-01-01

    1. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was localized in the guinea pig stomach by immunocytochemistry. In vitro experiments were carried out on the isolated stomach of the guinea pig to study any possible links between nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in mediating relaxations induced by vagal stimulation. 2. NOS was localized to nerve cell bodies and nerve fibre varicosities of the myenteric plexus in wholemounts of the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the stomach fundus. The NOS-positive cells had a Dogiel type I morphology characteristic of motor neurones. 3. The cross-sections of the stomach wall showed NOS-positive neurones mainly in the myenteric plexus ganglia and NOS-positive nerve fibre varicosities in the circular muscle layer. 4. Relaxations induced by vagal stimulation were almost completely prevented by L-NAME with an IC50 value of 5.5 x 10(-6) M. This inhibition was reversed by L-arginine (2 mM). 5. VIP (100 nM) induced reproducible relaxations of the stomach. These were unaffected by tetrodotoxin (2 microM) or N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). 6. Desensitization to the relaxant effect of VIP partially reduced relaxations induced by vagal stimulation, glyceryl trinitrate or sodium nitroprusside but not noradrenaline. 7. These results show that NO has a neuronal origin in the guinea pig stomach, and support NO, and not VIP, as the major neurotransmitter of vagally induced gastric relaxation in the guinea pig. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7534182

  11. Framework of Collagen Type I – Vasoactive Vessels Structuring Invariant Geometric Attractor in Cancer Tissues: Insight into Biological Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jairo A.; Murillo, Mauricio F.; Jaramillo, Natalia A.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 – vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated into

  12. Coronary vasomotor responses to isometric handgrip exercise are primarily mediated by nitric oxide: a noninvasive MRI test of coronary endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Hays, Allison G; Iantorno, Micaela; Soleimanifard, Sahar; Steinberg, Angela; Schär, Michael; Gerstenblith, Gary; Stuber, Matthias; Weiss, Robert G

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO) is a defining characteristic of nondiseased arteries, and abnormal endothelial NO release is both a marker of early atherosclerosis and a predictor of its progression and future events. Healthy coronaries respond to endothelial-dependent stressors with vasodilatation and increased coronary blood flow (CBF), but those with endothelial dysfunction respond with paradoxical vasoconstriction and reduced CBF. Recently, coronary MRI and isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) were reported to noninvasively quantify coronary endothelial function (CEF). However, it is not known whether the coronary response to IHE is actually mediated by NO and/or whether it is reproducible over weeks. To determine the contribution of NO, we studied the coronary response to IHE before and during infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA, 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), a NO-synthase inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. For reproducibility, we performed two MRI-IHE studies ~8 wk apart in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Changes from rest to IHE in coronary cross-sectional area (%CSA) and diastolic CBF (%CBF) were quantified. l-NMMA completely blocked normal coronary vasodilation during IHE [%CSA, 12.9 ± 2.5 (mean ± SE, placebo) vs. -0.3 ± 1.6% (l-NMMA); P < 0.001] and significantly blunted the increase in flow [%CBF, 47.7 ± 6.4 (placebo) vs. 10.6 ± 4.6% (l-NMMA); P < 0.001]. MRI-IHE measures obtained weeks apart strongly correlated for CSA (P < 0.0001) and CBF (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the normal human coronary vasoactive response to IHE is primarily mediated by NO. This noninvasive, reproducible MRI-IHE exam of NO-mediated CEF promises to be useful for studying CAD pathogenesis in low-risk populations and for evaluating translational strategies designed to alter CAD in patients. PMID:25820391

  13. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Manabu; Nakayama, Koichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Kamohara, Keiji; Furukawa, Kojirou; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Toda, Shuji; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Node, Koichi; Morita, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS) using a “Bio-3D printer”-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features. Methods and Results Using a “Bio-3D printer,” we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm) from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS) composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%), human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%). The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5) and fifth (n = 5) day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall) was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation. Conclusions The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results. PMID:26325298

  14. Catecholamines-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ rise in endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Vinet, R; Rojas, F; Luxoro, M; Vargas, F; Cortés, M

    2000-01-01

    The effects of catecholamines on intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in single acutely dissociated bovine adrenal medulla endothelial cells (BAMECs) were measured using the intracellular fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM. 100 microm epinephrine or norepinephrine induced a biphasic [Ca2+]i rise with an initial peak followed by a delayed phase. 10 microm phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenergic agonist) caused a [Ca2+]i rise similar to that evoked by catecholamines. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by 10 microm phenylephrine was reverted by 10 microm phenoxybenzamine (alpha-adrenergic antagonist). Neither isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) nor clonidine (alpha2-adrenergic agonist) induced [Ca2+]i rise. The initial peak was insensitive to zero external Ca2+ and it was abolished after Ca2+ internal storages were emptied by 10 mM caffeine. The delayed phase was reduced to near zero by external Ca2+ removal. These results indicate that BAMECs possess alpha1-adrenergic receptors associated to both the release of caffeine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and the entry of extracellular Ca2+. We suggest that chromaffin cell secretion may activate BAMECs in vivo through an increase in [Ca2+]i which could induce the secretion of vasoactive factors allowing a rapid entry of hormones into the circulation. PMID:10724332

  15. Endothelial Plasticity: Shifting Phenotypes through Force Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Krenning, Guido; Barauna, Valerio G.; Krieger, José E.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Moonen, Jan-Renier A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial lining of the vasculature is exposed to a large variety of biochemical and hemodynamic stimuli with different gradients throughout the vascular network. Adequate adaptation requires endothelial cells to be highly plastic, which is reflected by the remarkable heterogeneity of endothelial cells in tissues and organs. Hemodynamic forces such as fluid shear stress and cyclic strain are strong modulators of the endothelial phenotype and function. Although endothelial plasticity is essential during development and adult physiology, proatherogenic stimuli can induce adverse plasticity which contributes to disease. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), the hallmark of endothelial plasticity, was long thought to be restricted to embryonic development but has emerged as a pathologic process in a plethora of diseases. In this perspective we argue how shear stress and cyclic strain can modulate EndMT and discuss how this is reflected in atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:26904133

  16. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by cell-surface peptidase activity on endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a fluid-regulating peptide hormone that promotes vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. The mechanisms for the release of ANP and for its clearance from the circulation play important roles in modulating its biological effects. Recently, we have reported that the cell surface of an endothelial cell line, CPA47, could degrade 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA. In this study, we have characterized this degradation of 125I-ANP. The kinetics of ANP degradation by the surface of CPA47 cells were first order, with a Km of 320 +/- 60 nM and Vmax of 35 +/- 14 pmol of ANP degraded/10 min/10(5) cells at pH 7.4. ANP is degraded by the surface of CPA47 cells over a broad pH range from 7.0-8.5. Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and bestatin inhibited 125I-ANP degradation, suggesting that this degradative activity on the surface of CPA47 cells has exopeptidase characteristics. The selectivity of CPA47 cell-surface degradation of ANP was demonstrated when 125I-ANP degradation was inhibited in the presence of neuropeptide Y and angiotensin I and II but not bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin-1, or substance P. The C-terminal amino acids phe26 and tyr28 were deduced to be important for ANP interaction with the cell-surface peptidase(s) based on comparison of the IC50 of various ANP analogues and other natriuretic peptides for the inhibition of ANP degradation. These data suggest that a newly characterized divalent cation-independent exopeptidase(s) that selectively recognizes ANP and some other vasoactive peptides exists on the surface of endothelial cells.

  17. Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Ricardo J; Nordaby, Roberto A; Vilariño, Jorge O; Paragano, Antonio; Cacharrón, José L; Machado, Rogelio A

    2006-01-01

    The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease. There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the vasodilatation produced by drugs that

  18. Histochemical localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and its influence on contractile activity in the non-pregnant and pregnant human cervix.

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B; Dahlström, A

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied by immunofluorescence in cervical tissue of non-pregnant and pregnant women. VIP was localized in connection with blood vessels as well as among collagen fibres and smooth muscle cells. No difference was observed between non-pregnant and term pregnant women. The effect of VIP on cervical contractility was tested on isolated strips by superfusion in a tissue chamber. VIP inhibited contractions at 10(-8)-10(-6) M concentration, strips from term pregnant women responding more frequently at the lower concentration. It is suggested that VIP-containing neurons of the human cervix remain intact throughout pregnancy until term. PMID:2571549

  19. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating -18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r (2) = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  20. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A.; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating −18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  1. Ascorbate Reverses High Glucose- and RAGE-induced Leak of the Endothelial Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, M. Elizabeth; Qu, Zhi-chao; May, James M.

    2014-01-01

    High glucose concentrations due to diabetes increase leakage of plasma constituents across the endothelial permeability barrier. We sought to determine whether vitamin C, or ascorbic acid (ascorbate), could reverse such high glucose-induced increases in endothelial barrier permeability. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and two brain endothelial cell lines cultured at 25 mM glucose showed increases in endothelial barrier permeability to radiolabeled inulin compared to cells cultured at 5 mM glucose. Acute loading of the cells for 30–60 min with ascorbate before the permeability assay prevented the high glucose-induced increase in permeability and decreased basal permeability at 5 mM glucose. High glucose-induced barrier leakage was mediated largely by activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), since it was prevented by RAGE blockade and mimicked by RAGE ligands. Intracellular ascorbate completely prevented RAGE ligand-induced increases in barrier permeability. The high glucose-induced increase in endothelial barrier permeability was also acutely decreased by several cell-penetrant antioxidants, suggesting that at least part of the ascorbate effect could be due to its ability to act as an antioxidant. PMID:24472555

  2. The Soluble VEGF Receptor sFlt1 Contributes to Endothelial Dysfunction in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Giovana S. Di; Reuter, Stefan; Hillebrand, Uta; Amler, Susanne; König, Maximilian; Larger, Etienne; Oberleithner, Hans; Brand, Eva; Pavenstädt, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk that accompanies CKD. We hypothesized that the soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1), a VEGF antagonist, plays a role in endothelial dysfunction and decreased angiogenesis in CKD. We enrolled 130 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 and 56 age- and gender-matched control patients. Plasma sFlt-1 levels were higher in patients with CKD and, after multivariate regression analyses, exclusively associated with renal function and levels of vWF, a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Compared with serum from control patients, both recombinant sFlt-1 and serum from patients with CKD had antiangiogenic activity in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, induced endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro, and decreased nitric oxide generation in two different endothelial cell lines. Pretreating the sera with an antibody against sFlt-1 abrogated all of these effects. Furthermore, we observed increased sFlt1 levels in 5/6-nephrectomized rats compared with sham-operated animals. Finally, using real-time PCR and ELISA, we identified monocytes as a possible source of increased sFlt-1 in patients with CKD. Our findings show that excess sFlt-1 associates with endothelial dysfunction in CKD and suggest that increased sFlt-1 may predict cardiovascular risk in CKD. PMID:19608702

  3. Signal transduction in endothelial cells by the angiogenesis inhibitor histidine-rich glycoprotein targets focal adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chunsik; Dixelius, Johan; Thulin, Asa; Kawamura, Harukiyo; Claesson-Welsh, Lena; Olsson, Anna-Karin . E-mail: Anna-Karin.Olsson@genpat.uu.se

    2006-08-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) is an abundant heparin-binding plasma protein. We have shown that a fragment released from the central histidine/proline-rich (His/Pro-rich) domain of HRGP blocks endothelial cell migration in vitro and vascularization and growth of murine fibrosarcoma in vivo. The minimal active HRGP domain exerting the anti-angiogenic effect was recently narrowed down to a 35 amino acid peptide, HRGP330, derived from the His/Pro-rich domain of HRGP. By use of a signal transduction antibody array representing 400 different signal transduction molecules, we now show that HRGP and the synthetic peptide HRGP330 specifically induce tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and its downstream substrate paxillin in endothelial cells. HRGP/HRGP330 treatment of endothelial cells induced disruption of actin stress fibers, a process reversed by treatment of cells with the FAK inhibitor geldanamycin. In addition, VEGF-mediated endothelial cell tubular morphogenesis in a three-dimensional collagen matrix was inhibited by HRGP and HRGP330. In contrast, VEGF-induced proliferation was not affected by HRGP or HRGP330, demonstrating the central role of cell migration during tube formation. In conclusion, our data show that HRGP targets focal adhesions in endothelial cells, thereby disrupting the cytoskeletal organization and the ability of endothelial cells to assemble into vessel structures.

  4. Glioblastoma microvesicles promote endothelial cell proliferation through Akt/beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shihai; Sun, Junfeng; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma tumor cells release microvesicles, which contain mRNA, miRNA and angiogenic proteins. These tumor-derived microvesicles transfer genetic information and proteins to normal cells. Previous reports demonstrated that the increased microvesicles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with glioblastoma up-regulate procoagulant activity. The concentration of microvesicles was closely related to thromboembolism incidence and clinical therapeutic effects of glioblastoma patients. However, it is still not clear how CSF microvesicles and what factors affect glioblastoma development. In this study, we collected the plasma and CSF from glioblastoma patients and healthy volunteers. Microvesicles acquired from serum or CSF were added to cultured endothelial cells. And the effects of these microvesicles on endothelial cells were examined. Our results showed that microvesicles from CSF of patients, but not from circulating blood, promoted endothelial cells migration and proliferation in vitro. In addition, the degree of endothelial cell proliferation triggered by microvesicles from CSF was reduced when treated with siRNA targeting Akt/beta-catenin, suggesting that the Akt/beta-catenin pathway is involved in the microvesicle-initiated endothelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, glioblastoma mainly affects microvesicles within CSF without showing significant impact on microvesicles in circulating blood. Microvesicles from the CSF of glioblastoma patients may initiate endothelial cell growth and thus promote cell invasion. This effect may be directly exerted by activated Akt/beta-catenin pathway. PMID:25197356

  5. Endothelial Cells Derived From Nuclear Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wing Tak; Huang, Ngan F.; Botham, Crystal M.; Sayed, Nazish; Cooke, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, regulating the tone of the vascular wall, and its interaction with circulating blood elements. Alterations in endothelial functions facilitate the infiltration of inflammatory cells and permit vascular smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction is an early event in disease processes including atherosclerosis, and because of its critical role in vascular health the endothelium is worthy of the intense focus it has received. However, there are limitations to studying human endothelial function in vivo, or human vascular segments ex vivo. Thus, methods for endothelial cell culture have been developed and refined. More recently, methods to derive endothelial cells from pluripotent cells have extended the scientific range of human endothelial cell studies. Pluripotent stem cells may be generated, expanded and then differentiated into endothelial cells for in vitro studies. Constructs for molecular imaging can also be employed to facilitate tracking these cells in vivo. Furthermore, one can generate patient-specific endothelial cells to study the effects of genetic or epigenetic alterations on endothelial behavior. Finally, there is the opportunity to apply these cells for vascular therapy. This review focuses on the generation of endothelial cells from stem cells; their characterization by genetic, histological and functional studies; and their translational applications. PMID:23104878

  6. [Selected endothelial hemostatic markers in patients with peripheral arterial disease after endovascular revascularization and restenosis formation].

    PubMed

    Kotschy, Daniel; Kotschy, Maria; Socha, Paweł; Masłowski, Leszek; Kwapisz, Justyna; Żuk, Natalia; Dubis, Joanna; Karczewski, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Surgical and endovascular revascularization of ischemic legs in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can damage the arterial wall (endothelial and smooth muscle cells). Hemostatic factors released during endothelial dysfunction can lead to restenosis. 1. Determination of selected endothelial hemostatic factors in PAD patients and a reference group. 2. Prospective observation of new restenosis appearance in PAD patients after endovascular revascularization. 3. Comparison of selected endothelial hemostatic factors between non-restenotic and restenotic PAD patients. 150 PAD patients after endovascular revascularization - 90 men and 60 women, aged 44-88 (mean 65.5) years - were examined. During one-year observation after the revascularization procedures in 38 PAD patients restenosis occurred, when blood samples were also collected. The reference group consisted of 53 healthy persons - 44 men and 9 women, aged 20-56 years. Blood was drawn in the morning into 3.2% sodium citrate at a ratio of 9:1. Tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured in plasma with commercial tests using the enzyme immunoassay. In the plasma of PAD patients after revascularization, the concentrations of TF and vWF were significantly higher, TM lower, TFPI and t-PA similar compared to the reference group. Six months after revascularization the level of TF had increased and vWF had significantly decreased. The endothelial hemostatic factors before and after restenosis did not significantly differ except TF, which after restenosis was higher. Increased TF and vWF levels in PAD patients indicate arterial endothelial cell damage, by atherosclerotic and revascularization processes. In PAD patients with restenosis compared to these patients before restenosis the determined endothelial hemostatic factors, except TF level, did not significantly differ. Perhaps TF participates in

  7. Differential regulation of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase by kinin B1 and B2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kuhr, F.; Lowry, J.; Zhang, Y.; Brovkovych, V.; Skidgel, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kinins are vasoactive peptides that play important roles in cardiovascular homeostasis, pain and inflammation. After release from their precursor kininogens, kinins or their C-terminal des-Arg metabolites activate two distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), called B2 (B2R) or B1 (B1R). The B2R is expressed constitutively with a wide tissue distribution. In contrast, the B1R is not expressed under normal conditions but is upregulated by tissue insult or inflammatory mediators. The B2R is considered to mediate many of the acute effects of kinins while the B1R is more responsible for chronic responses in inflammation. Both receptors can couple to Gαi and Gαq families of G proteins to release mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), arachidonic acid, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor and can induce the release of other inflammatory agents. The focus of this review is on the different transduction events that take place upon B2R and B1R activation in human endothelial cells that leads to generation of NO via activation of different NOS isoforms. Importantly, B2R-mediated eNOS activation leads to a transient (~ 5 min) output of NO in control endothelial cells whereas in cytokine-treated endothelial cells, B1R activation leads to very high and prolonged (~90 min) NO production that is mediated by a novel signal transduction pathway leading to post-translational activation of iNOS. PMID:20045558

  8. Flow-Mediated Endothelial Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play important roles in the acute control of vascular tone, the regulation of arterial structure and remodeling, and the localization of atherosclerotic lesions. Major regulation of the blood vessel responses occurs by the action of hemodynamic shear stresses on the endothelium. The transmission of hemodynamic forces throughout the endothelium and the mechanotransduction mechanisms that lead to biophysical, biochemical, and gene regulatory responses of endothelial cells to hemodynamic shear stresses are reviewed. PMID:7624393

  9. Comparative adherence of granulocytes to endothelial monolayers and nylon fiber.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, R R; Macarak, E J; Kefalides, N A

    1978-03-01

    Adherence of granulocytes to tissue culture monolayers of endothelium averaged 26.2 +/- 1.3% SEM, which was similar to their adherence on 50-mg nylon fiber columns (27.7 +/- 3.6%). In contrast, adherence to epithelial cells, fibroblasts, kidney cells, and plastic Petri dishes without monolayers was only 12.4, 9.9, 11.1, and 4.3%, respectively. Cyclic nucleotides and adherence-modifying plasma factors induced changes of adherence to endothelium similar to those in nylon fiber columns. Adherence of granulocytes in whole blood was the same as for purified granulocytes in Hank's balanced salt solution. Exposure of endothelial monolayers to 0.18% trypsin for 10 min reduced subsequent granulocyte adherence to 25.2% of control values. Incubation of trypsin-treated monolayers with nutrient medium for 4 h did not improve adherence, but values returned to normal or above by 24 h, with or without serum proteins present in the nutrient medium. The similarity of granulocyte adherence to nylon fiber and to endothelial monolayers in vitro suggests that results with the nylon fiber assay reflect in vivo granulocyte-endothelium interaction. Furthermore, the endothelial monolayer offers a new model for studying this cell-cell relationship in vitro. PMID:641148

  10. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles: A Key Hallmark of Atherosclerosis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) are raised in various cardiovascular diseases. Their increased level in plasma is regarded as a biomarker of alteration in vascular function. The prominent MPs present in blood are endothelial microparticles (EMPs) described as complex submicron (0.1 to 1.0 μm) vesicles like structure, released in response to endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. EMPs possess both physiological and pathological effects and may promote oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. EMPs release is triggered by inducer like angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, and hydrogen peroxide leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there are multiple physiological pathways for EMPs generation like NADPH oxidase derived endothelial ROS formation, Rho kinase pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atheroemboli, resulting from ruptured carotid plaques, is a major cause of stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that EMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, acting as a marker of damage, either exacerbating disease progression or triggering a repair response. In this regard, it has been suggested that EMPs have the potential to act as biomarkers of disease status. This review aims to provide updated information of EMPs in relation to atherosclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:27066292

