Science.gov

Sample records for plasma initiation produced

  1. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  2. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Loisel, G.; Yahia, V.; Rafelski, J.

    2013-10-01

    The advent of high-intensity-pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high-energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments.

  3. Dependence of optimal initial density on laser parameters for multi-keV x-ray radiators generated by nanosecond laser-produced underdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shao-yong; Yuan, Yong-teng; Hu, Guang-yue; Miao, Wen-yong; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian; Jiang, Shao-en; Ding, Yong-kun

    2016-01-01

    Efficient multi-keV x-ray sources can be produced using nanosecond laser pulse-heated middle-Z underdense plasmas generated using gas or foam. Previous experimental results show that an optimal initial target density exists for efficient multi-keV x-ray emission at which the laser ionization wave is supersonic. Here we explore the influence of the laser intensity and the pulse duration on this optimal initial target density via a one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulation. The simulation shows that the optimal initial density is sensitive to both the laser intensity and the pulse duration. However, the speed of the supersonic ionization wave at the end of the laser irradiation is always maintained at 1.5 to 1.7 times that of the ion acoustic wave under the optimal initial density conditions.

  4. Plasma Properties of Microwave Produced Plasma in a Toroidal Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay; Edwards, W. F.; Held, Eric

    2011-10-01

    We have modified a small tokamak, STOR-1M, on loan from University of Saskatchewan, to operate as a low-temperature (~5 eV) toroidal plasma machine with externally induced toroidal magnetic fields ranging from zero to ~50 G. The plasma is produced using microwave discharges at relatively high pressures. Microwaves are produced by a kitchen microwave-oven magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz in continuous operating mode, resulting in pulses ~0.5 s in duration. Initial measurements of plasma formation in this device with and without applied magnetic fields are presented. Plasma density and temperature profiles have been measured using Langmuir probes and the magnetic field profile inside the plasma has been obtained using Hall probes. When the discharge is created with no applied toroidal magnetic field, the plasma does not fill the entire torus due to high background pressure. However, when a toroidal magnetic field is applied, the plasma flows along the applied field, filling the torus. Increasing the applied magnetic field seems to aid plasma formation - the peak density increases and the density gradient becomes steeper. Above a threshold magnetic field, the plasma develops low-frequency density oscillations due to probable excitation of flute modes in the plasma.

  5. Initial Results from 3D Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements of the Interaction of a Laser-Produced and Ambient Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, P. V.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Hofer, L. R.; Constantin, C. G.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing high-repetition lasers combined with a high-repetition ambient plasma allows for detailed 3D scans of the interaction of the laser-produced and ambient plasmas. We present the first results from experiments combining a newly-commissioned high-repetition (1 Hz) laser with the 1 Hz ambient plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles. The laser (20 J, 14 ns) was focused on a cylindrical plastic target embedded in the ambient LAPD plasma, resulting in an ablated debris-plasma that expanded perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The debris-ambient plasma interaction was studied with 3-axis magnetic flux probes, mounted on a 3D motion drive for detailed, high-resolution planar scans both along and perpendicular to the background field. Measurements were also taken using filtered fast-gate (ns) imaging, emissive Langmuir probes, and emissive spectroscopy. The results show that the debris ions are de-energized inside the diamagnetic cavity, while the ambient ions are accelerated through laminar electric fields.

  6. Laser initiated, RF sustained air plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John; Wiebold, Matt

    2010-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 260 mJ, 10 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical RF coil. We observe quantum resonant multi-photon (REMPI)2 and collisional cascade laser ionization processes that produce high density (ne˜7 x 1016/cm^3) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. The focused laser and associated shock wave produces a seed plasma for sustaining by the RF (1-10 kW, 0.5-1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance obtained by measuring the reflection coefficient with and without the laser pulse and 105 mm wave interferometer density and temperature measurements are made. They demonstrate that the laser formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (15-30 Torr) than with RF only initiation. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine rotational and vibrational temperatures. Comparison of the experimental measurements of helical antenna plasma loading with the ANTENAII code will be made and discussed.

  7. Laser Initiated, RF Sustained Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharer, John; Giar, Ryan; Hummelt, Jason; Way, Jesse

    2009-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes by focusing 193 nm, 260 mJ, 10 MW high power UV laser radiation to 18 cm and 1.3 cm zones are examined. Quantum resonant multi-photon (REMPI) and collisional cascade ionization processes affect the breakdown and plasma formation. Our spectroscopic measurements show that REMPI (2+1) processes on nitrogen play a substantial role at lower pressures due to the high photon energy (6.4 eV). The REMPI process yields high density air plasmas (5 x 10^16/cc) for the 18 cm focus with the laser flux three orders of magnitude below the classical breakdown threshold intensity. Measurements of the f = 1.3 cm core laser plasma density (8x10^17/cc) and electron temperature decay via two color laser interferometry are made. The 18 cm focal length lens and its ionizing shock wave front are utilized to produce air seed plasma to initiate a large volume (500 cc) RF sustainment discharge coupled by means of a 6 cm diameter helical coil at up to 10 kW power levels.

  8. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND MANIPULATING PLASMAS

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.; Ferguson, J.P.; Furth, H.P.; Wright, R.E.

    1960-07-26

    An electrical pinch discharge apparatus is described for producing and manipulating high-temperature plasmas. The apparatus may be of either the linear or toroidal pinch discharge type. Arrangements are provided whereby stabilizing fields may be trapped in the plasma external to the main pinch discharge path and the boundary condition of the stabilizing field programed so as to stabilize the discharge or to promote instabilities in the discharge as desired. The produced plasmas may be employed for various purposes, and fusion neutrons have been produced with the apparatus.

  9. Conductivity of plasma produced from cluster explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Michael J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-10-01

    After ionization but before local thermal equilibrium (LTE), plasma characteristic parameters can deviate strongly from homogeneous Maxwellian estimates. This is especially true for dusty plasmas or plasmas formed from structured materials, such as aerogels and aerosols, which retain inhomogeneities on the scale length of the material structures. Plasma collective effects and bulk plasma characteristics, such as conductivity or transport, might then deviate from the those calculated on a near-LTE basis. We consider as an example plasma conductivity effects in plasma produced from the Coulomb explosion of small clusters. Work supported by DOE contract no. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by NNSA grant no. DE-FG52-08NA28553.

  10. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results.

  11. Z-Pinch Discharge in Laser Produced Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, E.; Lunney, J. G.

    2010-10-08

    A fast coaxial electrical discharge, with relatively low current, was used to produce a Z-pinch effect in a laser produced aluminum plasma. The ion flux in the laser plasma was monitored with a Langmuir ion probe. The line density in the plasma column was controlled by using an aperture to select the portion of the laser plasma which enters the discharge cell. The Z-pinch dynamics were recorded using time-resolved imaging of the visible self-emission; the plasma was pinched to about one-third of the initial radius. Both the laser and Z-pinch plasmas were diagnosed using time-and space-resolved spectroscopy; substantial heating was observed. The measured behaviour of the pinch was compared with predictions of the slug model.

  12. Focused Laser Initiated RF Sustained High Pressure Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Scharer, John

    2012-10-01

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production were done by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a helical RF coil. We observe quantum resonant multi-photon and collisional cascade laser ionization processes that produce high density (ne˜5*10^15/cm^3) cylindrical seed plasmas. We installed an improved capacitive system that better matches the antenna impedance before plasma is produced, which increases the breakdown pressure from 20 to 60 torr with 5 kW incident RF power only. The focused laser and associated shock wave produces a plasma seed for sustaining by the RF (1-10 kW, 0.5-1.8 s) pulse. We find that triggering 20 ns multi-laser pulses at 20 Hz during one RF pulse increases the breakdown pressure from 70 to 85 torr single laser pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna plasma-loaded impedance are obtained by measuring the complex reflection coefficient with and without the laser pulse. Additional diagnostics are obtained with a 105 GHz interferometer to measure plasma density, collision frequency and electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine rotational and vibrational neutral gas temperatures. The results demonstrate that the laser formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures than with RF only initiation.

  13. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitomer, Steven J.; Jones, Roger D.

    1990-06-01

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photo-dynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. In this paper, we examine those areas of laser medicine in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. We consider examples of the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g. lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g. kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation) and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g. laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included.

  14. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitomer, S. J.; Jones, R. D.

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photo-dynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. Those areas of laser medicine are examined in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. Examples are examined for the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g., lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g., kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation) and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g., laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included.

  15. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gitomer, S.J.; Jones, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photo-dynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. In this paper, we examine those areas of laser medicine in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. We consider examples of the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g., lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g., kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation) and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g., laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included. 63 refs.

  16. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gitomer, S.J. ); Jones, R.D. . Applied Theoretical Physics Div.)

    1991-12-01

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photodynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. In this paper the authors examine those areas of laser medicine in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. We consider examples of the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g., lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g., kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation), and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g., laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented, along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included.

  17. Characterization of a laser plasma produced from a graphite target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Guzmn, F.; Favre, M.; Hevia, S.; Correa, N.; Bhuyan, H.; Wynham, E. S.; Chuaqui, H.

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films, we have initiated a detailed study of the plasma dynamics of laser produced carbon plasmas. The carbon plasma is produced by focusing a Nd:YAG laser pulse, 380 mJ, 4 ns at 1.06 ?m, onto a graphite target, at a background pressure of 0.3 mTorr. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopic (OES) observations of the carbon plasma plume are obtained, with time and space resolution, using a SpectraPro 275 spectrograph, with a 15 ns MCP gated OMA. Line emission from CII to CIV carbon ions is identified at different stages of the plasma evolution. Line intensity ratios of successive ionization stages, CIII/CIV, was used to estimate the electron temperature throughout the Saha-Boltzmann equation, under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and Stark broadening of CII lines was used to obtain measurements of the electron density. Characteristic plasma parameters, short after plasma formation, are 3.0 eV and 2-1017 cm-3which after 60 ns of plasma expansion decay to 2.7 eV and 510 cm-3, respectively.

  18. Initial operation of NSTX with plasma control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gates; M. Bell; J. Ferron; S. Kaye; J. Menard; D. Mueller; C. Neumeyer; S. Sabbagh

    2000-06-13

    First plasma, with a maximum current of 300kA, was achieved on NSTX in February 1999. These results were obtained using preprogrammed coil currents. The first controlled plasmas on NSTX were made starting in August 1999 with the full 1MA plasma current achieved in December 1999. The controlled quantities were plasma position (R, Z) and current (Ip). Variations in the plasma shape are achieved by adding preprogrammed currents to those determined by the control parameters. The control system is fully digital, with plasma position and current control, data acquisition, and power supply control all occurring in the same four-processor real time computer. The system uses the PCS (Plasma Control Software) system designed at General Atomics. Modular control algorithms, specific to NSTX, were written and incorporated into the PCS. The application algorithms do the actual control calculations, with the PCS handling data passing. The control system, including planned upgrades, will be described, along with results of the initial controlled plasma operations. Analysis of the performance of the control system will also be presented.

  19. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  20. Surface modifications by plasma produced nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Johannes; Brault, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas with their distinct non equilibrium character are a versatile tool for the production and subsequent deposition of nanoparticles. This contribution will focus on two aspects: on strategies to control the formation of nanoparticles in reactive low temperature plasmas and on the production and functionalization of nanoparticle- deposits. The importance of such nanoparticle-deposits will be discussed on the basis of two examples: the production of surfaces with switchable wetting properties and the decoration of surfaces with nanoparticles for fuel cell applications. The financial support of the European Commission under the FP7 Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative Grant Agreement FP7-2012-JTI-FCH-325327 for the SMARTCat project is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  2. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don Mayo; Walter, Kevin Carl

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  3. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  4. Doppler spectroscopy on plasma discharges produced in Proto-MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, Runpal; Biewer, Theodore; Klepper, Chris; Martin, Elijah; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear machine that produces pulsed plasma discharges, and is intended to study plasma-material interactions in conditions similar to those found in future fusion reactors. A high-resolution McPherson Czerny-Turner visible range spectrometer has been installed to study the behavior of ions in the plasma. Together with a Princeton Instruments EMCCD camera and an external trigger box, this system provides excellent spectral and temporal resolution for viewing the emission spectra of the discharges. Around 100 lines of sight have been established for use by this and other diagnostics in the lab. Initial data from recent experiments validate the utility of this setup. Analysis of spectral lines in helium and deuterium plasmas yields valuable information regarding the temperature and density of plasma ions at various locations in the machine as the various RF heating sources are implemented. Differentiating the thermal width of lines from other sources of broadening is an ongoing process. In addition to He I lines, data indicates the presence of the He II line at 468.5 nm, which corresponds to emission from singly ionized atoms at higher temperatures.

  5. Initial Results from the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; Leblanc, Spencer; Artis, Darrick; Dubois, Ami; Merlino, Robert; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2014-10-01

    The MDPX device is envisioned as a flexible, multi-user, research instrument that can perform a wide range of studies in fundamental and applied plasma physics. The MDPX device consists of two main components. The first is a four-coil, open bore, superconducting magnet system that is designed to produce uniform magnetic fields of up to 4 Tesla and non-uniform magnetic fields with gradients up to up to 2 T/m configurations. Within the warm bore of the magnet is placed an octagonal vacuum chamber that has a 46 cm outer diameter and is 22 cm tall. The primary missions of the MDPX device are to: (1) investigate the structural, thermal, charging, and collective properties of a plasma as the electrons, ions, and finally charged microparticles become magnetized; (2) study the evolution of a dusty plasma containing magnetic particles (paramagnetic, super-paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic particles) in the presence of uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields; and, (3) explore the fundamental properties of strongly magnetized plasmas (``i.e., dust-free'' plasmas). This presentation will summarize the initial characterization of the magnetic field structure, initial plasma parameter measurements, and the development of in-situ and optical diagnostics. This work is supported by funding from the NSF and the DOE.

  6. Initial results on high enthalpy plasma generation in a magnetized coaxial source

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, R.M.; Bourham, M.A.; Caress, R.W.; Black, D.C.; Glover, M.E.

    1994-11-01

    Initial investigation on high enthalpy plasma stream generation in the North Carolina State University Coaxial Plasma Source (CPS) facility is presented. Tenuous, yet high enthalpy, flows are produced from this Magnetized Coaxial plasma Gun (MCG) which allow laboratory study of plasma streams with a wide variety of applications. The applicability includes, but is not limited to, advanced thrusters for electric space propulsion, astrophysical jets and critical ionization phenomena, magnetic fusion compact toroid devices and tokamak fueling, large scale plasma etching and deposition, etc.

  7. Magnetic reconnection between colliding magnetized laser-produced plasma plumes.

    PubMed

    Fiksel, G; Fox, W; Bhattacharjee, A; Barnak, D H; Chang, P-Y; Germaschewski, K; Hu, S X; Nilson, P M

    2014-09-01

    Observations of magnetic reconnection between colliding plumes of magnetized laser-produced plasma are presented. Two counterpropagating plasma flows are created by irradiating oppositely placed plastic (CH) targets with 1.8-kJ, 2-ns laser beams on the Omega EP Laser System. The interaction region between the plumes is prefilled with a low-density background plasma and magnetized by an externally applied magnetic field, imposed perpendicular to the plasma flow, and initialized with an X-type null point geometry with B=0 at the midplane and B=8  T at the targets. The counterflowing plumes sweep up and compress the background plasma and the magnetic field into a pair of magnetized ribbons, which collide, stagnate, and reconnect at the midplane, allowing the first detailed observations of a stretched current sheet in laser-driven reconnection experiments. The dynamics of current sheet formation are in good agreement with first-principles particle-in-cell simulations that model the experiments. PMID:25238366

  8. Nonlinear thermal conduction in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaddour-Djebbar, H.

    1983-01-01

    The conventional treatment of thermal conduction in laser-produced plasmas has relied upon the use of the classical heat diffusion equations which presupposes a zero relaxation time. This equation, even when it is improved through elaborate techniques such as the Chapman-Enskog method, is inherently incapable of providing accurate descriptions in regions with fast time variations or large gradients. A nonlinear hyperbolic heat equation derived from the Grad 13-Moments method is proposed here as an alternative equation for the description of thermal conduction in initial, final, boundary and shock layers.

  9. Oxide cathodes produced by plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Pi, T.; Umstattd, R.; Brown, I.; Montiero, O.

    1997-12-31

    These are two distinct applications for high-current-density, long-life thermionic cathodes. The first application is as a substitute for explosive emission cathodes used in high-power microwave (HPM) devices being developed for Air Force programs. The second application is in SLAC`s X-band klystrons for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). SLAC, UCD, and LBL are developing a plasma deposition process that eliminates the problems with binders, carbonate reduction, peeling, and porosity. The emission layer is deposited using plasma deposition of metallic barium in vacuum with an oxygen background gas. An applied bias voltage drives the oxide plasma into the nickel surface. Since the oxide is deposited directly, it does not have problems with poisoning from a hydrocarbon binder. The density of the oxide layer is increased from the 40--50% for standard oxide cathodes to nearly 100% for plasma deposition.

  10. METHOD OF INITIATING AND SUSTAINING AN ENERGETIC PLASMA FOR NEUTRON PRODUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Mackin, R.J. Jr.; Simon, A.

    1961-08-22

    A method for producing an energetic plasma for neutron production and for faeling this plasma once it is formed is described. The plasma is initially fonmed as set forth in U. S. Patent No. 2,969,308. After the plasma is formed, cold neutral particles with an energy of at least 1 Kev are injected in a radial directinn and transverse to the axis of the device. These cold particles are substituted for the molecular ion injection and are used for fueling the plasma device on a continuous regulated basis in order to maintain a reaction temperature of about 60 Kev for producing neutrons. (AE C)

  11. Light source employing laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S

    2013-09-17

    A system and a method of generating radiation and/or particle emissions are disclosed. In at least some embodiments, the system includes at least one laser source that generates a first pulse and a second pulse in temporal succession, and a target, where the target (or at least a portion the target) becomes a plasma upon being exposed to the first pulse. The plasma expand after the exposure to the first pulse, the expanded plasma is then exposed to the second pulse, and at least one of a radiation emission and a particle emission occurs after the exposure to the second pulse. In at least some embodiments, the target is a solid piece of material, and/or a time period between the first and second pulses is less than 1 microsecond (e.g., 840 ns).

  12. Experiments on Initial Formation of Plasma Flow Switches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, John F., Jr.; Bowers, Richard; Oona, Hank; Wysocki, Fred; Broste, William B.; Harper, Ron; Roderick, Norm

    1996-11-01

    Plasma flow switches have been used to shorten the current pulse for inductive storage capacitor banks to implode plasmas for producing radiation.(J.H.Degnan, et.al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., PS-15, 760(1987).)They consist of two components, an aluminum wire array and a plastic barrier film separated by a few mm. We have performed a series of experiments at Los Alamos to understand the sensitivity of the performance of plasma flow switches to their initial conditions. These experiments were done on two facilities, one a 250 kJ capacitor bank called the Colt facility with a maximum current of 1.0 MA in 2.5 microseconds. The other is the Pegasus II facility with a maximum current of 10 MA in a time of 4 microseconds. The overall performance of the switch as determined by the voltage developed was measured as a function of the mass of the switch, the distribution of the mass among the switch components, and the separation of the components. A preliminary understanding of the important parameters and the physical basis for their importance will be given. (This worked performed under the auspices of the Department of Energy.)

  13. The spinning terrella plasma experiment: Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.; Spurrier, Scott

    2001-04-01

    The observation of 40 keV field-aligned plasma flows (Sheldon et al., 1998) has been conjectured as the result of a space-charge driven instability generating kV parallel potentials (Sheldon, 1999), which occur whenever hot plasma drifts in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Such conditions occur in almost any magnetic field that interacts with an energetic plasma: at the Earth, the Sun, Jupiter, and perhaps even astrophysical magnetospheres of stars, black holes and active galactic nuclei, all of which possess collimated flows. From this ubiquity, field-aligned flows were looked for in a table top plasma experiment involving a permanent magnet and a direct current (dc) discharge source of energetic plasma. It is emphasized that a one-fluid plasma theory such as magnetohydrodynamics is incapable of describing a parallel potential drop, and that most second-order corrections to the theory predict weak parallel voltages proportional to the thermal energy. In contrast, it is shown photographs of the plasma and peculiar high-voltage (500 eV>>kT) discharges suggestive of a large field-aligned potential drop. It is proposed that this may be a manifestation of the quasi-neutral catastrophe heretofore neglected by space and laboratory plasma physicists, which may unify many disparate observations.

  14. Laser produced plasma for efficient extreme ultraviolet light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Tony; Cummins, Thomas; O' Gorman, Colm; Li Bowen; Harte, Colm S.; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-05-25

    Extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasma and their relevance to EUV source development is discussed. The current state of the field for Sn LPP sources operating at 13.5 nm is described and initial results are given for EUV emission from CO{sub 2} laser irradiation of a bulk Sn target. A maximum conversion efficiency of 1.7% has been measured and the influence of the CO{sub 2} laser temporal profile on the CE is discussed. A double pulse irradiation scheme is shown to increase CE up to a maximum value of 2.1% for an optimum prepulse - pulse delay of 150 ns. The emergence of a new EUVL source wavelength at 6.7 nm based on Gd and Tb LPPs has been outlined. An initial experiment investigating picosecond laser irradiation as a means to produce strong 6.7 nm emission from a Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} target has been performed and verified.

  15. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annenkov, V. V.; Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in a realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through a plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of the electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in an infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and the second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  16. Nanosized lithium titanates produced by plasma technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabis, J.; Orlovs, A.; Rasmane, Dz

    2007-12-01

    The synthesis of nanosized lithium titanates is studied by evaporation of coarse grained commercially available titanium and lithium carbonate particles in radio-frequency plasma flow with subsequent controlling formation and growth conditions of product particles. In accordance with the XRD analysis the phase composition of the obtained powders is determined by feeding rate of precursors and strongly by ratio of lithium and titanium. The Li2TiO3 and Li4Ti5O12 particles containing small amounts of extra phases were obtained at ratio of Li/Ti = 2 and Li/Ti = 0.8 respectively, feeding rate of precursors being in the range of 0.6-0.9 kg/h. Specific surface area of powders is in the range of 20-40 m2/g depending on concentration of vapours in gas flow and cooling rate of the products. Additional calcination of nanosize particles at 800-900 °C improves phase composition of lithium titanates.

  17. Reinjection of transmitted laser light into laser-produced plasma for efficient laser ignition.

    PubMed

    Endo, Takuma; Takenaka, Yuhei; Sako, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Tomohisa; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Namba, Shinichi

    2016-02-10

    For improving the laser absorption efficiency in laser ignition, the transmitted laser light was returned to the laser-produced plasma by using a corner cube. In the experiments, the transmitted light was reinjected into the plasma at different times. The laser absorption efficiency was found to be substantially improved when the transmitted light was reinjected into the plasma after adequate plasma expansion. Furthermore, through visualization experiments on gas-dynamics phenomena, it was found that the reinjection of the transmitted light affected not only the laser absorption efficiency but also the gas dynamics after breakdown, and thereby the initial flame kernel development. PMID:26906388

  18. Initiation of vacuum insulator surface high-voltage flashover with electrons produced by laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Leopold, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, experiments are described in which cylindrical vacuum insulator samples and samples inclined at 45° relative to the cathode were stressed by microsecond timescale high-voltage pulses and illuminated by focused UV laser beam pulses. In these experiments, we were able to distinguish between flashover initiated by the laser producing only photo-electrons and when plasma is formed. It was shown that flashover is predominantly initiated near the cathode triple junction. Even dense plasma formed near the anode triple junction does not necessarily lead to vacuum surface flashover. The experimental results directly confirm our conjecture that insulator surface breakdown can be avoided by preventing its initiation [J. G. Leopold et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 060401 (2007)] and complement our previous experimental results [J. Z. Gleizer et al., IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 21, 2394 (2014) and J. Z. Gleizer et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 073301 (2015)].

  19. Initial Operation of the Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John; Collins, Cami; Forest, Cary; MPDX Team

    2013-10-01

    Operation of the Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) has begun. This facility creates large, un-magnetized, fast flowing, hot plasma for investigating magnetic field self-generation and flow driven MHD instabilities. The experiment is 3 meters in diameter and utilizes a permanent magnet multicusp plasma confinement. Five 20KW magnetrons produce electron cyclotron heating for plasma generation. Eight lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) stirring rods and molybdenum anodes are inserted into the vessel to produce JxB flows. This poster will describe the operational status of the facility including laboratory infrastructure, stirring electrodes, RF sources, diagnostics, currently produced plasma parameters and future experimental system additions. Construction was funded by the NSF Major Research Instrumentation program (ARRA), DOE, and CMSO.

  20. Laser produced plasma diagnostics by cavity ringdown spectroscopy and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Milosevic, S.

    2012-05-25

    Laser-produced plasmas have many applications for which detailed characterization of the plume is requested. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy is a versatile absorption method which provides data on the plume and its surroundings, with spatial and temporal resolution. The measured absorption line shapes contain information about angular and velocity distributions within the plume. In various plasmas we have observed molecules or metastable atoms which were not present in the emission spectra.