  11. Emerging Role of Endothelial and Inflammatory Markers in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Swellam, Menha; Samy, Nervana; Abdl Wahab, Susan; Ibrahim, Mohamed Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Endothelial disturbance and excess inflammatory response are pathogenic mechanisms in pre-eclampsia (PE). Authors determine the clinical diagnostic role for thrombomodulin (TM), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as endothelial markers and C-reactive protein (CRP), and interlukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory markers when tested independently or in combinations. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 185 women grouped as 80 women with PE, 55 normotensive pregnant and 50 healthy non-pregnant. Plasma levels of TM, PAI-1, CRP and IL-6 were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Median levels and the positivity rates for the investigated markers were higher in PE as compared to the other groups (P < 0.0001). Using linear regression analysis, the investigated markers were significantly correlated regarding healthy nonpregnant vs PE or normotensive pregnant vs PE. The sensitivity of PAI-1 was the highest (98%) among the tested biomarkers. Combination between the investigated markers revealed absolute sensitivity (100%) and reliable specificity especially when PAI-1 was combined with CRP at 83% specificity. Conclusions: Investigated endothelial and inflammatory markers revealed sensitive diagnostic test for PE. However, coupled combination between PAI-1 with CRP showed superior both sensitivity and specificity which represent a promising new approach for detection of PE. PMID:19597295

  12. Senescence affects endothelial cells susceptibility to dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    AbuBakar, Sazaly; Shu, Meng-Hooi; Johari, Jefree; Wong, Pooi-Fong

    2014-01-01

    Alteration in the endothelium leading to increased vascular permeability contributes to plasma leakage seen in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). An earlier study showed that senescent endothelial cells (ECs) altered the ECs permeability. Here we investigated the susceptibility of senescing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to dengue virus infection and determined if dengue virus infection induces HUVECs senescence. Our results suggest that DENV type-2 (DENV-2) foci forming unit (FFU) and extracellular virus RNA copy number were reduced by at least 35% and 85% in infection of the intermediate young and early senescent HUVECs, respectively, in comparison to infection of young HUVECs. No to low infectivity was recovered from infection of late senescent HUVECs. DENV infection also increases the percentage of HUVECs expressing senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal, cells arrested at the G2/M phase or 4N DNA content stage and cells with enlarged morphology, indicative of senescing cells. Alteration of HUVECs morphology was recorded using impedance-based real-time cell analysis system following DENV-2 infection. These results suggest that senescing HUVECs do not support DENV infection and DENV infection induces HUVECs senescence. The finding highlights the possible role of induction of senescence in DENV infection of the endothelial cells. PMID:24782642

  13. The expression of ADAMTS13 in human microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anyou; Duan, Qiaohong; Wu, Jingsheng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Zimin

    2016-06-01

    ADAMTS13, as a specific von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease, prevents microvascular thrombosis of VWF/platelet thrombi. It has been reported that human vascular endothelial cells could also synthesize and secrete ADAMTS13, and these reports were focused in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. Considering the particularity of its huge quantity and structure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) in the body, whether ADAMTS13 is expressed in HMECs also needs to be confirmed. To investigate whether ADAMTS13 is expressed in HMECs. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) amplification detected ADAMTS13 mRNA in HMEC-1 cell line. The expression and distribution of ADAMTS13 protein and VWF were detected by fluorescence immunoassay and western blot. We observed the expression and distribution of ADAMTS13 in HMECs. We confirmed the expression of ADAMTS13 mRNA in HMEC-1, and found that there were some partly common distributions of ADAMTS13 protein and VWF. This study provides the evidence that HMECs also express ADAMTS13. HMECs might also be a primary source for human plasma ADAMTS13. The overlap region for the distribution of ADAMTS13 and VWF suggests that ADAMTS13 might have a potential regulation role for VWF inside cells. PMID:26366828

  14. Endothelial progenitor cells: identity defined?

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Frank; Plum, Jean; Yöder, Mervin C; Ingram, David A; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Case, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In the past decade, researchers have gained important insights on the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in adult neovascularization. A subset of BM-derived cells, called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), has been of particular interest, as these cells were suggested to home to sites of neovascularization and neoendothelialization and differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs) in situ, a process referred to as postnatal vasculogenesis. Therefore, EPCs were proposed as a potential regenerative tool for treating human vascular disease and a possible target to restrict vessel growth in tumour pathology. However, conflicting results have been reported in the field, and the identification, characterization, and exact role of EPCs in vascular biology is still a subject of much discussion. The focus of this review is on the controversial issues in the field of EPCs which are related to the lack of a unique EPC marker, identification challenges related to the paucity of EPCs in the circulation, and the important phenotypical and functional overlap between EPCs, haematopoietic cells and mature ECs. We also discuss our recent findings on the origin of endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs), showing that this in vitro defined EC population does not originate from circulating CD133+ cells or CD45+ haematopoietic cells. PMID:19067770

  15. Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair in Mitral Regurgitation Reduces Cell-Free Hemoglobin and Improves Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Rammos, Christos; Zeus, Tobias; Balzer, Jan; Kubatz, Laura; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B.; Veulemans, Verena; Hellhammer, Katharina; Totzeck, Matthias; Luedike, Peter; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Endothelial dysfunction is predictive for cardiovascular events and may be caused by decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO is scavenged by cell-free hemoglobin with reduction of bioavailable NO up to 70% subsequently deteriorating vascular function. While patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) suffer from an impaired prognosis, mechanisms relating to coexistent vascular dysfunctions have not been described yet. Therapy of MR using a percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) approach has been shown to lead to significant clinical benefits. We here sought to investigate the role of endothelial function in MR and the potential impact of PMVR. Methods and Results Twenty-seven patients with moderate-to-severe MR treated with the MitraClip® device were enrolled in an open-label single-center observational study. Patients underwent clinical assessment, conventional echocardiography, and determination of endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with MR demonstrated decompartmentalized hemoglobin and reduced endothelial function (cell-free plasma hemoglobin in heme 28.9±3.8 μM, FMD 3.9±0.9%). Three months post-procedure, PMVR improved ejection fraction (from 41±3% to 46±3%, p = 0.03) and NYHA functional class (from 3.0±0.1 to 1.9±1.7, p<0.001). PMVR was associated with a decrease in cell free plasma hemoglobin (22.3±2.4 μM, p = 0.02) and improved endothelial functions (FMD 4.8±1.0%, p<0.0001). Conclusion We demonstrate here that plasma from patients with MR contains significant amounts of cell-free hemoglobin, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. PMVR therapy is associated with an improved hemoglobin decompartmentalization and vascular function. PMID:26986059

  16. Dengue Virus NS1 Disrupts the Endothelial Glycocalyx, Leading to Hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Glasner, Dustin R; Harris, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and a major public health problem worldwide. Systemic plasma leakage, leading to hypovolemic shock and potentially fatal complications, is a critical determinant of dengue severity. Recently, we and others described a novel pathogenic effect of secreted dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in triggering hyperpermeability of human endothelial cells in vitro and systemic vascular leakage in vivo. NS1 was shown to activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in primary human myeloid cells, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular leakage. However, distinct endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms of NS1-induced hyperpermeability remained to be defined. The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins lining the vascular endothelium that plays a key role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Here, we demonstrate that DENV NS1 disrupts the EGL on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, inducing degradation of sialic acid and shedding of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. This effect is mediated by NS1-induced expression of sialidases and heparanase, respectively. NS1 also activates cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, in endothelial cells, which activates heparanase via enzymatic cleavage. Specific inhibitors of sialidases, heparanase, and cathepsin L prevent DENV NS1-induced EGL disruption and endothelial hyperpermeability. All of these effects are specific to NS1 from DENV1-4 and are not induced by NS1 from West Nile virus, a related flavivirus. Together, our data suggest an important role for EGL disruption in DENV NS1-mediated endothelial dysfunction during severe dengue disease. PMID:27416066

  17. Dengue Virus NS1 Disrupts the Endothelial Glycocalyx, Leading to Hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Glasner, Dustin R.; Harris, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and a major public health problem worldwide. Systemic plasma leakage, leading to hypovolemic shock and potentially fatal complications, is a critical determinant of dengue severity. Recently, we and others described a novel pathogenic effect of secreted dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in triggering hyperpermeability of human endothelial cells in vitro and systemic vascular leakage in vivo. NS1 was shown to activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in primary human myeloid cells, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and vascular leakage. However, distinct endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms of NS1-induced hyperpermeability remained to be defined. The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins lining the vascular endothelium that plays a key role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Here, we demonstrate that DENV NS1 disrupts the EGL on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, inducing degradation of sialic acid and shedding of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. This effect is mediated by NS1-induced expression of sialidases and heparanase, respectively. NS1 also activates cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, in endothelial cells, which activates heparanase via enzymatic cleavage. Specific inhibitors of sialidases, heparanase, and cathepsin L prevent DENV NS1-induced EGL disruption and endothelial hyperpermeability. All of these effects are specific to NS1 from DENV1-4 and are not induced by NS1 from West Nile virus, a related flavivirus. Together, our data suggest an important role for EGL disruption in DENV NS1-mediated endothelial dysfunction during severe dengue disease. PMID:27416066

  18. MicroRNA-214 and MicroRNA-126 Are Potential Biomarkers for Malignant Endothelial Proliferative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Heishima, Kazuki; Mori, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yukie; Sakai, Hiroki; Kuranaga, Yuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yuiko; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Masuzawa, Mikio; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Murakami, Mami; Yamada, Nami; Akao, Yukihiro; Maruo, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Malignant endothelial proliferative diseases including human angiosarcoma (AS) and canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) are serious diseases with a grave prognosis. Establishing liquid biopsy-based biomarkers for screening has definite clinical utility; however, plasma miRNAs up- or down-regulated in these sarcomas have been unclear. For identifying possible diagnostic plasma miRNAs for these sarcomas, we investigated whether plasma miR-214 and miR-126, which miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, were elevated in malignant endothelial proliferative diseases. For this investigation, human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines and clinical plasma samples of canine hemangiosarcoma were examined by performing miRNA qRT-PCR. We report here that human angiosarcoma and canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126 via microvesicles; in addition, their levels in the plasma samples from canines with hemangiosarcoma were increased. Moreover, the surgical resection of primary tumors decreased the levels of plasma miR-214 and miR-126. Our findings suggest that these malignant endothelial proliferative diseases over-secreted miR-214 and miR-126, thus suggesting that these miRNAs have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for malignant endothelial proliferative diseases in canine and possible in human angiosarcoma. PMID:26512652

  19. Novel regulators of endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Krishnan; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is an essential and tightly regulated process that ensures proper compartmentalization of the vascular and interstitial space, while allowing for the diffusive exchange of small molecules and the controlled trafficking of macromolecules and immune cells. Failure to control endothelial barrier integrity results in excessive leakage of fluid and proteins from the vasculature that can rapidly become fatal in scenarios such as sepsis or the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding on the regulation of endothelial permeability, with a specific focus on the endothelial glycocalyx and endothelial scaffolds, regulatory intracellular signaling cascades, as well as triggers and mediators that either disrupt or enhance endothelial barrier integrity, and provide our perspective as to areas of seeming controversy and knowledge gaps, respectively. PMID:25381026

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Induces Release of Bradykinin in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Eva; Herwald, Heiko; Cramer, Henning; Persson, Kristin; Sjöbring, Ulf; Björck, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen. Here we report that intact S. aureus bacteria activate the contact system in human plasma in vitro, resulting in a massive release of the potent proinflammatory and vasoactive peptide bradykinin. In contrast, no such effect was recorded with Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the activation of the contact system, blood coagulation factor XII and plasma kallikrein play central roles, and a specific inhibitor of these serine proteinases inhibited the release of bradykinin by S. aureus in human plasma. Furthermore, fragments of the cofactor H-kininogen of the contact system efficiently blocked bradykinin release. The results suggest that activation of the contact system at the surface of S. aureus and the subsequent release of bradykinin could contribute to the hypovolemic hypotension seen in patients with severe S. aureus sepsis. The data also suggest that the contact system could be used as a target in the treatment of S. aureus infections. PMID:11349054

  1. Cytotoxicity of Metal Ions Released from Nitinol Alloys on Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, W.; Munroe, N.; Tek, V.; Gill, P. K. S.; Tang, Y.; McGoron, A. J.

    2011-07-01

    Most implantable medical devices are expected to function in the body over an extended period of time. Therefore, immersion tests under simulated conditions can be useful for assessing the amount of metal ions released in situ. In this investigation, dissolved ions from as-received binary and ternary Nitinol alloys in cell culture media were periodically measured under static and dynamic conditions. Endothelial cells were grown in aliquots of culture media obtained and the effect of dissolved ions on cell proliferation and viability of endothelial cells (HUVEC) was studied by cytotoxicity assays. The concentration of metal ions in the media was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  2. Replication of human endothelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L J; Hoak, J C; Maca, R D; Fry, G L

    1973-08-01

    Investigative studies dealing with the properties and functions of endothelial cells have been hampered because there has been little or no success in the isolation, growth, and passage of individual cells in large numbers. We have developed a system whereby pure cultures of endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins can be subcultured for at least five serial passages. Many facets of endothelial function and interaction can be evaluated with the use of this new adaptive system of isolation and culture. PMID:4718112

  3. Progenitor endothelial cell involvement in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-05-01

    There is compelling evidence that endothelial cells of the brain and periphery are dysfunctional in Alzheimer's Disease. There is evidence for a fundamental defect in, or abnormal aging of, endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis. The possibility that endothelial cell defects are a primary cause for Alzheimer's Disease or other dementias can be researched by molecular and cell biology studies as well as cell trafficking studies using recently demonstrated molecular imaging methods. The evidence for abnormal endothelial function and the methods to explore this hypothesis are presented.

  4. Endothelial function and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kinlay, S; Libby, P; Ganz, P

    2001-08-01

    The endothelium produces a number of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor substances that not only regulate vasomotor tone, but also the recruitment and activity of inflammatory cells and the propensity towards thrombosis. Endothelial vasomotor function is a convenient way to assess these other functions, and is related to the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Lipids (particularly low density lipoprotein cholesterol) and oxidant stress play a major role in impairing these functions, by reducing the bioavailability of nitric oxide and activating pro-inflammatory signalling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa B. Biomechanical forces on the endothelium, including low shear stress from disturbed blood flow, also activate the endothelium increasing vasomotor dysfunction and promoting inflammation by upregulating pro-atherogenic genes. In contrast, normal laminar shear stress promotes the expression of genes that may protect against atherosclerosis. The sub-cellular structure of endothelial cells includes caveolae that play an integral part in regulating the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and oxidant stress impair caveolae structure and function and adversely affect endothelial function. Lipid-independent pathways of endothelial cell activation are increasingly recognized, and may provide new therapeutic targets. Endothelial vasoconstrictors, such as endothelin, antagonize endothelium-derived vasodilators and contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Some but not all studies have linked certain genetic polymorphisms of the nitric oxide synthase enzyme to vascular disease and impaired endothelial function. Such genetic heterogeneity may nonetheless offer new insights into the variability of endothelial function. PMID:11507322

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor C promotes survival of retinal vascular endothelial cells via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor‐2

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bojun; Smith, Gill; Cai, Jun; Ma, Aihua; Boulton, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF‐C) expression in retinal endothelial cells, its antiapoptotic potential and its putative role in diabetic retinopathy. Method Cultured retinal endothelial cells and pericytes were exposed to tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α and VEGF‐C expression determined by reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction. Secreted VEGF‐C protein levels in conditioned media from endothelial cells were examined by western blotting analysis. The ability of VEGF‐C to prevent apoptosis induced by TNFα or hyperglycaemia in endothelial cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of VEGF‐C in diabetic retinopathy was studied by immunohistochemistry of retinal tissue. Result VEGF‐C was expressed by both vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. TNFα up regulated both VEGF‐C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor‐2 (VEGFR)‐2 expression in endothelial cells in a dose‐dependent manner, but had no effect on VEGFR‐3. Flow cytometry results showed that VEGF‐C prevented endothelial cell apoptosis induced by TNFα and hyperglycaemia and that the antiapoptotic effect was mainly via VEGFR‐2. In pericytes, the expression of VEGF‐C mRNA remained stable on exogenous TNFα treatment. VEGF‐C immunostaining was increased in retinal vessels in specimens with diabetes compared with retinal specimens from controls without diabetes. Conclusion In retinal endothelial cells, TNFα stimulates the expression of VEGF‐C, which in turn protects endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by TNFα or hyperglycaemia via VEGFR‐2 and thus helps sustain retinal neovascularisation. PMID:16943230

  6. Targeting of nitric oxide synthase to endothelial cell caveolae via palmitoylation: implications for nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed Central

    García-Cardeña, G; Oh, P; Liu, J; Schnitzer, J E; Sessa, W C

    1996-01-01

    The membrane association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in vascular endothelium. Previously, we have shown that in cultured endothelial cells and in intact blood vessels, eNOS is found primarily in the perinuclear region of the cells and in discrete regions of the plasma membrane, suggesting trafficking of the protein from the Golgi to specialized plasma membrane structures. Here, we show that eNOS is found in Triton X-100-insoluble membranes prepared from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and colocalizes with caveolin, a coat protein of caveolae, in cultured bovine lung microvascular endothelial cells as determined by confocal microscopy. To examine if eNOS is indeed in caveolae, we purified luminal endothelial cell plasma membranes and their caveolae directly from intact, perfused rat lungs. eNOS is found in the luminal plasma membranes and is markedly enriched in the purified caveolae. Because palmitoylation of eNOS does not significantly influence its membrane association, we next examined whether this modification can affect eNOS targeting to caveolae. Wild-type eNOS, but not the palmitoylation mutant form of the enzyme, colocalizes with caveolin on the cell surface in transfected NIH 3T3 cells, demonstrating that palmitoylation of eNOS is necessary for its targeting into caveolae. These data suggest that the subcellular targeting of eNOS to caveolae can restrict NO signaling to specific targets within a limited microenvironment at the cell surface and may influence signal transduction through caveolae. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692835

  7. Peroxiredoxin1 Prevents Excessive Endothelial Activation and Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kisucka, Janka; Chauhan, Anil K.; Patten, Ian S.; Yesilaltay, Ayce; Neumann, Carola; Van Etten, Richard A.; Krieger, Monty; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The peroxiredoxin (Prdx) family of antioxidant enzymes uses redox-active cysteines to reduce peroxides, lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrites. Prdx1 is known to be important to protect red blood cells against reactive oxygen species and in tumor prevention. In this study, the role of Prdx1 in inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis was investigated. Using intravital microscopy, we showed that the number of leukocytes rolling per minute in unstimulated veins was increased by 2.5-fold in Prdx1−/− compared to Prdx1+/+ mice. In Prdx1−/− mice, 50% of leukocytes rolled at a velocity <10 μm/sec compared with 10% in Prdx1+/+ mice, suggesting that adhesion molecule density on the endothelium may have been increased by Prdx1 deficiency. Indeed, endothelial P-selectin, soluble P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor in plasma were increased in Prdx1−/− mice compared to Prdx1+/+ mice, indicating elevated Weibel–Palade body release. In contrast to this excessive endothelial activation, Prdx1−/− platelets showed no sign of hyperreactivity, and their aggregation both in vitro and in vivo was normal. We also examined the role of Prdx1 in the apoE−/− murine spontaneous model of atherosclerosis. Prdx1−/−/apoE−/− mice fed normal chow developed larger, more macrophage-rich aortic sinus lesions than Prdx1+/+/apoE−/− mice, despite similar amounts and size distributions of cholesterol in their plasma lipoproteins. Thus, Prdx1 protects against excessive endothelial activation and atherosclerosis, and the Prdx1−/− mice could serve as an animal model susceptible to chronic inflammation. PMID:18689572