  1. Focused Laser Initiated, RF Sustained, High Pressure Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Scharer, John

    2013-10-01

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production were carried out by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a Pyrex chamber surrounded by a 6 cm diameter helical RF coil. We observe quantum resonant multi-photon (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes that produce high density (ne ~ 5*1015/cm3) cylindrical seed plasmas. The focused laser and associated shock wave produces a plasma seed for sustainment by the RF (1-10 kW, 0.5-1.8 s) pulse. The laser seed plasma increases the air RF breakdown pressure from 60 torr to 85 torr with 5 kW incident RF power and in lower pressure conditions the laser decreases the time between firing the RF pulse and formation of plasma. We also observed that the two capacitor settings in the matching system are important in determining the breakdown pressure and plasma parameters. To diagnose the inductive (~ 1012/cc) and capacitive (~ 1011/cc) plasmas with different properties, we use our 105 GHz (mm wave) interferometer to measure plasma density, collision frequency and electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine rotational, vibrational and neutral gas temperatures. A directional coupler in the RF system is applied to obtain the incident and reflection RF signals, with which we can calculate both magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient and determine via FFT methods the time dependent plasma impedance.

  2. Kinetic-energy structure of a laser-produced-plasma channel in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiao-Fang; Yu, Cheng-Xin; Li, Wei; Liu, Shi-Bing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the fine structure of kinetic energy of laser-produced plasma, which bridges the two parts of researches of plasma channel usually studied independently of each other, i.e., the extension of the length of plasma filament and the prolongation of the lifetime of plasma channel generated by the laser pulse. The kinetic energy structure of the plasma channel is calculated by solving the motion equation of ionized electrons and utilizing the ionization rate as the weighting factor. With the study on the laser intensity, we analyze the formation mechanisms of the kinetic energy structure. This work holds great promise for optimizing the initial conditions of the evolutions of plasma channel after the laser pulse.

  3. Radiative heat transport instability in a laser produced inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.

    2015-08-01

    A laser produced high-Z plasma in which an energy balance is achieved due to radiation emission and radiative heat transfer supports ion acoustic instability. A linear dispersion relation is derived, and instability is compared to the radiation cooling instability [R. G. Evans, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 751 (1985)]. Under conditions of indirect drive fusion experiments, the driving term for the instability is the radiative heat flux and, in particular, the density dependence of the radiative heat conductivity. A specific example of thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation source has been considered. This instability may lead to plasma jet formation and anisotropic x-ray generation, thus affecting inertial confinement fusion related experiments.

  4. Railgun using plasma initiation separated from the projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.; Yamada, T.; Eguchi, N.; Maeda, S.; Sato, K.N.

    1993-12-01

    Preacceleration of a projectile is quite important to reduce the erosion of the bore surface in a railgun. Gas guns, electrothermal guns and other railguns have been used to preaccelerate the projectile. Here, the new method using Plasma Initiation Separated from the Projectile (PISP method) is proposed, and its effectiveness is confirmed experimentally. A thin copper is placed near the edge of the railgun, which explodes and forms a plasma that has a fast flow velocity due to the Lorentz force. This fast flowing plasma collides with the projectile which obtains an initial velocity mainly by the momentum transfer. Since the current increases while only the plasma is accelerated, the driving force of the projectile just after the collision of the plasma with the projectile is large. In other words, the PISP method works as an inductive energy storage circuit with an opening switch.

  5. METHOD OF PRODUCING ENERGETIC PLASMA FOR NEUTRON PRODUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Simon, A.; Mackin, R.J. Jr.

    1961-01-24

    A method is given for producing an energetic plasma for neutron production. An energetic plasma is produced in a small magnetically confined subvolume of the device by providing a selected current of energetic molecular ions at least greater than that required for producing a current of atomic ions sufficient to achieve "burnout" of neutral particles in the subvolume. The atomic ions are provided by dissociation of the molecular ions by an energetic arc discharge within the subvolume. After burnout, the arc discharge is terminated, the magnetic fields increased, and cold fuel feed is substituted for the molecular ions. After the subvolume is filled with an energetic plasma, the size of the magnetically confined subvolume is gradually increased until the entire device is filled with an energetic neutron producing plasma. The reactions which take place in the device to produce neutrons will generate a certain amount of heat energy which may be converted by the use of a conventional heat cycle to produce electrical energy.

  6. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B; Roquemore, A L; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A

    2009-10-29

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  7. Studies of Magnetic Reconnection in Colliding Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Novel images of magnetic fields and measurements of electron and ion temperatures have been obtained in the magnetic reconnection region of high- β, laser-produced plasmas. Experiments using laser-irradiated foils produce expanding, hemispherical plasma plumes carrying MG Biermann-battery magnetic fields, which can be driven to interact and reconnect. Thomson-scattering measurements of electron and ion temperatures in the interaction region of two colliding, magnetized plasmas show no thermal enhancement due to reconnection, as expected for β ~ 8 plasmas. Two different proton radiography techniques used to image the magnetic field structures show deformation, pileup, and annihilation of magnetic flux. High-resolution images reveal unambiguously reconnection-induced jets emerging from the interaction region and show instabilities in the expanding plasma plumes and supersonic, hydrodynamic jets due to the plasma collision. Quantitative magnetic flux data show that reconnection in experiments with asymmetry in the scale size, density, temperature, and plasma flow across the reconnection region occurs less efficiently than in similar, symmetric experiments. This result is attributed to disruption of the Hall mechanism mediating collisionless reconnection. The collision of plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields has also been probed, illustrating the deformation of magnetic field structures in high-energy-density plasmas in the absence of reconnection. These experiments are particularly relevant to high- β reconnection environments, such as the magnetopause. This work was performed in collaboration with C. Li, F. Séguin, A. Zylstra, H. Rinderknecht, H. Sio, J. Frenje, and R. Petrasso (MIT), I. Igumenshchev, V. Glebov, C. Stoeckl, and D. Froula (LLE), J. Ross and R. Town (LLNL), W. Fox (UNH), and A. Nikroo (GA), and was supported in part by the NLUF, FSC/UR, U.S. DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  8. Plasma puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Choi, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for the azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide range of fill gas pressure of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressure for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff was about 120 mTorr and 450 Torr for He and N2, and between 120 mTorr and 5 Torr for Ar. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of inverse pinch switch with plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr.

  9. Plasma double-layers produced by ponderomotive force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Crawford, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Non-linear rectification of the RF electric fields excited in a convectively amplifying electron beam-plasma interaction results in a dc electric field, and a corresponding ponderomotive force acting on the charged particles to produce a space-charge separation, i.e. a type of plasma double-layer. This paper analyses the effect, taking into account plasma electron temperature and electron-neutral collisions. To measure such double-layers, an electron beam probe constitutes a convenient non-perturbing diagnostic technique, but great care is required in its calibration. An analysis is presented taking into account significant non-linear effects which had been neglected in previous work. The paper concludes with some preliminary experimental results illustrating the use of the technique in a beam-plasma interaction for which a weak double-layer electric field is predicted.

  10. Collimation of laser-produced plasmas using axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassan, Syed M.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas; Hassanein, A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the expansion dynamics of laser-produced plasmas expanding into an axial magnetic field. Plasmas were generated by focusing 1.064 µm Nd:YAG laser pulses onto a planar tin target in vacuum and allowed to expand into a 0.5 T magnetic-filed where field lines were aligned along the plume expansion direction. Gated images employing intensified CCD showed focusing of the plasma plume, which were also compared with results obtained using particle-in-cell modelling methods. The estimated density and temperature of the plasma plumes employing emission spectroscopy revealed significant changes in the presence and absence of the 0.5T magnetic field. In the presence of the field, the electron temperature is increased with distance from the target, while the density showed opposite effects.

  11. Modelling of intense line radiation from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yim T.; Gee, M.

    1990-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss modelling of Lyman-{alpha} (i.e. Ly-{alpha}) radiation emitted from laser-produced plasmas. We are interested in the application of one of these line radiations to pump a transition of an ion in a different plasma spatially separated from the emitting source. The interest is in perturbing the plasma rather than just probing it as in some backlighting experiments. As a result of pumping, the populations of certain excited levels are inverted. The resulting gain coefficients depend strongly on the population inversion density which in turn depends on the brightness of the pump radiation. As a result, we must produce an intense bright radiation source. In addition, to pump a transition effectively, we also need a pump line with a width larger than the mismatch of the resonance since the widths of the pumped transitions are rather narrow

  12. Microscale Plasma-Initiated Patterning of Electrospun Polymer Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Rivera, Roberto; Griffin, Jeremy; Ricupero, Christopher L.; Grumet, Martin; Meiners, Sally; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Microscale plasma-initiated patterning (μPIP) is a novel micropatterning technique used to create biomolecular micropatterns on polymer surfaces. The patterning method uses a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp to selectively protect regions of an underlying substrate from oxygen plasma treatment resulting in hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. Preferential adsorption of the biomolecules onto either the plasma-exposed (hydrophilic) or plasma-protected (hydrophobic) regions leads to the biomolecular micropatterns. In the current work, laminin-1 was applied to an electrospun polyamide nanofibrillar matrix following plasma treatment. Radial glial clones (neural precursors) selectively adhered to these patterned matrices following the contours of proteins on the surface. This work demonstrates that textured surfaces, such as nanofibrillar scaffolds, can be micropatterned to provide external chemical cues for cellular organization. PMID:21345656

  13. Electrostatic structure of a magnetized laser-produced plasma.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the structure of the electrostatic fields produced by the expansion of a laser-produced plasma into a background magnetized plasma are presented. The three-dimensional measurements of the electrostatic field are made using an emissive probe that measures the time-varying plasma potential on two orthogonal planes, one across and one containing the background magnetic field. The inductive electric field is also calculated from probe measurements of the time-varying magnetic fields. Deviations from local charge neutrality at the level of 10(-4) generate a radial electrostatic field with peak strength an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding inductive field. The electrostatic energy density near full expansion is over an order of magnitude larger than that of the induced azimuthal electric field. These measurements show that electrostatic fields must be included in theoretical and computational models of collisionless coupling in magnetized point explosions of laser-produced plasmas and their relation to similar phenomena such as magnetospheric chemical releases. PMID:26651639

  14. Electrostatic structure of a magnetized laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the structure of the electrostatic fields produced by the expansion of a laser-produced plasma into a background magnetized plasma are presented. The three-dimensional measurements of the electrostatic field are made using an emissive probe that measures the time-varying plasma potential on two orthogonal planes, one across and one containing the background magnetic field. The inductive electric field is also calculated from probe measurements of the time-varying magnetic fields. Deviations from local charge neutrality at the level of 10-4 generate a radial electrostatic field with peak strength an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding inductive field. The electrostatic energy density near full expansion is over an order of magnitude larger than that of the induced azimuthal electric field. These measurements show that electrostatic fields must be included in theoretical and computational models of collisionless coupling in magnetized point explosions of laser-produced plasmas and their relation to similar phenomena such as magnetospheric chemical releases.

  15. Lateral energy transport in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, D.; Kado, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Tanaka, K. A.; Offenberger, A. A.; Capjack, C. E.; Nishiguchi, A.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.

    1995-12-01

    Lateral energy transport in laser-produced plasmas has been studied by irradiating planar polystyrene foils with 0.53-μm-wavelength, spatially nonuniform laser beams. Spatially resolved x-ray emission patterns and spectra were recorded to infer the temperatures, ionization states, and time-integrated hydrodynamic histories of plasma originating from tracer layers embedded in the targets. The conditions of the experiment have been simulated using a two-dimensional single fluid hydrodynamic code. The experimental results and code predictions are in good agreement, indicating that a moderate amount of ablation occurs in the nonirradiated region of the target. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  16. Morphology of ceramic particles produced by plasma-chemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, S. S.; Gol'din, V. D.; Zharova, I. K.; Zhukov, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal and diffusion processes in the droplet weakly concentrated metal salt solution during its heating in the plasma chemical reactor, in order to synthesize metal oxide powders are considered. Numerical study is based on previously proposed physical-mathematical model. The results of numerical calculations are analyzed to assess the possible influence of the operation parameters of the reactor and the characteristics of the initial solution (precursor) on the morphology of the particles formed.

  17. Plasma observations near Neptune - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Bridge, H. S.; Coppi, B.; Gordon, G. S., Jr.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Bagenal, F.; Divers, O.; Eviatar, A.; Ogilvie, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma science experiment on Voyager 2 made observations of the plasma environment in Neptune's magnetosphere and in the surrounding solar wind. Because of the large tilt of the magnetic dipole and fortuitous timing, Voyager entered Neptune's magnetosphere through the cusp region, the first cusp observations at an outer planet. Thus the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere observed by Voyager 2 was not sharp but rather appeared as a gradual decrease in plasma density and temperature. The maximum plasma density observed in the magnetosphere is inferred to be 1.4 per cubic centimeter (the exact value depends on the composition), the smallest observed by Voyager in any magnetosphere. The plasma has at least two components; light ions (mass, 1 to 5) and heavy ions (mass, 10 to 40), but more precise species identification is not yet available. Most of the plasma is concentrated in a plasma sheet or plasma torus and near closest approach to the planet. A likely source of the heavy ions is Triton's atmosphere or ionosphere, whereas the light ions probably escape from Neptune. The large tilt of Neptune's magnetic dipole produces a dynamic magnetosphere that changes configuration every 16 hours as the planet rotates.

  18. A mechanism to produce a dawn-dusk component of plasma flow during magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. G.; Lee, L. C.; Yan, M.; Lin, Y.; Perkins, F. W.; Yamada, M.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection between antiparallel field lines in the magnetotail is generally thought to produce plasma acceleration in the earthward-tailward direction. However, measurements of the plasma velocity in the magnetotail during substorm activity sometimes reveal a dawn-dusk component of plasma flow. In this paper, we show that a dawn-dusk component of plasma acceleration may be produced during reconnection if the neutral line is not perpendicular to the magnetic field. In this case, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations show that reconnection between antiparallel field lines will initially produce plasma acceleration that is nearly parallel to the neutral line because the magnetic tension force is not opposed by a pressure gradient force in this direction. As the magnetic field topology evolves to a steady state, the plasma flow direction rotates until it is nearly parallel to the plane that initially contained the antiparallel magnetic field lines before reconnection (hereafter referred to as the initial field plane). However, the time required to reach a steady state (typically several hundred seconds in the magnetotail region) may be greater than the time during which the reconnection process is active. Consequently, bursts of plasma flow with a dawn-dusk component may occur in the magnetotail. The initial acceleration along the neutral line depends on the angle theta (sub B) between the neutral line and the initial field plane, with the largest burst of plasma flow along the neutral line occuring when theta (s ub B) = 45 degs.

  19. Instabilities observed at the bubble edge of a laser produced plasma during its expansion in an ambient tenuous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Clark, S. E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Niemann, C.

    2014-10-01

    The Raptor kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass laser in the Phoenix laser laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles, is used to ablate a dense debris plasma from a graphite or plastic target embedded in a tenuous, uniform, and quiescent ambient magnetized plasma in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) which provides a peak plasma density of ni ~ 1013 cm-3. Its background magnetic field can vary between 200 and 1200 G. Debris ions from laser produced plasma expand out conically with super-Alfvénic speed (MA ~ 2) and expel the background magnetic field and ambient ions to form a diamagnetic bubble. The debris plasma interacts with the ambient plasma and the magnetic field and acts as a piston which can create collisionless shocks. Flute-type instabilities, which are probably large Larmor radius Rayleigh Taylor instabilities or lower hybrid drift instabilities, are developed at the bubble edge and also observed in the experiment. The amplitude and wavelength dependence of the instabilities, which might be a strong function of debris to ambient mass to charge ratio, is studied and the experimental results are compared to the two dimensional hybrid simulations. the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the Excellence Initiative Darmstadt Graduate School of Energy Science and Engineering (GSC1070).

  20. Spectroscopic Analysis and Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Wire Produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plechaty, Christopher; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Main, Daniel; Caplinger, James; Wallerstein, Austin; Kim, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The Lower Hybrid Drift Instability (LHDI) in plasma is driven by the presence of inhomogeneities in density, temperature, or magnetic field (Krall 1971, Davidson 1977), and occurs in systems where the electrons are magnetized and the ions are effectively unmagnetized. The LHDI is thought to occur in magnetic reconnection (Huba 1977), and has also been investigated as a mitigation technique which can allow for communications to take place through the plasma formed around hypersonic aircraft (Sotnikov 2010). To further understand the phenomenology of the LHDI, we plan to carry out experiments at the Air Force Research Laboratory, in the newly formed Plasma Physics Sensors Laboratory. In experiment, a pulsed power generator is employed to produce plasma by passing current through single, or dual-wire configurations. To characterize the plasma, a Thomson scattering diagnostic is employed, along with a visible spectroscopy diagnostic. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense by Riverside Research under Contract BAA-FA8650-13-C-1539.

  1. Plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Han, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressures for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff were about 120 mTorr less than P(opt) less than 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 120 mTorr less than P(opt) less than 5 Torr for argon. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of the inverse pinch switch with the plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr. In order to assess the effects of plasma current density on material erosion of electrodes, emissions from both an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) and from a spark gap switch under test were studied with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). The color temperature of the argon plasma was approximately 4,000 K which corresponded with the peak continuum emission near 750 nm. There are the strong line emissions of argon in the 650 - 800 nm range and a lack of line emissions of copper and other solid material used in the switch. This indicates that the plasma current density during closing is low and the hot spot or hot filament in the switch is negligible. This result also indicates considerable reduction of line emission with the INPIStron switch over that of a spark-gap switch. However, a strong carbon line emission exists due to vaporization of the plastic insulator used. In order to reduce the vaporization of the insulator, the plexiglass insulating material of INPIStron was replaced with Z-9 material. A comparative study of the INPIStron and a spark gap also reveals that the INPIStron, with a low impedance of Z equals 9 ohms, can transfer a high voltage pulse with a superior pulse-shape fidelity over that of a spark gap with Z equals 100 ohms.

  2. Plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Eun H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. H.; Nguyen, D. X.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressures for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff were about 120 mTorr less than P(sub opt) less than 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 20 mTorr is less than P(sub opt) is less than 5 Torr. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of the inverse pinch switch with the plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr. In order to assess the effects of plasma current density on material erosion of electrodes, emissions from both an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) and from a spark gap switch under test were studied with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). The color temperature of the argon plasma was approximately 4,000 K which corresponded with the peak continuum emission near 750 nm. There are the strong line emissions of argon in the 650 - 800 nm range and a lack of line emissions of copper and other solid material used in the switch. This indicates that the plasma current density during closing is low and the hot spot or hot filament in the switch is negligible. This result also indicates considerable reduction of line emission with the INPIStron switch over that of a spark-gap switch. However, a strong carbon line emission exists due to vaporization of the plastic insulator used. In order to reduce the vaporization of the insulator, the plexiglass insulating material of INPIStron was replaced with Z-9 material. A comparative study of the INPIStron and a spark gap also reveals that the INPIStron, with a low impedance of Z = 9 ohms, can transfer a high voltage pulse with a superior pulse-shape fidelity over that of a spark gap with Z = 100 ohms.

  3. Energetics of oriented nuclei in laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vadim S.

    2004-06-01

    The report presents principal theoretical and experimental results obtained during the first year of the ISTC project # 2155 realization. The mechanisms of high-energy electrons formation in high intensity and short laser pulse interaction with solid targets has been suggested and investigated. Neutron generation (reaction D + D --> 3He + n) from laser-produced plasma at 1017 W/cm2 intensity has been investigated. Neutron yield more than 104 per pulse was received.

  4. Plasma polymerization of 2-chloro-p-xylene to produce a crystalline plasma parylene C film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Raygoza, Isabel C.; Thamban, Stephan L.; Overzet, Lawrence; Goeckner, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    The following work reports the study of the plasma polymerization of 2-chloro-p-xylene monomer to produce a plasma polymer film like Parylene C, a biocompatible polymer widely used in the medical field. This is the first example of a plasma polymer that presents a degree of crystallinity. Our data suggests that the film growth/polymerization of plasma deposited Parylene C is affected by both the adsorption of the monomer in the surface and the generation of precursors for polymerization by the plasma. Film deposition occurred mostly in areas exposed to ion bombardment, thus polymerization of the films is likely to be enhanced by ions but we cannot discard some small radical contribution. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and an electron beam OES diagnostic tools to study the dissociation, excitation and ionization fragments produced in the plasma discharge. The main products of the monomer breakup are HCl, CH4, C2H2, H, H2, Cl, Cl2, CH, HCl + and a mix of aromatic ions/radicals. By using a novel OES e-beam diagnostic we could track real time changes in the OES intensities of the excited species being produced and consumed in the plasma. This work was supported by CONACYT-UT Dallas scholarship 303255 and NSF Grant CBET- 0922962.

  5. Scaling mechanisms of vapour/plasma shielding from laser-produced plasmas to magnetic fusion regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The plasma shielding effect is a well-known mechanism in laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) reducing laser photon transmission to the target and, as a result, significantly reducing target heating and erosion. The shielding effect is less pronounced at low laser intensities, when low evaporation rate together with vapour/plasma expansion processes prevent establishment of a dense plasma layer above the surface. Plasma shielding also loses its effectiveness at high laser intensities when the formed hot dense plasma plume causes extensive target erosion due to radiation fluxes back to the surface. The magnitude of emitted radiation fluxes from such a plasma is similar to or slightly higher than the laser photon flux in the low shielding regime. Thus, shielding efficiency in LPPs has a peak that depends on the laser beam parameters and the target material. A similar tendency is also expected in other plasma-operating devices such as tokamaks of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors during transient plasma operation and disruptions on chamber walls when deposition of the high-energy transient plasma can cause severe erosion and damage to the plasma-facing and nearby components. A detailed analysis of these abnormal events and their consequences in future power reactors is limited in current tokamak reactors. Predictions for high-power future tokamaks are possible only through comprehensive, time-consuming and rigorous modelling. We developed scaling mechanisms, based on modelling of LPP devices with their typical temporal and spatial scales, to simulate tokamak abnormal operating regimes to study wall erosion, plasma shielding and radiation under MFE reactor conditions. We found an analogy in regimes and results of carbon and tungsten erosion of the divertor surface in ITER-like reactors with erosion due to laser irradiation. Such an approach will allow utilizing validated modelling combined with well-designed and well-diagnosed LPP experimental studies for predicting consequences of plasma instabilities in complex fusion environment, which are of serious concern for successful energy production.

  6. Plasma irregularities in the D-region ionosphere in association with sprite streamer initiation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianqi; Pasko, Victor P; McHarg, Matthew G; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    Sprites are spectacular optical emissions in the mesosphere induced by transient lightning electric fields above thunderstorms. Although the streamer nature of sprites has been generally accepted, how these filamentary plasmas are initiated remains a subject of active research. Here we present observational and modelling results showing solid evidence of pre-existing plasma irregularities in association with streamer initiation in the D-region ionosphere. The video observations show that before streamer initiation, kilometre-scale spatial structures descend rapidly with the overall diffuse emissions of the sprite halo, but slow down and stop to form the stationary glow in the vicinity of the streamer onset, from where streamers suddenly emerge. The modelling results reproduce the sub-millisecond halo dynamics and demonstrate that the descending halo structures are optical manifestations of the pre-existing plasma irregularities, which might have been produced by thunderstorm or meteor effects on the D-region ionosphere. PMID:24806314

  7. Plasma observations near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Bagenal, F.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L.; Sullivan, J. D.; Gazis, P. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Results of plasma measurements made by Voyager 2 in the vicinity of Saturn are discussed and compared with those made by Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 in a more limited range of latitudes. The initial bow shock crossing on the inbound trajectory closely agreed with the shock position inferred from the external ram pressure in the solar wind, although boundaries on the outbound pass were much further out than expected. Magnetospheric plasma observations reveal the presence of (1) shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath between 30 and 22 Saturn radii; (2) a variable density region between 17 Saturn radii and the magnetopause; (3) an extended thick plasma sheet between 17 and 7 Saturn radii; and (4) an inner plasma torus probably originating from local sources. The ratio of heavy to light ions was observed to vary with distance to the equatorial plane in the dayside magnetosphere, with the heavy ions, probably O(+), more closely confined to the equatorial plane. The plasma data also account for the observed inner boundary of the neutral hydrogen torus discovered by Voyager 1.

  8. Hydrolysis of hemicellulose to produce fermentable monosaccharides by plasma acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yuan, Bo; Ji, Yingchao; Li, Hong

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, plasma acid was obtained by treating distilled water with dielectric barrier discharge to hydrolyze hemicellulose. The orthogonal experiment L??(5(6)) was used to optimize such hydrolysis conditions. The total reducing sugar (TRS) was measured by the DNS method. To determine whether the oligosaccharide existed in the hydrolysis products, it was hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid for a second time following the same procedure as reported earlier. The monosaccharide compositions of the hydrolyzed sample were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that pH 2.81 of plasma acid, 100 C and 50 min were assigned as an optimal hydrolysis condition by plasma acid. Under this condition, the hemicellulose was hydrolyzed completely to produce monosaccharides including xylose, glucose, and galactose with the mole ratio being 17:3:1. The yields of xylose, glucose, and galactose were 38.67%, 9.28% and 3.09%, respectively. Compared with the hemicellulose hydrolysis results by sulfuric acid, it is concluded that plasma acid is an environmental-friendly and efficient method to explore and hydrolyze the hemicellulose existed in biomass. PMID:23911479

  9. Centrifugal mass separation in rotating plasmas produced by a coaxial plasma gun

    SciTech Connect

    Ikehata, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tanabe, T.; Mase, H. )

    1989-09-25

    Rotating Cu/Zn plasmas produced by a coaxial plasma gun have been applied to plasma centrifuge. A separation factor of up to 10 is measured over a radius of 4 cm when a current of 13 kA and an axial magnetic field of 2.5 kG are applied. Plasma parameters are: rotation frequency {omega}=1.1{times}10{sup 6} rad/s, density {ital n}{similar to}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}, and ion temperature {ital T}{sub {ital i}}=10 eV. The separation factor of 2 is attained even in the plasma core where the density is higher than one-half of the peak value. This is attributed to the fact that a strong centrifugal force forms a hollow density profile which gives the density peak at a radius of 2 cm.

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 in fresh produce using atmospheric pressure cold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Wemlinger, Erik; Barbosa-Canovas, Gustavo; Pedrow, Patrick; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Food-borne outbreaks are associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in food products such as fresh produce. One of the target microorganisms is Escherichia coli which exhibits resistance to being inactivated with conventional disinfection methods for vegetables. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) was tested to disinfect three vegetables with challenge surfaces, lettuce, carrots and tomatoes. The produce was inoculated with the bacteria to reach an initial microbial concentration of 107 cfu/g. Vegetables were initially exposed to the APCP discharges from a needle array at 5.7 kV RMS in argon, processing times of 0.5, 3 and 5 min. Initial results indicate that microbial decontamination is effective on the lettuce (1.2 log reduction) when compared with other vegetables. To claim disinfection, a 3 log reduction or more is needed, which makes APCP treatment very promising technology for decontamination of produce. We propose that with method refinements full disinfection can be achieved using APCP.

  11. Acceleration of neutrals in a nanosecond laser produced nickel plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Philip, Reji

    2014-12-15

    Time of flight dynamics of slow neutrals, fast neutrals, and ions from a nanosecond laser produced nickel (Ni) plasma are investigated. Species arrival times confirm the hypothesis that fast neutrals are formed by the recombination of fast ions with free electrons. Both neutrals and ions are found to accelerate for a short interval immediately after ablation, which is attributed to internal Coulomb forces which create electrostatic potentials resulting in the charged particle acceleration. This process is further enhanced by laser-plasma energy coupling. Emission from neutrals could be measured for longer axial distances in the plume compared to that of ions confirming that the ions recombine to form neutrals as they move away from the target surface.

  12. Acceleration of neutrals in a nanosecond laser produced nickel plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Philip, Reji

    2014-12-01

    Time of flight dynamics of slow neutrals, fast neutrals, and ions from a nanosecond laser produced nickel (Ni) plasma are investigated. Species arrival times confirm the hypothesis that fast neutrals are formed by the recombination of fast ions with free electrons. Both neutrals and ions are found to accelerate for a short interval immediately after ablation, which is attributed to internal Coulomb forces which create electrostatic potentials resulting in the charged particle acceleration. This process is further enhanced by laser-plasma energy coupling. Emission from neutrals could be measured for longer axial distances in the plume compared to that of ions confirming that the ions recombine to form neutrals as they move away from the target surface.

  13. Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra from laser produced rhenium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Liu, Luning; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged rhenium ions were observed in the 1-7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 150 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a number of laser power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 2.6 × 1014 W cm-2 for the former and 5.5 × 1012 W cm-2 for the latter. The Cowan suite of atomic structure codes and unresolved transition array (UTA) approach were used to calculate and interpret the emission properties of the different spectra obtained. The results show that n = 4-n = 4 and n = 4-n = 5 UTAs lead to two intense quasi-continuous emission bands in the 4.3-6.3 nm and 1.5-4.3 nm spectral regions. As a result of the different ion stage distributions in the plasmas induced by ps and ns laser irradiation the 1.5-4.3 nm UTA peak moves to shorter wavelength in the ps laser produced plasma spectra. For the ns spectrum, the most populated ion stage during the lifetime of this plasma that could be identified from the n = 4-n = 5 transitions was Re23+ while for the ps plasma the presence of significantly higher stages was demonstrated. For the n = 4-n = 4 4p64dN-4p54dN+1 + 4p64dN-14f transitions, the 4d-4f transitions contribute mainly in the most intense 4.7-5.5 nm region while the 4p-4d subgroup gives rise to a weaker feature in the 4.3-4.7 nm region. A number of previously unidentified spectral features produced by n = 4-n = 5 transitions in the spectra of Re XVI to Re XXXIX are identified.

  14. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.

  15. Recent Science Education Initiatives at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Gershman, Sophia; Guilbert, Nick; Merali, Aliya; Ortiz, Deedee

    2013-10-01

    An integrated approach to program development and implementation has significantly enhanced a variety of Science Education initiatives for students and teachers. This approach involves combining the efforts of PPPL scientists, educators, research and education fellows, and collaborating non-profit organizations to provide meaningful educational experiences for students and teachers. Our undergraduate internship program continues to have outstanding success, with 72% of our participants going to graduate school and 45% concentrating in plasma physics. New partnerships have allowed us to increase the number of underrepresented students participating in mentored research opportunities. The number of participants in our Young Women's Conference increases significantly each year. Our Plasma Camp workshop, now in its 15th year, recruits outstanding teachers from around the country to create new plasma-centered curricula. Student research in the Science Education Laboratory concentrates on the development of a high-fidelity plasma speaker, a particle dropper for a dusty plasma experiment, microplasmas along liquid surfaces for a variety of applications, an Internet-controlled DC glow discharge source for students, and a Planeterrella for demonstrating the aurora and other space weather phenomenon for the general public.

  16. Interplanetary field and plasma during initial phase of geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-three geomagnetic storm events during 1966 to 1970 were studied by using simultaneous interplanetary magnetic field and plasma parameters. Explorer 33 and 35 field and plasma data were analyzed on large-scale (hourly) and small-scale (3 min.) during the time interval coincident with the initial phase of the geomagnetic storms. The solar-ecliptic Bz component turns southward at the end of the initial phase, thus triggering the main phase decrease in Dst geomagnetic field. The By component also shows large fluctuations along with Bz. When there are no clear changes in the Bz component, the By shows abrupt changes at the main phase onset. On the small-scale, behavior of the magnetic field and electric field were studied in detail for the three events; it is found that the field fluctuations in By, Bz and Ey and Ez are present in the initial phase. In the large-scale, the behavior field remains quiet because the small-scale variations are averaged out. It appears that large as well as small time scale fluctuations in the interplanetary field and plasma help to alter the internal electromagnetic state of the magnetosphere so that a ring current could causing a geomagnetic storm decrease.

  17. Fast Magnetic Reconnection in Laser-Produced Plasma Bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2011-05-27

    Recent experiments have observed magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasma bubbles, with reconnection rates observed to be much higher than can be explained by classical theory. Based on fully kinetic particle simulations we find that fast reconnection in these strongly driven systems can be explained by magnetic flux pileup at the shoulder of the current sheet and subsequent fast reconnection via two-fluid, collisionless mechanisms. In the strong drive regime with two-fluid effects, we find that the ultimate reconnection time is insensitive to the nominal system Alfven time.

  18. A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams.

    PubMed

    Faure, J; Glinec, Y; Pukhov, A; Kiselev, S; Gordienko, S; Lefebvre, E; Rousseau, J-P; Burgy, F; Malka, V

    2004-09-30

    Particle accelerators are used in a wide variety of fields, ranging from medicine and biology to high-energy physics. The accelerating fields in conventional accelerators are limited to a few tens of MeV m(-1), owing to material breakdown at the walls of the structure. Thus, the production of energetic particle beams currently requires large-scale accelerators and expensive infrastructures. Laser-plasma accelerators have been proposed as a next generation of compact accelerators because of the huge electric fields they can sustain (>100 GeV m(-1)). However, it has been difficult to use them efficiently for applications because they have produced poor-quality particle beams with large energy spreads, owing to a randomization of electrons in phase space. Here we demonstrate that this randomization can be suppressed and that the quality of the electron beams can be dramatically enhanced. Within a length of 3 mm, the laser drives a plasma bubble that traps and accelerates plasma electrons. The resulting electron beam is extremely collimated and quasi-monoenergetic, with a high charge of 0.5 nC at 170 MeV. PMID:15457253

  19. Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser.

  20. Ion Flux Characterization of H2 and D2 Plasmas Produced by an ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Eric; Capece, Angela; Roszell, John; Skinner, Charles; Koel, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    The use of lithium-conditioned plasma facing components in tokamaks has been shown to improve plasma confinement through a reduction in hydrogen recycling. Surface science techniques are being applied to probe the interactions between lithiated PFC's and H/D plasmas. A TectraTM Gen 2 plasma source has been commissioned that utilizes electron cyclotron resonance to produce a plasma discharge inside a vacuum test chamber and can produce ion fluxes similar to those typically seen in tokamaks. This source will be utilized to study H/D uptake by lithium films on Mo substrates as a precursor to NSTX-U experiments. In this work we report on the characterization of this source as a first step in its use in surface analysis studies. The source is operated in H2 and D2 gases and the subsequent ion flux of the plasma is measured by a Faraday Cup. Ion flux measurements are presented in a range of gas pressures and grid voltages up to 2 kV. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  1. Initiation and assembly of the plasma in a plasma flow switch

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.L.; Greene, A.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Bartsch, R.R.; Cochrane, J.C.; Kruse, H.; Roderick, N.F.

    1996-04-01

    A series of fast opening switch experiments was carried out on the Pegasus pulsed power facility. The first series of experiments characterized the assembly and run down of a 50 mg plasma flow switch operating in the 6 MA regime. The switch plasma arises from the vaporization of a wire array and a barrier foil. Arrays with different numbers of wires were examined. Two-dimensional (2-D) radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the initial vaporization stage of the array plasma and its assembly on the barrier foil are presented, which include the effects of initial perturbations on the evolution of the switch plasma as it moves down a coaxial gun barrel. Sparse wire arrays were observed to perform poorly. A change in the experimental design, motivated by 2-D simulations, led to improved performance. Computational results which lead to these changes are discussed, and the results are compared with experimental data.

  2. High-power EUV sources for lithography: a comparison of laser-produced plasma and gas-discharge-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Uwe; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Borisov, Vladimir M.; Flohrer, Frank; Gaebel, Kai; Goetze, S.; Ivanov, Alexander S.; Khristoforov, Oleg B.; Kloepfel, Diethard; Koehler, Peter; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Korobotchko, Vladimir; Ringling, Jens; Schriever, Guido; Vinokhodov, Aleksandr Y.

    2002-07-01

    Next generation semiconductor chip manufacturing using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography requires a brilliant radiation source with output power between 50 W and 120 W in intermediate focus. This is about five to ten times higher power than that of current DUV excimer lasers used in optical lithography. Lifetime and cost of ownership however, need to be comparable to today's technology. In the present paper experimental results of both laser produced plasma and gas discharge produced plasma EUV source development at XTREME technologies - the EUV joint venture of Lambda Physik AG, Goettingen, and Jenoptik LOS GmbH, Jena, Germany - are presented. Source characterization has been performed with calibrated metrology tools for measurement of energy, power, size, spectra and stability of the EUV emission. The laser plasma investigations are performed with a 1st experimental facility comprising a commercial 40 W Nd:YAG laser coupled to a liquid xenon-jet target system, which was developed by XTREME technologies. The EUV in-band power emitted from the 0.25 mm diameter plasma into 2p solid angle is 0.2 W, the conversion efficiency amounts 0.5 percent. Estimated EUV emission parameters using a 500 W laser for plasma generation to be installed in spring 2002 are discussed. The gas discharge EUV sources described here are based on efficient Xenon Z-pinches. In the 3rd prototype generation the plasma pinch size and the available emission angle have been matched to the etendue of the optical system of 2-3 mm2. The solid angle of emission from the pinch of 1.3 mm x 1.5 mm amounts 1.8 sr. The Z-pinch EUV source can be operated continuously at 1000 Hz with an in-band output power of 10 W in 1.8 sr. This corresponds to 4.5 W in intermediate focus, if no spectral purity filter is needed. The power emitted into a solid angle of 2p sr is 35 W. Emission energy stability ranges between 1 percent and 4 percent standard deviation. Spectral, temporal as well as spatial emission characteristics of the discharge source in dependence on the gas discharge geometry have been evaluated. The potentials as well as limits for power scaling of the two technological source concepts are discussed.

  3. Observation and numerical analysis of plasma parameters in a capillary discharge-produced plasma channel waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bobrova, Nadezhda; Sasorov, Pavel; Kikuchi, Takashi; Sasaki, Toru; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    We observed the parameters of the discharge-produced plasma in cylindrical capillary. Plasma parameters of the waveguide were investigated by use of both a Normarski laser interferometer and a hydrogen plasma line spectrum. A space-averaged maximum temperature of 3.3 eV with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed at a discharge time of 150 ns and a maximum discharge current of 200 A. One-dimensional dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code was used to analyze the discharge dynamics in the gas-filled capillary discharge waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses. Simulations were performed for the conditions of the experiment. We compared the temporal behavior of the electron temperature and the radial electron density profiles, measured in the experiment with the results of the numerical simulations. They occurred to be in a good agreement. An ultrashort, intense laser pulse was guided by use of this plasma channel.

  4. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. PMID:23948051

  5. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n plasma is essential to understanding LPI initiation in inertial confinement fusion research. In the recent Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  6. Transport in dense plasmas produced by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Antony Daniel

    Within the last 10 years high power, sub-picosecond pulse lasers have become available. Optical and x-ray investigations of dense plasmas and shock waves created and driven by ultra-short laser pulses are presented in this thesis. Ultra-short pulse interaction with solids is reviewed. Ideal and non-ideal plasmas are quantified and the plasma formation process considered. The transport of laser energy into the bulk of the target by thermal and electrical conduction and shock waves is described. Ultra-short pulse lasers and details of those used in the experimental work (Ti:Sapphire CPA and CPM dye) are outlined. Optical diagnostics of laser produced plasmas are discussed. The novel technique of frequency domain interferometry is described in detail as a diagnostic technique for plasmas created by ultra-short laser pulses. Three experiments which used frequency domain interferometry are presented. Both time- and space- resolved measurements on the rear surface of thin aluminium layers (8nm-400nm) evaporated onto transparent fused silica substrates have been made. The experimental results are compared with simulations made using two 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes, scMULTI and scMEDUSA, together with a multilayer dielectric reflection code and a simple postprocessor based on the Fresnel relations respectively. Experimental results for the thinnest aluminium layers are not reproduced well by simulations, which do not include effects such as the Optical Kerr effect in the fused silica. For intermediate thicknesses, simulations indicate that the aluminium at the interface is both heated and compressed. Experimental results differ from simulations, showing evidence of non-equilibrium effects which are not simulated in the hydrodynamic codes used. Results from the thickest aluminium layers where heating effects at the interface were negligible, enabled the Equation of State of shocked aluminium at the interface to be measured. Pressures of 1-3Mbar were inferred from the simultaneous measurement of the shock and particle velocities. Experimental results are reproduced well by simulations and agree with the scSESAME (3717) Hugoniot curve for aluminium. Finally, qualitative results of both thermal and hot electron energy transport in solid bi-layered targets, inferred from recorded x-ray emission spectra are presented. The spectra were recorded using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and x-ray CCD camera.

  7. Detection of electromagnetic pulses produced by hypervelocity micro particle impact plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Close, Sigrid; Lee, Nicolas; Johnson, Theresa; Goel, Ashish; Fletcher, Alexander; Linscott, Ivan; Strauss, David; Lauben, David; Srama, Ralf; Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian

    2013-09-15

    Hypervelocity micro particles (mass < 1 ng), including meteoroids and space debris, routinely impact spacecraft and produce plasmas that are initially dense (∼10{sup 28} m{sup −3}), but rapidly expand into the surrounding vacuum. We report the detection of radio frequency (RF) emission associated with electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) from hypervelocity impacts of micro particles in ground-based experiments using micro particles that are 15 orders of magnitude less massive than previously observed. The EMP production is a stochastic process that is influenced by plasma turbulence such that the EMP detection rate that is strongly dependent on impact speed and on the electrical charge conditions at the impact surface. In particular, impacts of the fastest micro particles occurring under spacecraft charging conditions representative of high geomagnetic activity are the most likely to produce RF emission. This new phenomenon may provide a source for unexplained RF measurements on spacecraft charged to high potentials.

  8. Detection of electromagnetic pulses produced by hypervelocity micro particle impact plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Sigrid; Linscott, Ivan; Lee, Nicolas; Johnson, Theresa; Strauss, David; Goel, Ashish; Fletcher, Alexander; Lauben, David; Srama, Ralf; Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    Hypervelocity micro particles (mass < 1 ng), including meteoroids and space debris, routinely impact spacecraft and produce plasmas that are initially dense (˜1028 m-3), but rapidly expand into the surrounding vacuum. We report the detection of radio frequency (RF) emission associated with electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) from hypervelocity impacts of micro particles in ground-based experiments using micro particles that are 15 orders of magnitude less massive than previously observed. The EMP production is a stochastic process that is influenced by plasma turbulence such that the EMP detection rate that is strongly dependent on impact speed and on the electrical charge conditions at the impact surface. In particular, impacts of the fastest micro particles occurring under spacecraft charging conditions representative of high geomagnetic activity are the most likely to produce RF emission. This new phenomenon may provide a source for unexplained RF measurements on spacecraft charged to high potentials.

  9. Plasma processes for producing silanes and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Laine, Richard M; Massey, Dean Richard; Peterson, Peter Young

    2014-03-25

    The invention is generally related to process for generating one or more molecules having the formula Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z, and mixtures thereof, where x,y and z are integers .gtoreq.1, H is hydrogen and D is deuterium, such as silane, comprising the steps of: providing a silicon containing material, wherein the silicon containing material includes at least 20 weight percent silicon atoms based on the total weight of the silicon containing material; generating a plasma capable of vaporizing a silicon atom, sputtering a silicon atom, or both using a plasma generating device; and contacting the plasma to the silicon containing material in a chamber having an atmosphere that includes at least about 0.5 mole percent hydrogen atoms and/or deuterium atoms based on the total moles of atoms in the atmosphere; so that a molecule having the formula Si.sub.xH.sub.y; (e.g., silane) is generated. The process preferably includes a step of removing one or more impurities from the Si.sub.xH.sub.y (e.g., the silane) to form a clean Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z (e.g., silane). The process may also include a step of reacting the Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z (e.g., the silane) to produce a high purity silicon containing material such as electronic grade metallic silicon, photovoltaic grade metallic silicon, or both.

  10. Initiation of nuclear reactions in femtosecond laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golovinski, P. A.; Mikhin, E. A.

    2013-01-15

    Mechanisms of electron interaction with a nucleus via a direct electron-nucleus collision and via bremsstrahlung generated in electron scattering on a nucleus in a femtosecond laser plasma are considered. The description of this interaction is simplified substantially by using the instantaneous-impact and equivalent-photon approximations. The yields of photons, electron-positron pairs, and products of nuclear reactions initiated by a laser pulse for some nuclei are calculated. In particular, this is done for {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 232}Th fission in a laser field of intensity 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}.

  11. [Testing of medicinal products produced from pooled plasma].

    PubMed

    Unkelbach, U; Hunfeld, A; Breitner-Ruddock, S

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal products produced from human plasma fall under the administrative batch release procedure of the competent authority. In Germany, this has been carried out since 1995 by the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI), the responsible state control agency for blood products. Medicinal products released for the European and national market are tested for quality, efficacy and safety. Experimental testing of the final product and the starting materials, the plasma pools, as well as control of the production documentation guarantee a constantly high product safety. In the 28,000 batches tested since the beginning of the state controlled batch release testing of these blood products at the PEI, there has been no transmission of infectious viruses (HIV, HBV and HCV) to any patient. The batch release has made a contribution to the improvement of product quality. This procedure is still an important tool to ensure safety of blood products. The PEI is integrated in the batch release network of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM) in Strasbourg. Regulations and guidelines for official control authority batch release (OCABR) ensure harmonized procedures for mutual recognition of batch release on the European level. The EU certificates and German national certificates are requested and accepted in over 70 countries worldwide. Experimental testing in the EU and the requisite certificates have developed into a seal of quality for the world market. PMID:25213735

  12. Plasma Characteristics of the Discharge Produced during Mechanoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2007-12-07

    The conditions during light emission from the fracture of solids have been difficult to determine because such mechanoluminescence (ML) is usually weak. When ML is produced by acoustic cavitation of a liquid slurry of resorcinol crystals, however, we observe bright light emission, which makes it possible to measure plasma conditions by emission spectra: a bimodal heavy atom emission temperature profile is observed with 405{+-}22 K (for 80% of emitting CH) and 4015{+-}730 K (for 20%), with an electron density and energy of 1.3{+-}0.13x10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} and {approx}3.5 eV (i.e., an effective T{sub e}{approx}41 000 K)

  13. Molten metal analysis by laser produced plasmas. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong W.

    1994-02-01

    A new method of molten metal analysis, based on time- and space-resolved spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma (LPP) plume of a molten metal surface, has been implemented in the form of a prototype LPP sensor-probe, allowing in-situ analysis in less than 1 minute. The research at Lehigh University has been structured in 3 phases: laboratory verification of concept, comparison of LPP method with conventional analysis of solid specimens and field trials of prototype sensor-probe in small-scale metal shops, and design/production/installation of two sensor-probes in metal production shops. Accomplishments in the first 2 phases are reported. 6 tabs, 3 figs.

  14. Plasma characteristics of the discharge produced during mechanoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2007-12-01

    The conditions during light emission from the fracture of solids have been difficult to determine because such mechanoluminescence (ML) is usually weak. When ML is produced by acoustic cavitation of a liquid slurry of resorcinol crystals, however, we observe bright light emission, which makes it possible to measure plasma conditions by emission spectra: a bimodal heavy atom emission temperature profile is observed with 405+/-22 K (for 80% of emitting CH) and 4015+/-730 K (for 20%), with an electron density and energy of 1.3+/-0.13x10;{14} cm;{-3} and approximately 3.5 eV (i.e., an effective T_{e} approximately 41 000 K). PMID:18233368

  15. Atmospheric plasma inactivation of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce surfaces.

    PubMed

    Critzer, Faith J; Kelly-Wintenberg, Kimberly; South, Suzanne L; Golden, David A

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on apples, cantaloupe, and lettuce, respectively. A five-strain mixture of cultured test organisms was washed, suspended in phosphate buffer, and spot inoculated onto produce (7 log CFU per sample). Samples were exposed inside a chamber affixed to the OAUGDP blower unit operated at a power of 9 kV and frequency of 6 kHz. This configuration allows the sample to be placed outside of the plasma generation unit while allowing airflow to carry the antimicrobial active species, including ozone and nitric oxide, onto the food sample. Cantaloupe and lettuce samples were exposed for 1, 3, and 5 min, while apple samples were exposed for 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. After exposure, samples were pummeled in 0.1% peptone water-2% Tween 80, diluted, and plated in duplicate onto selective media and tryptic soy agar and incubated as follows: E. coli O157:H7 (modified eosin methylene blue) and Salmonella (xylose lysine tergitol-4) for 48 h at 37 degrees C, and L. monocytogenes (modified Oxford medium) at 48 h for 32 degrees C. E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced by >1 log after 30-s and 1-min exposures and >2 log after a 2-min exposure. Salmonella populations were reduced by >2 log after 1 min. Three- and 5-min exposure times resulted in >3-log reduction. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced by 1 log after 1 min of exposure. Three- and 5-min exposure times resulted in >3- and >5-log reductions, respectively. This process has the capability of serving as a novel, nonthermal processing technology to be used for reducing microbial populations on produce surfaces. PMID:17969610

  16. Plasma Parameter of a Capillary Discharge-Produced Plasma Channel to Guide an Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bai, Jin-xiang; Yugami, Noboru

    2009-01-22

    We have observed the optical guiding of a 100-fs laser pulse with the laser intensity in the range of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} using a 1.5-cm long capillary discharge-produced plasma channel for compact electron acceleration applications. The optical pulse propagation using the plasma channel is achieved with the electron densities of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and the electron temperatures of 0.5-4 eV at a discharge time delay of around 150 ns and a discharge current of 500 A with a pulse duration of 100-150 ns. An energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons from a laser-plasma acceleration scheme showed a peak at 1.3 MeV with a maximum energy tail of 1.6 MeV.