  8. Human liver endothelial cells, but not macrovascular or microvascular endothelial cells, engraft in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Filali, Ebtisam El; Hiralall, Johan K; van Veen, Henk A; Stolz, Donna B; Seppen, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation has had limited clinical success so far, partly due to poor engraftment of hepatocytes. Instead of hepatocytes. other cell types, such as endothelial cells, could be used in ex vivo liver gene therapy. The goal of the present study was to compare the grafting and repopulation capacity of human endothelial cells derived from various tissues. Human endothelial cells were isolated from adult and fetal livers using anti-human CD31 antibody-conjugated magnetic beads. Human macrovascular endothelial cells were obtained from umbilical vein. Human microvascular endothelial cells were isolated from adipose tissue. Cells were characterized using flow cytometry. Liver engraftment and repopulation of endothelial cells was studied after intrasplenic transplantation in monocrotaline-treated immunodeficient mice. Following transplantation, human liver endothelial cells engrafted throughout the mouse liver. With immunoscanning electron microscopy, fenestrae in engrafted human liver endothelial cells were identified, a characteristic feature of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In contrast, CD31-negative liver cells, human macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells were not capable of repopulating mouse liver. Characterization of human liver, macrovascular, and microvascular endothelial cells demonstrated expression of CD31, CD34, and CD146 but not CD45. Our study shows that only human liver endothelial cells, but not macro- and microvascular endothelial cells, have the unique capacity to engraft and repopulate the mouse liver. These results indicate that mature endothelial cells cannot transdifferentiate in vivo and thus do not exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Our results have set a basis for further research to the potential of human liver endothelial cells in liver-directed cell and gene therapy. PMID:23044355

  9. Impact of endothelial lipase on cellular lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Monika; Köfeler, Harald; Lechleitner, Margarete; Tritscher, Michaela; Frank, Saša

    2012-07-01

    Using mass spectrometry (MS), we examined the impact of endothelial lipase (EL) overexpression on the cellular phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride (TG) content of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and of mouse plasma and liver tissue. In HAEC incubated with the major EL substrate, HDL, adenovirus (Ad)-mediated EL overexpression resulted in the generation of various lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) species in cell culture supernatants. While the cellular phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) content remained unaltered, cellular phosphatidylcholine (PC)-, LPC- and TG-contents were significantly increased upon EL overexpression. Importantly, cellular lipid composition was not altered when EL was overexpressed in the absence of HDL. [(14)C]-LPC accumulated in EL overexpressing, but not LacZ-control cells, incubated with [(14)C]-PC labeled HDL, indicating EL-mediated LPC supply. Exogenously added [(14)C]-LPC accumulated in HAEC as well. Its conversion to [(14)C]-PC was sensitive to a lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPLAT) inhibitor, thimerosal. Incorporation of [(3)H]-Choline into cellular PC was 56% lower in EL compared with LacZ cells, indicating decreased endogenous PC synthesis. In mice, adenovirus mediated EL overexpression decreased plasma PC, PE and LPC and increased liver LPC, LPE and TG content. Based on our results, we conclude that EL not only supplies cells with FFA as found previously, but also with HDL-derived LPC and LPE species resulting in increased cellular TG and PC content as well as decreased endogenous PC synthesis. PMID:23075452

  10. Myoferlin is critical for endocytosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, Pascal N.; Sharma, Arpeeta; Kodaman, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Myoferlin is a member of the ferlin family of proteins that promotes endomembrane fusion with the plasma membrane in muscle cells and endothelial cells. In addition, myoferlin is necessary for the surface expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 through the formation of a protein complex with dynamin-2 (Dyn-2). Since Dyn-2 is necessary for the fission of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, we tested the hypothesis that myoferlin may regulates aspects of receptor-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that myoferlin gene silencing decreases both clathrin and caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis, whereas ectopic myoferlin expression in COS-7 cells increases endocytosis by up to 125%. Interestingly, we have observed that inhibition of Dyn-2 activity or caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression impairs endocytosis as well as membrane resealing after injury, indicating that Dyn-2 and Cav-1 also participate in both membrane fission and fusion processes. Mechanistically, myoferlin partially colocalizes with Dyn-2 and Cav-1 and forms a protein complex with Cav-1 solubilized from tissue extracts. Together, these data describe a new role for myoferlin in receptor-dependent endocytosis and an overlapping role for myoferlin-Dyn-2-Cav-1 protein complexes in membrane fusion and fission events. PMID:19494235

  11. Proliferation of endothelial component of parathyroid gland in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Potential relationship with a mitogenic factor.

    PubMed Central

    D'Adda, T.; Amorosi, A.; Bussolati, G.; Brandi, M. L.; Bordi, C.

    1993-01-01

    The basic fibroblast growth factor-like mitogen detected in the plasma of patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome was found to have a specific mitogenic effect on parathyroid endothelial cells in vitro. To investigate its pathogenic role in humans, the endothelial component of parathyroid glands was evaluated by ultrastructural morphometry in six MEN-1 patients. The results were compared with those found in six patients with uremic hyperparathyroidism (UHPT) and in three subjects with histologically normal glands. Plasma mitogenic activity was found in all MEN-1 patients but not in those with UHPT or in normal subjects. All morphometric parameters investigated (fractional volume and nuclear density of capillary endothelial cells, volume fraction and number per unit area of capillaries) showed 1.5- to 2-fold higher values in patients with MEN-1 than in those with UHPT (P < 0.05). In contrast, no difference was found between MEN-1 cases and normal subjects. Quantitative evaluation of parathyroid pericytes yielded results similar to those of endothelial cells. These data indicate that the proliferation of parathyroid cells in MEN-1 patients is accompanied by parallel increase in the associated endothelial component that does not occur in patients with UHPT and may support the hypothesis of an in vivo role of the MEN-1 mitogen factor on the endothelial component of parathyroid glands in MEN-1 patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:8102033

  12. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 regulates recovery of endothelial adherens junctions through control of β-catenin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, Ilse; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Bennett, Anton M.; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L.; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired endothelial barrier function results in a persistent increase in endothelial permeability and vascular leakage. Repair of a dysfunctional endothelial barrier requires controlled restoration of adherens junctions, comprising vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and associated β-, γ-, α-, and p120-catenins. Little is known about the mechanisms by which recovery of VE-cadherin–mediated cell–cell junctions is regulated. Using the inflammatory mediator thrombin, we demonstrate an important role for the Src homology 2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) in mediating recovery of the VE-cadherin–controlled endothelial barrier. Using SHP2 substrate-trapping mutants and an in vitro phosphatase activity assay, we validate β-catenin as a bona fide SHP2 substrate. SHP2 silencing and SHP2 inhibition both result in delayed recovery of endothelial barrier function after thrombin stimulation. Moreover, on thrombin challenge, we find prolonged elevation in tyrosine phosphorylation levels of VE-cadherin–associated β-catenin in SHP2-depleted cells. No disassembly of the VE-cadherin complex is observed throughout the thrombin response. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we show that loss of SHP2 reduces the mobility of VE-cadherin at recovered cell–cell junctions. In conclusion, our data show that the SHP2 phosphatase plays an important role in the recovery of disrupted endothelial cell–cell junctions by dephosphorylating VE-cadherin–associated β-catenin and promoting the mobility of VE-cadherin at the plasma membrane. PMID:22956765

  13. Air pollution upregulates endothelial cell procoagulant activity via ultrafine particle-induced oxidant signaling and tissue factor expression.

    PubMed

    Snow, S J; Cheng, W; Wolberg, A S; Carraway, M S

    2014-07-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular events triggered by clot formation. Endothelial activation and initiation of coagulation are pathophysiological mechanisms that could link inhaled air pollutants to vascular events. Here we investigated the underlying mechanisms of increased endothelial cell procoagulant activity following exposure to soluble components of ultrafine particles (soluble UF). Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were exposed to soluble UF and assessed for their ability to trigger procoagulant activity in platelet-free plasma. Exposed HCAEC triggered earlier thrombin generation and faster fibrin clot formation, which was abolished by an anti-tissue factor (TF) antibody, indicating TF-dependent effects. Soluble UF exposure increased TF mRNA expression without compensatory increases in key anticoagulant proteins. To identify early events that regulate TF expression, we measured endothelial H2O2 production following soluble UF exposure and identified the enzymatic source. Soluble UF exposure increased endothelial H2O2 production, and antioxidants attenuated UF-induced upregulation of TF, linking the procoagulant responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Chemical inhibitors and RNA silencing showed that NOX-4, an important endothelial source of H2O2, was involved in UF-induced upregulation of TF mRNA. These data indicate that soluble UF exposure induces endothelial cell procoagulant activity, which involves de novo TF synthesis, ROS production, and the NOX-4 enzyme. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution exposure. PMID:24752501

  14. STIM1 Controls Endothelial Barrier Function Independently of Orai1 and Ca2+ Entry

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Arti V.; Motiani, Rajender K.; Zhang, Xuexin; Abdullaev, Iskandar F.; Adam, Alejandro P.; González-Cobos, José C.; Zhang, Wei; Matrougui, Khalid; Vincent, Peter A.; Trebak, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is critical for tissue fluid homeostasis and its disruption contributes to various pathologies, including inflammation and sepsis. Thrombin is an endogenous agonist that impairs endothelial barrier function. Here, we showed that the thrombin-induced decrease in transendothelial electric resistance of cultured human endothelial cells required the endoplasmic reticulum-localized, calcium-sensing protein STIM1, but was independent of Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane and the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel protein Orai1, which is the target of STIM1 in the store-operated calcium entry pathway. We found that STIM1 coupled the thrombin receptor to activation of the guanosine triphosphatase RhoA, stimulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation, formation of actin stress fibers, and loss of cell-cell adhesion. Thus, STIM1 functions in pathways that are dependent and independent of Ca2+entry. PMID:23512989

  15. CD226 reduces endothelial cell glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions with inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zilong; Zhang, Jinxue; Sun, Yizheng; Jin, Boquan; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuzhong; Zhuang, Ran

    2016-01-01

    CD226 is a co-stimulatory adhesion molecule found on immune and endothelial cells. Here, we evaluated a possible role for CD226 in inhibiting glucose uptake in isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in wild-type (WT) and CD226 knockout (KO) mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CD226 expression increased under hyperglycemic conditions in the presence of TNF-α. Furthermore, CD226 knockdown improved glucose uptake in endothelial cells, and CD226 KO mice exhibited increased glucose tolerance. Levels of soluble CD226 in plasma were higher in T2DM patients following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than under fasting conditions. Our results indicate that low-grade inflammation coupled with elevated blood glucose increases CD226 expression, resulting in decreased endothelial cell glucose uptake in T2DM. PMID:26910838

  16. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jin Bo

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease. PMID:26635921

  17. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  18. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Jin Bo

    2015-11-26

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease. PMID:26635921

  19. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  20. Quantitation of Endothelial Cell Adhesiveness In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Donna J.; Raj, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    One of the cardinal processes of inflammation is the infiltration of immune cells from the lumen of the blood vessel to the surrounding tissue. This occurs when endothelial cells, which line blood vessels, become adhesive to circulating immune cells such as monocytes. In vitro measurement of this adhesiveness has until now been done by quantifying the total number of monocytes that adhere to an endothelial layer either as a direct count or by indirect measurement of the fluorescence of adherent monocytes. While such measurements do indicate the average adhesiveness of the endothelial cell population, they are confounded by a number of factors, such as cell number, and do not reveal the proportion of endothelial cells that are actually adhesive. Here we describe and demonstrate a method which allows the enumeration of adhesive cells within a tested population of endothelial monolayer. Endothelial cells are grown on glass coverslips and following desired treatment are challenged with monocytes (that may be fluorescently labeled). After incubation, a rinsing procedure, involving multiple rounds of immersion and draining, the cells are fixed. Adhesive endothelial cells, which are surrounded by monocytes are readily identified and enumerated, giving an adhesion index that reveals the actual proportion of endothelial cells within the population that are adhesive. PMID:26132714

  1. Interaction of Isoflavones and Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed Extract on Vasoactivity of Bovine Mesenteric Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yang; Harmon, David L.; Flythe, Michael D.; Klotz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n = 5, bodyweight = 639 ± 39 kg). Duplicates of each vessel type were incubated in tissue culture flasks at 37°C with a 50-mL volume of Krebs–Henseleit buffer containing: only buffer (control); or 1 × 10−6 M EXT; F; or B; and combinations of 1 × 10−6 M EXT + F; 1 × 10−6 M EXT + B; 1 × 10−6 M F + B; or 1 × 10−6 M EXT + F + B. After incubation for 2 h, sections were mounted in a multimyograph chamber. The ERT dose responses were normalized to 0.12 M KCl. Pretreatment with F, B, and F + B without EXT resulted in similar contractile responses to ERT in mesenteric artery and all incubations containing EXT resulted in a complete loss of vasoactivity to ERT. In mesenteric artery pretreated with EXT, treatments that contained B had higher contractile responses (P < 0.05) at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10−7 and 5 × 10−7 M. Also, treatments containing B tended (P < 0.1) to have greater responses than treatments without B at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10−6, 5 × 10−6, and 5 × 10−5 M. In mesenteric vein pretreated with EXT, treatments containing F had greater contractile responses to ERT at 1 × 10−5, 5 × 10−5, and 1 × 10−4 M (P < 0.05). These data indicated that F and B at 1 × 10−6 M and their

  2. Interaction of Isoflavones and Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed Extract on Vasoactivity of Bovine Mesenteric Vasculature.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yang; Harmon, David L; Flythe, Michael D; Klotz, James L

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n = 5, bodyweight = 639 ± 39 kg). Duplicates of each vessel type were incubated in tissue culture flasks at 37°C with a 50-mL volume of Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing: only buffer (control); or 1 × 10(-6) M EXT; F; or B; and combinations of 1 × 10(-6) M EXT + F; 1 × 10(-6) M EXT + B; 1 × 10(-6) M F + B; or 1 × 10(-6) M EXT + F + B. After incubation for 2 h, sections were mounted in a multimyograph chamber. The ERT dose responses were normalized to 0.12 M KCl. Pretreatment with F, B, and F + B without EXT resulted in similar contractile responses to ERT in mesenteric artery and all incubations containing EXT resulted in a complete loss of vasoactivity to ERT. In mesenteric artery pretreated with EXT, treatments that contained B had higher contractile responses (P < 0.05) at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10(-7) and 5 × 10(-7) M. Also, treatments containing B tended (P < 0.1) to have greater responses than treatments without B at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10(-6), 5 × 10(-6), and 5 × 10(-5) M. In mesenteric vein pretreated with EXT, treatments containing F had greater contractile responses to ERT at 1 × 10(-5), 5 × 10(-5), and 1 × 10(-4) M (P < 0.05). These data indicated that F and B at 1 × 10(-6) M and their combination

  3. Endothelial Transmigration by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Bria M.; Sullivan, David P.; Makanji, Ming Y.; Du, Nga Y.; Olson, Cheryl L.; Muller, William A.; Engman, David M.; Epting, Conrad L.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas heart disease, the leading cause of heart failure in Latin America, results from infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Although T. cruzi disseminates intravascularly, how the parasite contends with the endothelial barrier to escape the bloodstream and infect tissues has not been described. Understanding the interaction between T. cruzi and the vascular endothelium, likely a key step in parasite dissemination, could inform future therapies to interrupt disease pathogenesis. We adapted systems useful in the study of leukocyte transmigration to investigate both the occurrence of parasite transmigration and its determinants in vitro. Here we provide the first evidence that T. cruzi can rapidly migrate across endothelial cells by a mechanism that is distinct from productive infection and does not disrupt monolayer integrity or alter permeability. Our results show that this process is facilitated by a known modulator of cellular infection and vascular permeability, bradykinin, and can be augmented by the chemokine CCL2. These represent novel findings in our understanding of parasite dissemination, and may help identify new therapeutic strategies to limit the dissemination of the parasite. PMID:24312535

  4. Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, R; Koundinya, K S Srivani; Malati, T; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance in the production of vasodilator factors and when this balance is disrupted, it predisposes the vasculature towards pro-thrombotic and pro-atherogenic effects. This results in vasoconstriction, leukocyte adherence, platelet activation, mitogenesis, pro-oxidation, impaired coagulation and nitric oxide production, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Endothelial dysfunction is focussed as it is a potential contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Under physiological conditions, there is a balanced release of endothelial-derived relaxing and contracting factors, but this delicate balance is altered in diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, thereby contributing to further progression of vascular and end-organ damage. This review focuses on endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus, markers and genetics that are implicated in endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27605734

  5. Endothelial cell micropatterning: Methods, effects, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deirdre E.J.; Hinds, Monica T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of flow on endothelial cells have been widely examined for the ability of fluid shear stress to alter cell morphology and function; however, the effects of endothelial cell morphology without flow have only recently been observed. An increase in lithographic techniques in cell culture spurred a corresponding increase in research aiming to confine cell morphology. These studies lead to a better understanding of how morphology and cytoskeletal configuration affect the structure and function of the cells. This review examines endothelial cell micropatterning research by exploring both the many alternative methods used to alter endothelial cell morphology and the resulting changes in cellular shape and phenotype. Micropatterning induced changes in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organization, mechanical properties, and cell functionality. Finally, the ways these cellular manipulation techniques have been applied to biomedical engineering research, including angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue engineering, is discussed. PMID:21761242

  6. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaisman, Boris L.; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G.; Freeman, Lita A.; Amar, Marcelo J.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Liu, Chengyu; Stonik, John A.; Sampson, Maureen L.; Pryor, Milton; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Patterson, Amy P.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) in endothelial cells (EC) was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC. PMID:26504816

  7. Abnormalities of endothelial function in patients with predialysis renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Thambyrajah, J; Landray, M; McGlynn, F; Jones, H; Wheeler, D; Townend, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic renal failure.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between predialysis renal failure and endothelial function.
DESIGN—Two groups were studied: 80 patients with non-diabetic chronic renal failure and 26 healthy controls, with similar age and sex distributions. Two indices of endothelial function were assessed: high resolution ultrasonography to measure flow mediated endothelium dependent dilatation of the brachial artery following reactive hyperaemia, and plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor. Endothelium independent dilatation was also assessed following sublingual glyceryl trinitrate. The patients were divided into those with and without overt atherosclerotic vascular disease.
RESULTS—Although patients with chronic renal failure had significantly impaired endothelium dependent dilatation compared with controls (median (interquartile range), 2.6% (0.7% to 4.8%) v 6.5% (4.8% to 8.3%); p < 0.001) and increased von Willebrand factor (254 (207 to 294) v 106 (87 to 138) iu/dl; p < 0.001), there was no difference between renal failure patients with and without atherosclerotic vascular disease. Within the chronic renal failure group, endothelium dependent dilatation and von Willebrand factor were similar in patients in the upper and lower quartiles of glomerular filtration rate (2.7% (0.7% to 6.7%) v 2.8% (1.1% to 5.0%); and 255 (205 to 291) v 254 (209 to 292) iu/dl, respectively). Endothelium independent dilatation did not differ between the renal failure or control groups and was also similar in patients with renal failure irrespective of the degree of renal failure or the presence of atherosclerotic vascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS—Endothelial function is abnormal in chronic renal failure, even in patients with mild renal insufficiency and those without

  8. Role for Tetrahydrobiopterin in the Fetoplacental Endothelial Dysfunction in Maternal Supraphysiological Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, Andrea; Fuenzalida, Bárbara; Toledo, Fernando; Salomón, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Sanhueza, Carlos; Pardo, Fabián

    2016-01-01

    Maternal physiological hypercholesterolemia occurs during pregnancy, ensuring normal fetal development. In some cases, the maternal plasma cholesterol level increases to above this physiological range, leading to maternal supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia (MSPH). This condition results in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the fetal and placental vasculature. The fetal and placental endothelial dysfunction is related to alterations in the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the arginase/urea pathway and results in reduced NO production. The level of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is reduced in nonpregnant women who have hypercholesterolemia, which favors the generation of the superoxide anion rather than NO (from eNOS), causing endothelial dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether MSPH is associated with changes in the level or metabolism of BH4; as a result, eNOS function is not well understood. This review summarizes the available information on the potential link between MSPH and BH4 in causing human fetoplacental vascular endothelial dysfunction, which may be crucial for understanding the deleterious effects of MSPH on fetal growth and development. PMID:26697136

  9. Role for Tetrahydrobiopterin in the Fetoplacental Endothelial Dysfunction in Maternal Supraphysiological Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Andrea; Fuenzalida, Bárbara; Westermeier, Francisco; Toledo, Fernando; Salomón, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Sanhueza, Carlos; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maternal physiological hypercholesterolemia occurs during pregnancy, ensuring normal fetal development. In some cases, the maternal plasma cholesterol level increases to above this physiological range, leading to maternal supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia (MSPH). This condition results in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the fetal and placental vasculature. The fetal and placental endothelial dysfunction is related to alterations in the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the arginase/urea pathway and results in reduced NO production. The level of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is reduced in nonpregnant women who have hypercholesterolemia, which favors the generation of the superoxide anion rather than NO (from eNOS), causing endothelial dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether MSPH is associated with changes in the level or metabolism of BH4; as a result, eNOS function is not well understood. This review summarizes the available information on the potential link between MSPH and BH4 in causing human fetoplacental vascular endothelial dysfunction, which may be crucial for understanding the deleterious effects of MSPH on fetal growth and development. PMID:26697136

  10. Effect of Vitamins C and E on Endothelial Function in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Cazeau, Rachel-Marie; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A.; Hoffman, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives. Endothelial dysfunction due to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage is an important predictor of future cardiovascular risk in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and is present in adolescent T1DM. We hypothesized that combined treatment with the antioxidant vitamins C and E might improve endothelial function (EF) and other biochemical risk factors in adolescents with T1DM. Subjects/Methods. Open-label antioxidant supplementation was given for six weeks with endpoint measurements collected at baseline and study completion. Endpoints measured included EF and plasma measurements of biochemical endothelial risk. Results. Two males and 7 females were studied. Mean age was 12.9 ± 0.9 yrs; mean T1DM duration was 5.5 ± 2.5 yrs; mean BMI was 22.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2; and mean hemoglobin A1c was 9.3 ± 1.1%. No differences were found for EF, high sensitivity CRP, total antioxidant capacity, adiponectin, or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) between before and after combined vitamin C and E therapy. Conclusions. Our negative study results do not support previous findings of decreased oxidative damage, improved endothelial function, and increased vascular repair capacity with antioxidant therapy. Longer term studies may be needed to determine the effects, if any, of combined antioxidant therapy on EPCs, EF, and markers of micro- and macrovascular complications in T1DM. PMID:26783536

  11. [Transplantation of corneal endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Amano, Shiro

    2002-12-01

    Though conventional corneal transplantation has achieved great success, it still has several drawbacks including limited availability of donor corneas, recurrent allograft rejection, and subsequent graft failure in certain cases. Reconstructing clinically usable corneas by applying the technology of regenerative medicine can offer a solution to these problems, as well as making corneal transplantation a non-emergency surgery and enabling the usage of banked corneal cells. In the present study, we focused on corneal endothelium that is critical for corneal transparency and investigated the reconstruction of cornea utilizing cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). We succeeded in steadily culturing HCECs by using culture dishes pre-coated with extracellular matrix produced by calf corneal endothelial cells and culture media that contained basic fibroblast growth factor and fetal bovine serum. We performed the following analysis utilizing these cultured HCECs. The older the donor was, the more frequently large senescent cells appeared in the passaged HCECs. The telomeres of HCECs were measured as terminal restriction fragments (TRF) by Southern blotting. HCECs, in vivo from donors in their seventies had a long TRFs of over 12 kilobases. Passaging shortened the TRFs but there was no difference in TRFs among donors of various ages. These results indicated that shortening of telomere length is not related to senescence of HCECs. We investigated the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the senescence of in vivo HCECs. The results indicated that AGE-protein in the aqueous humor is endocytosed into HCECs via AGE receptors expressed on the surface of HCECs and damages HCECs by producing reactive oxygen species and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that AGEs, at least partly, cause the senescence of HECEs. HCECs were cultured using adult human serum instead of bovine serum to get rid of bovine material that can be infected with prions. Primary and passage

  12. Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract Restores Impaired Endothelial Function by Inhibiting Arginase Activity in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwanhoon; Yoon, Jeongyeon

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the prime cause of morbidity and mortality and the population ages that may contribute to increase in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Arginase upregulation is associated with impaired endothelial function in aged vascular system and thus may contribute to cardiovascular disease. According to recent research, Korean Red Ginseng water extract (KRGE) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular system health. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms contributing to age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and to determine whether KRGE improves these functions in aged mice. Young (10±3 weeks) and aged (55±5 weeks) male mice (C57BL/6J) were orally administered 0, 10, or 20 mg/mouse/day of KRGE for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and the aortas were removed. Endothelial arginase activity, nitric oxide (NO) generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling, vascular tension, and plasma peroxynitrite production were measured. KRGE attenuated arginase activity, restored nitric oxide (NO) generation, reduced ROS production, and enhanced eNOS coupling in aged mice. KRGE also improved vascular tension in aged vessels, as indicated by increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and improved phenylephrine-stimulated vasoconstriction. Furthermore, KRGE prevented plasma peroxynitrite formation in aged mice, indicating reduced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest KRGE exerts vasoprotective effects by inhibiting arginase activity and augmenting NO signaling and may be a useful treatment for age-dependent vascular diseases. PMID:24757370

  13. Therapeutic Approaches to Limit Hemolysis-Driven Endothelial Dysfunction: Scavenging Free Heme to Preserve Vasculature Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Hemolysis results in the release of hemoglobin and heme into the bloodstream and is associated with the development of several pathologic conditions of different etiology, including hemoglobinopathies, hemolytic anemias, bacterial infections, malaria, and trauma. In addition, hemolysis is associated with surgical procedures, hemodialysis, blood transfusion, and other conditions in which mechanical forces can lead to red blood cell rupture. Free plasma hemoglobin and heme are toxic for the vascular endothelium since heme iron promotes oxidative stress that causes endothelial activation responsible for vasoocclusive events and thrombus formation. Moreover, free hemoglobin scavenges nitric oxide, reducing its bioavailability, and heme favours ROS production, thus causing oxidative nitric oxide consumption. This results in the dysregulation of the endothelium vasodilator:vasoconstrictor balance, leading to severe vasoconstriction and hypertension. Thus, endothelial dysfunction and impairment of cardiovascular function represent a common feature of pathologic conditions associated with hemolysis. In this review, we discuss how hemoglobin/heme released following hemolysis may affect vascular function and summarise the therapeutic approaches available to limit hemolysis-driven endothelial dysfunction. Particular emphasis is put on recent data showing the beneficial effects obtained through the use of the plasma heme scavenger hemopexin in counteracting heme-mediated endothelial damage in mouse models of hemolytic diseases. PMID:23781294

  14. Study of angiotensin-(1-7) vasoactive peptide and its beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: complete sequence-specific NMR assignments and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Lula, Ivana; Denadai, Angelo L; Resende, Jarbas M; de Sousa, Frederico B; de Lima, Guilherme F; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Heine, Thomas; Duarte, Hélio A; Santos, Robson A S; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2007-11-01

    We report the complete sequence-specific hydrogen NMR assignments of vasoactive peptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)). Assignments of the majority of the resonances were accomplished by COSY, TOCSY, and ROESY peak coordinates at 400MHz and 600MHz. Long-side-chain amino acid spin system identification was facilitated by long-range coherence transfer experiments (TOCSY). Problems with overlapped resonance signals were solved by analysis of heteronuclear 2D experiments (HSQC and HMBC). Nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) results were used to probe peptide conformation. We show that the inclusion of the angiotensin-(1-7) tyrosine residue is favored in inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin. QM/MM simulations at the DFTB/UFF level confirm the experimental NMR findings and provide detailed structural information on these compounds in aqueous solution. PMID:17904691

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide synergistically stimulates DNA synthesis in mouse 3T3 cells: Role of cAMP, Ca sup 2+ , and protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Zurier, B.B.; Kozma, M.; Sinnett-Smith, J.; Rozengurt, E. )

    1988-05-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide synergistically stimulated initiation of DNA synthesis in Swiss 3T3 cells. The peptide stimulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation in the presence of insulin and either forskolin or an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal effect was obtained at 1 nM. At mitogenic concentrations, VIP stimulated a marked accumulation (eightfold) of cAMP. In contrast to other growth-promoting neuropeptides, VIP did not induce an increase in cytosolic free Ca{sup 2+} or the activation of protein kinase C. The authors conclude that neuropeptides can modulate long-term cell proliferation through multiple signaling pathways.

  16. The phytoestrogen alpha-zearalenol reverses endothelial dysfunction induced by oophorectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Altavilla, D; Saitta, A; Galeano, M; Squadrito, G; Marino, D; Minutoli, L; Calapai, G; Deodato, B; D'Anna, R; Corrado, F; Caputi, A P; Squadrito, F

    2001-02-01

    It has been shown recently that alpha-zearalenol, a resorcyclic acid lactone, prevents bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. We have therefore investigated the effects of this phytoestrogen on endothelial dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency in rats. Female mature Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a bilateral oophorectomy (OVX rats). Sham-operated animals (sham OVX rats) were used as controls. Three weeks after surgery, animals were randomized to the following treatments: alpha-zearalenol (1 mg/kg/day, i.m., for 4 weeks), 17beta-estradiol (20 microg/kg/day, i.m., for 4 weeks), or their vehicle (100 microl, i.m., of cottonseed oil). Two other groups of rats were treated with alpha-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol plus the pure estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.m., for 4 weeks). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), total plasma cholesterol, plasma estradiol, and plasma alpha-zearalenol were studied. We also investigated endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine, 10 nM to 10 microM) and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside, 15 nM to 30 nM) relaxation of aortic rings, as well as N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA: 10 to 100 microM)-induced vasoconstriction and calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity in homogenates of lungs taken from both sham OVX rats and OVX rats. Untreated OVX rats had, compared with sham OVX animals, unchanged body weight, MAP, HR, and plasma cholesterol. In contrast oophorectomy reduced plasma estradiol levels (OVX, 2 +/- 0.5 pg/ml; sham OVX, 35 +/- 6 pg/ml), impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation and blunted L-NMA-induced contraction (L-NMA 100 microM: sham OVX, 2.7 +/- 0.3 g/mg tissue; OVX, 1.3 +/- 0.1 g/mg tissue). Moreover OVX rats showed a reduced calcium-dependent NO synthase (cNOS) activity. Treatment with alpha-zearalenol or with 17beta-estradiol reverted the endothelial dysfunction and increased cNOS activity in lung homogenates. These effects were abolished by the

  17. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  18. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  19. Rap1 Spatially Controls ArhGAP29 To Inhibit Rho Signaling during Endothelial Barrier Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Post, A.; Pannekoek, W. J.; Ponsioen, B.; Vliem, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 controls the actin cytoskeleton by regulating Rho GTPase signaling. We recently established that the Rap1 effectors Radil and Rasip1, together with the Rho GTPase activating protein ArhGAP29, mediate Rap1-induced inhibition of Rho signaling in the processes of epithelial cell spreading and endothelial barrier function. Here, we show that Rap1 induces the independent translocations of Rasip1 and a Radil-ArhGAP29 complex to the plasma membrane. This results in the formation of a multimeric protein complex required for Rap1-induced inhibition of Rho signaling and increased endothelial barrier function. Together with the previously reported spatiotemporal control of the Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac1, these findings elucidate a signaling pathway for spatiotemporal control of Rho signaling that operates by successive protein translocations to and complex formation at the plasma membrane. PMID:25963656

  20. Endothelial Markers May Link Kidney Function to Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Christina; Clodi, Martin; Neuhold, Stephanie; Resl, Michael; Elhenicky, Marie; Prager, Rudolf; Moertl, Deddo; Strunk, Guido; Luger, Anton; Struck, Joachim; Pacher, Richard; Hülsmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes has been linked to endothelial and renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stable fragments of the precursors of adrenomedullin, endothelin-1, vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide in progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective, observational study design with a composite end point (death or unexpected admission to hospital due to a cardiovascular event) on 781 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 events, median duration of observation 15 months). The four stable precursor peptides midregional adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), COOH-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), and COOH-terminal provasopressin or copeptin (CT-proAVP) were determined at baseline, and their association to renal function and cardiovascular events was studied using stepwise linear and Cox logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis, respectively. RESULTS MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, CT-proAVP, and MR-proANP were all elevated in patients with future cardiovascular events and independently correlated to serum creatinine. MR-proADM and MR-proANP were significant predictors of a future cardiovascular event, with MR-proANP being the stronger (area under the curve 0.802 ± 0.034, sensitivity 0.833, specificity 0.576, positive predictive value 0.132, and negative predictive value 0.978 with a cutoff value of 75 pmol/l). CONCLUSIONS The four serum markers of vasoactive and natriuretic peptides are related to both kidney function and cardiovascular events, thus linking two major complications of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19564455

  1. Endothelin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by a decrease in the vascular endothelial growth factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Giammarco; DeMorrow, Sharon; Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Carpino, Guido; Glaser, Shannon; Francis, Heather; Coufal, Monique; Marucci, Luca; Alvaro, Domenico; Marzioni, Marco; Horst, Trenton; Mancinelli, Romina; Benedetti, Antonio; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Background: Endothelins (ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) are peptides with vasoactive properties interacting with ETA and ETB receptors. ET-1 inhibits secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (hallmark of cholangiocyte growth) of cholestatic rats by interaction with ET receptors. Aim: The aims of the studies were to evaluate (i) the effect of ET-1 on cholangiocarcinoma growth in Mz-ChA-1 cells and nude mice and (ii) whether ET-1 regulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth is associated with changes in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-C, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3. Methods: We determined the expression of ETA and ETB receptors on normal and malignant (Mz-ChA-1) cholangiocytes and human cholangiocarcinoma tissue and the effect of ET-1 on the proliferation and expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C (regulators of tumour angiogenesis) and its receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, in Mz-ChA-1 cells. In vivo, Mz-ChA-1 cells were injected into the flanks of athymic mice and injections of ET-1 or saline into the tumours were performed daily. The effect of ET-1 on tumour size, cell proliferation, apoptosis, collagen quantity and the expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C and VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 were measured after 73 days. Results: Higher expression of ETA and ETB was observed in malignant compared with normal cholangiocytes. ET-1 inhibited proliferation and VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression of Mz-ChA-1 cells. Chronic ET-1 treatment decreased tumour volume, tumour cell proliferation and VEGF-A and VEGF-C expression but increased apoptosis and collagen tissue deposition compared with controls. Conclusions: Modulation of VEGF-A and VEGF-C (by ET-1) may be important for managing cholangiocarcinoma growth. PMID:19291182

  2. Soluble endoglin, hypercholesterolemia and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rathouska, Jana; Jezkova, Katerina; Nemeckova, Ivana; Nachtigal, Petr

    2015-12-01

    A soluble form of endoglin (sEng) is known to be an extracellular domain of the full-length membrane endoglin, which is elevated during various pathological conditions related to vascular endothelium. In the current review, we tried to summarize a possible role of soluble endoglin in cardiovascular pathologies, focusing on its relation to endothelial dysfunction and cholesterol levels. We discussed sEng as a proposed biomarker of cardiovascular disease progression, cardiovascular disease treatment and endothelial dysfunction. We also addressed a potential interaction of sEng with TGF-β/eNOS or BMP-9 signaling. We suggest soluble endoglin levels to be monitored, because they reflect the progression/treatment efficacy of cardiovascular diseases related to endothelial dysfunction and hypercholesterolemia. A possible role of soluble endoglin as an inducer of endothelial dysfunction however remains to be elucidated. PMID:26520890

  3. Apicobasal polarity of brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Worzfeld, Thomas; Schwaninger, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Normal brain homeostasis depends on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier that controls the access of nutrients, humoral factors, and immune cells to the CNS. The blood-brain barrier is composed mainly of brain endothelial cells. Forming the interface between two compartments, they are highly polarized. Apical/luminal and basolateral/abluminal membranes differ in their lipid and (glyco-)protein composition, allowing brain endothelial cells to secrete or transport soluble factors in a polarized manner and to maintain blood flow. Here, we summarize the basic concepts of apicobasal cell polarity in brain endothelial cells. To address potential molecular mechanisms underlying apicobasal polarity in brain endothelial cells, we draw on investigations in epithelial cells and discuss how polarity may go awry in neurological diseases. PMID:26661193

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Fuchs endothelial dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a protein that is part of type VIII collagen. Type VIII collagen is largely found within the cornea, surrounding the endothelial cells. Specifically, type VIII collagen is a major component of a tissue at ...

  5. Endothelial glucocorticoid receptor suppresses atherogenesis- Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinbo; Rotllan, Noemi; Feng, Yan; Zhou, Han; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Yu, Jun; Sessa, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results Control mice and mice lacking the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor were bred onto an Apoe knockout background and subjected to high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks. Assessment of body weight and total cholesterol and triglycerides before and after the diet revealed no differences between the two groups of mice. However, mice lacking the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor developed more severe atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta, brachiocephalic artery and aortic sinus as well as a heightened inflammatory milieu as evidence by increased macrophage recruitment in the lesions. Conclusions These data suggest the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor is important for tonic inhibition of inflammation and limitation of atherosclerosis progression in this model. PMID:25810297

  6. Specular Microscopic Features of Corneal Endothelial Vacuolation

    PubMed Central

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Chamani, Tahereh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To introduce a specular microscopic reference image for endothelial vacuolation in donated corneas. Methods Two corneas from a donor with diffuse, round to oval dark areas at the endothelial level on slit lamp biomicroscopy and one normal-appearing donor cornea underwent specular microscopy, histopathologic evaluation and transmission electron microscopy. Results Specular microscopy of the two corneas with abnormal-looking endothelium revealed large numbers of dark, round to oval structures within the endothelium in favor of endothelial vacuolation. Light microscopy disclosed variable sized cyst-like structures within the cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy showed electron-lucent and relatively large-sized intracytoplasmic vacuoles. These features were not observed in the endothelium of the normal cornea. Conclusion The specular microscopic features of endothelial vacuolation in donated corneas were confirmed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, therefore the specular image may be proposed as a reference to eye banks. PMID:22454699

  7. Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vedana, Gustavo; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Jun, Albert S

    2016-01-01

    Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common corneal dystrophy and frequently results in vision loss. Hallmarks of the disease include loss of corneal endothelial cells and formation of excrescences of Descemet’s membrane. Later stages involve all layers of the cornea. Impairment of endothelial barrier and pump function and cell death from oxidative and unfolded protein stress contribute to disease progression. The genetic basis of FECD includes numerous genes and chromosomal loci, although alterations in the transcription factor 4 gene are associated with the majority of cases. Definitive treatment of FECD is corneal transplantation. In this paper, we highlight advances that have been made in understanding FECD’s clinical features, pathophysiology, and genetics. We also discuss recent advances in endothelial keratoplasty and potential future treatments. PMID:26937169

  8. Endothelial Cell Stimulation by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Quynh T.; Filler, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, enters the bloodstream and causes hematogenously disseminated infection in hospitalized patients. During the initiation of a hematogenously disseminated infection, endothelial cells are one of the first host cells to come in contact with C. albicans. Endothelial cells can significantly influence the local host response to C. albicans by expressing leukocyte adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, it is of interest to investigate the response of endothelial cells to C. albicans in vitro. We describe the use of real-time PCR and enzyme immunoassays to measure the effects of C. albicans on the endothelial cell production of E-selectin and tumor necrosis factor α in vitro. PMID:19089392

  9. Chronic shear induces caveolae formation and alters ERK and Akt responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Nolan L.; Park, Heonyong; Yi, Hong; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Caveolae are plasmalemmal domains enriched with cholesterol, caveolins, and signaling molecules. Endothelial cells in vivo are continuously exposed to shear conditions, and their caveolae density and location may be different from that of static cultured cells. Here, we show that chronic shear exposure regulates formation and localization of caveolae and caveolin-1 in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Chronic exposure (1 or 3 days) of BAEC to laminar shear increased the total number of caveolae by 45-48% above static control. This increase was due to a rise in the luminal caveolae density without changing abluminal caveolae numbers or increasing caveolin-1 mRNA and protein levels. Whereas some caveolin-1 was found in the plasma membrane in static-cultured cells, it was predominantly localized in the Golgi. In contrast, chronic shear-exposed cells showed intense caveolin-1 staining in the luminal plasma membrane with minimum Golgi association. The preferential luminal localization of caveolae may play an important role in endothelial mechanosensing. Indeed, we found that chronic shear exposure (preconditioning) altered activation patterns of two well-known shear-sensitive signaling molecules (ERK and Akt) in response to a step increase in shear stress. ERK activation was blunted in shear preconditioned cells, whereas the Akt response was accelerated. These results suggest that chronic shear stimulates caveolae formation by translocating caveolin-1 from the Golgi to the luminal plasma membrane and alters cell signaling responses.