  17. Initial biocompatibility of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films with different wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasteva, N. A.; Toromanov, G.; Hristova, K. T.; Radeva, E. I.; Pecheva, E. V.; Dimitrova, R. P.; Altankov, G. P.; Pramatarova, L. D.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between material surface properties, behaviour of adsorbed proteins and cellular responses is essential to design optimal material surfaces for tissue engineering. In this study we modify thin layers of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) by ammonia treatment in order to increase surface wettability and the corresponding biological response. The physico-chemical properties of the polymer films were characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as model system for the initial biocompatibility studies following their behavior upon preadsorption of polymer films with three adhesive proteins: fibronectin (FN), fibrinogen (FG) and vitronectin (VN). Adhesive interaction of HUVEC was evaluated after 2 hours by analyzing the overall cell morphology, and the organization of focal adhesion contacts and actin cytoskeleton. We have found similar good cellular response on FN and FG coated polymer films, with better pronounced vinculin expression on FN samples while. Conversely, on VN coated surfaces the wettability influenced significantly initial celular interaction spreading. The results obtained suggested that ammonia plasma treatment can modulate the biological activity of the adsorbed protein s on PPHMDS surfaces and thus to influence the interaction with endothelial cells.

  18. Filter media properties of mineral fibres produced by plasma spray.

    PubMed

    Prasauskas, Tadas; Matulevicius, Jonas; Kliucininkas, Linas; Krugly, Edvinas; Valincius, Vitas; Martuzevicius, Dainius

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the properties of fibrous gas filtration media produced from mineral zeolite. Fibres were generated by direct current plasma spray. The paper characterizes morphology, chemical composition, geometrical structure of elementary fibres, and thermal resistance, as well as the filtration properties of fibre media. The diameter of the produced elementary fibres ranged from 0.17 to 0.90 μm and the length ranged from 0.025 to 5.1 mm. The release of fibres from the media in the air stream was noticed, but it was minimized by hot-pressing the formed fibre mats. The fibres kept their properties up to the temperature of 956°C, while further increase in temperature resulted in the filter media becoming shrunk and brittle. The filtration efficiency of the prepared filter mats ranged from 95.34% to 99.99% for aerosol particles ranging in a size between 0.03 and 10.0 μm. Unprocessed fibre media showed the highest filtration efficiency when filtering aerosol particles smaller than 0.1 µm. Hot-pressed filters were characterized by the highest quality factor values, ranging from 0.021 to 0.064 Pa(-1) (average value 0.034 Pa(-1)). PMID:26583905

  19. Detailed energy distributions in laser-produced plasmas of solid gold and foam gold planar targets

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yunsong; Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 ; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Jiamin; Shang, Wanli

    2013-12-15

    Foam gold was proposed to increase the laser to x-ray conversion efficiency due to its important applications. To understand the mechanism of x-ray enhancement, the detailed energy distributions and plasma profiles for laser-irradiated solid gold and foam gold targets were studied comparatively by hydrodynamic simulations using the code Multi-1D. It is confirmed that the radiation heat wave is subsonic for the normal solid gold target, while supersonic for the foam gold target. The shock wave, which is behind the supersonic radiation heat wave for the foam gold target, generates a plasma temperature gradient with high temperature near the shock wave front to produce an additional net outward radiation for enhancement of the x-ray emission. Much larger inward plasma velocity is also driven by the shock wave as an initial plasma velocity for the laser deposition and electron thermal conduct zone, which decreases the expanding plasma kinetic energy loss and helps to increase the x-ray radiation.

  20. Visible spectral power emitted from a laser produced uranium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Jalufka, N. W.

    1975-01-01

    The development of plasma-core nuclear reactors for advanced terrestrial and space-power sources is researched. Experimental measurements of the intensity and the spectral distribution of radiation from a nonfissioning uranium plasma are reported.

  1. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John

    2011-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (ne ˜ 7 × 1016/cm3) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm2 at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

  2. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John

    2011-11-15

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3}) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm{sup 2} at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

  3. Structure of an Exploding Laser-Produced Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, A.; Gekelman, W.

    2010-11-05

    We describe the first-ever volumetric, time-resolved measurements performed with a moving probe within an expanding dense plasma, embedded in a background magnetized plasma. High-resolution probe measurements of the magnetic field and floating potential in multiple 2D cut planes combined with a 1 Hz laser system reveal complex three-dimensional current systems within the expanding plasma. Static ({omega}{sub real}=0) flutelike density striations are observed at the leading edge of the plasma, which are correlated to variations in the current layer at the edge of the expanding plasma.

  4. Structure of an exploding laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, A.; Gekelman, W.

    2011-05-15

    Currents and instabilities associated with an expanding dense plasma embedded in a magnetized background plasma are investigated by direct volumetric probe measurements of the magnetic field and floating potential. A diamagnetic cavity is formed and found to collapse rapidly compared to the expected magnetic diffusion time. The three-dimensional current density within the expanding plasma includes currents along the background magnetic field, in addition to the diamagnetic current. Correlation measurements reveal that flutelike structures at the plasma surface translate with the expanding plasma across the magnetic field and extend into the current system that sustains the diamagnetic cavity, possibly contributing to its collapse.

  5. Pulsed power produced counter-propagating supersonic plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauland, Christine; Valenzuela, J.; Collins, G.; Mariscal, D.; Narkis, J.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Haque, S.; Hammel, B.; Wallace, M.; Covington, A.; Beg, F.

    2015-11-01

    High-Mach-number, ionized, flowing gases are ubiquitous in the universe, and in many astrophysical environments they take the shape of highly collimated and unidirectional jets. Pulsed power current drivers provide the opportunity to create plasma jets while achieving conditions required to explore radiative cooling, magnetic field advection, shock formation and microinstabilities, all of which are important in the astrophysical environment. We present results from an experimental campaign carried out with the ZEBRA driver (long pulse mode: 0.5 MA in 200 ns current rise) at the Nevada Terawatt Facility where we have performed a comprehensive study of the physics of conical wire array outflows. We have implemented a double conical array configuration in which two counter-propagating jets are produced. Characterization of the jets was done with Faraday rotation, interferometry and an optical streak camera. We will present available data comparing two wire materials (Al and Cu) and the shock formation in different parameter regimes. The work is funded by the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0001063 and DE-NA0001995.

  6. An Acoustic and Perceptual Study of Initial Stops Produced by Profoundly Hearing Impaired Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouw, Edward; Ciocca, Valter

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of Voice Onset Time (VOT) as perceptual cue to the aspiration contrast of Cantonese initial stops produced by adolescent profoundly hearing impaired speakers. Speakers with normal hearing signalled the aspiration contrast through VOT differences. Hearing impaired speakers produced initial stops with no significant…

  7. First Plasma Results and Initial Experimental Plan for HSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. T.; Almagri, A.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Chen, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Sakaguchi, V.; Shafii, J.; Talmadge, J. N.; Uw-Madison Hsx Plasma Laboratory Team

    1999-11-01

    HSX is the principal experimental element in the present US Stellarator Program, starting operation in 1999. First plasmas will be produced by 2.45 GHz ECH, then used for vacuum vessel conditioning. First experiments will measure the attained magnetic structure by electron beam mapping. This campaign is followed immediately by operation at B=0.5 T with 2nd harmonic ECH (28 GHz-200kW). Pfirsch-Schluter currents will also serve to elucidate the attained magnetic field. Soft x-ray measurements will be used to examine the confinement of deeply-trapped energetic electrons as a function of magnetic field spectrum and heating locations. A single-channel radiometer developed by UC-Davis will provide early electron temperature measurements. The density profile will be measured by a 9-chord interferometer installed by UCLA. These measurements will be augmented later by a 10-channel Nd:YAG filter-polychrometer Thomson system. This diagnostic set, with flux loops and spectrometers, permits early investigation of key issues: energetic particle confinement, hollow vs. peaked density profiles and plasma rotation.

  8. Parameters of atmospheric plasmas produced by electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alexey; Canady, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Electrosurgical systems are extensively utilized in general surgery, surgical oncology, plastic and reconstructive surgery etc. In this work we study plasma parameters created by electrosurgical system SS-200E/Argon 2 of US Medical Innovations. The maximal length of the discharge plasma column at which the discharge can be sustained was determined as function of discharge power and argon flow rate. Electrical parameters including discharge current and voltage were measured. Recently proposed Rayleigh microwave scattering method for temporally resolved density measurements of small-size atmospheric plasmas was utilized. Simultaneously, evolution of plasma column was observed using intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera.

  9. Effect of Pressure Level on the Performance of an Auto-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelvin, Loh; Abhijit, Kushari

    2010-08-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT) are micro-propulsion devices used in satellites for station keeping. Conventionally the plasma discharge in a PPT is initiated by a spark plug. The primary objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a PPT that does not need a spark plug to initiate the plasma discharge. If the spark plug is eliminated, the size of the thrusters can be reduced and arrays of such thrusters can be manufactured using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques, which can provide tremendous control authority over the satellite positioning. A parallel rail thruster was built and its performances were characterized inside a vacuum chamber to elucidate the effect of vacuum level on the performance. The electrical performance of the thruster was quantified by measuring the voltage output from a Rogowski coil, and the thrust produced by the developed thruster was estimated by measuring the force exerted by the plume on a light weight pendulum, whose deflection was measured using a laser displacement sensor. It was observed that the thruster can operate without a spark plug. In general, the performance parameters such as thrust, mass ablation, impulse bit, and specific impulse per discharge, would increase with the increase in pressure up to an optimum level due to the increase in discharge energy as well as the decrease in the total impedance of the plasma discharge. The thrust efficiency is found to be affected by the discharge energy.

  10. PREUVE and the EXULITE project: modular laser-produced plasma EUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccotti, Tiberio; Chichmanian, F.; Descamps, D.; Haltebourg, P.; Hergott, Jean-Francois; Hulin, S.; Normand, Didier; Segers, Marc; Sublemontier, Olivier; Schmidt, Martin; Cormont, Philippe; Neu, M.; Thro, Pierre-Yves; Weulersse, Jean-Marc; Barthod, B.; Bernard, R.; Veran, E.; Barbiche, Jean-Marie; D'Aux, Ph.; Marquis, E.

    2002-09-01

    Within the PREUVE project, the GAP of CEA Saclay has developed an EUV source that should meet (alpha) -tool specifications by the end of this year. In particular, a laser-produced plasma source has been developed that uses a dense and confined xenon jet target. Our technical solution is based on a specific target injector design and the use of well adapted nozzle materials to avoid debris formation by plasma erosion. After injection, the xenon is recycled and highly purified to reach a low cost round- the-clock operation. This source provides both high conversion efficiency and low debris flux. These are necessary conditions for its industrial application in the future EUV microlithography. The conception of the so-called ELSA (EUV Lithography Source Apparatus) prototype allows in principal 2 years full operation on the French lithography test bench BEL (Banc d'essai pour la lithographie) that has been developed during PREUVE. In parallel, the EXULITE consortium that is coordinated by Alcatel Vacuum Technology France (AVTF) has started its activities in the frame of the European MEDEA+ initiative on EUV source development. In collaboration with Thales and the CEA, AVTF develops a prototype power source for EUV lithography production tools by the end of 2004. A low cost and modular high power laser system architecture has been chosen and is developed by Thales and the CEA to pump the laser plasma- produced EUV source.

  11. Investigation of Nd:YAG laser produced tin droplet plasma expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziqi; Wang, Xinbing; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang; Wang, Junwu

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports an investigation of plasma expansion produced by Nd:YAG laser irradiating tin droplets. An intensified charged coupled device camera was used to record the plasma plume images, and the temporal evolution of the plasma plume was studied at various laser intensities. Our results demonstrate that the shape of the plasma plume develops from an approximate circle to an ellipse. The temporal evolutions of plasma boundary and plasma centroid were calculated by the secondary moment of plasma image intensity. The angle distributions of the plasma expanding velocity were obtained; the results show that the plasma expanding velocity decreases with increase of the angle to the incoming laser axis. In addition, the eccentricity of the plasma ellipse decreases with time. Meanwhile, we found that the centroid of plasma clusters moves toward the laser incoming direction during the expansion stage and the velocity of this motion is independent of laser intensity.

  12. Initial operation of a large-scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.P.; Henins, I.; Gribble, R.J.; Reass, W.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Nastasi, M.A.; Rej, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), a workpiece to be implanted is immersed in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsed to a high negative voltage. Plasma ions are accelerated toward the workpiece and implanted in its surface. Experimental PSII results reported in the literature have been for small workpieces. A large scale PSII experiment has recently been assembled at Los Alamos, in which stainless steel and aluminum workpieces with surface areas over 4 m{sup 2} have been implanted in a 1.5 m-diameter, 4.6 m-length cylindrical vacuum chamber. Initial implants have been performed at 50 kV with 20 {mu}s pulses of 53 A peak current, repeated at 500 Hz, although the pulse modulator will eventually supply 120 kV pulses of 60 A peak current at 2 kHz. A 1,000 W, 13.56 MHz capacitively-coupled source produces nitrogen plasma densities in the 10{sup 15} m{sup {minus}3} range at neutral pressures as low as 0.02 mtorr. A variety of antenna configurations have been tried, with and without axial magnetic fields of up to 60 gauss. Measurements of sheath expansion, modulator voltage and current, and plasma density fill-in following a pulse are presented. The authors consider secondary electron emission, x-ray production, workpiece arcing, implant conformality, and workpiece and chamber heating.

  13. Characterization of linear plasma synthetic jet actuators in an initially quiescent medium

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Reasor, Daniel A. Jr.; LeBeau, Raymond P. Jr.

    2009-04-15

    The plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is a geometrical variant of the aerodynamic plasma actuator that can be used to produce zero-mass flux jets similar to those created by mechanical devices. This jet can be either three-dimensional using annular electrode arrays (annular PSJA) or nearly two dimensional using two rectangular-strip exposed electrodes and one embedded electrode (linear PSJA). Unsteady pulsing of the PSJA at time scales decoupled to the ac input frequency results in a flow field dominated by counter-rotating vortical structures similar to conventional synthetic jets, and the peak velocity and momentum of the jet is found to be affected by a combination of the pulsing frequency and input power. This paper investigates the fluid dynamic characteristics of linear plasma synthetic jet actuators in an initially quiescent medium. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements on the actuator are used to validate a previously developed numerical model wherein the plasma behavior is introduced into the Navier-Stokes equations as an electrohydrodynamic force term calculated from Maxwell's equations and solved for the fluid momentum. The numerical model was implemented in an incompressible, unstructured grid code. The results of the simulations are observed to reproduce some aspects of the qualitative and quantitative experimental behavior of the jet for steady and pulsed modes of actuator operation. The self-similarity behavior of plasma synthetic jets are examined and compared to mechanically driven continuous and synthetic jets.

  14. Initial operation of a large-scale plasma source ion implantation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. P.; Henins, I.; Gribble, R. J.; Reass, W. A.; Faehl, R. J.; Nastasi, M. A.; Rej, D. J.

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), a workpiece to be implanted is immersed in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsed to a high negative voltage. Plasma ions are accelerated toward the workpiece and implanted in its surface. Experimental PSII results reported in the literature have been for small workpieces. A large scale PSII experiment has recently been assembled at Los Alamos, in which stainless steel and aluminum workpieces with surface areas over 4 sq m have been implanted in a 1.5 m-diameter, 4.6 m-length cylindrical vacuum chamber. Initial implants have been performed at 50 kV with 20 micro-s pulses of 53 A peak current, repeated at 500 Hz, although the pulse modulator will eventually supply 120 kV pulses of 60 A peak current at 2 kHz. A 1,000 W, 13.56 MHz capacitively-coupled source produces nitrogen plasma densities in the 10(exp 15) m(exp -3) range at neutral pressures as low as 0.02 mtorr. A variety of antenna configurations have been tried, with and without axial magnetic fields of up to 60 gauss. Measurements of sheath expansion, modulator voltage and current, and plasma density fill-in following a pulse are presented. The authors consider secondary electron emission, x-ray production, workpiece arcing, implant conformality, and workpiece and chamber heating.

  15. Persistence of uranium emission in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaHaye, N. L.; Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-04-01

    Detection of uranium and other nuclear materials is of the utmost importance for nuclear safeguards and security. Optical emission spectroscopy of laser-ablated U plasmas has been presented as a stand-off, portable analytical method that can yield accurate qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a variety of samples. In this study, optimal laser ablation and ambient conditions are explored, as well as the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma for spectral analysis of excited U species in a glass matrix. Various Ar pressures were explored to investigate the role that plasma collisional effects and confinement have on spectral line emission enhancement and persistence. The plasma-ambient gas interaction was also investigated using spatially resolved spectra and optical time-of-flight measurements. The results indicate that ambient conditions play a very important role in spectral emission intensity as well as the persistence of excited neutral U emission lines, influencing the appropriate spectral acquisition conditions.

  16. Persistence of uranium emission in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, N. L.; Harilal, S. S. Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-04-28

    Detection of uranium and other nuclear materials is of the utmost importance for nuclear safeguards and security. Optical emission spectroscopy of laser-ablated U plasmas has been presented as a stand-off, portable analytical method that can yield accurate qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a variety of samples. In this study, optimal laser ablation and ambient conditions are explored, as well as the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma for spectral analysis of excited U species in a glass matrix. Various Ar pressures were explored to investigate the role that plasma collisional effects and confinement have on spectral line emission enhancement and persistence. The plasma-ambient gas interaction was also investigated using spatially resolved spectra and optical time-of-flight measurements. The results indicate that ambient conditions play a very important role in spectral emission intensity as well as the persistence of excited neutral U emission lines, influencing the appropriate spectral acquisition conditions.

  17. Laser propagation and channel formation in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. E.

    1996-05-01

    The understanding of laser beam propagation through underdense plasmas is of vital importance to inertial confinement fusion schemes, as well as being a fundamental physics issue. Formation of plasma channels has numerous applications including table-top x-ray lasers and laser-plasma induced particle accelerators. The fast ignitor concept (M. Tabak et al., Phys. Plasmas 1), 1626 (1994)., for example, requires the formation of an evacuated channel through a large, underdense plasma. Scaled experiments (P.E. Young et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 63), 2812 (1989). (S. Wilks et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 2994 (1994). (P.E. Young et al, Phys. Plasmas 2), 2825 (1995). have shown that the axial extent of a channel formed by a 100 ps pulse is limited by the onset of the filamentation instability (P.E. Young et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61), 2336 (1988).. We have obtained quantitative comparison between filamentation theory and experiment (P.E. Young, Phys. Plasmas 2), 2815 (1995).. More recent experiments (P.E. Young et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 1082 (1995). have shown that by increasing the length of the channel-forming pulse, the filamentation instability is overcome and the channel forms at higher densities. This result has important implications for the fast ignitor design and the understanding of time-dependent beam dynamics. In addition, we will present measurements of ion energies ejected by the ponderomotive force which is a measurement of the peak laser intensity in the plasma; the ion energies indicate filamented laser intensities above 1.5× 10^17 W/cm^2. * Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. ^ In collaboration with S. Wilks, J. Hammer, W. Kruer, M. Foord, G. Guethlein, and M. Tabak.

  18. Diagnostics Techniques of Plasmas Produced by Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Villagran Muniz, M.; Sobral, H.; Sanchez Ake, C.; Sangines de Castro, R.; Sterling, E.; Bredice, F.

    2005-04-21

    Laser ablation in addition for thin film growing is also used for analytical techniques as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and for applications as simulation of natural lightning. In this work we present several diagnostic techniques such as probe beam deflection, shadowgraphy, interferometry, pulsed laser photoacoustic and the electrical perturbation induced by laser ablation plasmas that's gives essential information of the plasma, hot core air and shock wave expansion.

  19. Modeling of Thomson scattering spectra in high-z, laser produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rozmus, W., LLNL

    1998-04-30

    Theoretical calculations of a Thomson scattering cross section and dynamical form factors are presented for high-Z laser produced inhomogeneous plasmas. Relevance of these results to astrophysical plasmas is pointed out. Comparisons with recent experimental observations are discussed with emphasis on the effects of plasma inhomogeneity, ion-ion collisions and non-Maxwellian distribution functions.

  20. Initial study of the optical spectrum of the ISIS H{sup -} ion source plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Philippe, K.

    2012-02-15

    The front end test stand is being constructed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, with the aim of producing a 60 mA, 2 ms, 50 Hz, perfectly chopped H{sup -} ion beam. To meet the beam requirements, a more detailed understanding of the ion source plasma is required. To this end, an initial study is made of the optical spectrum of the plasma using a digital spectrometer. The atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen and caesium are clearly distinguished and a quantitative comparison is made when the ion source is run in different conditions. The electron temperature is 0.6 eV and measured line widths vary by up to 75%.

  1. Plasma observations near Jupiter - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. D.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of the results obtained by the Voyager 2 plasma experiment during the encounter of Voyager 2 with Jupiter from about 100 Jupiter radii before periapsis to about 300 Jupiter radii after periapsis, the instrument being identical to that on Voyager 1. The discussion covers the following: (1) the crossings of the bow shock and magnetopause observed on the inbound and outbound passes; (2) the radial variation of plasma properties in the magnetosphere; (3) variations in plasma properties near Ganymede; (4) corotation and composition of the plasma in the dayside magnetosphere; and (5) plasma sheet crossings observed on the inbound and outbound passes. From the planetary spin modulation of the plasma-electron intensity it is inferred that the plasma sheet is centered at the dipole magnetic equator out to a distance of 40-50 Jupiter radii and deviates from it toward the rotational equator at larger distances.

  2. Plasma produced by impacts of fast dust particles on a thin film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried

    1994-01-01

    The thin-film impact plasma detector was pioneered by Berg for detecting small cosmic dust particles and measuring their approximate velocities in a time-of-flight configuration. While Berg's device was highly successful in establishing the flux of interplanetary dust, the accuracy of measuring the velocities of individual particles was a moderate 18 percent in magnitude and 27 degrees in angle. A much greater accuracy of less than or equal to 1 percent in determining the velocity components appears desirable in order to associate a particle with its parent body. In order to meet that need, research was initiated to determine if a thin-film detector can be designed to provide such accurate velocity measurements. Previous laboratory investigations of the impact plasma uncovered two difficulties: (1) solid or liquid spray is ejected from a primary impact crater and strikes neighboring walls where it produces secondary impact craters and plasma clouds; as a result, both quantity and time of detection of the plasma can vary significantly with the experiment configuration. Particles from an accelerator rarely have speeds v greater than or equal to 10-15 km/s, while cosmic dust particles typically impact at v = 10-72 km/s. The purpose of the tests discussed in this paper was to resolve the two difficulties mentioned. That is, the experiment configuration was designed to reduce the contribution of plasma from secondary impacts. In addition, most particles with v less than or equal to 25 km/s and all particles with v less than or equal to 10 km/s were eliminated from the beam.

  3. Research on plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. Research is presented and resulting conference papers are attached. These papers include 'Characteristics of Plasma-Puff Trigger for an Inverse-Pinch Plasma Switch'; 'Ultra-High-Power Plasma Switch INPUTS for Pulse Power Systems'; 'Characteristics of Switching Plasma in an Inverse-Pinch Switch'; 'Comparative Study of INPIStron and Spark Gap'; and 'INPIStron Switched Pulsed Power for Dense Plasma Pinches.'

  4. Energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M.; Stöckl, C.; Süß, W.; Iwase, O.; Gericke, D. O.; Bock, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Geissel, M.; Seelig, W.

    2000-04-01

    The unique combination of a high-energy Nd:glass laser system and the intense heavy-ion beam at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) allowed for the first time the measurement of the stopping power of heavy ions in plasmas at the level of one percent solid-state density and temperatures of about 60 eV. Energy loss measurements of swift heavy ions (5 6 MeV/u) in a carbon plasma revealed a stopping power exceeding theoretical predictions which was not observed in earlier experiments at lower plasma densities. This discrepancy can be resolved assuming higher effective charge states of the projectiles resulting in a consistent picture for the measured parameter range.

  5. Plasma spray gun having gas vortex producing nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, R.T.; Zatorski, R.A.

    1985-03-19

    A plasma flame spray gun suitable for being constructed physically smaller than comparable power prior art plasma flame spray guns. The gun includes a nozzle having a tapering portion on the inlet side thereof. A cathode with a flat tip is positioned to at least partially extend into the tapering portion of the nozzle. A gas distribution ring is located around the cathode for creating a vortex around the cathode tip. This causes the arc formed between the tip and the nozzle to have a root which spins around the perimeter of the nozzle tip resulting in less wear and, therefore, extended part life.

  6. Generation of collisionless shock in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiuza, Frederico

    2015-08-01

    Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments and are tightly connected with magnetic-field amplification and particle acceleration. The fast progress in high-power laser technology is bringing the study of high Mach number shocks into the realm of laboratory plasmas, where in situ measurements can be made helping us understand the fundamental kinetic processes behind shocks. I will discuss the recent progress in laser-driven shock experiments at state-of-the-art facilities like NIF and Omega and how these results, together with ab initio massively parallel simulations, can impact our understanding of magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas.

  7. Suprathermal electrons produced by beam-plasma-discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments conducted with a low energy plasma lens, HARP, in the electron beam of the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center indicate that an enhanced population of 50 to 300 volt electrons appear when the beam goes into the Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) mode. Below the BPD instability the electron distribution appears to be characterized as non-energized single particle scattering and energy loss. At 100 cm from the beam core in the BPD mode the fluxes parallel to the beam are reduced by a factor of 20 with respect to the fluxes at 25 cm. Some evidence for isotropy near the beam core is presented.

  8. A comparison of plasma waves produced by ion accelerators in the F-region ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Labelle, J.; Scales, W.; Erlandson, R.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ion beams injected into the ionosphere are known to produce waves related to the normal modes of the plasma. The spectra of plasma waves produced during four sounding rocket experiments are examined. The experimental conditions were somewhat different during each experiment. The accelerated ion was either Xe(+) or Ar(+) and the experimental geometry, described by the separation vector between the plasma wave receiver and the ion accelerator, was either parallel or perpendicular to the geomagnetic field.

  9. Multilayer refractory nozzles produced by plasma-spray process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliton, J. L.; Rausch, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Multilayer rocket nozzles formed by plasma spraying have good thermal shock resistance and can be reheated in an oxidizing environment without loss of coating adherence. Suggested application of this process are for the production of refractory components, which can be formed as surfaces of revolution.

  10. Plasma choline metabolites and colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sajin; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Neuhouser, Marian L; Malysheva, Olga; Bailey, Lynn B; Xiao, Liren; Brown, Elissa C; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Zheng, Yingye; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Miller, Joshua W; Green, Ralph; Lane, Dorothy S; Beresford, Shirley A A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-12-15

    Few studies have examined associations between plasma choline metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, we investigated associations between plasma biomarkers of choline metabolism [choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)] and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 835 matched case-control pairs, and cases were further stratified by tumor site (proximal, distal, or rectal) and stage (local/regional or metastatic). Colorectal cancer was assessed by self-report and confirmed by medical records over the mean of 5.2 years of follow-up. Baseline plasma choline metabolites were measured by LC/MS-MS. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, plasma choline tended to be positively associated with rectal cancer risk [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 2.44 (0.93-6.40); P trend = 0.08], whereas plasma betaine was inversely associated with colorectal cancer overall [0.68 (0.47-0.99); P trend = 0.01] and with local/regional tumors [0.64 (0.42-0.99); P trend = 0.009]. Notably, the plasma betaine:choline ratio was inversely associated with colorectal cancer overall [0.56 (0.39-0.82); P trend = 0.004] as well as with proximal [0.66 (0.41-1.06); P trend = 0.049], rectal [0.27 (0.10-0.78); P trend = 0.02], and local/regional [0.50 (0.33-0.76); P trend = 0.001] tumors. Finally, plasma TMAO, an oxidative derivative of choline produced by intestinal bacteria, was positively associated with rectal cancer [3.38 (1.25-9.16); P trend = 0.02] and with overall colorectal cancer risk among women with lower (vs. higher) plasma vitamin B12 levels (P interaction = 0.003). Collectively, these data suggest that alterations in choline metabolism, which may arise early in disease development, may be associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer. The positive association between plasma TMAO and colorectal cancer risk is consistent with an involvement of the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25336191

  11. Plasma choline metabolites and colorectal cancer risk in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sajin; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Malysheva, Olga; Bailey, Lynn B.; Xiao, Liren; Brown, Elissa C.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Zheng, Yingye; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Lane, Dorothy S.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Caudill, Marie A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations between plasma choline metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we investigated associations between plasma biomarkers of choline metabolism [choline, betaine, dimethylglycine and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)] and CRC risk among postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 835 matched case-control pairs, and cases were further stratified by tumor site (proximal, distal, or rectal) and stage (local/regional or metastatic). CRC was assessed by self-report and confirmed by medical records over the mean 5.2y of follow-up. Baseline plasma choline metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, plasma choline tended to be positively associated with rectal cancer risk [OR (95% CI)highest vs. lowest quartile=2.44 (0.93–6.40);P-trend=0.08], while plasma betaine was inversely associated with CRC overall [0.68 (0.47–0.99);P-trend=0.01] and with local/regional tumors [0.64 (0.42–0.99);P-trend=0.009]. Notably, the plasma betaine:choline ratio was inversely associated with CRC overall [0.56 (0.39–0.82);P-trend=0.004] as well as with proximal [0.66 (0.41–1.06);P-trend=0.049], rectal [0.27 (0.10–0.78);P-trend=0.02] and local/regional [0.50 (0.33–0.76);P-trend=0.001] tumors. Finally, plasma TMAO, an oxidative derivative of choline produced by intestinal bacteria, was positively associated with rectal cancer [3.38 (1.25–9.16);P-trend=0.02] and with overall CRC risk among women with lower (vs. higher) plasma vitamin B12 levels (P-interaction=0.003). Collectively, these data suggest that alterations in choline metabolism, which may arise early in disease development, may be associated with higher risk of CRC. The positive association between plasma TMAO and CRC risk is consistent with an involvement of the gut microbiome in CRC pathogenesis. PMID:25336191

  12. Plasma waves near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, and upper hybrid resonance emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clocklike Saturn rotational control of low-frequency radio emissions was observed, and evidence was obtained of possible control by the moon Dione. Strong plasma wave emissions were detected at the Titan encounter indicating the presence of a turbulent sheath extending around Titan, and upper hybrid resonance measurements of the electron density show the existence of a dense plume of plasma being carried downstream of Titan by the interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Saturn.

  13. Topical applications of resonance internal conversion in laser produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2007-04-01

    Physical aspects of resonance effects arising in plasma due to interactions of nuclei with the electrons are considered. Among them are resonance conversion (TEEN) and the reverse process of NEET. These processes are of great importance for pumping the excited nuclear states (isomers) and for accelerating their decay. Experiment is discussed on studying the unique 3.5-eV 229m Th nuclide.

  14. Astrophysical Weibel instability in counterstreaming laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, William; Fiksel, Gennady; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Change, Po-Yu; Germaschewski, Kai; Hu, Suxing; Nilson, Philip

    2014-06-01

    Astrophysical shock waves play diverse roles, including energizing cosmic rays in the blast waves of astrophysical explosions, and generating primordial magnetic fields during the formation of galaxies and clusters. These shocks are typically collisionless and require collective electromagnetic fields to couple the upstream and downstream plasmas. The Weibel instability has been proposed to provide the requisite interaction mechanism for shock formation in weakly-magnetized shocks by generating turbulent electric and magnetic fields in the shock front. This work presents the first laboratory identification of this Weibel instability between counterstreaming supersonic plasma flows and confirms its basic features, a significant step towards understanding these shocks. In the experiments, conducted on the OMEGA EP laser facility at the University of Rochester, a pair of plasmas plumes are generated by irradiating of a pair of opposing parallel plastic (CH) targets. The ion-ion interaction between the two plumes is collisionless, so as the plumes interpenetrate, supersonic, counterstreaming ion flow conditions are obtained. Electromagnetic fields formed in the interaction of the two plumes were probed with an ultrafast laser-driven proton beam, and we observed the growth of a highly striated, transverse instability with extended filaments parallel to the flows. The instability is identified as an ion-driven Weibel instability through agreement with analytic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, paving the way for further detailed laboratory study of this instability and its consequences for particle energization and shock formation.[1] W. Fox, G. Fiksel, A. Bhattacharjee, P. Y. Chang, K. Germaschewski, S. X. Hu, and P. M. Nilson, “Filamentation instability of counterstreaming laser-driven plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 225002 (2013).

  15. Angular emission of ions and mass deposition from femtosecond and nanosecond laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoff, B.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the angular distribution of ions and atoms emanating from femto- and nanosecond laser-produced metal plasmas under similar laser fluence conditions. For producing plasmas, aluminum targets are ablated in vacuum employing pulses from a Ti:Sapphire ultrafast laser (40 fs, 800 nm) and an Nd:YAG laser (6 ns, 1064 nm). The angular distribution of ion emission as well as the kinetic energy distribution is characterized by a Faraday cup, while a quartz microbalance is used for evaluating deposited mass. The ion and deposited mass features showed that fs laser ablated plasmas produced higher kinetic energy and more mass per pulse than ns plumes over all angles. The ion flux and kinetic energy studies show fs laser plasmas produce narrower angular distribution while ns laser plasmas provide narrower energy distribution.

  16. Plasma observations near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Olbert, S.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Gazis, P. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn and its satellites yielded extensive measurements of magnetospheric low-energy plasma electrons and positive ions, both heavy and light, probably of hydrogen and nitrogen or oxygen. At radial distances between 15 and 7 Saturn radii on the inbound trajectory, the plasma appears to corotate with a velocity within 20% of that theoretically expected for rigid corotation. The Titan data, taken while the moon was inside the Saturn magnetosphere, shows a clear signature characteristic of the interaction between a subsonic corotating magnetospheric plasma and the atmospheric or ionospheric exosphere of Titan.

  17. Initial H-mode experiments in DT plasmas on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.E.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Bell, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    H-modes have been obtained for the first time in high temperature, high poloidal beta plasmas with significant tritium concentrations in TFTR. Tritium is provided mainly through high power neutral beam injection (NBI) with powers up to 28 MW and beam energies of 90--110 keV. Transition to a circular limiter H-mode has been obtained following a rapid ramp down of the plasma current. Some of the highest values of {tau}{sub E} have been achieved on TFTR during the ELM-free phase of these DT H-mode plasmas. {tau}{sub E} enhancements greater than four times L-mode have been achieved.

  18. Robe Development for Electrical Conductivity Analysis in an Electron Gun Produced Helium Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Bitteker, Leo; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion systems, potentially coupled with a fission power source, is currently being investigated as a driver for an advanced propulsion system, such as a plasma thruster. The efficiency of a MHD generator is strongly dependent on the electrical conductivity of the fluid that passes through the generator; power density increases as fluid conductivity increases. Although traditional MHD flows depend on thermal ionization to enhance the electrical conductivity, ionization due to nuclear interactions may achieve a comparable or improved conductivity enhancement while avoiding many of the limitations inherent to thermal ionization. Calculations suggest that nuclear-enhanced electrical conductivity increases as the neutron flux increases; conductivity of pure He-3 greater than 10 mho/m may be achievable if exposed to a flux greater than 10(exp 12) neutrons/cm2/s.) However, this remains to be demonstrated experimentally. An experimental facility has been constructed at the Propulsion Research Center at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, using helium as the test fluid. High energy electrons will be used to simulate the effects of neutron-induced ionization of helium gas to produce a plasma. These experiments will be focused on diagnosis of the plasma in a virtually static system; results will be applied to future tests with a MHD system. Initial experiments will utilize a 50 keV electron gun that can operate at up to a current of 200 micro A. Spreading the electron beam over a four inch diameter window results in an electron flux of 1.5x 10(exp 13) e/sq cm/s. The equivalent neutron flux that would produce the same ionization fraction in helium is 1x10(exp 12) n/sq cm/s. Experiments will simulate the neutron generated plasma modeled by Bitteker, which takes into account the products of thermal neutron absorption in He-3, and includes various ion species in estimating the conductivity of the resulting plasma. Several different probes will be designed and implemented to verify the plasma kinetics model. System parameters and estimated operating ranges are summarized. The predicted ionization fraction, electron density, and conductivity levels are provided in for an equivalent neutron flux of 1x10(exp 12) n/cm2/s. Understanding the complex plasma kinetics throughout a MHD channel is necessary to design an optimal power conversion system for space propulsion applications. The proposed experiments seek to fully characterize the helium plasma and to determine the reliability of each measurement technique, such that they may be applied to more advanced MHD studies. The expected value of each plasma parameter determined from theoretical models will be verified experimentally by several independent techniques to determine the most reliable method of obtaining each parameter. The results of these experiments will be presented in the final paper.

  19. Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Bridge, H S; Bagenal, F; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Sullivan, J D; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M

    1982-01-29

    Results of measurements of plasma electrons and poitive ions made during the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn have been combined with measurements from Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 to define more clearly the configuration of plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The general morphology is well represented by four regions: (i) the shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath, observed between about 30 and 22 Saturn radii (RS) near the noon meridian; (ii) a variable density region between approximately 17 RS and the magnetopause; (iii) an extended thick plasma sheet between approximately 17 and approximately 7 RS symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis; and (iv) an inner plasma torus that probably originates from local sources and extends inward from L approximately 7 to less than L approximately 2.7 (L is the magnetic shell parameter). In general, the heavy ions, probably O(+), are more closely confined to the equatorial plane than H(+), so that the ratio of heavy to light ions varies along the trajectory according to the distance of the spacecraft from the equatorial plane. The general configuration of the plasma sheet at Saturn found by Voyager 1 is confirmed, with some notable differences and additions. The "extended plasma sheet," observed between L approximately 7 and L approximately 15 by Voyager 1 is considerably thicker as observed by Voyager 2. Inward of L approximately 4, the plasma sheet collapses to a thin region about the equatorial plane. At the ring plane crossing, L approximately 2.7, the observations are consistent with a density of O(+) of approximately 100 per cubic centimeter, with a temperature of approximately 10 electron volts. The location of the bow shock and magnetopause crossings were consistent with those previously observed. The entire magnetosphere was larger during the outbound passage of Voyager 2 than had been previously observed; however, a magnetosphere of this size or larger is expected approximately 3 percent of the time. PMID:17771279

  20. New Outreach Initiatives at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Greco, Shannon; Ortiz, Deedee; Delooper, John

    2015-11-01

    In FY15, PPPL concentrated its efforts on a portfolio of outreach activities centered around plasma science and fusion energy that have the potential to reach a large audience and have a significant and measurable impact. The overall goal of these outreach activities is to expose the public (within New Jersey, the US and the world) to the Department of Energy's scientific endeavors and specifically to PPPL's research regarding fusion and plasma science. The projects include several new activities along with upgrades to existing ones. The new activities include the development of outreach demos for the plasma physics community and the upgrade of the Internet Plasma Physics Experience (IPPEX). Our first plasma demo is a low cost DC glow discharge, suitable for tours as well as for student laboratories (plasma breakdown, spectroscopy, probes). This has been field tested in a variety of classes and events. The upgrade to the IPPEX web site includes a new template and a new interactive virtual tokamak. Future work on IPPEX will provide users limited access to data from NSTX-U. Finally, our Young Women's Conference was expanded and improved. These and other new outreach activities will be presented.

  1. Ion beam and plasma methods of producing diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of plasma and ion beam techniques was employed to generate diamondlike carbon films. These methods included the use of RF sputtering, dc glow discharge, vacuum arc, plasma gun, ion beam sputtering, and both single and dual ion beam deposition. Since films were generated using a wide variety of techniques, the physico-chemical properties of these films varied considerably. In general, these films had characteristics that were desirable in a number of applications. For example, the films generated using both single and dual ion beam systems were evaluated for applications including power electronics as insulated gates and protective coatings on transmitting windows. These films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicated hydrogen to carbon ratios to be 1.00, which allowed the films to have good transmittance not only in the infrared, but also in the visible. Other evaluated properties of these films include band gap, resistivity, adherence, density, microhardness, and intrinsic stress. The results of these studies and those of the other techniques for depositing diamondlike carbon films are presented.

  2. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, H J; McCormick, M; Wisher, M; Bengtson, Roger D; Ditmire, T

    2016-01-01

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme. PMID:26827309

  3. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O.

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  4. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, H. J.; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T.

    2016-01-01

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  5. Plasma observations near Uranus - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Coppi, B.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Olbert, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of observations of the spatial distribution and physical properties of the space plasma near Uranus with instrumentation on board Voyager 2 are described. The data revealed the existence of a magnetosphere that held a warm component with a temperature of 4-50 eV and a peak density of 2 protons/cu cm and a hot component with a temperature of a few electron volts and a density of about 0.1 proton/cu cm. Only the warm component was observed within the L shell. The numerous crossings made of the plasma sheet in the magnetotail were at locations which suggested that the magnetotail has a geometric structure similar to that of the earth magnetotail. Finally, possible sources of the magnetospheric plasma particles are discussed.

  6. Plasma observations near Jupiter - Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Mcnutt, R. L.; Bagenal, F.; Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. C.; Siscoe, G. L.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive measurements of low-energy positive ions and electrons were made throughout the Jupiter encounter of Voyager 1. The bow shock and magnetopause were crossed several times at distances consistent with variations in the upstream solar wind pressure measured on Voyager 2. During the inbound pass, the number density increased by six orders of magnitude between the innermost magnetopause crossing at approximately 47 Jupiter radii and near closest approach at approximately 5 Jupiter radii; the plasma flow during this period was predominately in the direction of corotation. Marked increases in number density were observed twice per planetary rotation, near the magnetic equator. Jupiterward of the Io plasma torus, a cold, corotating plasma was observed and the energy/charge spectra show well-resolved, heavy-ion peaks at mass-to-charge ratios equal to 8, 16, 32, and 64.

  7. Characteristics of shock wave from nanosecond laser-produced aluminum plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianhang; Gao, Xun; Liu, Zehao; Sun, Changkai; Hao, Zuoqiang; Jin, Guangyong; Lin, Jingquan

    2013-05-01

    Characteristics of shock wave as well as its evolution of aluminum plasma produced by nanosecond YAG laser is investigated by time-resolved optical shadowgraph images. Experimental results show that shock wave is strongly influenced by the laser parameters and target arrangement. Shock waves from aluminum plasma and air plasma are observed simultaneously by shadowgraphs when the distance from lens to target surface (DLTS) is longer than the lens focal length, and a narrow bright "line" is observed in the region where shock waves from Al plasma and air plasma meet. The longitudinal expansion velocity of shock wave from Al plasma is largely influenced by DLTS and laser intensity as well, and it increases with laser intensity at the early stage of plasma expansion and reach to a maximum of 8.1104 m/s.

  8. Emittance of positron beams produced in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A.; Link, A.; Anderson, S.; Gronberg, J.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Wilks, S.; Sheppard, J. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Baldis, H. A.; Marley, E.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Fedosejev, R.; Kerr, S.

    2013-01-15

    The first measurement of the emittance of intense laser-produced positron beams has been made. The emittance values were derived through measurements of positron beam divergence and source size for different peak positron energies under various laser conditions. For one of these laser conditions, we used a one dimensional pepper-pot technique to refine the emittance value. The laser-produced positrons have a geometric emittance between 100 and 500 mm{center_dot}mrad, comparable to the positron sources used at existing accelerators. With 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} positrons per bunch, this low emittance beam, which is quasi-monoenergetic in the energy range of 5-20 MeV, may be useful as an alternative positron source for future accelerators.

  9. Ballistic pendula for measuring the momentum of a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Grun, J.; Ripin, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    We describe the use of a ballistic pendulum array to measure the momentum of a laser-produced plasma. An in situ calibration method is described and the pendulum results are compared to measurements made with other diagnostics.

  10. Specific features of microheterogeneous plasma produced by irradiation of a polymer aerogel target with an intense 500-ps-long laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, N. G.; Merkul’ev, Yu. A.; Orekhov, A. S.; Chaurasia, S.; Tripathi, S.; Munda, D. S.; Dhareshwar, L. J.; Pimenov, V. G.; Sheveleva, E. E.

    2013-08-15

    The properties of microheterogeneous plasma produced by irradiation of a polymer aerogel target with an intense (10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 3}) short (0.5 ps) 1.064-μm laser pulse were studied. It is found that, even at plasma densities exceeding the critical density, a small fraction of the incident laser radiation penetrates through the plasma in which the processes of density and temperature equalization still take place. The intensification (as compared to plasmas produced from denser foams and solid films) of transport processes in such plasma along and across the laser beam can be caused by the initial microheterogeneity of the solid target. The replacement of a small (10% by mass) part of the polymer with copper nanoparticles leads to a nearly twofold increase in the intensity of the plasma X-ray emission.

  11. Thomson scattering measurement of a shock in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 ; Tomita, K.; Nakayama, K.; Inoue, K.; Uchino, K.; Ide, T.; Tsubouchi, K.; Nishio, K.; Ide, H.; Kuwada, M.

    2013-09-15

    We report the first direct measurement of temporally and spatially resolved plasma temperatures at a shock as well as its spatial structure and propagation in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas. Two shocks are formed in counter-streaming collisionless plasmas early in time, and they propagate opposite directions. This indicates the existence of counter-streaming collisionless flows to keep exciting the shocks, even though the collisional effects increase later in time. The shock images are observed with optical diagnostics, and the upstream and downstream plasma parameters of one of the shocks are measured using Thomson scattering technique.

  12. Influence of Plasma Temperature on the Concentration of NO Produced by Pulsed Arc Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Chen, Weipeng; Zhang, Jinli; Lu, Xi; He, Junjia

    2012-03-01

    This study conducted experiments on producing inhaled medical nitric oxide (iNO) by pulsed arc discharge in dry and clean air under different discharge current. The concentration of NO and NO2 produced by air discharge, as well as the change of the ratio of NO2/NO under different discharge current were investigated. Through the analysis of plasma emission spectrum, the relationship between discharge current and arc plasma temperature was studied. The results indicate that, as discharge current increases, the arc plasma temperature increases, which then leads to the increase of NO concentration, the decrease of NO2 concentration, and the rapid decrease of the ratio of NO2/NO. When the plasma temperature is 9000 K, the ratio of NO2/NO is approximately 60%, while when the plasma temperature varies between 10550 K and 11300 K, the NO2/NO ratio is within the range of 4.2% to 4.6%.

  13. Injection of a coaxial-gun-produced magnetized plasma into a background helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2014-10-01

    A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental investigation of plasma bubble relaxation into a lower density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear device HelCat at UNM. The gun is powered by a 120-uF ignitron-switched capacitor bank, which is operated in a range of 5 to 10 kV and 100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate the plasma relaxation process. Magnetized argon plasma bubbles with velocities 1.2Cs, densities 1020 m-3 and electron temperature 13eV have been achieved. The background helicon plasma has density 1013 m-3, magnetic field from 200 to 500 Gauss and electron temperature 1eV. Several distinct operational regimes with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images. Additionally a B-dot probe array has been employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.

  14. Thomson-scattering measurements in the collective and noncollective regimes in laser produced plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J. S.; Pollock, B. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Price, D.; Froula, D. H.; Palastro, J. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2010-10-15

    We present simultaneous Thomson-scattering measurements of light scattered from ion-acoustic and electron-plasma fluctuations in a N{sub 2} gas jet plasma. By varying the plasma density from 1.5x10{sup 18} to 4.0x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and the temperature from 100 to 600 eV, we observe the transition from the collective regime to the noncollective regime in the high-frequency Thomson-scattering spectrum. These measurements allow an accurate local measurement of fundamental plasma parameters: electron temperature, density, and ion temperature. Furthermore, experiments performed in the high densities typically found in laser produced plasmas result in scattering from electrons moving near the phase velocity of the relativistic plasma waves. Therefore, it is shown that even at low temperatures relativistic corrections to the scattered power must be included.

  15. Sterilization of Medical Equipment Using Radicals Produced by Oxygen/Water Vapor RF Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuya; Guan, Weimin; Tsutsui, Shinsuke; Tomari, Tetsushi; Hanada, Yasushi

    2006-10-01

    The sterilization of medical equipment was performed using low-pressure RF discharge plasma. Oxygen radicals as oxidizing materials for sterilization were produced from oxygen or water vapor. The generation of atomic oxygen and OH radicals was confirmed using the light emission spectra of the plasma. The pressure in the discharge region was varied periodically during inactivation in order to produce radicals effectively and to penetrate the produced radicals into tiny gaps. Medium sheets for microbial detection indicated that the decimal reduction value of active bacillus was 5 and 8 min using oxygen plasma and water vapor plasma with ne=109 cm-3, respectively. Biological indicators clarified that the sterilization of bacilli spores was successful for a treatment time of 90 min.

  16. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 μs.

  17. Ion species control in high flux deuterium plasma beams produced by a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.-N.; Shu, W.M.; Nakamura, H.; O'Hira, S.; Nishi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The ion species ratios in low energy high flux deuterium plasma beams formed in a linear plasma generator were measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. And the species control in the plasma generator was evaluated by changing the operational parameters like neutral pressure, arc current, and axial magnetic confinement to the plasma column. The measurements reveal that the lower pressures prefer to form more D{sup +} ions, and the medium magnetic confinement at the higher pressures results in production of more D{sub 2}{sup +}, while the stronger confinement and/or larger arc current are helpful to D{sub 2}{sup +} conversion into D{sub 3}{sup +}. Therefore, the ion species can be controlled by adjusting the operational parameters of the plasma generator. With suitable adjustment, we can achieve plasma beams highly enriched with a single species of D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, or D{sub 3}{sup +}, to a ratio over 80%. It has been found that the axial magnetic configuration played a significant role in the formation of D{sub 3}{sup +} within the experimental pressure range.

  18. Initial measurements of two- and three-dimensional ordering, waves, and plasma filamentation in the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward; Konopka, Uwe; Merlino, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2016-05-01

    The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment at Auburn University has been operational for over one year. In that time, a number of experiments have been performed at magnetic fields up to B = 2.5 T to explore the interaction between magnetized plasmas and charged, micron-sized dust particles. This paper reports on the initial results from studies of: (a) the formation of imposed, ordered structures, (b) the properties of dust wave waves in a rotating frame, and (c) the generation of plasma filaments.