  10. Biological properties of different type carbon particles in vitro study on primary culture of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Czerniak-Reczulska, M; Niedzielski, P; Balcerczyk, A; Bartosz, G; Karowicz-Bilińska, A; Mitura, K

    2010-02-01

    Carbon powders have extended surface of carbon layers, which is of significant biomedical importance since the powders are employed to cover implants material. Carbon Powder Particles are produced by different methods: by a detonation method, by RF PACVD (Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) or MW/RF PCVD (Microwave/Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) and others. Our previous data showed that Carbon Powder Particles may act as antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory factor. However the mechanism of such behavior has been not fully understood. The aim of the work was tested influence carbon powders manufactured by Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition RFPACVD method and detonation method on selected parameters of human endothelial cells, which play a crucial role in the regulation of the circulation and vascular wall homeostasis. Graphite powder was used as a control substance. Endothelial cells are actively involved in a wide variety of processes e.g., inflammatory responses to a different type of stimuli (ILs, TNF-alpha) or regulating vasomotor tone via production of vasorelaxants and vasocontrictors. Biological activation is dependent on the type and quantity of chemical bonds on the surface of the powders. The effect of powders on the proliferation of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. We found decreased cell proliferation after 72 h treatment with graphite as well as Carbon Powder Particles. PMID:20352757

  11. Alteration of circulatory platelet microparticles and endothelial microparticles in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Hua; Qiao, Qing; Shen, Lei; Li, Ming; Xu, De-Yu; Wang, Zhao-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare plasma platelet microparticles (PMPs), P-selectin, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) between a normal control group and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to explore the significance of PMPs and EMPs in CKD. Methods: Levels of plasma PMPs, P-selectin, EMPs and vWF in 122 CKD patients and 20 normal controls were detected by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Relationships between PMPs, EMPs and blood pressure, creatinine clearance rate, 24-hour urine protein, hemoglobin, and cholesterol were analyzed. Results: (1) Plasma PMPs, P-selectin, EMPs and vWF levels in CKD patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Plasma PMPs and P-selectin levels for nephrotic syndrome (NS) were significantly higher than for other CKD groups. No significant difference was found between other CKD groups. Plasma EMPs and vWF in NS, lupus nephritis (LN) and hypertensive nephropathy groups were significantly higher than that of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) groups. (2) Plasma PMPs, P-selectin, EMPs and vWF in stage I-II CKD patients were significantly higher than those of stage III-V CKD patients, no significant difference was found within stage I-II CKD patients or stage III-V CKD patients. (3) PMPs and EMPs were positively correlated with blood pressure and 24-hour urinary protein, but no significant correlation was found with the creatinine clearance rate, hemoglobin or cholesterol. P-selectin and vWF were positively correlated with PMPs and EMPs respectively. Conclusion: CKD patients have significant platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction, which was involved in CKD’s occurrence and development; high blood pressure and proteinuria are important reasons for platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with CKD; PMPs and EMPs can be used as new markers for dysfunctional platelet activation and endothelium. PMID

  12. Intersectin Regulates Fission and Internalization of Caveolae in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Predescu, Sanda A.; Predescu, Dan N.; Timblin, Barbara K.; Stan, Radu V.; Malik, Asrar B.

    2003-01-01

    Intersectin, a multiple Eps15 homology and Src homology 3 (SH3) domain–containing protein, is a component of the endocytic machinery in neurons and nonneuronal cells. However, its role in endocytosis via caveolae in endothelial cells (ECs) is unclear. We demonstrate herein by coimmunoprecipitation, velocity sedimentation on glycerol gradients, and cross-linking that intersectin is present in ECs in a membrane-associated protein complex containing dynamin and SNAP-23. Electron microscopy (EM) immunogold labeling studies indicated that intersectin associated preferentially with the caveolar necks, and it remained associated with caveolae after their fission from the plasmalemma. A cell-free system depleted of intersectin failed to support caveolae fission from the plasma membrane. A biotin assay used to quantify caveolae internalization and extensive EM morphological analysis of ECs overexpressing wt-intersectin indicated a wide range of morphological changes (i.e., large caveolae clusters marginated at cell periphery and pleiomorphic caveolar necks) as well as impaired caveolae internalization. Biochemical evaluation of caveolae-mediated uptake by ELISA showed a 68.4% inhibition by reference to control. We also showed that intersectin interaction with dynamin was important in regulating the fission and internalization of caveolae. Taken together, the results indicate the crucial role of intersectin in the mechanism of caveolae fission in endothelial cells. PMID:12960435

  13. Weibel-Palade body size modulates the adhesive activity of its von Willebrand Factor cargo in cultured endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Francesco; Mafalda Lopes da, Silva; Grimes, William; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Ketteler, Robin; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Cutler, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the size of cellular organelles are often linked to modifications in their function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a glycoprotein essential to haemostasis in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), cigar-shaped secretory granules that are generated in a wide range of sizes. We recently showed that forcing changes in the size of WPBs modifies the activity of this cargo. We now find that endothelial cells treated with statins produce shorter WPBs and that the vWF they release at exocytosis displays a reduced capability to recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Investigating other functional consequences of size changes of WPBs, we also report that the endothelial surface-associated vWF formed at exocytosis recruits soluble plasma vWF and that this process is reduced by treatments that shorten WPBs, statins included. These results indicate that the post-exocytic adhesive activity of vWF towards platelets and plasma vWF at the endothelial surface reflects the size of their storage organelle. Our findings therefore show that changes in WPB size, by influencing the adhesive activity of its vWF cargo, may represent a novel mode of regulation of platelet aggregation at the vascular wall. PMID:27576551

  14. Weibel-Palade body size modulates the adhesive activity of its von Willebrand Factor cargo in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Francesco; Mafalda Lopes da, Silva; Grimes, William; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Ketteler, Robin; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Cutler, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the size of cellular organelles are often linked to modifications in their function. Endothelial cells store von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a glycoprotein essential to haemostasis in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), cigar-shaped secretory granules that are generated in a wide range of sizes. We recently showed that forcing changes in the size of WPBs modifies the activity of this cargo. We now find that endothelial cells treated with statins produce shorter WPBs and that the vWF they release at exocytosis displays a reduced capability to recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Investigating other functional consequences of size changes of WPBs, we also report that the endothelial surface-associated vWF formed at exocytosis recruits soluble plasma vWF and that this process is reduced by treatments that shorten WPBs, statins included. These results indicate that the post-exocytic adhesive activity of vWF towards platelets and plasma vWF at the endothelial surface reflects the size of their storage organelle. Our findings therefore show that changes in WPB size, by influencing the adhesive activity of its vWF cargo, may represent a novel mode of regulation of platelet aggregation at the vascular wall. PMID:27576551

  15. Induction of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cell Urokinase Expression by Cryptococcus neoformans Facilitates Blood-Brain Barrier Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Stie, Jamal; Fox, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The invasive ability of the blood-borne fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can be enhanced through interactions with host plasma components, such as plasminogen. Previously we showed by in vitro studies that plasminogen coats the surface of C. neoformans and is converted to the active serine protease, plasmin, by host plasminogen activators. Viable, but not formaldehyde- or sodium azide-killed, cryptococcal strains undergo brain microvascular endothelial cell-dependent plasminogen-to-plasmin activation, which results in enhanced, plasmin-dependent cryptococcal invasion of primary bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells and fungal ability to degrade plasmin substrates. In the present work, brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured with viable, but not killed, cryptococcal strains led to significant increases in both urokinase mRNA transcription and cell-associated urokinase protein expression. Soluble urokinase was also detected in conditioned medium from brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured with viable, but not killed, C. neoformans. Exposure of plasminogen pre-coated viable C. neoformans to conditioned medium from strain-matched brain microvascular endothelial cell-fungal co-cultures resulted in plasminogen-to-plasmin activation and plasmin-dependent cryptococcal invasion. siRNA-mediated silencing of urokinase gene expression or the use of specific inhibitors of urokinase activity abrogated both plasminogen-to-plasmin activation on C. neoformans and cryptococcal-brain microvascular endothelial cell invasion. Our results suggest that pathogen exploitation of the host urokinase-plasmin(ogen) system may contribute to C. neoformans virulence during invasive cryptococcosis. PMID:23145170

  16. Endothelial microparticles: Sophisticated vesicles modulating vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Anne M; Edelberg, Jay; Jonas, Rebecca; Rogers, Wade T; Moore, Jonni S; Syed, Wajihuddin; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) belong to a family of extracellular vesicles that are dynamic, mobile, biological effectors capable of mediating vascular physiology and function. The release of EMPs can impart autocrine and paracrine effects on target cells through surface interaction, cellular fusion, and, possibly, the delivery of intra-vesicular cargo. A greater understanding of the formation, composition, and function of EMPs will broaden our understanding of endothelial communication and may expose new pathways amenable for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:23892447

  17. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Steyers, Curtis M.; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein), autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population. PMID:24968272

  18. A thiocarbamate inhibitor of endothelial lipase raises HDL cholesterol levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Greco, M N; Connelly, M A; Leo, G C; Olson, M W; Powell, E; Huang, Z; Hawkins, M; Smith, C; Schalk-Hihi, C; Darrow, A L; Xin, H; Lang, W; Damiano, B P; Hlasta, D J

    2013-05-01

    By screening directed libraries of serine hydrolase inhibitors using the cell surface form of endothelial lipase (EL), we identified a series of carbamate-derived (EL) inhibitors. Compound 3 raised plasma HDL-C levels in the mouse, and a correlation was found between HDL-C and plasma compound levels. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies support a covalent mechanism of inhibition. Our findings represent the first report of EL inhibition as an effective means for increasing HDL-C in an in vivo model. PMID:23528297

  19. Systemic influences contribute to prolonged microvascular rarefaction after brain irradiation: a role for endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashpole, Nicole M.; Warrington, Junie P.; Mitschelen, Matthew C.; Yan, Han; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Farley, Julie A.; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) induces profound cerebral microvascular rarefaction throughout the hippocampus. Despite the vascular loss and localized cerebral hypoxia, angiogenesis fails to occur, which subsequently induces long-term deficits in learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying the absence of vessel recovery after WBRT are unknown. We tested the hypotheses that vascular recovery fails to occur under control conditions as a result of loss of angiogenic drive in the circulation, chronic tissue inflammation, and/or impaired endothelial cell production/recruitment. We also tested whether systemic hypoxia, which is known to promote vascular recovery, reverses these chronic changes in inflammation and endothelial cell production/recruitment. Ten-week-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a clinical series of fractionated WBRT: 4.5-Gy fractions 2 times/wk for 4 wk. Plasma from radiated mice increased in vitro endothelial cell proliferation and adhesion compared with plasma from control mice, indicating that WBRT did not suppress the proangiogenic drive. Analysis of cytokine levels within the hippocampus revealed that IL-10 and IL-12(p40) were significantly increased 1 mo after WBRT; however, systemic hypoxia did not reduce these inflammatory markers. Enumeration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the bone marrow and circulation indicated that WBRT reduced EPC production, which was restored with systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, using a bone marrow transplantation model, we determined that bone marrow-derived endothelial-like cells home to the hippocampus after systemic hypoxia. Thus, the loss of production and homing of EPCs have an important role in the prolonged vascular rarefaction after WBRT. PMID:25038144

  20. High fat diet exacerbates vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Xia; Tang, Feng; Ga, Qin; Wuren, Tana; Wang, Ya-Ping; Rondina, Matthew T; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-02-13

    Independently, a high fat diet and hypoxia are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and often occur concurrently in patients. Nevertheless, the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function combined with hypoxia, a situation occurring with increasing frequency in many parts of the world, remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on vascular endothelial function in rats exposed to continuous hypoxia for 4 weeks. Seventy two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a hypoxia group fed regular chow, a combined hypoxia and high fat diet (HFD) group, and for comparison, rats maintained in normoxia, regular chow conditions were set as baseline (BL) group. The experimental data of BL group were obtained at beginning of hypoxia given in the other groups. Continuous hypoxia was induced in a hypobaric chamber maintained at an altitude of 5000 m. Compared to hypoxic conditions alone, hypoxia plus a HFD prevented adaptive changes in plasma nitric oxide (NOx) levels and caused earlier and more severe changes in aortic endothelial structures. Functionally, hypoxia plus a HFD resulted in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation responses to acetylcholine and altered the bioavailability of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate L-Arginine. At the molecular level, hypoxia plus a HFD blunted increases in endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and protein in aortic endothelial tissue. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that in the setting of hypoxia, a high fat diet leads to earlier and more severe VED than hypoxia alone. These data have important implications for populations residing at high-altitude, as dietary patterns shift towards increased fat intake. PMID:25603049

  1. R-Ras interacts with filamin a to maintain endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G S; Grundl, M; Allen, J S; Matter, M L

    2011-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating vascular barrier integrity remain incompletely elucidated. We have previously reported an association between the GTPase R-Ras and repeat 3 of Filamin A (FLNa). Loss of FLNa has been linked to increased vascular permeability. We sought to determine whether FLNa's association with R-Ras affects endothelial barrier function. We report that in endothelial cells endogenous R-Ras interacts with endogenous FLNa as determined by co-immunoprecipitations and pulldowns with the FLNa-GST fusion protein repeats 1-10. Deletion of FLNa repeat 3 (FLNaΔ3) abrogated this interaction. In these cells FLNa and R-Ras co-localize at the plasma membrane. Knockdown of R-Ras and/or FLNa by siRNA promotes vascular permeability, as determined by TransEndothelial Electrical Resistance and FITC-dextran transwell assays. Re-expression of FLNa restored endothelial barrier function in cells lacking FLNa whereas re-expression of FLNaΔ3 did not. Immunostaining for VE-Cadherin in cells with knocked down R-Ras and FLNa demonstrated a disorganization of VE-Cadherin at adherens junctions. Loss of R-Ras and FLNa or blocking R-Ras function via GGTI-2133, a selective R-Ras inhibitor, induced vascular permeability and increased phosphorylation of VE-Cadherin (Y731) and Src (Y416). Expression of dominant negative R-Ras promoted vascular permeability that was blocked by the Src inhibitor PP2. These findings demonstrate that maintaining endothelial barrier function is dependent upon active R-Ras and association between R-Ras and FLNa and that loss of this interaction promotes VE-Cadherin phosphorylation and changes in downstream effectors that lead to endothelial leakiness. PMID:21660952

  2. The Gas6-Axl Protein Interaction Mediates Endothelial Uptake of Platelet Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Kaisa E; Tran, Sinh; Mörgelin, Matthias; Prince, Raja; Calzavarini, Sara; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2016-05-13

    Upon activation, platelets release plasma membrane-derived microparticles (PMPs) exposing phosphatidylserine on their surface. The functions and clearance mechanism of these microparticles are incompletely understood. As they are pro-coagulant and potentially pro-inflammatory, rapid clearance from the circulation is essential for prevention of thrombotic diseases. The tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAMs) and their ligands protein S and Gas6 are involved in the uptake of phosphatidylserine-exposing apoptotic cells in macrophages and dendritic cells. Both TAMs and their ligands are expressed in the vasculature, the functional significance of which is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how vascular TAMs and their ligands may mediate endothelial uptake of PMPs. PMPs, generated from purified human platelets, were isolated by ultracentrifugation and labeled with biotin or PKH67. The uptake of labeled microparticles in the presence of protein S and Gas6 in human aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells was monitored by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and confocal/electron microscopy. We found that both endothelial cell types can phagocytose PMPs, and by using TAM-blocking antibodies or siRNA knockdown of individual TAMs, we show that the uptake is mediated by endothelial Axl and Gas6. As circulating PMP levels were not altered in Gas6(-/-) mice compared with Gas6(+/+) mice, we hypothesize that the Gas6-mediated uptake is not a means to clear the bulk of circulating PMPs but may serve to locally phagocytose PMPs generated at sites of platelet activation and as a way to effect endothelial responses. PMID:27006397

  3. DEP Induction of ROS in Capillary-like Endothelial Tubes Leads to VEGF-A Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming Wei; Po, Iris; Laumbach, Robert; Koslosky, John; Cooper, Keith; Gordon, Marion K.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. One contributor to pathogenesis is inhaled particles reaching and injuring the lung capillary endothelial cells, and possibly gaining access to the blood stream. Using in vitro capillary tubes as a simplified vascular model system for this process, it was previously shown that DEPs induce the redistribution of vascular endothelial cell-cadherin (VE-Cad) away from the plasma membrane to intracellular locations. This allowed DEPs into the cell cytoplasm and tube lumen, suggesting the tubes may have become permeable (Chao et al., 2011). Here some of the mechanisms responsible for endothelial tube changes after DEP exposure were examined. The results demonstrate that endothelial tube cells mounted an oxidative stress response to DEP exposure. Hydrogen peroxide and oxidized proteins were detected after 24 hr of exposure to DEPs. Particles induced relocalization of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, upregulating the expression of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Surprisingly, vascular endothelial cell growth factor-A (VEGF-A), initially termed “vascular permeability factor” (VPF), was found to be up-regulated in response to the HO-1 expression induced by DEPs. Similar to DEPs, applied VEGF-A induced relocalization of VE-Cadherin from the cell membrane surface to an intracellular location, and relocalization of VE-cadherin was associated with permeability. These data suggest that the DEPs may induce or contribute to the permeability of capillary-like endothelial tube cells via induction of HO-1 and VEGF-A. PMID:22507881

  4. Early life stress in male mice induces superoxide production and endothelial dysfunction in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ho, Dao H; Burch, Mariah L; Musall, Benjamin; Musall, Jacqueline B; Hyndman, Kelly A; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2016-05-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood although very little mechanistic insight is available. Because oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are major contributors to cardiovascular risk, we hypothesized that ELS induces endothelial dysfunction in adult male mice via increased superoxide production. Studies employed a mouse model of ELS, maternal separation with early weaning (MSEW), in which litters were separated from the dam for 4 h/day [postnatal days (PD) 2-5] and 8 h/day (PD6-16), and weaned at PD17. Control litters remained undisturbed until weaning at PD21. When compared with control mice, thoracic aortic rings from adult male MSEW mice displayed significant endothelial dysfunction that was reversed by the superoxide scavenger, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD). PEG-SOD-inhibitable superoxide production by aortae from MSEW mice was significantly greater than observed in control aortae, although unaffected by nitric oxide synthase inhibition, suggesting that uncoupled nitric oxide synthase was not responsible for the accelerated superoxide production. Aortic SOD expression, plasma SOD activity, and total antioxidant activity were similar in MSEW and control mice, indicating unaltered antioxidant capacity in MSEW mice. Increased expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits, NOX2 and NOX4, was evident in the aortae of MSEW mice. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and superoxide production in MSEW mice was reversed with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, indicating increased NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production and endothelial dysfunction. The finding that MSEW induces superoxide production and endothelial dysfunction in adult mice may provide a mechanistic link between ELS and adult cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26921433

  5. Expression, Regulation and Function of Atypical Chemerin Receptor CCRL2 on Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Justin; Lewén, Susanna; O’Hara, Edward; Huang, Kexin; Tu, Hua; Butcher, Eugene C; Zabel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) binds leukocyte chemoattractant chemerin and can regulate local levels of the attractant, but does not itself support cell migration. Here we show that CCRL2 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are upregulated on cultured human and mouse vascular endothelial cells (EC) and cell lines by pro-inflammatory stimuli. CCRL2 induction is dependent on NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways, and activated endothelial cells specifically bind chemerin. In vivo, CCRL2 is constitutively expressed at high levels by lung endothelial cells and at lower levels by liver endothelium; and liver but not lung EC respond to systemic LPS injection by further upregulation of the receptor. Plasma levels of total chemerin are elevated in CCRL2−/− mice, and are significantly enhanced after systemic LPS treatment in CCRL2−/− mice compared to WT. Following acute LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in vivo, CMKLR1+ NK cell recruitment to the airways is significantly impaired in CCRL2−/− mice compared to WT. In vitro, chemerin binding to CCRL2 on endothelial cells triggers robust adhesion of chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1)-positive lymphoid cells through an α4β1/VCAM-1-dependent mechanism. In conclusion CCRL2 is expressed by endothelial cells in a tissue and activation-dependent fashion; regulates circulating chemerin levels and its bioactivity; and enhances chemerin and CMKLR1-dependent lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in vitro and recruitment to inflamed airways in vivo. Its expression and/or induction on EC by proinflammatory stimuli provide a novel and specific mechanism for the local enrichment of chemerin at inflammatory sites, regulating the recruitment of CMKLR1+ cells. PMID:22696441

  6. Adenoviral modification of mouse brain derived endothelial cells, bEnd3, to induce apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mitsuuchi, Y; Powell, D R; Gallo, J M

    2006-02-01

    A second generation genetically-engineered cell-based drug delivery system, referred to as apoptotic-induced drug delivery (AIDD), was developed using endothelial cells (ECs) that undergo apoptosis upon binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to a Flk-1:Fas fusion protein (FF). This new AIDD was redesigned using mouse brain derived ECs, bEnd3 cells, and an adenovirus vector in order to enhance and control the expression of FF. The FF was tagged with a HA epitope (FFHA) and designed to be coexpressed with green fluorescence protein (GFP) by the regulation of cytomegalovirus promoters in the adenovirus vector. bEnd3 cells showed favorable coexpression of FFHA and GFP consistent with the multiplicity of infection of the adenovirus. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that FFHA was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas GFP was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of ECs. Cell death was induced by VEGF, but not by platelet derived growth factor or fibroblast growth factor in a dose-dependent manner (range 2-20 ng/ml), and revealed caspase-dependent apoptotic profiles. The FFHA expressing bEnd3 cells underwent apoptosis when cocultured with a glioma cell (SF188V+) line able to overexpress VEGF. The combined data indicated that the FFHA adenovirus system can induce apoptotic signaling in ECs in response to VEGF, and thus, is an instrumental modification to the development of AIDD. PMID:16247462

  7. Prostacyclin biosynthesis and reduced 5-HT uptake after complement-induced endothelial injury in the dog isolated lung.