  19. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-08-15

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5% ± 1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6.× nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48 nm (La-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.× nm sources.

  20. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  1. Mouse intracerebral hemorrhage models produce different degrees of initial and delayed damage, axonal sprouting, and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Harriet E; Lanman, Tyler A; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of delayed damage and recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain poorly defined. Two rodent models of ICH are commonly used: injection of the enzyme collagenase (cICH) and injection of autologous blood (bICH). In mice, we compared the effects of these two models on initial and delayed tissue damage, motor system connections, and behavioral recovery. There is no difference in lesion size between models. Injection of autologous blood causes greater mass effect and early mortality. However, cICH produces greater edema, inflammation, and cell death. Injection of the enzyme collagenase causes greater loss of cortical connections and secondary shrinkage of the striatum. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs within the motor system connections of the striatum. Mapping of the projections of the forelimb motor area shows a significant sprouting in motor cortex projections only in cICH. Both models of ICH produce deficits in forelimb motor control. Behavioral recovery occurs by 5 weeks in cICH and 9 weeks in bICH. In summary, cICH and bICH differ in almost every facet of initial and delayed stroke pathophysiology, with cICH producing greater initial and secondary tissue damage and greater motor system axonal sprouting than bICH. Motor recovery occurs in both models, suggesting that motor system axonal sprouting in cICH is not causally associated with recovery. PMID:24917041

  2. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Tai Ho; Williams, Arthur H.

    1985-01-01

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasmas generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  3. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, T.H.; Williams, A.H.

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasma generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  4. Experimental observation of the ion energy spectra of Al, Co, and Cu laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanol Apiñaniz, Jon; Peralta Conde, Alvaro; Martínez Perez de Mendiola, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that nanosecond laser produced plasmas (LPPs) produce high kinetic energy ions when they expand to vacuum. The acceleration process is nowadays accepted to be due to the formation of a sharp double layer (DL) in the plasma-vacuum boundary. With the purpose of studying this acceleration process, kinetic energy spectra of the plasma ions are measured for each charge state separately. Experimental results are obtained by irradiating planar targets of Cu, Co and Al at a laser wavelength of 532 nm and fluences up to 58.1 J cm-2. The obtained results show two new insights in the ion energy spectra. Firstly, they are non-maxwellian despite the widely accepted local thermal equilibrium in these type of plasmas. Secondly they show non-expected bicomponents distributions. The average energy of each species does not vary linearly with the charge state, suggesting complex acceleration processes.

  5. Late-time particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Polek, M.

    2011-09-01

    We report a late-time ''fireworks-like'' particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma during its evolution. Plasmas were produced using graphite targets excited with 1064 nm Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser in vacuum. The time evolution of graphite plasma was investigated using fast gated imaging and visible emission spectroscopy. The emission dynamics of plasma is rapidly changing with time and the delayed firework-like emission from the graphite target followed a black-body curve. Our studies indicated that such firework-like emission is strongly depended on target material properties and explained due to material spallation caused by overheating the trapped gases through thermal diffusion along the layer structures of graphite.

  6. Single-shot microscopic electron imaging of intense femtosecond laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Nishoji, Toshihiko; Masuno, Shinichiro; Otani, Kazuto; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji

    2010-12-01

    A simple technique for single-shot microscopic electron imaging was demonstrated for the study of intense femtosecond laser-produced plasmas. Passed through a permanent magnet lens designed for 110-keV electrons, hot electrons emitted from the plasma produced by a single laser pulse of 0.8 mJ with intensity of 3 × 10(16) W/cm(2) were successfully imaged. Analyzing this image, we found that electrons were emitted from an area of 3 μm in diameter. At higher laser intensity of 10(18) W/cm(2), distinct structures were observed in and near the focal spot of the laser; that is, the electrons were emitted from several separate spots. These results show that laser-plasma electron imaging is promising for studying the interactions of femtosecond lasers with high-density plasmas. PMID:21198016

  7. Non-equilibrium plasma produced by intense pulse lasers and relative diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2013-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas generated by pulsed laser intensities between 1010 and 1016 W cm-2 can be produced in high vacuum conditions. Thick and thin irradiated targets show non-isotropic radiation emission of photons, electrons and ions. High energetic ions, emitted along the normal to the target surface, are driven by high electric fields developed in plasma charge separation. Plasmas are characterized in terms of equivalent temperature, density, particle energy distributions and angular distribution, ion charge state distributions and the ion acceleration driving field. Plasma diagnostic methods are based mainly on time-of-flight techniques using ion collectors, SiC semiconductor detectors and ion energy analysers. Thomson parabola spectrometry, track detection and mass spectrometry give further characterizations. Investigations demonstrated that plasma properties depend strongly on the laser's characteristics, target composition and irradiation conditions. Results relative to ion and proton acceleration appear very interesting for many applications in the field of nuclear physics, matter structure, microelectronics, biology and medicine.

  8. Measurement of Noise Produced by a Plasma Contactor Operating in Ground Based Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Methods to measure electric field fluctuations accurately in a plasma with an active monopole antenna are described. It is shown that the conductive surfaces of the antenna must be adequately isolated from the ambient plasma and that the monopole must be sufficiently short to avoid antenna amplifier saturation. Experimental results illustrate that the noise produced by plasma contactor operation and sensed by the antenna is due to plasma phenomena and is not induced by laboratory power supplies. A good correlation is shown between the current fluctuations in the contactor electrical circuit and the noise detected by the antenna. A large body of experimental data support the conclusion that the majority of noise sensed by the antenna at frequencies less than 1 MHz is due to current fluctuations (electrostatic waves) in the plasma adjacent to the antenna and not to electromagnetic wave radiation. Caution is suggested when comparing antenna noise measurements to conventional specifications for radiated emissions.

  9. Fokker Planck and Krook theory of energetic electron transport in a laser produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace; Colombant, Denis

    2015-09-01

    Various laser plasma instabilities, such as the two plasma decay instability and the stimulated Raman scatter instability, produce large quantities of energetic electrons. How these electrons are transported and heat the plasma are crucial questions for laser fusion. This paper works out a Fokker Planck and Krook theory for such transport and heating. The result is a set of equations, for which one can find a simple asymptotic approximation for the solution, for the Fokker Planck case, and an exact solution for the Krook case. These solutions are evaluated and compared with one another. They give rise to expressions for the spatially dependent heating of the background plasma, as a function of the instantaneous laser and plasma parameters, in either planar or spherical geometry. These formulas are simple, universal (depending weakly only on the single parameter Z, the charge state), and can be easily be incorporated into a fluid simulation.

  10. Sputter-produced plasma as a measure of satellite surface composition - The Cassini mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the co-orbiting neutral cloud or the plasma produced by sputtering of the icy Saturnian satellites can be used to determine the relative abundance of a minority surface species which would be difficult to determine from reflectance spectra. This is due to the fact that the sputter source rates, hence the plasma supply rates, are directly proportional to the bulk concentrations of mixed solids or clathrates, although the surface grains may be depleted in the most volatile species.

  11. Photo-oxidation of Polymers Synthesized by Plasma and Initiated CVD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baxamusa, Salmaan H.; Suresh, Aravind; Ehrmann, Paul; Laurence, Ted; Hanania, Jiries; Hayes, Jeff; Harley, Stephen; Burkey, Daniel D.

    2015-11-09

    Plasma polymers are often limited by their susceptibility to spontaneous and photo-oxidation. We show that the unusual photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a plasma polymer of trans-2-butene is correlated with its photoluminescence strength. These photo-processes occur under blue light illumination (λ=405 nm), distinguishing them from traditional ultraviolet degradation of polymers. These photo-active defects are likely formed during the plasma deposition process and we show that a polymer synthesized using initiated (i)CVD, non-plasma method, has 1000× lower PL signal and enhanced photo-stability. In conclusion, non-plasma methods such as iCVD may therefore be a route to overcoming material aging issues that limit themore » adoption of plasma polymers.« less

  12. Photo-oxidation of Polymers Synthesized by Plasma and Initiated CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Baxamusa, Salmaan H.; Suresh, Aravind; Ehrmann, Paul; Laurence, Ted; Hanania, Jiries; Hayes, Jeff; Harley, Stephen; Burkey, Daniel D.

    2015-11-09

    Plasma polymers are often limited by their susceptibility to spontaneous and photo-oxidation. We show that the unusual photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a plasma polymer of trans-2-butene is correlated with its photoluminescence strength. These photo-processes occur under blue light illumination (λ=405 nm), distinguishing them from traditional ultraviolet degradation of polymers. These photo-active defects are likely formed during the plasma deposition process and we show that a polymer synthesized using initiated (i)CVD, non-plasma method, has 1000× lower PL signal and enhanced photo-stability. In conclusion, non-plasma methods such as iCVD may therefore be a route to overcoming material aging issues that limit the adoption of plasma polymers.

  13. Axial distribution of a VHF H2 plasma produced by a narrow gap discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Chia-Fu; Lien, Cheng-Yang; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Shi, Jen-Bin; Tsai, Yu-Jer; Lien, Ting-Kuei; Ogiwara, Kohei; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A capacitively coupled VHF H2 plasma was produced with a conventional parallel plate electrode of 400 × 300 mm2. Axial distributions of the plasma parameters were examined using a movable Langmuir probe. The electron density had a hill-like profile near the center while the electron temperature around the discharge electrode was higher than that near the center. It was found that the axial distribution of the plasma potential was considerably different from that based on ohmic heating. The measured sheath potentials around the discharge electrode were lower than the theoretical potentials. A simulation using a hybrid model was performed and compared the results with the experimental results.

  14. On the atomic state densities of plasmas produced by the ``torche à injection axiale''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkers, J.; Vos, H. P. C.; van der Mullen, J. A. M.; Timmermans, E. A. H.

    1996-04-01

    The atomic state densities of helium and argon plasmas produced by the microwave driven plasma torch called the "torche à injection axiale" are presented. They are obtained by absolute line intensity measurements of the excited states and by applying the ideal gas law to the ground state. It will be shown that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) does not obey the Saha-Boltzmann law: the ASDF cannot be described by one temperature. From the shape of the ASDF it can be concluded that the plasma is ionising. By extrapolating the measured state densities towards the ionisation limit, a minimum value of the electron density can be determined.

  15. Time Evolution of Collisionless Shock in Counterstreaming Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramitsu, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Gregory, C. D.; Waugh, J. N.; Dono, S.; Aoki, H.; Tanji, H.; Koenig, M.; Woolsey, N.; Takabe, H.

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the time evolution of a strong collisionless shock in counterstreaming plasmas produced using a high-power laser pulse. The counterstreaming plasmas were generated by irradiating a CH double-plane target with the laser. In self-emission streaked optical pyrometry data, steepening of the self-emission profile as the two-plasma interaction evolved indicated shock formation. The shock thickness was less than the mean free path of the counterstreaming ions. Two-dimensional snapshots of the self-emission and shadowgrams also showed very thin shock structures. The Mach numbers estimated from the flow velocity and the brightness temperatures are very high.

  16. Initial Experiments with the Plasma Chambers Mago, Having no Central Current-Carrying POST in the Plasma Heating Compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazanov, A. A.; Pozdov, N. I.

    2004-11-01

    In all the experiments performed to date, the MAGO chambers had a central current-carrying post used for the introduction of the initial magnetic field into the chamber. The results of the first experiments on the capacitor bank facility CASCADE in which the initial magnetic field was not introduced into MAGO chamber, and the central current-carrying post was removed from the plasma heating compartment, are presented in the report. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining high-temperature plasma in such chambers with neutron emission duration of 1-1.5 μs. The results may be very useful analyzing the mechanisms of the plasma preliminary heating in MAGO chambers and for testing the applied calculation techniques.

  17. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric- origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X = -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  18. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X= -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  19. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Augustoni, Arnold L.; Gerardo, James B.; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser.

  20. Proton imaging of an electrostatic field structure formed in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, T.; Kugland, N. L.; Wan, W.; Crowston, R.; Drake, R. P.; Fiuza, F.; Gregori, G.; Huntington, C.; Ishikawa, T.; Koenig, M.; Kuranz, C.; Levy, M. C.; Martinez, D.; Meinecke, J.; Miniati, F.; Murphy, C. D.; Pelka, A.; Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.; Quirós, N.; Remington, B. A.; Reville, B.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Steele, L.; Takabe, H.; Yamaura, Y.; Woolsey, N.; Park, H.-S.

    2016-03-01

    We report the measurements of electrostatic field structures associated with an electrostatic shock formed in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas with proton imaging. The thickness of the electrostatic structure is estimated from proton images with different proton kinetic energies from 4.7 MeV to 10.7 MeV. The width of the transition region is characterized by electron scale length in the laser-produced plasma, suggesting that the field structure is formed due to a collisionless electrostatic shock.

  1. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Augustoni, A.L.; Gerardo, J.B.; Raymond, T.D.

    1992-12-29

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography is disclosed. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser. 8 figs.

  2. The effect of target materials on colliding laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingwen; Yang, Zefeng; Wu, Jian; Han, Jiaxun; Wei, Wenfu; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2016-04-01

    In laser ablation, nanosecond to femtosecond lasers with a wide range of laser power densities are used. During ablation, the result of collisions between two plasmas is of interest to many researchers in inertial confinement fusion and nuclear astrophysics. In this paper, the collisions of two seed plasmas ablated from planar target surfaces of different target materials (Al, Cu, and W) were studied with temporal-spatially resolved imaging and spectroscopy. The initial relative velocities and densities of the seed plasmas were measured, and then the collisional parameters were calculated to evaluate the degree of the collisions. In addition, spatially resolved spectra were analyzed to study the influences of materials on the temporal-spatial distribution of atom or ions. The results indicated that under the same laser intensity, the high atomic number (Z) material had a small value of collisionality parameter, mostly because of its heavy ion mass. Higher laser intensity would increase the initial relative velocity of seed plasmas, resulting in a lower collision frequency. In addition, the distribution of the ions from seed plasmas was influenced by the stagnation layer plasmas.

  3. Mixing layer produced by a screen and its dependence on initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, H.; Inoue, O.

    1984-05-01

    Attention is given to dependence on initial disturbances in an attempt to elucidate the structure of turbulent mixing layers produced by setting a woven wire screen perpendicular to the freestream in a wind tunnel test section in order to obstruct part of the flow. Three kinds of model geometry screens yielded mixing layers that can be regarded as the equivalents of the plane mixing layer, and of two-dimensional and axisymmetric wakes, issuing into ambient streams of higher velocity. Flow features are visualized by the smoke-wire method, and statistical quantities are measured by a laser-Doppler velocimeter. Large scale transverse vortices persist in all cases. The mixing layers are in self-preserving state up to at least the third-order moments, but the self-preserving state is different in each case. Mixing layer growth rates strongly depend on the disturbance initially imposed.

  4. Characterization of 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser-produced cu plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, B.; Dogar, A. H.; Ullah, S.; Nadeem, A.; Qayyum, A.

    2012-07-01

    The plasma was produced by focusing Nd:YAG laser pulses of 1064 nm wavelength on to a copper target at laser fluences of 5.35, 6.95, and 9.33 J/cm2. An ion collector placed along the target surface normal was used to record the time-of-flight (TOF) ion signal during plasma expansion in vacuum. The TOF ion pulses were deconvoluted using the Coulomb-Boltzmann-shifted function to estimate the available Cu ion charge states, equivalent plasma ion temperature, and accelerating potential in the nonequilibrium plasma. The maximum available ion charge state, equivalent plasma ion temperature, and accelerating potential are found to increase with laser fluence. In the local thermal equilibrium conditions, the accelerating potential can be supposed to apply across a distance of the order of the Debye length. The Debye length and, hence, the electric field in the laser produced plasma at three laser fluences values were estimated. The electric field was in the range of 1 MV/cm and increased with laser fluence. In the laser fluence range used in this work, the sum of thermal and adiabatic energy of the ion was slightly higher than its Coulomb energy.

  5. Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Chen, Shi-You; Ma, Jing-Long; Hou, Lei; Liao, Guo-Qian; Wang, Jin-Guang; Han, Yu-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Long; Teng, Hao; Han, Hai-Nian; Li, Yu-Tong; Chen, Li-Ming; Wei, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A long air plasma channel can be formed by filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses. However, the lifetime of the plasma channel produced by a single femtosecond laser pulse is too short (only a few nanoseconds) for many potential applications based on the conductivity of the plasma channel. Therefore, prolonging the lifetime of the plasma channel is one of the key challenges in the research of femtosecond laser filamentation. In this study, a unique femtosecond laser source was developed to produce a high-quality femtosecond laser pulse sequence with an interval of 2.9 ns and a uniformly distributed single-pulse energy. The metre scale quasi-steady-state plasma channel with a 60–80 ns lifetime was formed by such pulse sequences in air. The simulation study for filamentation of dual femtosecond pulses indicated that the plasma channel left by the previous pulse was weakly affected the filamentation of the next pulse in sequence under our experimental conditions. PMID:26493279

  6. Surface analysis of alumina ceramic exposed to shock waves produced by plasma expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, R. P.; Campos, E.; Santos, C. N.; Lucena, E. F.; Machida, M.; Melo, F. C. L.

    2015-03-01

    Material surface treatment by plasma expander is relatively recent. Plasma expander is based on the inverse pinch effect. The shock waves produced by plasma expander may also promote modifications in ceramic materials exposed to the expander. These modifications are mainly made by ablation phenomenon. This work was intended to verify the shock wave effects on the ionic ceramic samples with high dielectric constant. The alumina ceramic samples were formed by both uniaxial and isostatic pressing methods and sintered at 1650 °C. They were also produced with addition 0.15 wt% of MgO in order to obtain a high densification. The ceramic samples were divided in groups and exposed to 700, 1000 and 1440 pulses during 20 min. These pulses were generated by nitrogen plasma expander at 13.0 Pa and 6 kV. After plasma exposure, there was an increase in roughness parameter values of Al2O3 ceramic surface. The treatment by plasma expander did not modify the hydrophilic characteristic of the alumina ceramic samples. The results of hardness test presented no significant changes on hardness mean values.

  7. Dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced Zn plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Rao, Kavya H.; Philip, Reji

    2015-03-01

    Optical time of flight dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced zinc plasma generated by irradiating a solid zinc target using 100 fs laser pulses is investigated. An acceleration of ions is observed which arises from internal Coulomb forces acting between charged species in the plasma. Some of the fast ions recombine with electrons in the plasma and generate fast neutrals. Plasma plume imaging performed at various ambient pressures indicates adiabatic expansion at lower pressures and plume front deceleration at higher pressures: at lower pressures the plume front-time (R-t) plot displays a linear expansion, shock wave model fits to the data at 5 Torr and at higher pressures the data fits better to the drag model. Furthermore, around an intermediate pressure of 10 Torr, the R-t plot fits to the shock wave model at earlier stages of plasma expansion, while it fits to the drag model at the later stages. These investigations provide relevant information on the acceleration of ions and neutrals in an expanding zinc plasma plume produced by ultrafast laser pulses.

  8. Dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced Zn plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Rao, Kavya H.; Philip, Reji

    2015-03-15

    Optical time of flight dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced zinc plasma generated by irradiating a solid zinc target using 100 fs laser pulses is investigated. An acceleration of ions is observed which arises from internal Coulomb forces acting between charged species in the plasma. Some of the fast ions recombine with electrons in the plasma and generate fast neutrals. Plasma plume imaging performed at various ambient pressures indicates adiabatic expansion at lower pressures and plume front deceleration at higher pressures: at lower pressures the plume front-time (R-t) plot displays a linear expansion, shock wave model fits to the data at 5 Torr and at higher pressures the data fits better to the drag model. Furthermore, around an intermediate pressure of 10 Torr, the R-t plot fits to the shock wave model at earlier stages of plasma expansion, while it fits to the drag model at the later stages. These investigations provide relevant information on the acceleration of ions and neutrals in an expanding zinc plasma plume produced by ultrafast laser pulses.

  9. Correlated-intensity velocimeter for arbitrary reflector for laser-produced plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Luo Shengnian; Barnes, Cris W.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Paul, Stephen F.

    2006-10-15

    A laser-based technique, called correlated-intensity velocimeter for arbitrary reflector (CIVAR), is described for velocity measurement of reflecting surfaces in real time. Velocity versus time is an important measurement in laser-produced high-energy density plasma experiments because the motion of the surface depends on both the equation of the state of the surface material and laser-produced plasma. The physics and working principle of CIVAR are the same as those of a previous concept that resolves Doppler shift of plasma light emission using a pair of narrow passband interference filters. One unique feature of CIVAR is that a reflected laser beam is used instead of plasma emission. Therefore, CIVAR is applicable to both emitting and nonemitting reflecting surfaces. Other advantages of CIVAR include its simplicity, lower cost, and unambiguous data analysis that can be fully automated. The design of a single-point CIVAR is described in detail with emphasis on laser wavelength selection and signal-to-noise ratio. The single-point CIVAR system can be expanded into a multiple-point system straightforwardly. It is possible to use CIVAR concept to construct a two-dimensional imaging system for a nonuniform velocity field of a large reflecting surface; such a velocity imaging system may have applications beyond laser-produced plasma experiments, for example, in shock compression of condensed matter.

  10. Analysis of atomic and ion debris features of laser-produced Sn and Li plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, R. W.; Harilal, S. S.; Campos, D.; Hassanein, A.

    2010-09-15

    Tin and lithium plasmas emit efficiently in the in-band region (13.5 nm with 2% bandwidth) necessary for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. We have made a detailed comparison of the atomic and ionic debris, as well as the emission features of Sn and Li plasmas under identical experimental conditions. Planar slabs of pure Sn and Li were irradiated with 1064 nm, 9 ns neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses for producing plasmas. A suite of diagnostics were used to analyze the emission and debris features, including optical emission spectroscopy (OES), a Faraday cup, an EUV pinhole camera, the absolute measurement of EUV conversion efficiency (CE), etc. Our results show that Sn plasmas provide a CE nearly twice that of Li. However, the kinetic energies of Sn ions are considerably higher, though with a lower flux. OES studies have showed that the kinetic energies of neutral species are substantially lower compared to that of the charged particle species.

  11. Four-color laser diagnostics for Z-pinch and laser-produced plasma.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Anderson, A A; Begishev, I A

    2016-01-20

    Four-color laser diagnostics were developed for Z-pinch and laser plasma at the 1 MA pulsed power generator. Four harmonics of the Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064, 532, 266, and 213 nm were produced during the cascade conversion in three nonlinear crystals and propagated together in one beampath. Deep UV probing allows better penetration of the dense plasma. Laser probing at four wavelengths allows observation of plasma in a wide range of densities in one shot of the diagnostic laser. Examples of four-color laser shadowgraphy and interferometry of the wire-array load and laser plasma interaction are presented and discussed. PMID:26835923

  12. Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry

    SciTech Connect

    Craxton, R.S.; Turner, F.S.; Hoefen, R. ); Darrow, C. ); Gabl, E.F.; Busch, G.E. )

    1993-12-01

    Grid image refractometry (GIR) is proposed as a technique for determining the two-dimensional density profiles of long scale-length laser-produced plasmas. Its distinctive feature is that an optical probe beam is broken up into rays'' by being passed through a grid before traversing the plasma. The refraction angles of the rays are measured by imaging the plasma at two or more object planes and are integrated to yield the phase front. For cylindrically symmetric plasmas the density profile is then determined using Abel inversion. The feasibility of GIR is illustrated by an experiment in which a thick CH target was irradiated with [similar to]100 J of 527 nm radiation and diagnosed with a 20 ps, 263 nm probe. The resulting density profile is substantially larger than any that have previously been reported using interferometry and compares quite closely with hydrodynamic simulations.

  13. Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craxton, R. S.; Turner, F. S.; Hoefen, R.; Darrow, C.; Gabl, E. F.; Busch, Gar. E.

    1993-12-01

    Grid image refractometry (GIR) is proposed as a technique for determining the two-dimensional density profiles of long scale-length laser-produced plasmas. Its distinctive feature is that an optical probe beam is broken up into ``rays'' by being passed through a grid before traversing the plasma. The refraction angles of the rays are measured by imaging the plasma at two or more object planes and are integrated to yield the phase front. For cylindrically symmetric plasmas the density profile is then determined using Abel inversion. The feasibility of GIR is illustrated by an experiment in which a thick CH target was irradiated with ˜100 J of 527 nm radiation and diagnosed with a 20 ps, 263 nm probe. The resulting density profile is substantially larger than any that have previously been reported using interferometry and compares quite closely with hydrodynamic simulations.

  14. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Wang, Xinbing Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  15. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  16. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; S??guin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ß~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  17. Apoptotic effects on cultured cells of atmospheric-pressure plasma produced using various gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominami, Kanako; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kudo, Tada-aki; Sasaki, Shota; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma on various cells such as rat fibroblastic Rat-1 cell line, rat neuroblastoma-like PC12 cell line, and rat macrophage-like NR8383 cell line. The plasma was irradiated directly to a culture medium containing plated cells for 0-20 s. The applied voltage, excitation frequency, and argon or helium gas flow were, respectively, 3-6 kV, 10 kHz, and 3 L/min. Cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated using annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. Results showed that the low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation promoted cell death in a discharge-voltage-dependent and irradiation-time-dependent manner. Furthermore, different effects are produced depending on the cell type. Moreover, entirely different mechanisms might be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cells by helium and argon plasma.

  18. Three-dimensional simulation of laser-produced plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

    2006-11-15

    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) from a tin target is being considered as the light source for the next generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. An integrated model was developed to simulate the plasma behavior and the EUV radiation output in LPP devices. The model includes plasma heat conduction and hydrodynamic processes in a two-temperature approximation, as well as detailed photon radiation transport using Monte Carlo methods. Multiple laser beams incident on a single target have been simulated in full three-dimensional geometry, using the total variation-diminishing scheme for the plasma hydrodynamics and an implicit scheme for heat conduction processes. Numerical simulations showed that EUV conversion efficiency increases for multiple-beam devices with specific optimum laser locations and direction compared to a single-beam device.

  19. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Town, R. P. J.

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  20. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  1. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-01

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer-Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Non-LTE and gradient effects in K-shell oxygen emission laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Fontes, C. J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Dunn, J.; Purvis, M.; Lee, R. W.

    2010-09-01

    A recent effort [1] to develop a high-resolution spectroscopy capability for He-like and H-like ions to study far wing shapes from a laser-produced plasma experiment at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory found unexpected structure in the observed emission from a Mylar target. In this paper we propose that the observed features are due to exotic inner-shell transitions in mid-ionized oxygen, suggesting that the observed emission arises from two plasma regions: a hotter, less dense outer region gives rise to the observed He-like and H-like resonance lines, while a cooler, more dense plasma region closer to the target surface and in a region surrounding the laser spot generates the dielectronic satellites and the exotic inner-shell lines. Calculations using the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes and the plasma kinetics code ATOMIC are used to support this assertion.

  3. Initial results from the ISEE-1 and -2 plasma wave investigation. [magnetospheric survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Smith, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of initial results from the plasma-wave investigation on the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft is presented. The plasma-wave instruments employed are designed to provide measurements of the electric and magnetic fields of plasma waves over the frequency range from about 5 Hz to 300 kHz. Several representative satellite passes are analyzed in detail and discussed. The results considered are shown to demonstrate the very high-quality data being obtained with the instruments and to illustrate the wide range of magnetospheric plasma-physics problems that can be treated with the ISEE spacecraft. Comparisons of plasma-wave spectra between the two spacecraft are performed which indicate the great advantages of using two spacecraft in similar orbits to unravel the complex spatial and temporal variations that occur in the magnetosphere.

  4. [Successful treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder by early initiation of plasma exchange].

    PubMed

    Koda, Aya; Kaneko, Satoshi; Asayama, Shinya; Fujita, Kengo; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman initially developed vomiting and intractable hiccup, followed by progressive dysphagia, dysarthria and hypoglossal nerve palsy. She was admitted to our department on the 30th day of illness. MRI-FLAIR images of the brain revealed a hyperintense lesion in the dorsal medulla. A diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) was entertained according to the clinical course and the MRI images. The dysphagia was intractable to methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and so a course of plasma exchange therapy was initiated on the 32nd day of illness. After the third plasma exchange, the symptoms began to improve. Thereafter the patient's serum on admission was reported as positive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody. Considering the irreversible nature of NMOSD pathology, early initiation of plasma exchange therapy is recommended to minimize the lesion in the case of steroid-refractory NMOSD patients. PMID:25672865

  5. Ion shock acceleration by large amplitude slow ion acoustic double layers in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.

    2014-02-15

    A kinetic model for the shock acceleration of ions in laser-produced plasmas is developed. A fraction of the warm ions are accelerated by the large amplitude monotonic potential of the shock created due the plasma compression and electron heating by the laser. The kinetic model for the monotonic shock is based on the slow ion acoustic double layer (SIADL). It is found that the amplitude of the large amplitude SIADL is almost uniquely defined by the electron temperature. Therefore, a balance between electron heating and plasma compression is needed for optimal ion acceleration by this scheme. Typical Mach numbers of the monotonic shocks are close to 1.5. The scheme could potentially produce monoenergetic ions with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. The model is compared with recent simulations and experiments, where efficient shocks acceleration and production of monoenergetic protons have been observed. Similarities and differences with other shock models are pointed out and discussed.

  6. XUV spectral analysis of ns- and ps-laser produced platinum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O’Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O’Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    XUV spectra of ns- and ps-laser produced platinum (Pt) plasmas in the 1–7 nm wavelength region, where Δn = 1 n = 4–5 and Δn = 0 n = 4-4 transitions dominate the observed emission, were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ab initio calculations using the Hartree–Fock with configuration interaction (HFCI) Cowan suite of codes and the unresolved transition array (UTA) formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, together with spectra obtained under different laser power densities are all employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Pt XX to Pt XLII. The possible reasons for the main differences between the ns- and ps-laser plasmas spectra are also demonstrated. This work extends previous analyses of the XUV spectra of laser produced gold, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium and rhenium plasmas in the 1–7 nm wavelength range.

  7. Similarity of Skeletal Structures Observed in Laser-Produced Plasmas and High-Current Electric Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.; Kukushkin, A. B.

    2001-10-01

    The paper reports on the presence of skeletal structures in the filtered x-ray pinhole images of plasma corona produced in former experiments [1] on irradiating the foils by a pulsed laser beam. These structures are shown to be similar to tubular and cartwheel-like structures previously found [2] in the visible light images of the plasma in various fusion plasmas (Z-pinch, plasma focus, tokamak). Such topological identity allows to draw a parallel between laser-produced plasmas and electric breakdown stage of various high-current electric discharges. This allows, in turn, to extend to the case of laser-produced plasmas some points of the hypothesis [3] which suggested the probable necessity to go beyond the frame of classical electrodynamics in describing the long-range (macroscopic) correlations/bonds in a broad range of plasmas. REFERENCES [1] Bolshov L.A., et. al., Sov. Phys. JETP 65 (1987) 1160; Burdonskii I.N., et. al., Laser and Part. Beams, 6(2) (1988) 327. [2] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Proc. 27-th EPS PPCF (2000) p2-029 p2-028 p2-051. [3] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Fusion Energy 1998 (IAEA, Vienna, 1999, IAEA-CSP-1/P, Vol. 3) p.1131; Proc. 26-th EPS PPCF (1999) p2-087.

  8. Visual and Electrical Evidence Supporting a Two-Plasma Mechanism of Vacuum Breakdown Initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Castano-Giraldo, C.; Aghazarian, Maro; Caughman, John B; Ruzic, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    The energy available during vacuum breakdown between copper electrodes at high vacuum was limited using resistors in series with the vacuum gap and arresting diodes. Surviving features observed with SEM in postmortem samples were tentatively correlated with electrical signals captured during breakdown using a Rogowski coil and a high-voltage probe. The visual and electrical evidence is consistent with the qualitative model of vacuum breakdown by unipolar arc formation by Schwirzke [1, 2]. The evidence paints a picture of two plasmas of different composition and scale being created during vacuum breakdown: an initial plasma made of degassed material from the metal surface, ignites a plasma made up of the electrode material.

  9. Grazing incidence reflectance of SiC films produced by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.; Osantowski, John F.; Toft, Albert R.; Partlow, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The grazing incidence reflectance of silicon carbide films produced by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition has been evaluated in the spectral region from 256 to 1216 A. The results show that reflectivities higher than conventional coatings can be obtained on coatings deposited both on silicon wafers and quartz substrates. Potential application of silicon carbide films for EUV astronomical instruments will be discussed.

  10. Towards laboratory-produced relativistic electron-positron pair-plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Beiersdorfer, P; Cauble, R; Dollar, F; Falk, K; Hazi, A; Murphy, C D; Park, J; Seely, J; Szabo, C I; Shepherd, R; Tommasini, R; Zulick, K

    2010-08-31

    Relativistic pair-plasmas and jets are believed to exist in many astrophysical objects and are often invoked to explain energetic phenomena related to Gamma Ray Bursts and Black Holes. On earth, positrons from radioactive isotopes or accelerators are used extensively at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science positron emission tomography and basic antimatter science. Experimental platforms capable of producing the high-temperature pair-plasma and high-flux jets required to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. In the last few years, we performed extensive experiments generating positrons with intense lasers where we found that relativistic electron and positron jets are produced by irradiating a solid gold target with an intense picosecond laser pulse. The positron temperatures in directions parallel and transverse to the beam both exceeded 0.5 MeV, and the density of electrons and positrons in these jets are of order 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, respectively. With the advent of high-energy ultra-short laser pulses, we expect that a charge-neutral, relativistic pair-plasma is achievable, a novel regime of laboratory-produced hot dense matter. This talk will present some details of the laser-produced pair-plasma experiments.

  11. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1 g/cm{sup −3}. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foam–solid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  12. Laser-Produced Plasma Diagnostics by a Combination of Schlieren Method and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, O.; Süß, W.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Roth, M.; Stöckl, C.; Geissel, M.; Seelig, W.; Bock, R.

    1998-12-01

    An optical method for laser-produced plasma diagnostics, for which a crucial study is a shock-wave phenomena, is newly suggested as a combination of the well-known Schlieren method to study shock-wave phenomena and Mach-Zehnder interferometry for evaluating the electron density.

  13. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-01

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1 g/cm-3. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foam-solid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  14. Plasma lipoprotein metabolism in lean and in fat chickens produced by divergent selection for plasma very low density lipoprotein concentration.

    PubMed

    Griffin, H; Acamovic, F; Guo, K; Peddie, J

    1989-08-01

    Plasma lipoprotein metabolism was studied in vivo in two lines of chickens produced by selection for high and low plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration. Rates of VLDL secretion were measured by determining the rate of accumulation of triglyceride in the plasma after intravenous injection of anti-lipoprotein lipase antibody. The clearance of VLDL-triglyceride and its uptake into liver and adipose tissue was examined using radioactively labeled VLDL synthesized in vivo. The rate of VLDL secretion was about threefold higher in the high-VLDL line as compared to the leaner, low VLDL-line (6.7 vs 2.1 mumol VLDL triglyceride/h per ml of plasma). The clearance of VLDL from the circulation of the low VLDL line was much faster than that of the high VLDL line (t1/2 of 3.7 and 13.6 min, respectively). The proportion of administered radiolabel taken up by the abdominal fat pad was substantially greater in the fat line than in the lean line (11.9 vs 4.8%, respectively). Lipoprotein lipase activities in leg muscle and heart were consistently greater in the low-VLDL line and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the plasma of the low-VLDL line were significantly greater than those in the high-VLDL line (0.86 vs 0.48 mumol/ml). The results show that the approximately tenfold difference in plasma VLDL concentration between lines is primarily due to markedly different rates of hepatic VLDL production and that selection has made a major effect on partitioning of VLDL triglyceride between adipose and other tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2769076

  15. Study of Unsteady Flow Actuation Produced by Surface Plasma Actuator on 2-D Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Minh Khang; Shin, Jichul

    2014-10-01

    Effect of flow actuation driven by low current continuous or pulsed DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator is studied. Schlieren image of induced flow on flat plate taken at a high repetition rate reveals that the actuation is mostly initiated near the cathode. Assuming that the actuation is mostly achieved by ions in the cathode sheath region, numerical model for the source of flow actuation is obtained by analytical estimation of ion pressure force created in DC plasma sheath near the cathode and added in momentum equation as a body force term. Modeled plasma flow actuator is simulated with NACA0012 airfoil oscillating over a certain range of angle of attack (AoA) at specific reduced frequencies of airfoil. By changing actuation authority according to the change in AoA, stabilization of unsteady flow field is improved and hence steady aerodynamic performance can be maintained. Computational result shows that plasma actuation is only effective in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of separated flow. It turns out that plasma pulse frequency should be tuned for optimal performance depending on phase angle and rotating speed. The actuation authority can be parameterized by a ratio between plasma pulse frequency and reduced frequency.

  16. A NEW CLASS OF THIN FILM HYDROGELS PRODUCED BY PLASMA POLYMERIZATION.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Pillai, Karthikeyan; Chyan, Oliver M R; Tang, Liping; Timmons, Richard B

    2007-05-01

    A simple, direct route to preparation of surface immobilized hydrogel films is described. Specifically, low pressure RF pulsed plasma polymerization of 1-amino-2-propanol and 2-(ethylamino)ethanol monomers produced thin hydrogel films deposited on substrates located in the plasma reactor. The successful syntheses were carried out under plasma conditions which not only yield the hydrogel but are also sufficiently energetic to produce films strongly grafted to the substrates. The polymer films obtained exhibit the thermoresponsive property of hydrogels, as shown by film color change with temperature. Additional evidence for the phase transition properties of these films was obtained using water contact angle and capillary rise measurements. The plasma polymerization approach provides an unusually simple route to synthesis of hydrogels in which the films are pin-hole free and are of easily controlled thickness. An important added advantage, particularly for applications involving biomaterials, is the conformal property of the plasma generated polymer films. The results obtained suggest that this approach should be applicable to a variety of other monomers and, based on differences observed with the present two monomers, suggest synthesis of films which exhibit a range of phase transition temperatures. PMID:19079730

  17. Novel approach to produce polymerized hydrocarbon coatings using dielectric barrier controlled atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. K.; Khardekar, R. K.; Singh, Rashmi; Pant, H. C.

    2002-09-01

    Conventionally, low-pressure (<1 Torr) electrical discharges are used for material processing and thin-film deposition. These schemes suffer mainly due to the high cost of equipment and the complexity of operations. The atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma is developed using a threaded styled electrode in different configurations, and these reactors are used to produce plasma polymerized coatings, required on plane substrates as self-supporting films to obtain membranes for blocking holes in cavities, and on microballoon targets, which are used as fuel containers for inertial confinement fusion, to avoid DT gas permeation. Helium gas is used as the supporting gas for formation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma reactors. Ethylene and acetylene gases are used as monomers to produce plasma polymerized hydrocarbon films. These films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Plasma polymerized coatings of thickness 100 nm-10 μm with a smooth surface finish (rms<100 nm) are deposited successfully. The surface finish is further improved using a postdischarge configuration. Preliminary results are very encouraging but further progress is to be made in this area. We are also planning to extend this technique for C:H coating of microballoons, which are used as fuel containers in inertial confinement fusion.

  18. Fusion plasmas produced by femtosecond laser irradiation of clusters in a megagauss magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtson, Roger; Lewis, Sean; Quevedo, Hernan; Wisher, Matthew; Kellog, Jeffery; Stolzfus, Brian; Struve, Kenneth; Waugh, Caleb

    2011-10-01

    Interactions of intense femtosecond lasers with atomic clusters can create plasmas with high density (1019 cm-3) and high average ion energies (10 keV) and significant numbers (107) of DD fusion neutrons can be produced. We have built and are testing a 2 MA driver to create a 200 T field that can be used on the Texas Petawatt laser to create a magnetized hot, dense deuterium plasma with a high neutron yield. A cooled gas jet will be used to produce deuterium clusters with radius ~ 10 nm. The magnetic field is produced by a 10 capacitor (100 kV) low inductance bank that discharges through a 1 cm diameter coil in vacuum. First experiments will be done on the 2 J, 120 fs GHOST laser; later experiments are scheduled on the 180 J, 160 fs Texas Petawatt. Details and status of components will be presented. Research supported in part by Sandia National Laboratory.

  19. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L. [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L. [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  20. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  1. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  2. Morphological and structural effects on tungsten targets produced by fusion plasma pulses from a table top plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inestrosa-Izurieta, M. J.; Ramos-Moore, E.; Soto, L.

    2015-09-01

    A table top plasma focus device operating at hundreds of joules was used to simulate an equivalent damage factor than the obtained on the divertor in tokamak experiments. Using the ejected plasma produced after the pinch disruptions, the effects on tungsten targets from 50 cumulative plasma shocks with power fluxes per shot between 2.6 and 9200 kW cm-2 and with a duration time in the order of tens of nanoseconds (damage factor in the order of 100-103 (W cm-2)s1/2) were studied. Morphological analysis shows an increasing appearance of cracked surfaces with holes, fissures and defects, suggesting a potential progression of stress effects and a fast heat load that melts the surface, ending in thermal contractions that recrystallize the surface of the target. A structural analysis demonstrates a compressive stress development and suggests that part of the energy is released in the melting of the surface in case of a plasma shock with a power flux of 9.2 MW cm-2, 75 ns duration pulse, 2.5   ×   103 (W cm-2)s1/2 damage factor. How to increase the damage factor by one order of magnitude up to the expected value from type I ELMs on the ITER divertor, i.e. 104 (W cm-2)s1/2 is discussed.

  3. Focal hyperthermia produces progressive tumor necrosis independent of the initial thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Malcontenti-Wilson, Caterina; Christophi, Christopher

    2005-03-01

    Focal hyperthermia, produced using laser, radio frequency, and microwave, is used to treat liver tumors. The exact mechanisms of tissue destruction using focal hyperthermia are, however, unknown. Clinical and experimental studies suggest a progression of injury after cessation of the initial heat stimulus. This study investigates the mechanisms and time sequence of progressive tissue necrosis induced using focal hyperthermia in a murine model of colorectal liver metastases. Focal hyperthermia produced using a neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser source was applied to the normal liver and colorectal cancer liver metastases in inbred male CBA strain mice. The extent of direct lethal thermal injury was assessed histochemically using vital stain for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase immediately after laser application. Tissue injury at subsequent time points was assessed using both NADH diaphorase staining and routine histology to determine the temporal relationship between tissue necrosis and time. Thermal injury occurring immediately after the application of 100 joules of energy was greater in the tumor tissue than in the normal liver (mean [standard error of the mean (SEM)]), measuring 23.5 (3.4) and 16.3 (2.6) mm(3), respectively (P=0.046), despite similar tissue temperature profiles. There was a significant increase in tissue necrosis after initial injury that was greater in the normal liver than in the tumor tissue. In the normal liver, the peak volume of necrosis was 137.4 (9.8) mm(3) and occurred at 3 days, whereas in the tumor tissue the peak was 49.0 (3.5) mm(3) at 4.5 days (P < 0.001). Focal hyperthermia produces tissue necrosis that occurs in two phases. The first phase is caused by the direct lethal thermal injury followed by a second phase involving a progression of necrosis beyond the initial thermal effects. The normal liver and the tumor tissue responded differently to focal hyperthermia. In the tumor tissue, the direct injury is more pronounced, whereas the progression of injury is more rapid and extensive in the normal liver. PMID:15749605

  4. Studies of Population Inversions in the Soft X - Spectral Region in Carbon Dioxide Laser Produced Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Christopher John

    The recombination approach for development of a short wavelength laser is one of two schemes used in recent demonstrations of high gain in the soft X-ray region. In this work, a theoretical and experimental study of recombination pumped soft X-ray population inversions in Li-like carbon (CIV) and H-like carbon (CVI) in CO(,2) laser produced plasmas is presented. A collisional radiative model is used to examine the behavior of the gain coefficients for various transitions in the C('5+) ion with plasma parameters, and the optimum conditions for gain defined. A general formalism that elucidates the separate roles of radiative power loss and electron cooling in dense transient plasmas is described and used to examine the feasibility of quickly radiatively cooling a dense plasma to bring about optimum conditions for gain in a recombination system. Experimental studies of the effectiveness of radiation cooling in generating recombination pumped soft X-ray population inversions in CIV are carried out in freely expanding CO(,2) laser produced plasmas. Measurements of gain length products as high as 6.5 on the 182 (ANGSTROM) transition in CVI in magnetically confined CO(,2) laser produced plasmas are reviewed and observations of stimulated emission at 182 (ANGSTROM) obtained with an XUV multilayer mirror in use are presented. In both of these experiments, radiation cooling is shown to play a significant role in bringing about the conditions necessary for gain. In addition to this work, results from a preliminary test of a resonant photoexcitation experiment involving AIV pumping FVI are presented.

  5. Changes in human plasma catecholamines and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase produced by prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R A; Fishburne, J I; Brenner, W E; Braaksma, J T; Staurovsky, L G; Hoffer, J L; Hendricks, C H

    1972-09-01

    Clinical research was conducted into the possible interrelationships between prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha and the human sympathetic nervous system. The study also permitted comparison of the relative sensitivity of 2 indicators of sympatho-adrenal activity: 1) the determination of circulating catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine; and 2) analysis of plasma dopamine-8-hydroxylase activity. Intravenous PGF2alpha infusion was administered to college students 12-18 weeks pregnant to produce abortion; the results were compared to results from nonpregnant controls. Circulating norepinephrine but not plasma epinephrine or dopamine-8-hydroxylase levels were increased in response to the PG. There was no correlation between plasma epinephrine and plasma norepinephrine levels. Plasma dopamine-8-hydroxylase activity was found not to be significantly changed by pregnancy, administration of the analgesic and antiemetic, or the PG infusion. In fact, central venous dopamine-8-hydroxylase activity did not differ significantly from that of arterial blood. The PG did not affect cardiac output or maximal expiratory flow rate. It is suggested that the nausea and diarrhea accompanying PGF2alpha infusion may put stress on the sympathetic nervous activity causing the observed increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration. Since no changes in blood pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure, or cardiac output were observed, it is unlikely that PGF2alpha causes even slight impairment of sympathetic nervous system activity. PMID:4653736

  6. Characterization of Laser-Produced Plasmas Relevant to Magnetized Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments performed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have generated magnetized collisionless shocks driven by a laser-mediated magnetic piston. The effectiveness of the piston at coupling energy between a laser-plasma and an ambient plasma depends highly on the nature of the laser-plasma, which has been hitherto poorly characterized. We present experiments that provide new details on the composition and evolution of laser-produced plasmas relevant to a magnetic piston. Thomson scattering was used to probe the electron temperature and density up to several cm from the target and several microseconds after ablation. Ionization states and blow-off velocities of the ablated plasma were further measured with emission spectroscopy and fast-gate filtered photography. The data compares well to analytic models describing the spatial and temporal temperature and density evolution of the plasma. 1D HELIOS simulations of the laser-target interaction also agree favorably with data that shows fast ions dominated by a single charge state primarily drive the magnetic piston.

  7. Characterization of the Horizontal Confinement Produced by a Glass Box in a Complex Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Jace; Douglass, Angela

    2013-10-01

    The majority of plasmas in the visible universe are complex plasmas, consisting of not only electrons, ions, and neutral particles, but also small, usually micron-sized particles called ``dust.'' Recent complex plasma experiments have placed a glass box on the lower electrode of a GEC RF reference cell in order to alter the electric confinement experienced by micrometer-sized particles in the plasma. While this has led to interesting observations, such as vertical chains and Coulomb balls, the nature of the confinement is not well understood. In this experiment, a single melamine formaldehyde dust particle was levitated in the plasma sheath and contained by a glass box. The dust particle was then struck by a laser pulse to perturb the particle from its equilibrium position. The trajectory of the particle was analyzed to determine the nature of the electric potential produced by the walls of the glass box. Trials were run with varying pressures, particle sizes, box sizes, and plasma powers to determine the effect of each parameter on the confinement.

  8. The study of laser plasma plume radiation produced by laser ablation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qingju

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the laser plasma plume radiation mechanisms induced by the interaction between Nd: YAG plused laser and silicon, the radiation model of silicon laser plasma plume is established. Laser plasma plume radiation includes atom characteristic lines, ion lines and continuous background. It can reflect the characteristics of laser plasma plume radiation, reveal the mechanism of laser ablation on silicon. Time-resolved measurment of laser plasma plume radiation produced by pulsed Nd: YAG laser ablation of silicon in different ambient gas is thoroughly studied. The experimental ambient gas are N2 and O2.The pulse width of Nd: YAG plused laser adopted in the experiment is 20ns, the pulse energy is 60mJ, the laser pulsing frequency is 10Hz, and the emitted laser wavelength is 1064nm, The silicon target purity is 99.99%, The target is rotating at a speed of 240r/min. The focusing area of the laser on the Si target has a diameter of around 0.8mm.The pressure of ambient gas is tunable between 13Pa and 101.3kPa in the induced chamber, the number of points used in averaging is 15. The experimental results show that the ambient gas has obvious enhancement effect on the radiation intensity of silicon laser plasma plume. With the increase of the ambient gas pressure, the silicon laser plasma plume radiation intensity will first be increased and then be decreased, and the ambient gas has an obvious compression effect on the scope of silicon laser plasma plume radiation. For the two different ambient gases, the maximum silicon laser plasma plume radiation intensity and maximum pressure for they are different, for oxygen at 35kPa, for nitrogen at 50kPa. The silicon laser plasma plume radiation intensity in oxygen is bigger than that in nitrogen.The main excition mechanisms of laser plasma plume radiation induced by Nd:YAG plused laser induced silicon is analyzed, The plused laser can makes part molecules in the ambient gas and silicon atoms ionized at the surface of silicon.The main reason for the generation of the silicon laser plasma plume radiation is the excitation radiation by the collision energy transfer between electrons and atoms or ions. The experimental phenomenon that could be explained by the excition model.