    PubMed Central

    Bult, H.; Heiremans, J. J.; Herman, A. G.; Malcorps, C. M.; Peeters, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    1. Pulmonary prostacyclin (PGI2) biosynthesis was evaluated in relation to endothelial integrity before and after complement activation in isolated plasma-perfused lung lobes of the dog. 2. The plasma was activated with zymosan (ZAP, n = 4), yeast cells (YAP, n = 4) or yeast with 3 microM indomethacin (Indo + YAP, n = 3). Immunoreactive 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha (i-6-oxo-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (iTXB2) were measured to monitor PGI2 and TXA2 biosynthesis. 3. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake were calculated on the basis of multiple indicator diffusion data to evaluate endothelial integrity. 4. YAP and ZAP induced a biphasic increase of the arterial perfusion pressure. The immediate pressure peak was partly mediated by TXA2 and the TXB2 was subsequently cleared by the lung. 5. The apparent Vmax of 5-HT uptake remained constant throughout the experiment. Thus, complement activation did not affect the number of endothelial 5-HT carrier sites available to the perfusate. 6. The apparent Km of 5-HT uptake was enhanced in 9 lungs exposed to activated plasma complement for 20 min. This decreased affinity for 5-HT probably reflects endothelial injury. It was transient as the apparent Km had returned to the baseline value after 60 min. 7. PGI2 clearance and biosynthesis were virtually absent in the control period. PGI2 formation increased drastically after infusion of ZAP or YAP and was proportional to the endothelial injury expressed as elevated Km or pulmonary oedema. Thus, PGI2 biosynthesis might be a marker of severe endothelial distress. PMID:3291998

  8. Histones Induce the Procoagulant Phenotype of Endothelial Cells through Tissue Factor Up-Regulation and Thrombomodulin Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Gu, Ja Yoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The high circulating levels of histones found in various thrombotic diseases may compromise the anticoagulant barrier of endothelial cells. We determined how histones affect endothelial procoagulant tissue factor (TF) and anticoagulant thrombomodulin (TM). Surface antigens, soluble forms, and mRNA levels of TF and TM were measured by flow cytometry, ELISA, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. TF and TM activity were measured using procoagulant activity, thrombin generation, or chromogenic assays. Involvement of the toll-like receptor (TLR) was assessed using the neutralizing antibodies. Histones dose-dependently induced surface antigens, activity and mRNA levels of endothelial TF. Histone-treated endothelial cells significantly shortened the lag time and enhanced the endogenous thrombin potential of normal plasma, which was normalized by a TF neutralizing antibody. Histones induced phosphatidylserine and protein-disulfide isomerase expression in endothelial cells. Histones also reduced the surface antigen, activity, and mRNA levels of endothelial TM. Polysialic acid and heparin reversed the histone-induced TF up-regulation and TM down-regulation. Activated protein C did not affect the TF up-regulation, but interrupted TM down-regulation. TLR2, and TLR4 inhibitors partially blocked the TF up-regulation. Histones induced the endothelial procoagulant phenotype through TF up-regulation and TM down-regulation. The effects of histones were partly mediated by TLR2, TLR4. Strategies to inhibit the harmful effects of histones in endothelial cells may be required in order to prevent a thrombotic environment. PMID:27258428

  9. Different effect of hormone replacement therapy, DHEAS and tibolone on endothelial function in postmenopausal women with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Antonello; Gambacciani, Marco; Vitale, Cristiana; Monteleone, Patrizia; Ciaponi, Massimo; Fini, Massimo; Genazzani, Andrea R; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2005-04-11

    Menopause is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and with a decrease in endothelial function. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) improves endothelial function in post-menopausal women (PMW) without established atherosclerosis. New alternative treatments, among which tibolone (T) and DHEAS have been suggested to reduce postmenopausal cardiovascular risk. Although, in vitro animal studies have suggested that T and DHEAS improve endothelial function, their effect in humans has never been tested. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of HRT (continuous combined 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg/d medoxyprogesterone) DHEAS and T on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), plasma nitrite, nitrate and endothelin-1 levels in 16 PMW with increased cardiovascular risk in a double-blinded, double-crossover study. Women were randomized and treated for 4 weeks with HRT, T or DHEAS. Brachial artery diameter, FMD, endothelin-1 and plasma nitrite and nitrate levels were measured at baseline and after each treatment phase. Brachial artery diameters remained unchanged after each treatment phase. HRT significantly improved FMD compared to both baseline and to T and DHEAS therapies while no effect of T or DHEAS on FMD was noted. In conclusion, HRT, but neither T nor DHEAS, improves endothelial function and reduces plasma levels of endothelin-1 in PMW at risk of CAD. PMID:15780531

  10. Aging and vascular endothelial function in humans

    PubMed Central

    SEALS, Douglas R.; JABLONSKI, Kristen L.; DONATO, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age is the major risk factor for the development of CVD (cardiovascular diseases). This is attributable, in part, to the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by reduced peripheral artery EDD (endothelium-dependent dilation) in response to chemical [typically ACh (acetylcholine)] or mechanical (intravascular shear) stimuli. Reduced bioavailability of the endothelium-synthesized dilating molecule NO (nitric oxide) as a result of oxidative stress is the key mechanism mediating reduced EDD with aging. Vascular oxidative stress increases with age as a consequence of greater production of reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) without a compensatory increase in antioxidant defences. Sources of increased superoxide production include up-regulation of the oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase, uncoupling of the normally NO-producing enzyme, eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) (due to reduced availability of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin) and increased mitochondrial synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation. Increased bioactivity of the potent endothelial-derived constricting factor ET-1 (endothelin-1), reduced endothelial production of/responsiveness to dilatory prostaglandins, the development of vascular inflammation, formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products), an increased rate of endothelial apoptosis and reduced expression of oestrogen receptor α (in postmenopausal females) also probably contribute to impaired EDD with aging. Several lifestyle and biological factors modulate vascular endothelial function with aging, including regular aerobic exercise, dietary factors (e.g. processed compared with non-processed foods), body weight/fatness, vitamin D status, menopause/oestrogen deficiency and a number of conventional and non-conventional risk factors for CVD. Given the number of older adults now and in the future, more information is needed on effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of vascular endothelial aging. PMID

  11. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonism on rat jejunal fluid and electrolyte secretion induced by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, F; Nassar, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The enteric nervous system is important in the pathophysiology of intestinal fluid secretion induced by cholera toxin (CT), Escherichia coli heat labile (LT), and heat stable (STa) toxins. The neurotransmitters involved are not fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a potent intestinal secretagogue present in the enteric nervous system, is increased after exposure of the cat intestine to CT. Whether VIP is involved in the pathogenesis of cholera and other toxins in not known.
AIM—To study in vivo the effect of VIP antagonism on jejunal fluid secretion induced by CT, LT, and STa.
METHODS—CT, LT (25 µg), or 0.9% NaCl was instilled in an isolated 25 cm segment of rat jejunum, and the VIP antagonist (VIPa) [4Cl-D-Phe6, Leu17]-VIP (0.2 or 2 µg/kg/min) or 0.9% NaCl was given intravenously. Two hours later, single pass in vivo jejunal perfusion was performed to assess fluid movement. In STa experiments, intravenous VIPa or 0.9% NaCl was given and 30 minutes later the jejunal segment was perfused with a solution containing STa 200 µg/l.
RESULTS—VIPa had no effect on basal intestinal fluid absorption. CT induced net fluid secretion (median −68 µl/min/g dry intestinal weight (interquartile range −80 to −56)) which was dose dependently reversed by VIPa (6.2 (−16 to 34) and 29 (17 to 42); p<0.01). Similarly, LT induced secretion (−63 (−73 to −30)) was attenuated by VIPa (0.2 µg/kg/min) (−15 (−24 to −1); p<0.01) and totally reversed to normal levels by VIPa (2 µg/kg/min) (37 (28-56); p<0.01 compared with LT and not significant compared with normal controls). STa induced secretion (−17 (−19 to −2)) was also reversed by VIPa (12 (9-23) and 14 (0-26); p<0.01).
CONCLUSION—VIP plays an important role in CT, LT, and STa induced intestinal secretion and may be the final putative neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of these toxins.


Keywords: cholera toxin; Escherichia coli toxins

  12. Antioxidants, endothelial dysfunction, and DCS: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Mazur, Aleksandra; Guerrero, François; Lambrechts, Kate; Buzzacott, Peter; Belhomme, Marc; Theron, Michaël

    2015-12-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a well-known effect in individuals after an undersea dive. This study aimed to delineate the links between ROS, endothelial dysfunction, and decompression sickness (DCS) through the use of antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on superoxide and peroxynitrite, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and cell viability during in vitro diving simulation were analyzed. Also analyzed was the effect of vitamin C and NAC on plasma glutathione thiol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and angiotensin-II and DCS morbidity during in vivo diving simulation. During an in vitro diving simulation, vascular endothelial cells showed overproduction of superoxide and peroxynitrite, obvious attenuation of NO generation, and promotion of cell death, all of which were reversed by NAC treatment. After in vivo diving simulation, plasma ACE activity and angiotensin-II level were not affected. The plasma level of glutathione thiol was downregulated after the dive, which was attenuated partially by NAC treatment. Plasma TBARS level was upregulated; however, either NAC or vitamin C treatment failed to prevent DCS morbidity. During in vitro simulation, endothelial superoxide and peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative stress were involved in the attenuation of NO availability and cell death. This study is the first attempt to link oxidative stress and DCS occurrence, and the link could not be confirmed in vivo. Even in the presence of antioxidants, ROS and bubbles generated during diving and/or decompression might lead to embolic or biochemical stress and DCS. Diving-induced oxidative stress might not be the only trigger of DCS morbidity. PMID:26472863

  13. Endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary aldosteronism: a biomarker of target organ damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Yin, G-S; Tang, J-y; Ma, D-J; Ru, J; Huang, X-H

    2014-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) has been associated with increased target organ damage (TOD), most likely through mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent endothelial dysfunction, in comparison with essential hypertension (EH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in PA and the relationship with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and microalbuminuria (MAU). A total of 50 PA patients and 51 patients with EH individually matched for age, sex, blood pressure and duration of hypertension participated in this study. Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, including von Willebrand factor (vWF), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), were measured. Plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), MAU and echocardiography were also evaluated. In PA patients, vWF, ICAM-1, ox-LDL, LVH and MAU were all significantly higher than in EH patients (all P<0.05). Furthermore, LVH was positively correlated with PAC (P=0.002), vWF (P=0.013) and ox-LDL (P=0.020). MAU was positively correlated with PAC (P<0.001), vWF (P=0.013) and ICAM-1 (P=0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that vWF, ICAM-1 and PAC independently predicted MAU (all P<0.05). Likewise, PAC, vWF and ox-LDL were significant predictors of LVH (all P<0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that endothelial dysfunction may contribute to TOD in PA patients. PMID:24553636

  14. Hyaluronidase 1 Deficiency Preserves Endothelial Function and Glycocalyx Integrity in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dogné, Sophie; Rath, Géraldine; Jouret, François; Caron, Nathalie; Dessy, Chantal; Flamion, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of the glycocalyx involved in the vascular wall and endothelial glomerular permeability barrier. Endocytosed hyaluronidase HYAL1 is known to degrade HA into small fragments in different cell types, including endothelial cells. In diabetes, the size and permeability of the glycocalyx are altered. In addition, patients with type 1 diabetes present increased plasma levels of both HA and HYAL1. To investigate the potential implication of HYAL1 in the development of diabetes-induced endothelium dysfunction, we measured endothelial markers, endothelium-dependent vasodilation, arteriolar glycocalyx size, and glomerular barrier properties in wild-type and HYAL1 knockout (KO) mice with or without streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We observed that 4 weeks after STZ injections, the lack of HYAL1 1) prevents diabetes-induced increases in soluble P-selectin concentrations and limits the impact of the disease on endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated vasorelaxation; 2) increases glycocalyx thickness and maintains glycocalyx structure and HA content during diabetes; and 3) prevents diabetes-induced glomerular barrier dysfunction assessed using the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and urinary ratio of 70- to 40-kDa dextran. Our findings suggest that HYAL1 contributes to endothelial and glycocalyx dysfunction induced by diabetes. HYAL1 inhibitors could be explored as a new therapeutic approach to prevent vascular complications in diabetes. PMID:27246914

  15. Endothelial cell dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in the STOX1 model of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Aurélien; Doridot, Ludivine; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Méhats, Celine; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Castille, Johann; Barbaux, Sandrine; Couderc, Betty; Jacques, Sébastien; Letourneur, Franck; Buffat, Christophe; Le Grand, Fabien; Laissue, Paul; Miralles, Francisco; Vaiman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a disease of pregnancy involving systemic endothelial dysfunction. However, cardiovascular consequences of preeclampsia are difficult to analyze in humans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cardiovascular dysfunction induced by preeclampsia by examining the endothelium of mice suffering of severe preeclampsia induced by STOX1 overexpression. Using Next Generation Sequencing on endothelial cells of mice carrying either transgenic or control embryos, we discovered significant alterations of gene networks involved in inflammation, cell cycle, and cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the heart of the preeclamptic mice revealed cardiac hypertrophy associated with histological anomalies. Bioinformatics comparison of the networks of modified genes in the endothelial cells of the preeclamptic mice and HUVECs exposed to plasma from preeclamptic women identified striking similarities. The cardiovascular alterations in the pregnant mice are comparable to those endured by the cardiovascular system of preeclamptic women. The STOX1 mice could help to better understand the endothelial dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia, and guide the search for efficient therapies able to protect the maternal endothelium during the disease and its aftermath. PMID:26758611

  16. Loss of cortactin causes endothelial barrier dysfunction via disturbed adrenomedullin secretion and actomyosin contractility

    PubMed Central

    García Ponce, Alexander; Citalán Madrid, Alí F.; Vargas Robles, Hilda; Chánez Paredes, Sandra; Nava, Porfirio; Betanzos, Abigail; Zarbock, Alexander; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vascular permeability occur during inflammation and the actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in regulating endothelial cell contacts and permeability. We demonstrated recently that the actin-binding protein cortactin regulates vascular permeability via Rap1. However, it is unknown if the actin cytoskeleton contributes to increased vascular permeability without cortactin. As we consistently observed more actin fibres in cortactin-depleted endothelial cells, we hypothesised that cortactin depletion results in increased stress fibre contractility and endothelial barrier destabilisation. Analysing the contractile machinery, we found increased ROCK1 protein levels in cortactin-depleted endothelium. Concomitantly, myosin light chain phosphorylation was increased while cofilin, mDia and ERM were unaffected. Secretion of the barrier-stabilising hormone adrenomedullin, which activates Rap1 and counteracts actomyosin contractility, was reduced in plasma from cortactin-deficient mice and in supernatants of cortactin-depleted endothelium. Importantly, adrenomedullin administration and ROCK1 inhibition reduced actomyosin contractility and rescued the effect on permeability provoked by cortactin deficiency in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest a new role for cortactin in controlling actomyosin contractility with consequences for endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:27357373

  17. Endothelial cell dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in the STOX1 model of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Ducat, Aurélien; Doridot, Ludivine; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Méhats, Celine; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Castille, Johann; Barbaux, Sandrine; Couderc, Betty; Jacques, Sébastien; Letourneur, Franck; Buffat, Christophe; Le Grand, Fabien; Laissue, Paul; Miralles, Francisco; Vaiman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a disease of pregnancy involving systemic endothelial dysfunction. However, cardiovascular consequences of preeclampsia are difficult to analyze in humans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cardiovascular dysfunction induced by preeclampsia by examining the endothelium of mice suffering of severe preeclampsia induced by STOX1 overexpression. Using Next Generation Sequencing on endothelial cells of mice carrying either transgenic or control embryos, we discovered significant alterations of gene networks involved in inflammation, cell cycle, and cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the heart of the preeclamptic mice revealed cardiac hypertrophy associated with histological anomalies. Bioinformatics comparison of the networks of modified genes in the endothelial cells of the preeclamptic mice and HUVECs exposed to plasma from preeclamptic women identified striking similarities. The cardiovascular alterations in the pregnant mice are comparable to those endured by the cardiovascular system of preeclamptic women. The STOX1 mice could help to better understand the endothelial dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia, and guide the search for efficient therapies able to protect the maternal endothelium during the disease and its aftermath. PMID:26758611

  18. Endothelial adhesion receptors are recruited to adherent leukocytes by inclusion in preformed tetraspanin nanoplatforms

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Olga; Zamai, Moreno; Yáñez-Mó, María; Tejera, Emilio; López-Romero, Pedro; Monk, Peter N.; Gratton, Enrico; Caiolfa, Valeria R.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, receptors for leukocyte integrins, are recruited to cell–cell contact sites on the apical membrane of activated endothelial cells. In this study, we show that this recruitment is independent of ligand engagement, actin cytoskeleton anchorage, and heterodimer formation. Instead, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are recruited by inclusion within specialized preformed tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, which act as endothelial adhesive platforms (EAPs). Using advanced analytical fluorescence techniques, we have characterized the diffusion properties at the single-molecule level, nanoscale organization, and specific intradomain molecular interactions of EAPs in living primary endothelial cells. This study provides compelling evidence for the existence of EAPs as physical entities at the plasma membrane, distinct from lipid rafts. Scanning electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled samples treated with a specific tetraspanin-blocking peptide identify nanoclustering of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 within EAPs as a novel mechanism for supramolecular organization that regulates the leukocyte integrin–binding capacity of both endothelial receptors during extravasation. PMID:18955551

  19. Functional characterization of late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells in patients with end-stage renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Bolton, Eleanor M; Randle, Lucy; Bradley, John Andrew; Lever, Andrew M L

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation is potentially curative in renal failure, but long-term efficacy is limited by untreatable chronic rejection. Endothelial damage contributes to chronic rejection and is potentially repairable by circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). The frequency and function of EPC are variably influenced by end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Here, we isolated and functionally characterized the late outgrowth EPC (LO-EPC) from ESRF patients to investigate their potential for endothelial repair. Patients with ESRF generated more LO-EPC colonies than healthy controls and had higher plasma levels of IL-1rα, IL-16, IL-6, MIF, VEGF, Prolactin, and PLGF. Patients' LO-EPC displayed normal endothelial cell morphology, increased secretion of PLGF, MCP-1, and IL-1β, and normal network formation in vitro and in vivo. They demonstrated decreased adhesion to extracellular matrix. Integrin gene profiles and protein expression were comparable in patients and healthy volunteers. In some patients, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were co-isolated and could be differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro. This is the first study to characterize LO-EPC from patients with ESRF. Their behavior in vitro reflects the presence of elevated trophic factors; their ability to proliferate in vitro and angiogenic function makes them candidates for prevention of chronic rejection. Their impaired adhesion and the presence of MSC are areas for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24471420

  20. Black tea protects against hypertension-associated endothelial dysfunction through alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    San Cheang, Wai; Yuen Ngai, Ching; Yen Tam, Ye; Yu Tian, Xiao; Tak Wong, Wing; Zhang, Yang; Wai Lau, Chi; Chen, Zhen Yu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Huang, Yu; Ping Leung, Fung

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive patients have been found to be associated with elevated levels of homocysteine, known as hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells. This study aims to investigate whether black tea (BT) protects against hypertension-associated endothelial dysfunction through alleviation of ER stress. Rat aortae and cultured rat aortic endothelial cells were treated with Hcy, BT extract, and theaflavin-3,3’-digallate (TF3). Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) to induce hypertension and orally administrated with BT extract at 15 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. Hcy impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations of rat aortae and led to ER stress in endothelial cells, which were ameliorated by co-incubation of BT extract and TF3. The blood pressure of Ang II-infused rats and plasma Hcy level were normalized by BT consumption. Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations in renal arteries, carotid arteries and aortae, and flow-mediated dilatations in third-order mesenteric resistance arteries were improved. Elevations of ER stress markers and ROS level, plus down-regulation of Hcy metabolic enzymes in aortae from Ang II-infused rats were prevented by BT treatment. Our data reveal the novel cardiovascular benefits of BT in ameliorating vascular dysfunctions, providing insight into developing BT into beneficial dietary supplements in hypertensive patients. PMID:25976123

  1. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Interaction with Fluorine-Incorporated Amorphous Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Yukihiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Nagashima, So; Kamijo, Aki; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Kitamura, Noriko; Kitagawa, Tomoya; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    A major clinical concern in coronary intervention for cardiovascular disease is late stent thrombosis after the implantation of drug eluting stents (DES). DES widely used in clinical settings currently utilize polymer coatings, which can induce persistent arterial wall inflammation and delayed vascular healing, resulting in impaired endothelialization. We examined the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for fluorine-incorporated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:F) coatings, which are known to be anti-thrombogenic. a-C:H:F and a-C:H were synthesized on the tissue culture dishes using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition by varying the ratio of hexafluoroethane and acetylene. HUVECs were seeded on coated dishes for 6 days. The results indicate that the a-C:H:F surface does not disturb HUVEC proliferation in 6 days of culture and is promising for stent materials that allows the preservation of endothelialization, even if the fluorine concentration of a-C:H surface affects the early adhesion of endothelial cells.

  2. C-reactive protein promotes atherosclerosis by increasing LDL transcytosis across endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Fang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Fan; Wu, Pin-Hui; Xing, Shasha; Xu, Gao; Li, Wenjing; Chi, Jiangyang; Ouyang, Changhan; Zhang, Yonghui; Xiong, Bin; Li, Yongsheng; Zheng, Tao; Wu, Dan; Chen, Xiaoqian; Jin, Si

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The retention of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in subendothelial space following transcytosis across the endothelium is the initial step of atherosclerosis. Whether or not C-reactive protein (CRP) can directly affect the transcytosis of LDL is not clear. Here we have examined the effect of CRP on transcytosis of LDL across endothelial cells and have explored the underlying mechanisms. Experimental Approach Effects of CRP on transcytosis of FITC-labelled LDL were examined with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and venous rings in vitro and, in vivo, ApoE-/- mice. Laser scanning confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and Oil Red O staining were used to assay LDL. Key Results CRP increased transcytosis of LDL. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, and the reducing agent, dithiothreitol partly or completely blocked CRP-stimulated increase of LDL transcytosis. The PKC inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I and the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, blocked the trafficking of the molecules responsible for transcytosis. Confocal imaging analysis revealed that CRP stimulated LDL uptake by endothelial cells and vessel walls. In ApoE-/- mice, CRP significantly promoted early changes of atherosclerosis, which were blocked by inhibitors of transcytosis. Conclusions and Implications CRP promoted atherosclerosis by directly increasing the transcytosis of LDL across endothelial cells and increasing LDL retention in vascular walls. These actions of CRP were associated with generation of reactive oxygen species, activation of PKC and Src, and translocation of caveolar or soluble forms of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein. PMID:24517733

  3. Loss of cortactin causes endothelial barrier dysfunction via disturbed adrenomedullin secretion and actomyosin contractility.

    PubMed

    García Ponce, Alexander; Citalán Madrid, Alí F; Vargas Robles, Hilda; Chánez Paredes, Sandra; Nava, Porfirio; Betanzos, Abigail; Zarbock, Alexander; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vascular permeability occur during inflammation and the actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in regulating endothelial cell contacts and permeability. We demonstrated recently that the actin-binding protein cortactin regulates vascular permeability via Rap1. However, it is unknown if the actin cytoskeleton contributes to increased vascular permeability without cortactin. As we consistently observed more actin fibres in cortactin-depleted endothelial cells, we hypothesised that cortactin depletion results in increased stress fibre contractility and endothelial barrier destabilisation. Analysing the contractile machinery, we found increased ROCK1 protein levels in cortactin-depleted endothelium. Concomitantly, myosin light chain phosphorylation was increased while cofilin, mDia and ERM were unaffected. Secretion of the barrier-stabilising hormone adrenomedullin, which activates Rap1 and counteracts actomyosin contractility, was reduced in plasma from cortactin-deficient mice and in supernatants of cortactin-depleted endothelium. Importantly, adrenomedullin administration and ROCK1 inhibition reduced actomyosin contractility and rescued the effect on permeability provoked by cortactin deficiency in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest a new role for cortactin in controlling actomyosin contractility with consequences for endothelial barrier integrity. PMID:27357373

  4. Autonomic Neuropathy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tiftikcioglu, Bedile Irem; Bilgin, Sule; Duksal, Tarik; Kose, Sukran; Zorlu, Yasar

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The etiology of autonomic impairment is not well-understood, yet. There is need for studies to investigate the cause-effect relationships of inflammation and/or endothelial dysfunction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Only a few reports have mentioned autonomic neuropathy in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), previously. Furthermore, the association between the plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction (von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble E-selectin) and autonomic neuropathy in patients with IGT or DM has not been studied before. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction and autonomic neuropathy in patients with IGT or type 2 DM (T2DM).In this case-control study, 25 IGT patients, 25 T2DM patients with autonomic symptoms, and 30 controls were included. Demographical data, HbA1c, vWF, and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) levels were analyzed. Sympathetic skin response (SSR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were used as the indicator of autonomic activity.Plasma levels of HbA1c, vWF, and sE-selectin were higher in patients with IGT than the controls; patients with T2DM had higher levels than both the controls and the patients with IGT. SSR measures were similar among the groups. However, higher number of T2DM patients had absent plantar SSR than controls. HRV analysis at rest revealed lower standard deviation of R-R interval, coefficient of variation of R-R interval, low-frequency (LF) power and total power in patients with IGT and T2DM than the controls. In addition, HRV analysis at deep breathing showed lower high-frequency (HF) power in IGT group. LF:HF ratio was lower in both patient groups at rest. No strong correlation was found between the levels of HbA1c, vWF, sE-selectin, HRV, and SSR measures.Our results support that endothelial dysfunction is evident in individuals with IGT or T2DM and HRV

  5. Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Yiqun; Wan Rong; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2009-04-15

    Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67{sup phox} siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox} and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67{sup phox} siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly

  6. PECAM-1: regulator of endothelial junctional integrity.

    PubMed

    Privratsky, Jamie R; Newman, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    PECAM-1 (also known as CD31) is a cellular adhesion and signaling receptor comprising six extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like homology domains, a short transmembrane domain and a 118 amino acid cytoplasmic domain that becomes serine and tyrosine phosphorylated upon cellular activation. PECAM-1 expression is restricted to blood and vascular cells. In circulating platelets and leukocytes, PECAM-1 functions largely as an inhibitory receptor that, via regulated sequential phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain, limits cellular activation responses. PECAM-1 is also highly expressed at endothelial cell intercellular junctions, where it functions as a mechanosensor, as a regulator of leukocyte trafficking and in the maintenance of endothelial cell junctional integrity. In this review, we will describe (1) the functional domains of PECAM-1 and how they contribute to its barrier-enhancing properties, (2) how the physical properties of PECAM-1 influence its subcellular localization and its ability to influence endothelial cell barrier function, (3) various stimuli that initiate PECAM-1 signaling and/or function at the endothelial junction and (4) cross-talk of PECAM-1 with other junctional molecules, which can influence endothelial cell function. PMID:24435645

  7. Molecular Bases of Corneal Endothelial Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Schmedt, Thore; Silva, Mariana Mazzini; Ziaei, Alireza; Jurkunas, Ula

    2011-01-01

    The phrase “corneal endothelial dystrophies” embraces a group of bilateral corneal conditions that are characterized by a non-inflammatory and progressive degradation of corneal endothelium. Corneal endothelial cells exhibit a high pump site density and, along with barrier function, are responsible for maintaining the cornea in its natural state of relative dehydration. Gradual loss of endothelial cells leads to an insufficient water outflow, resulting in corneal edema and loss of vision. Since the pathologic mechanisms remain largely unknown, the only current treatment option is surgical transplantation when vision is severely impaired. In the past decade, important steps have been taken to understand how endothelial degeneration progresses on the molecular level. Studies of affected multigenerational families and sporadic cases identified genes and chromosomal loci, and revealed either Mendelian or complex disorder inheritance patterns. Mutations have been detected in genes that carry important structural, metabolic, cytoprotective, and regulatory functions in corneal endothelium. In addition to genetic predisposition, environmental factors like oxidative stress were found to be involved in the pathogenesis of endotheliopathies. This review summarizes and crosslinks the recent progress on deciphering the molecular bases of corneal endothelial dystrophies. PMID:21855542

  8. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling in Endothelial Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Numerous preclinical studies indicate that sustained endothelial activation significantly contributes to tissue edema, perpetuates the inflammatory response, and exacerbates tissue injury ultimately resulting in organ failure. However, no specific therapies aimed at restoring endothelial function are available as yet. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging as a potent modulator of endothelial function and endothelial responses to injury. Recent studies indicate that S1PR are attractive targets to treat not only disorders of the arterial endothelium but also microvascular dysfunction caused by ischemic or inflammatory injury. In this article, we will review the current knowledge of the role of S1P and its receptors in endothelial function in health and disease, and we will discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting S1PR not only for disorders of the arterial endothelium but also the microvasculature. The therapeutic targeting of S1PR in the endothelium could help to bridge the gap between biomedical research in vascular biology and clinical practice. PMID:27115142

  9. Endothelial Cell Response to Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Reila Tainá; Nguyen, Daniel; Stephens, Danielle; Pamuk, Ferda; Fernandes, Daniel; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2016-07-01

    Vascular response is an essential aspect of an effective immune response to periodontal disease pathogens, as new blood vessel formation contributes to wound healing and inflammation. Gaining a greater understanding of the factors that affect vascular response may then contribute to future breakthroughs in dental medicine. In this study, we have characterized the endothelial cell response to the common bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum, an important bridging species that facilitates the activity of late colonizers of the dental biofilm. Endothelial cells were infected with Fusobacterium nucleatum (strain 25586) for periods of 4, 12, 24, or 48 h. Cell proliferation and tube formation were analyzed, and expression of adhesion molecules (CD31 and CD34) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1 and 2 was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Data indicate that F. nucleatum impaired endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. The findings suggest that the modified endothelial cell response acts as a mechanism promoting the pathogenic progression of periodontal diseases and may potentially suggest the involvement of periodontopathogens in systemic diseases associated with periodontal inflammation. PMID:27185790

  10. Lymphatic endothelial differentiation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer M; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Husain, Aliya N; Shen, Le; Jones, Jennifer; Schuger, Lucia A

    2013-08-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers-podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)-to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23609227

  11. Endothelial-cell apoptosis induced by cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen (HKa) is matrix dependent and requires the generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Danyu; McCrae, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    High–molecular-weight kininogen (HK) is an abundant plasma protein that plays a central role in activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. Cleavage of HK by plasma kallikrein results in release of the nonapeptide bradykinin (BK), leaving behind cleaved high–molecular-weight kininogen (HKa). Previous studies have demonstrated that HKa induces apoptosis of proliferating endothelial cells and inhibits angiogenesis in vivo, activities mediated primarily through its domain 5. However, the mechanisms by which these effects occur are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that HKa induces apoptosis of endothelial cells cultured on gelatin, vitronectin, fibronectin, or laminin but not collagen type I or IV. The ability of HKa to induce endothelial-cell apoptosis is dependent on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and associated with depletion of glutathione and peroxidation of endothelial-cell lipids, effects that occur only in cells cultured on matrix proteins permissive for HKa-induced apoptosis. Finally, the ability of HKa to induce endothelial-cell apoptosis is blocked by the addition of reduced glutathione or N-acetylcysteine. These studies demonstrate a unique role for oxidant stress in mediating the activity of an antiangiogenic polypeptide and highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in regulating endothelial-cell survival. PMID:16418331

  12. Peripheral nerve reconstruction with epsilon-caprolactone conduits seeded with vasoactive intestinal peptide gene-transfected mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Cortés, P.; Toledo-Romero, M. A.; Delgado, M.; Sánchez-González, C. E.; Martin, F.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; O'Valle, F.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Attempts have been made to improve nerve conduits in peripheral nerve reconstruction. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of a vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide with neuroprotective, trophic and developmental regulatory actions, in peripheral nerve regeneration in a severe model of nerve injury that was repaired with nerve conduits. Approach. The sciatic nerve of each male Wistar rat was transected unilaterally at 10 mm and then repaired with Dl-lactic-ɛ-caprolactone conduits. The rats were treated locally with saline, with the VIP, with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) or with ASCs that were transduced with the VIP-expressing lentivirus. The rats with the transected nerve, with no repairs, were used as untreated controls. At 12 weeks post-surgery, we assessed their limb function by measuring the ankle stance angle and the percentage of their muscle mass reduction, and we evaluated the histopathology, immunohistochemistry and morphometry of the myelinated fibers. Main results. The rats that received a single injection of VIP-expressing ASCs showed a significant functional recovery in the ankle stance angle (p = 0.049) and a higher number of myelinated fibers in the middle and distal segments of the operated nerve versus the other groups (p = 0.046). Significance. These results suggest that utilization of a cellular substrate, plus a VIP source, is a promising method for enhancing nerve regeneration using Dl-lactic-ɛ-caprolactone conduits and that this method represents a potential useful clinical approach to repairing peripheral nerve damage.

  13. Effect of vasoactive peptides in Tetrahymena: chemotactic activities of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

    PubMed

    Kőhidai, László; Tóth, Katalin; Samotik, Paul; Ranganathan, Kiran; Láng, Orsolya; Tóth, Miklós; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AMD), proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were studied for chemotaxis, chemotactic selection and G-actin/F-actin transition in Tetrahymena. The aim of the experiments was to study the effects of two different peptides encoded by the same gene compared to a peptide related to one of the two, but encoded by a different gene, at a low level of phylogeny. The positive, chemotactic effect of ADM and the strong negative, chemorepellent effect of PAMP suggest that in Tetrahymena, the two peptides elicit their chemotactic effects via different signalling mechanisms. The complexity of swimming behaviour modulated by the three peptides underlines that chemotaxis, chemokinesis and some characteristics of migratory behaviour (velocity, tortuosity) are working as a sub-population level complex functional unit. Chemotactic responsiveness to ADM and CGRP is short-term, in contrast to PAMP, which as a chemorepellent ligand, has the ability to select sub-populations with negative chemotactic responsiveness. The different effects of ADM and PAMP on the polymerization of actin networks show that the microtubular structure of cilia is more essential to chemotactic response than are transitions of the actin network. The results draw attention to the characteristic effects of vasoactive peptides at this low level of phylogeny. PMID:26481478

  14. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Knockout (VIP KO) mouse model of sulfite-sensitive asthma: up-regulation of novel lung carbonyl reductase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO): 1) peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2) pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-5, IL-6, with IFN-γ, and 3) airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In human asthma, a phenotype with sulfite sensitivity leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness to inhaled sulfites, and is associated with upregulation of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase. For the present experiments, we examined the role of VIP in modulating anti-oxidant genes and their proteins, including lung carbonyl reductase. Results Four male VIP KO mice and four wild-type age- and gender matched mice had lungs examined for whole genome microarray and a proteomics approach using mass spectrometry. The proteomics analysis revealed that a novel variant of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase (car3) was uniquely and markedly elevated in the VIP KO mice. RT-PCR indicated that carbonic anhydrase 3, which is an anti-oxidant protein, was elevated in the VIP KO mice. Conclusions These data support the concept that VIP influences the endogenous oxidant/antioxidant balance. One potential implication is that VIP and its analogues may be used to treat inflammatory diseases, including asthma. PMID:22103391

  15. In-Situ-Generated Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Loaded Microspheres in Mussel-Inspired Polycaprolactone Nanosheets Creating Spatiotemporal Releasing Microenvironment to Promote Wound Healing and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhen; Chen, Zhiqiang; Luo, Gaoxing; He, Weifeng; Xu, Kaige; Xu, Rui; Lei, Qiang; Tan, Jianglin; Wu, Jun; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-23

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was reported to promote angiogenesis. Electrospun nanofibers lead to idea wound dressing substrates. Here we report a convenient and novel method to produce VIP loaded microspheres in polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membrane without complicated processes. We first coated mussel-inspired dopamine (DA) to nanofibers, then used strong adhesive DA to absorb the functional peptide. PCL membrane was then immersed into acetone to generate microspheres with VIP loading. We employed high pressure liquid chromatography to record encapsulation efficiency of (31.8 ± 2.2)% and loading capacity of (1.71 ± 0.16)%. The release profile of VIP from nanosheets showed a prolonged release. The results of laser scanning confocal microscope, scanning electron microscope and cell counting kit-8 proliferation assays showed that cell adhesion and proliferation were promoted. In order to verify the efficacy on wound healing, in vivo implantation was applied in the full-thickness defect wounds of BALB/c mice. Results showed that the wound healing was significantly promoted via favoring the growth of granulation tissue and angiogenesis. However, we found wound re-epithelialization was not significantly improved. The resulting VIP-DA-coated PCL (PCL-DA-VIP) nanosheets with spatiotemporal delivery of VIP could be a potential application in wound treatment and vascular tissue engineering. PMID:26914154

  16. [Effects of thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor, DP-1904 on the action of vasoactive substances in guinea pig trachea and lung tissue strips].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, J; Iwanaga, T; Kuratomi, Y; Kitamura, S

    1989-03-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) is a potent platelet aggregator and vascular or bronchial constrictor. DP-1904, a newly synthesized imidazol TxA2 synthetase inhibitor, is a potent and long-acting agent. The present investigation was conducted to explore the effect of DP-1904 on the contractile or relaxing responses in guinea pig trachea and lung tissue strips induced by various vasoactive substances. Fourteen guinea pigs, weighing 300-350 g, were sacrificed. Trachea and lungs were removed, cut spirally, set up in bioassay glass jackets and superfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C, saturated with oxygen and carbon dioxide. Contraction of tissues was detected by an isotonic transducer and displayed on a polyrecorder. Arachidonic acid-induced relaxing responses in guinea pig trachea strips were attenuated significantly by the continuous infusion of DP-1904 in a dose-dependent fashion. Arachidonic acid-induced contractile responses in guinea pig lung strips were attenuated significantly by the continuous infusion of DP-1904, dose-dependently. Acetylcholine-, histamine- and prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced contractile responses in guinea pig lung and trachea strips were attenuated significantly by the continuous infusion of DP-1904, dose-dependently. The above results suggest that DP-1904 might be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic obstructive lung diseases. PMID:2615088

  17. Cyclic AMP formation in chicken brain: effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide, peptide histidine-isoleucine (PHI), and some PHI-related peptides.

    PubMed

    Dejda, Agnieszka; Matczak, Izabela; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Nowak, Jerzy Z

    2003-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (chicken form; chVIP), peptide histidine-isoleucine (porcine and rat forms; pPHI and rPHI), D-Phe(4) derivative of porcine PHI (D-Phe(4)-pPHI), peptide histidine-methionine (PHM; human PHI), and helodermin, were tested for their ability to stimulate cAMP production in [(3)H]adenine-prelabeled slices of chick cerebral cortex (CCx) and hypothalamus (HTh). The chVIP (0.1-3 microM) concentration-dependently and potently stimulated cAMP production in HTh and CCx; the responses observed after 3 microM of chVIP were comparable to those produced by 0.1 microM PACAP38. Helodermin (5 microM) moderately but significantly stimulated cAMP formation in both HTh and CCx, whereas pPHI, rPHI, PHM at 5 microM concentration only weakly affected cAMP production in CCx, and were inactive in HTh; D-Phe(4)-pPHI was inactive in both tissues. These data demonstrate that chVIP, PACAP, and to a lesser extent helodermin were capable of potently stimulating cAMP generation in the avian central nervous system. PHI-related peptides showed only weak or no activity, depending on the tissue. PMID:14704471

  18. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptor 2 Agonist Therapy in a Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katherine E; Bade, Aditya N; Schutt, Charles R; Dong, Jingdong; Shandler, Scott J; Boska, Michael D; Mosley, R Lee; Gendelman, Howard E; Liu, Yutong

    2016-07-01

    Neuroprotective immunity is defined by transformation of T-cell polarity for therapeutic gain. For neurodegenerative disorders and specifically for Parkinson's disease (PD), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2) agonists elicit robust anti-inflammatory microglial responses leading to neuronal sparing in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated mice. While neurotherapeutic potential was demonstrated for PD, there remain inherent limitations in translating these inventions from the laboratory to patients. One obstacle in translating such novel neurotherapeutics centers on the availability of suitable noninvasive methods to track disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. To this end, we developed manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) assays as a way to track a linkage between glial activation and VIPR2 agonist (LBT-3627)-induced neuroprotective immunity for MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration. Notably, LBT-3627-treated, MPTP-intoxicated mice show reduced MEMRI brain signal intensities. These changes paralleled reduced astrogliosis and resulted in sparing of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase neurons. Most importantly, the data suggest that MEMRI can be developed as a biomarker tool to monitor neurotherapeutic responses that are relevant to common neurodegenerative disorders used to improve disease outcomes. PMID:27329163

  19. Development of Endothelial-Specific Single Inducible Lentiviral Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guanghua; Kramer, M. Gabriela; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Kawa, Milosz P.; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhongmin; Prieto, Jesus; Qian, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are able to migrate to tumor vasculature. These cells, if genetically modified, can be used as vehicles to deliver toxic material to, or express anticancer proteins in tumor. To test this hypothesis, we developed several single, endothelial-specific, and doxycycline-inducible self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors. Two distinct expression cassettes were inserted into a SIN-vector: one controlled by an endothelial lineage-specific, murine vascular endothelial cadherin (mVEcad) promoter for the expression of a transactivator, rtTA2S-M2; and the other driven by an inducible promoter, TREalb, for a firefly luciferase reporter gene. We compared the expression levels of luciferase in different vector constructs, containing either the same or opposite orientation with respect to the vector sequence. The results showed that the vector with these two expression cassettes placed in opposite directions was optimal, characterized by a robust induction of the transgene expression (17.7- to 73-fold) in the presence of doxycycline in several endothelial cell lines, but without leakiness when uninduced. In conclusion, an endothelial lineage-specific single inducible SIN lentiviral vector has been developed. Such a lentiviral vector can be used to endow endothelial progenitor cells with anti-tumor properties. PMID:26612671

  20. Endothelial α3β1-Integrin Represses Pathological Angiogenesis and Sustains Endothelial-VEGF

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rita Graça; Tavora, Bernardo; Robinson, Stephen D.; Reynolds, Louise E.; Szekeres, Charles; Lamar, John; Batista, Sílvia; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Germain, Mitchel A.; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Jones, Dylan T.; Watson, Alan R.; Jones, Janet L.; Harris, Adrian; Hart, Ian R.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; DiPersio, C. Michael; Kreidberg, Jordan A.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M.

    2010-01-01

    Integrin α3β1 is a major receptor for laminin. The expression levels of laminins-8 and -10 in the basement membrane surrounding blood vessels are known to change during tumor angiogenesis. Although some studies have suggested that certain ligands of α3β1 can affect angiogenesis either positively or negatively, either a direct in vivo role for α3β1 in this process or its mechanism of action in endothelial cells during angiogenesis is still unknown. Because the global genetic ablation of α3-integrin results in an early lethal phenotype, we have generated conditional-knockout mice where α3 is deleted specifically in endothelial cells (ec-α3−/−). Here we show that ec-α3−/− mice are viable, fertile, and display enhanced tumor growth, elevated tumor angiogenesis, augmented hypoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated neovascularization ex vivo and in vivo. Furthermore, our data provide a novel method by which an integrin may regulate angiogenesis. We show that α3β1 is a positive regulator of endothelial-VEGF and that, surprisingly, the VEGF produced by endothelial cells can actually repress VEGF-receptor 2 (Flk-1) expression. These data, therefore, identify directly that endothelial α3β1 negatively regulates pathological angiogenesis and implicate an unexpected role for low levels of endothelial-VEGF as an activator of neovascularization. PMID:20639457

  1. KRIT1 Protein Depletion Modifies Endothelial Cell Behavior via Increased Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Peter V.; Kuebel, Julia M.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.; Glading, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of endothelial cell-cell contact is a key event in many cardiovascular diseases and a characteristic of pathologically activated vascular endothelium. The CCM (cerebral cavernous malformation) family of proteins (KRIT1 (Krev-interaction trapped 1), PDCD10, and CCM2) are critical regulators of endothelial cell-cell contact and vascular homeostasis. Here we show novel regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in KRIT1-depleted endothelial cells. Loss of KRIT1 and PDCD10, but not CCM2, increases nuclear β-catenin signaling and up-regulates VEGF-A protein expression. In KRIT1-depleted cells, increased VEGF-A levels led to increased VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and subsequent alteration of cytoskeletal organization, migration, and barrier function and to in vivo endothelial permeability in KRIT1-deficient animals. VEGFR2 activation also increases β-catenin phosphorylation but is only partially responsible for KRIT1 depletion-dependent disruption of cell-cell contacts. Thus, VEGF signaling contributes to modifying endothelial function in KRIT1-deficient cells and microvessel permeability in Krit1+/− mice; however, VEGF signaling is likely not the only contributor to disrupted endothelial cell-cell contacts in the absence of KRIT1. PMID:25320085

  2. Development of Endothelial-Specific Single Inducible Lentiviral Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanghua; Kramer, M Gabriela; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Kawa, Milosz P; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhongmin; Prieto, Jesus; Qian, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are able to migrate to tumor vasculature. These cells, if genetically modified, can be used as vehicles to deliver toxic material to, or express anticancer proteins in tumor. To test this hypothesis, we developed several single, endothelial-specific, and doxycycline-inducible self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors. Two distinct expression cassettes were inserted into a SIN-vector: one controlled by an endothelial lineage-specific, murine vascular endothelial cadherin (mVEcad) promoter for the expression of a transactivator, rtTA2S-M2; and the other driven by an inducible promoter, TREalb, for a firefly luciferase reporter gene. We compared the expression levels of luciferase in different vector constructs, containing either the same or opposite orientation with respect to the vector sequence. The results showed that the vector with these two expression cassettes placed in opposite directions was optimal, characterized by a robust induction of the transgene expression (17.7- to 73-fold) in the presence of doxycycline in several endothelial cell lines, but without leakiness when uninduced. In conclusion, an endothelial lineage-specific single inducible SIN lentiviral vector has been developed. Such a lentiviral vector can be used to endow endothelial progenitor cells with anti-tumor properties. PMID:26612671

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein II Compromises Brain Endothelial Barriers and May Promote Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Priya; Daniels, Brian P.; Oskman, Anna; Diamond, Michael S.; Klein, Robyn S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cerebral malaria (CM) is a disease of the vascular endothelium caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is characterized by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production, and vascular leakage. A distinguishing feature of P. falciparum infection is parasite production and secretion of histidine-rich protein II (HRPII). Plasma HRPII is a diagnostic and prognostic marker for falciparum malaria. We demonstrate that disruption of a human cerebral microvascular endothelial barrier by P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes depends on expression of HRPII. Purified recombinant or native HRPII can recapitulate these effects. HRPII action occurs via activation of the inflammasome, resulting in decreased integrity of tight junctions and increased endothelial permeability. We propose that HRPII is a virulence factor that may contribute to cerebral malaria by compromising endothelial barrier integrity within the central nervous system. PMID:27273825

  4. Digital imaging of diabetic endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltauf-Doburzynska, Jolanta; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Graier, Wolfgang F.

    2001-05-01

    Endothelial cells release factors that regulate dilatation and contraction of the vessels. They play an important role in modulating both the inflammatory response and vasomotor abnormalities that occur in coronary artery diseases. This endothelial function is associated with changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. For this study we used spatially and temporally resolved measurements of local Ca2+ concentration in human endothelial cells cultured in high glucose containing medium. Deconvolution techniques procedure allowed determination of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and its distribution into cellular compartments. We also used a confocal microscope for visualization of intracellular compartments (endoplasmatic reticulum, mitochondria) under normal and pathological conditions. We showed that the interrupted connection between superficial compartments and membrane channels is already the beginning of the cell damage in diabetes.

  5. Corneal endothelial changes in superficial epithelial keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A M; Grant, G; Gillies, W E

    1986-05-01

    A series of five cases is described in which superficial punctate keratopathy was associated with endothelial cell changes. The most striking change was the presence of dark areas or blebs, usually two to four cell diameters in extent. There was also distortion and crumpling of the corneal endothelium, mild pleomorphism and polymegathism of the endothelial cells, with a reduced cell count in some cases. These blebs have previously been reported in hard and soft contact lens wearers and are due to intercellular oedema with separation of endothelial cells from Descemet's membrane. Anoxia and interference with osmosis have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the production of these blebs, but our cases demonstrate that fine disruption of the corneal epithelium can affect the integrity of the corneal endothelium and may lead to significant damage over a long period of time. PMID:3801208

  6. Structural and functional characterization of endothelial microparticles released by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Serban, Karina A; Rezania, Samin; Petrusca, Daniela N; Poirier, Christophe; Cao, Danting; Justice, Matthew J; Patel, Milan; Tsvetkova, Irina; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Mikosz, Andrew; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Jacobson, Sean; Cardoso, Angelo; Carlesso, Nadia; Hubbard, Walter C; Kechris, Katerina; Dragnea, Bogdan; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; McClintock, Jeanette; Petrache, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are emerging as biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in individuals exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), but their mechanism of release and function remain unknown. We assessed biochemical and functional characteristics of EMPs and circulating microparticles (cMPs) released by CS. CS exposure was sufficient to increase microparticle levels in plasma of humans and mice, and in supernatants of primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. CS-released EMPs contained predominantly exosomes that were significantly enriched in let-7d, miR-191; miR-126; and miR125a, microRNAs that reciprocally decreased intracellular in CS-exposed endothelium. CS-released EMPs and cMPs were ceramide-rich and required the ceramide-synthesis enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) for their release, an enzyme which was found to exhibit significantly higher activity in plasma of COPD patients or of CS-exposed mice. The ex vivo or in vivo engulfment of EMPs or cMPs by peripheral blood monocytes-derived macrophages was associated with significant inhibition of efferocytosis. Our results indicate that CS, via aSMase, releases circulating EMPs with distinct microRNA cargo and that EMPs affect the clearance of apoptotic cells by specialized macrophages. These targetable effects may be important in the pathogenesis of diseases linked to endothelial injury and inflammation in smokers. PMID:27530098

  7. Structural and functional characterization of endothelial microparticles released by cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Karina A.; Rezania, Samin; Petrusca, Daniela N.; Poirier, Christophe; Cao, Danting; Justice, Matthew J.; Patel, Milan; Tsvetkova, Irina; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Mikosz, Andrew; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Jacobson, Sean; Cardoso, Angelo; Carlesso, Nadia; Hubbard, Walter C.; Kechris, Katerina; Dragnea, Bogdan; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; McClintock, Jeanette; Petrache, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are emerging as biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in individuals exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), but their mechanism of release and function remain unknown. We assessed biochemical and functional characteristics of EMPs and circulating microparticles (cMPs) released by CS. CS exposure was sufficient to increase microparticle levels in plasma of humans and mice, and in supernatants of primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. CS-released EMPs contained predominantly exosomes that were significantly enriched in let-7d, miR-191; miR-126; and miR125a, microRNAs that reciprocally decreased intracellular in CS-exposed endothelium. CS-released EMPs and cMPs were ceramide-rich and required the ceramide-synthesis enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) for their release, an enzyme which was found to exhibit significantly higher activity in plasma of COPD patients or of CS-exposed mice. The ex vivo or in vivo engulfment of EMPs or cMPs by peripheral blood monocytes-derived macrophages was associated with significant inhibition of efferocytosis. Our results indicate that CS, via aSMase, releases circulating EMPs with distinct microRNA cargo and that EMPs affect the clearance of apoptotic cells by specialized macrophages. These targetable effects may be important in the pathogenesis of diseases linked to endothelial injury and inflammation in smokers. PMID:27530098

  8. Fibrinogen-Induced Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo Bedran, Telma Blanca; Azelmat, Jabrane; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the predominant bacterial species associated with dental caries, can enter the bloodstream and cause infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells induced by human fibrinogen. The putative mechanism by which biofilm formation is induced as well as the impact of fibrinogen on S. mutans resistance to penicillin was also evaluated. Bovine plasma dose dependently induced biofilm formation by S. mutans. Of the various plasma proteins tested, only fibrinogen promoted the formation of biofilm in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of complex aggregates of bacterial cells firmly attached to the polystyrene support. S. mutans in biofilms induced by the presence of fibrinogen was markedly resistant to the bactericidal effect of penicillin. Fibrinogen also significantly increased the adherence of S. mutans to endothelial cells. Neither S. mutans cells nor culture supernatants converted fibrinogen into fibrin. However, fibrinogen is specifically bound to the cell surface of S. mutans and may act as a bridging molecule to mediate biofilm formation. In conclusion, our study identified a new mechanism promoting S. mutans biofilm formation and adherence to endothelial cells which may contribute to infective endocarditis. PMID:24222906

  9. NOSTRIN: A protein modulating nitric oxide release and subcellular distribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kirstin; Opitz, Nils; Dedio, Jürgen; Renné, Christoph; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Oess, Stefanie

    2002-01-01

    Activity and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is regulated in a remarkably complex fashion, yet the complex molecular machinery mastering stimulus-induced eNOS translocation and trafficking is poorly understood. In a search by the yeast two-hybrid system using the eNOS oxygenase domain as bait, we have identified a previously uncharacterized eNOS-interacting protein, dubbed NOSTRIN (for eNOS traffic inducer). NOSTRIN contains a single polypeptide chain of 506-aa residues of 58 kDa with an N-terminal cdc15 domain and a C-terminal SH3 domain. NOSTRIN mRNA is abundant in highly vascularized tissues such as placenta, kidney, lung, and heart, and NOSTRIN protein is expressed in vascular endothelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated the eNOS–NOSTRIN interaction in vitro and in vivo, and NOSTRIN's SH3 domain was essential and sufficient for eNOS binding. NOSTRIN colocalized extensively with eNOS at the plasma membrane of confluent human umbilical venous endothelial cells and in punctate cytosolic structures of CHO-eNOS cells. NOSTRIN overexpression induced a profound redistribution of eNOS from the plasma membrane to vesicle-like structures matching the NOSTRIN pattern and at the same time led to a significant inhibition of NO release. We conclude that NOSTRIN contributes to the intricate protein network controlling activity, trafficking, and targeting of eNOS. PMID:12446846

  10. In Brief: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Orlova, Valeria; Ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the role of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) in the onset and progression of a number of human pathologies. EndoMT involves the loss of an endothelial signature to generate unspecialized mesenchymal-like cells, susceptible to being re-differentiated into mesodermal cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, modulation of the molecular pathways controlling EndoMT can be considered as a therapeutic approach for particular human diseases. In addition, EndoMT may be harnessed for tissue engineering by producing multipotent mesenchymal cells able to differentiate into mutiple cell types. PMID:26446982

  11. Crossing the endothelial barrier during metastasis.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; d'Água, Bárbara Borda; Ridley, Anne J

    2013-12-01

    During metastasis, cancer cells disseminate to other parts of the body by entering the bloodstream in a process that is called intravasation. They then extravasate at metastatic sites by attaching to endothelial cells that line blood vessels and crossing the vessel walls of tissues or organs. This Review describes how cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier during extravasation and how different receptors, signalling pathways and circulating cells such as leukocytes and platelets contribute to this process. Identification of the mechanisms that underlie cancer cell extravasation could lead to the development of new therapies to reduce metastasis. PMID:24263189

  12. Effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial function in aged diabetic and high-fat fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Sena, C M; Nunes, E; Louro, T; Proença, T; Fernandes, R; Boarder, M R; Seiça, R M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on endothelial function in diabetic and high-fat fed animal models and elucidate the potential mechanism underlying the benefits of α-LA. Experimental approach: Plasma metabolites reflecting glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), plasma and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed in non-diabetic controls (Wistar rats), untreated Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic and high-fat fed GK rats (fed with atherogenic diet only, treated with α-LA and treated with vehicle, for 3 months). Vascular eNOS, nitrotyrosine, carbonyl groups and superoxide anion were also assessed in the different groups. Key results: α-LA and soybean oil significantly reduced both total and non-HDL serum cholesterol and triglycerides induced by atherogenic diet. MDA, carbonyl groups, vascular superoxide and 8-OHdG levels were higher in GK and high-fat fed GK groups and fully reversed with α-LA treatment. High-fat fed GK diabetic rats showed significantly reduced endothelial function and increased UAE, effects ameliorated with α-LA. This endothelial dysfunction was associated with decreased NO production, decreased expression of eNOS and increased vascular superoxide production and nitrotyrosine expression. Conclusions and implications: α-LA restores endothelial function and significantly improves systemic and local oxidative stress in high-fat fed GK diabetic rats. Improved endothelial function due to α-LA was at least partially attributed to recoupling of eNOS and increased NO bioavailability and represents a pharmacological approach to prevent major complications associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17906683

  13. Mutant B-Raf(V600E) Promotes Melanoma Paracellular Transmigration by Inducing Thrombin-mediated Endothelial Junction Breakdown.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Feng, Shan; Liu, Gentao; Wang, Heyong; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Bai, Huiyuan; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng

    2016-01-29

    Tumor invasiveness depends on the ability of tumor cells to breach endothelial barriers. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the adhesion of melanoma cells to endothelium regulates adherens junction integrity and modulates tumor transendothelial migration (TEM) by initiating thrombin generation. We found that the B-Raf(V600E) mutation in metastatic melanoma cells up-regulated tissue factor (TF) expression on cell membranes and promoted thrombin production. Co-culture of endothelial monolayers with metastatic melanoma cells mediated the opening of inter-endothelial spaces near melanoma cell contact sites in the presence of platelet-free plasma (PFP). By using small interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that B-Raf(V600E) and TF silencing attenuated the focal disassembly of adherens junction induced by tumor contact. Vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) disassembly was dependent on phosphorylation of p120-catenin on Ser-879 and VE-cadherin on Tyr-658, Tyr-685, and Tyr-731, which can be prevented by treatment with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, or by silencing the thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, in endothelial cells. We also provided strong evidence that tumor-derived thrombin enhanced melanoma TEM by inducing ubiquitination-coupled VE-cadherin internalization, focal adhesion formation, and actin assembly in endothelium. Confocal microscopic analysis of tumor TEM revealed that junctions transiently opened and resealed as tumor cells accomplished TEM. In addition, in the presence of PFP, tumor cells preferentially transmigrated via paracellular routes. PFP supported melanoma transmigration under shear conditions via a B-Raf(V600E)-thrombin-dependent mechanism. We concluded that the activation of thrombin generation by cancer cells in plasma is an important process regulating melanoma extravasation by disrupting endothelial junction integrity. PMID:26504080

  14. Successive deep dives impair endothelial function and enhance oxidative stress in man.

    PubMed

    Obad, Ante; Marinovic, Jasna; Ljubkovic, Marko; Breskovic, Toni; Modun, Darko; Boban, Mladen; Dujic, Zeljko

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of successive deep dives on endothelial function of large conduit arteries and plasma pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity. Seven experienced divers performed six dives in six consecutive days using a compressed mixture of oxygen, helium and nitrogen (trimix) with diving depths ranging from 55 to 80 m. Before and after first, third and sixth dive, venous gas emboli formation and brachial artery function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) was assessed by ultrasound. In addition, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC) was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power, and the level of oxidative stress was assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) method. Although the FMD was reduced to a similar extent after each dive, the comparison of predive FMD showed a reduction from 8.6% recorded before the first dive to 6.3% before the third (P = 0.03) and 5.7% before the sixth dive (P = 0.003). A gradual shift in baseline was also detected with TBARS assay, with malondialdehyde values increasing from 0.10 ± 0.02 μmol l⁻¹ before the first dive to 0.16 ± 0.03 before the sixth (P = 0.005). Predive plasma AOC values also showed a decreasing trend from 0.67 ± 0.20 mmol l⁻¹ trolox equivalents (first day) to 0.56 ± 0.12 (sixth day), although statistical significance was not reached (P = 0.08). This is the first documentation of acute endothelial dysfunction in the large conduit arteries occurring after successive deep trimix dives. Both endothelial function and plasma