  9. Detailed Characterization of Electron Plasma Waves Produced by Stimulated Raman Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Renard, N.; Labaune, C.; Baldis, H.A.; Bauer, B.S.; Quesnel, B.; Schifano, E.; Michard, A.; Seka, W.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1996-10-01

    Time-resolved spectra and location of electron plasma waves (EPW) produced by stimulated Raman scattering in back and in side directions have been measured using Thomson scattering of a short wavelength probe beam. Significant Raman sidescattering was observed for angles as large as 40{degree} from the laser axis. The Raman growth is larger and starts earlier in the front part of the density profile than at the summit. Simultaneous measurements at multiple places in the plasma provided an indication of the coherence length of the EPW. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

  11. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei, Daniel; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Vyšín, Luděk; Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Pina, Ladislav; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray "water window" spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280-540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 103 photons/μm2/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms' sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the "water window", where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET - Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  12. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 using cold atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Baier, Matthias; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Ehlbeck, Jörg; Knorr, Dietrich; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    From cultivation to the end of the post-harvest chain, heat-sensitive fresh produce is exposed to a variety of sources of pathogenic microorganisms. If contaminated, effective gentle means of sanitation are necessary to reduce bacterial pathogen load below their infective dose. The occurrence of rare or new serotypes raises the question of their tenacity to inactivation processes. In this study the antibacterial efficiency of cold plasma by an atmospheric pressure plasma-jet was examined against the Shiga toxin-producing outbreak strain Escherichia coli O104:H4. Argon was transformed into non-thermal plasma at a power input of 8 W and a gas flow of 5 L min(-1). Basic tests were performed on polysaccharide gel discs, including the more common E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli DSM 1116. At 5 mm treatment distance and 10(5) cfu cm(-2) initial bacterial count, plasma reduced E. coli O104:H4 after 60 s by 4.6 ± 0.6 log, E. coli O157:H7 after 45 s by 4.5 ± 0.6 log, and E. coli DSM 1116 after 30 s by 4.4 ± 1.1 log. On the surface of corn salad leaves, gentle plasma application at 17 mm reduced 10(4) cfu cm(-2) of E. coli O104:H4 by 3.3 ± 1.1 log after 2 min, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated by 3.2 ± 1.1 log after 60 s. In conclusion, plasma treatment has the potential to reduce pathogens such as E. coli O104:H4 on the surface of fresh produce. However, a serotype-specific adaptation of the process parameters is required. PMID:25782617

  13. Plasma potential control: initial results from tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, E.B. Jr.

    1984-02-28

    Initial plasma potential control experiments used plates in the end fan, insulated from the end walls of TMX-U, which mapped along field lines to the plasma core (r/sub c/ less than or equal to 12.9 cm). Measurements in which these plates are shorted to ground during plugging demonstrate that floating the plates increases the buildup rate of the central cell plasma, steepens the core density profile, and affects the plasma throughout the entire cross section. Floating the plates decreases the ion radial transport rate in the core by a factor of at least 1.5. Because of these encouraging results, in the next series of experiments more plates will be added, extending to a larger radius (r/sub c/ less than or equal to 19.4 cm).

  14. Experimental Observation of Extreme Ultraviolet Emission from a Laser-Produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hirata, Takahiro; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru

    2002-11-01

    EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography technology using the multi-layer coated reflective optics requires a narrow band (< 3 %), debris-free light source in the EUV spectral region around 13 nm. EUV emission is generated from a laser plasma produced by the interaction between a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 8 ns (FWHM), <200 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz) and a cryogenic target of the rare gas (krypton or xenon). The laser light is focused by a f/15 lens on the cryogenic target produced with a He gas cryostat (50 K on the target position). The emission spectra are observed with a soft x-ray spectrometer. The emission spectrum about 11 nm from the laser produced plasma is radiated from Xe^7+-Xe^8+ (4d-4p) and Xe^9+-Xe^12+ (4f-4d+4d-4p) transitions. The total output energy of the EUV emission is measured with a calibrated silicon photodiode and a 500 MHz bandwidth oscilloscope. The output energy and the conversion effeciency integrated in the solid angle of 9.5 × 10-5 sr are 21 μJ/sr/pulse and 0.01 %/sr/pulse at the laser energy of 200 mJ, respectively. Now, we are in process to observe spatial distributions of the EUV emission from the laser produced plasma.

  15. Progress Towards a Laser Produced Relativistic Electron-Positron Pair Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Bonlie, J.; Cauble, R.; Fiuza, F.; Goldstein, W.; Hazi, A.; Keane, C.; Link, A.; Marley, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Shepherd, R.; Williams, G. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P. Y.; Nakai, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.; Kojima, S.; Miyanaga, N.; Morita, T.; Nagai, T.; Nishimura, H.; Ozaki, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Zhang, Z.; Kerr, S.; Fedosejevs, R.; Sentoku, Y.; Hill, M. P.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.

    2016-03-01

    A set of experiments has been performed exploring unique characteristics of pair jets and plasmas at several energetic short-pulse laser facilities including Titan at Livermore and OMEGA EP in Rochester, as well as the Osaka LFEX and AWE Orion lasers. New results are summarized, including positron beam emittance, scaling of pair production vs. laser energy, and initial results on the pair jet collimation using electromagnetic fields.

  16. Parabolic lithium mirror for a laser-driven hot plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Baird, James K.

    1979-06-19

    A hot plasma producing device is provided, wherein pellets, singly injected, of frozen fuel are each ignited with a plurality of pulsed laser beams. Ignition takes place within a void area in liquid lithium contained within a pressure vessel. The void in the liquid lithium is created by rotating the pressure vessel such that the free liquid surface of molten lithium therein forms a paraboloid of revolution. The paraboloid functions as a laser mirror with a reflectivity greater than 90%. A hot plasma is produced when each of the frozen deuterium-tritium pellets sequentially arrive at the paraboloid focus, at which time each pellet is illuminated by the plurality of pulsed lasers whose rays pass through circular annuli across the top of the paraboloid. The beams from the lasers are respectively directed by associated mirrors, or by means of a single conical mirror in another embodiment, and by the mirror-like paraboloid formed by the rotating liquid lithium onto the fuel pellet such that the optical flux reaching the pellet can be made to be uniform over 96% of the pellet surface area. The very hot plasma produced by the action of the lasers on the respective singly injected fuel pellets in turn produces a copious quantity of neutrons and X-rays such that the device has utility as a neutron source or as an x-ray source. In addition, the neutrons produced in the device may be utilized to produce tritium in a lithium blanket and is thus a mechanism for producing tritium.

  17. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the self-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzaie, M.; Shokri, B.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2010-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of a high power microwave beam propagating through a gaseous medium, which is ionized in the wave field is investigated. By solving the wave equation, the reflection index of the produced plasma is obtained. It is shown that the cut off condition is different from that of the steady state approximation. The reflection index is less than unity when the plasma density reaches the critical value estimated in the steady state approximation. So, the wave can still propagate through the plasma. By comparing the reflection indexes in the presence and absence of the time delay of the ionization process at different points of the medium, it is shown that it becomes unity much later in the first case. Therefore, the wave propagation takes much more time and consequently the medium is ionized much more.

  18. Activation of K+ Channels in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis by ATP Produced Photosynthetically.

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, EP; Goldsmith, M

    1993-01-01

    Light activates a K+ channel and transiently depolarizes the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis mesophyll cells. Genetically or chemically impairing photosynthesis abolished this electrical response to light. These results indicate that illuminated chloroplasts produce a factor that activated K+ channels in the plasma membrane. By patch clamping at the single-channel level, we have obtained evidence that ATP is one such factor. Application of 0.2 to 2 mM ATP to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches of membrane reversibly activated the type of channel that was activated by light in cell-attached patches. In addition, an outward-rectifying K+ channel and an outward-rectifying nonselective cation channel were similarly activated by ATP, whereas a nonselective stretch-activated channel was unaffected by this treatment. This novel mechanism for controlling the permeability of the plasma membrane to K+ may be important to photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:12271073

  19. Influence of a magnetic field on laser-produced Sn plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, H.; Wang, X. B.; Chen, H.; Zuo, D. L.; Lu, P. X.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of an external magnetic field on Nd:YAG laser-produced Sn plasma have been investigated. The characteristics of ion debris from Sn plasma, emission spectra, and EUV radiation have been studied by the time-of-flight method and the optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the ion kinetic energies of the plume species can be effectively reduced with a modest magnetic field of 0.6 T. With the presence of a magnetic field, the spectral intensities of Sn I and Sn II show significant enhancement and the electron density of plasma is about 2 times higher. We have not found any influence of magnetic field on the characteristics of EUV emissions.

  20. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  1. Application of electrostatic Langmuir probe to atmospheric arc plasmas producing nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Shashurin, A.; Li, J.; Zhuang, T.; Keidar, M.; Beilis, I. I.

    2011-07-15

    The temporal evolution of a high pressure He arc producing nanotubes was considered and the Langmuir probe technique was applied for plasma parameter measurements. Two modes of arc were observed: cathodic arc where discharge is supported by erosion of cathode material and anodic arc which is supported by ablation of the anode packed with carbon and metallic catalysts in which carbon nanotubes are synthesized. Voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of single probes were measured and unusually low ratio of saturation current on positively biased probe to that on negatively biased of about 1-4 was observed. This effect was explained by increase of measured current at the negatively biased probe above the level of ion saturation current due to secondary electron emission from the probe surface. Since utilization of standard collisionless approach to determine plasma parameters from the measured V-I characteristic is not correct, the electron saturation current was used to estimate the plasma density.

  2. Investigation of a Gas Jet-Produced Hollow Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, N; Blumenfeld, I.; Hogan, M.J.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.R.; Davidson, A.W.; Huang, C.; /UCLA

    2009-05-21

    The effect of ion motion and the need for practical positron propagation in a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) have incited interest in hollow plasma channels. These channels are typically assumed to be cylindrically symmetric; however, a different geometry might be easier to achieve. The introduction of an obstruction into the outlet of a high Mach number gas jet can produce two parallel slabs of gas separated by a density depression. Here, there is a detailed simulation study of the density depression created in such a system. This investigation reveals that the density depression is insufficient at the desired plasma density. However, insights from the simulations suggest another avenue for the creation of the hollow slab geometry.

  3. Initial planning for interferometry measurements on triggered plasma opening switch source.

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, Alan G.; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Sharpe, Rob A.; Gilmore, Mark A.

    2005-06-01

    The Triggered Plasma Opening Switch (TPOS) at SNL is a unique device that exploits the high conductivity and low mass properties of plasma. The TPOS's objective is to take the initial {approx}0.8 MA ({approx}250 ns rise time) storage inductor current and deliver {approx}0.5 MA at {approx}2.4 MV ({approx}10 ns rise time) to a load of {approx}5-10 Omega. Configuration advantages include low current jitter and resistive voltage drop, power gain, and minimization of trigger input power as the result of using two stages in series. This two-stage design is novel and is the first to demonstrate operation of magnetically triggered stages. Study of TPOS characteristics is in progress via an offline interferometer diagnostic; specifically, a laser interferometer will be used to make density measurements of the source plasma. It is thought that the gross plasma source density is {approx}10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, but details of the spatial structure and temporal evolution have not previously been studied. In order to better understand switch operation, these details are essential. Presently two interferometer systems are planned for testing: a temporary 1 mum system for initial plasma characterization, and a 10.6 mum laser system for routine use. We will start with a single chord measurement then upgrade to a multi-chord system. Future plans involve varying plasma source parameters, such as magnetic field strength and plasma fill time, in order to understand the density dependence on these parameters. Improved knowledge of the plasma source density behavior should allow for improved switch operation.

  4. Time-resolved visible spectroscopy of laser-produced lithium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.; Tisone, G.C.; Hurst, M.J.; Morrison, R.L.; Bieg, K.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have measured time-resolved visible spectra emitted from a plasma formed when the output from a dye laser irradiates solid lithium. Such a plasma has potential as a source of lithium ions for ion-driven inertial confinement fusion, and it also provides a useful source for developing diagnostics. The laser delivered 0.5 J onto a 2--7-mm-diam spot, with a 900-ns pulse length. Experiments were performed with the wavelength tuned to the Li I 2s--2p resonance line at 6708 A and off resonance at 6728 A. The target was a 500--1000-A-thick Li film, vacuum evaporated in situ onto a substrate. The light from the plasma was coupled into the entrance slit of a 1-m Czerny--Turner spectrograph, and the output from the spectrograph was focused onto the input slit of a streak camera. The electron density was obtained from Stark-broadened widths of Li I 2p--4d, 2p--5d, and 2p--4s, and H I 2p--4d. An irradiance of 2 x 10/sup 6/ W/cm/sup 2/ at 6708 A resulted in a peak electron density of 3.9 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/. The density decreased at lower irradiance, with an intensity threshold of 5 x 10/sup 5/ W/cm/sup 2/ for producing an ionized plasma. The threshold for producing a plasma was higher with the laser tuned off resonance, although high-density lithium plasmas could still be formed at relatively low laser irradiance.

  5. Time-resolved visible spectroscopy of laser-produced lithium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.; Tisone, G.C.; Hurst, M.J.; Morrison, R.L.; Bieg, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved visible spectra emitted from a plasma formed when the output from a dye laser irradiates solid lithium. Such a plasma has potential as a source of lithium ions for ion-driven inertial confiement fusion, and it also provides a useful source for developing diagnostics. The laser delivered 0.5 Joules onto a 2-7 mm diameter spot, with a 900-ns pulse length. Experiments were performed with the wavelength tuned to the Li I 2s-2p resonance line at 6708 )angstrom) and off-resonance at 6728 )angstrom). The target was a 500 to 1000 )angstrom) thick Li film, vacuum evaporated in situ onto a substrate. The light from the plasma was coupled into the entrance slit of a 1-m Czerny-Turner spctrometer, and the output from the spectrometer was focused onto the input slit of a steak camera. The electron density was obtained from Stark broadened widths of Li I 2p-4d, 2p-5d, 2p-4s, and H I 2p-4d. An irradiance of 2 x 10/sup 6/ wcm/sup 2/ at 6708)angstrom) resulted in a peak electron density of 3.9 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup )minus/3). The density decreased at lower irradiance, with an intensity threshold of 5 x 10/sup 5/ Wcm/sup 2/ for producing an ionized plasma. The threshold for producing a plasma was higher with the laser tuned off resonance, although high density lithium plasmas could still be formed at relatively lower laser irradiance. 6 refs., 4 figs

  6. Study of Plasma Treatment of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Kamau

    Unconventional gas and hydraulic fracturing is helping to increase natural gas production, which is widely viewed in the U.S. as a key asset to bolstering a clean and energy-independent future. Safe and economical management and treatment of water produced during such processes remain of key importance. With the increase of hydrocarbon production and national shale gas production expected to increase threefold and account for nearly half of all natural gas produced by 2035, advanced water treatment and management processes must be investigated, to ensure water conservation and associated economic prudence. The state of the art of produced water treatment technologies is described including the efficacy of plasma to modulate the contents of such aqueous solutions, meeting target parameters and potentially enabling the operation of other treatment technologies. Among other effects, progress is presented on the enhancement of an arc-in-water system to remove bicarbonate ions and prevent the mineral fouling ability of water which causes formation of CaCO3 in heat exchangers and distillation units. Qualitative and quantitative treatment targets of produced water treatment are discussed. Experimental work is conducted to test theories and identify and reproduce favorable effects useful to treating wastewaters. Plasma arc-in-water systems demonstrated capability of producing bicarbonate-depleted wastewaters, with experiments with gas-field produced waters indicating that generation of H+ ions plays a greater role in bicarbonate ion removal than local heating. Tests showed abatement of bicarbonate ions from a range of 684--778 mg/L down to zero. Subsequent scaling/fouling tests with waters ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L bicarbonate ions, in the presence of high calcium ion concentrations, showed that scale thickness, as well as mass on a 1-kW heating element was an order of magnitude less for process water containing 100 mg/L bicarbonate ions compared to process water with 500 mg/L of bicarbonate ions. Water with bicarbonate ion concentration approaching zero resulted in prevention of scale. To enhance this new plasma induced fouling mitigation method, a plasma arc-in-water reactor was re-engineered, using a ground electrode, and two high-voltage electrodes, to stretch the arc discharge in water and increase contact between plasma and water. Results of simultaneous effects were also collected, showing within 5 min, a 4-log reduction in both Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Acid Producing Bacteria (APB), bacteria that are characteristic of oil-field produced waters; as well as oxidation of organics, with degradation of visually observable organics within 3 minutes, and decrease of oil and grease from 40 mg/L to under 10 mg/L within one min. With an arc-in-water system utilizing a stretched arc, simultaneous effects were exhibited on fouling ability of produced water, inactivation of bacteria, and degradation of organics. Plasma discharges in water represent a unique option in the treatment of produced waters from oil and gas production. While the water softening capabilities of arc-in-water systems present a new method for fouling mitigation and remediation of scale in heat exchangers, the simultaneous effects, including oxidation of organics and inactivation of bacteria, may allow application of plasma to water, to satisfy treatment targets that allow for the reuse of such waters in oil and gas operations.

  7. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  8. Modification of semiconductor materials with the use of plasma produced by low intensity repetitive laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowski, J.; Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Parys, P.; Turan, R.; Yerci, S.

    2008-03-19

    This work reports experiments concerning specific application of laser-produced plasma at IPPLM in Warsaw. A repetitive pulse laser system of parameters: energy up to 0.8 J in a 3.5 ns-pulse, wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m, repetition rate of up to 10 Hz, has been employed in these investigations. The characterisation of laser-produced plasma was performed with the use of 'time-of-flight' ion diagnostics simultaneously with other diagnostic methods. The results of laser-matter interaction were obtained in dependence on laser pulse parameters, illumination geometry and target material. The modified SiO{sub 2} layers and sample surface properties were characterised with the use of different methods at the Middle-East Technological University in Ankara and at the Warsaw University of technology. The production of the Ge nanocrystallites has been demonstrated for annealed samples prepared in different experimental conditions.

  9. Picosecond soft-x-ray source from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, J.; Maksimchuk, A.; Liu, X.; Ellenberger, U.; Coe, J. S.; Chien, C.-Y.; Umstadter, D.

    1996-01-01

    Short-pulse high-intensity laser-plasma interactions are investigated experimentally with temporally and spectrally resolved soft-x-ray diagnostics. We demonstrate that, by adjustment of the incident laser flux, the pulse width of the laser-produced x rays emitted from solid targets may be varied to as short as the picosecond time scale. Bright, picosecond, broadband emission characteristic of a short-scale-length high-density plasma is produced only when a high laser contrast (1010) is used. The results are found to be in qualitative agreement with both the predictions of a simple model of radiation from a collisionally dominated atomic system and the results obtained from a numerical simulation. 52.40.Nk.

  10. Spectral investigation of highly ionized bismuth plasmas produced by subnanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2016-02-01

    The unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) emitted from laser produced bismuth (Bi) plasma sources show potential for single-shot live cell imaging. We have measured extreme ultraviolet spectra from bismuth laser produced plasmas in the 1-7 nm region using a λ = 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 150 ps. Comparison of spectra obtained under different laser power densities with calculations using the Hartree-Fock with configuration interaction Cowan suite of codes and the UTA formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, are employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Bi XXIII to Bi XLVII. The results show that Δn = 0, n = 4-4 emission from highly charged ions merges to form intense UTAs in the 4 nm region and Δn = 1, n = 4-5 resonance transitions UTAs dominate the 1-3 nm region of the Bi spectrum.

  11. The expansion velocities of laser-produced plasmas determined from extreme ultraviolet spectral line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Behring, W. E.; Cohen, L.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of laser-produced plasma is determined from the shapes of spectral lines of highly ionized iron emitted in the extreme ultraviolet. The plasmas were produced by focusing the pulse from a Nd:glass laser onto solid planar targets, and spectra were recorded with a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrograph. From the Doppler broadening of lines of Fe XX and Fe XXI, expansion velocities of about 830 km/s were determined. The relative time-averaged ion abundances of Fe XVIII, Fe XIX, Fe XX, and Fe XXI are estimated for three different spectra. The abundances do not differ by more than a factor of 4 for any of the spectra.

  12. Analytical characterization of plasma membrane-derived vesicles produced via osmotic and chemical vesiculation.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Chan, Robin B; Zhou, Bowen; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane-derived vesicles are being used in biophysical and biochemical research as a simple, yet native-like model of the cellular membrane. Here we report on the characterization of vesicles produced via two different vesiculation methods from CHO and A431 cell lines. The first method is a recently developed method which utilizes chloride salts to induce osmotic vesiculation. The second is a well established chemical vesiculation method which uses DTT and formaldehyde. We show that both vesiculation methods produce vesicles which contain the lipid species previously reported in the plasma membrane of these cell lines. The two methods lead to small but statistically significant differences in two lipid species only; phosphatidylcholine (PC) and plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine (PEp). However, highly significant differences were observed in the degree of incorporation of a membrane receptor and in the degree of retention of soluble cytosolic proteins within the vesicles. PMID:25896659

  13. Activated air produced by shielded sliding discharge plasma mediates plasmid DNA delivery to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Heller, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Cold plasma is emerging as a potential method for medical applications. The current study assessed the efficacy of a novel cold plasma reactor based on shielded sliding discharge producing cathode-directed streamers generated in ambient air for the delivery of plasmid DNA. Experiments were performed with mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) and human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding luciferase. Quantitative results measured over a 72-h period displayed luciferase expression levels as high as 5-fold greater in cells exposed to plasma-activated air (PAA) than levels obtained from the inoculation of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No effect on cell viability was observed. Delivery of plasmid encoding GFP to HaCaT cells seeded on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds was confirmed by immunostaining. The use of cold plasma for DNA delivery is attractive as it provides a non-viral, non-invasive method where the electrode or the plasma itself never directly contacts the exposed site. The current device design provides localized DNA transfer using a novel technology. Our report suggests PAA warrants further exploration as an alternative or supplemental approach for DNA transfer. PMID:26041378

  14. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Li, C K; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Séguin, F H; Amendt, P A; Landen, O L; Town, R P J; Betti, R; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M

    2009-07-01

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m> approximately [8pibeta(1+D_{m}k_{ perpendicular};{2}gamma_{max};{-1})];{1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions. PMID:19658823

  15. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.

    2009-07-15

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.

  16. Summary of initial results from the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Dusty (or complex) plasmas are four-component plasma systems consisting of electrons, ions, neutral atoms and charged, solid particulates. These particulates, i.e., the ``dust,'' become charged through interactions with the surrounding plasma particles and are therefore fully coupled to the background. The study of dusty plasmas began with astrophysical studies and has developed into a distinct area of plasma science with contributions to industrial, space, and fundamental plasma science. However, the vast majority of the laboratory studies are performed without the presence of a magnetic field. This is because, compared to the masses of the electrons and ions, the dust particles are significantly more massive and therefore the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust is very small. As a result, large (B > 1 T) magnetic fields are required to achieve conditions in which the dynamics of electrons, ions, and dust particles are dominated by the magnetic field. This presentation will provide a brief description of the design of the large bore (50 cm diameter x 158 cm long), multi-configuration, 4-Tesla class, superconducting magnet and integrated plasma chamber optimized for the study of dusty plasmas at high magnetic field - the MDPX device. The presentation will then focus on initial results of measurements made using MDPX - including observations of a new type of imposed ordered structures formed by the dust particles in a magnetized plasma, E x B driven flows of the particles, and observations of instabilities. This work is a collaboration of the author with Uwe Konopka (Auburn), Robert L. Merlino (Univ. of Iowa), Marlene Rosenberg (UCSD), and the MDPX team at Auburn University. Construction of the MDPX device was supported by the NSF-MRI program. Operations are supported by the NSF and DOE.

  17. Analytical description of generation of the residual current density in the plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Silaev, A. A. Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2015-05-15

    When a gas is ionized by a few-cycle laser pulse, some residual current density (RCD) of free electrons remains in the produced plasma after the passage of the laser pulse. This quasi-dc RCD is an initial impetus to plasma polarization and excitation of the plasma oscillations which can radiate terahertz (THz) waves. In this work, the analytical model for calculation of RCD excited by a few-cycle laser pulse is developed for the first time. The dependences of the RCD on the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), wavelength, duration, and intensity of the laser pulse are derived. It is shown that maximum RCD corresponding to optimal CEP increases with the laser pulse wavelength, which indicates the prospects of using mid-infrared few-cycle laser pulses in the schemes of generation of high-power THz pulses. Analytical formulas for optimal pulse intensity and maximum efficiency of excitation of the RCD are obtained. Basing on numerical solution of the 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation for hydrogen atoms, RCD dependence on CEP is calculated in a wide range of wavelengths. High accuracy of analytical formulas is demonstrated at the laser pulse parameters which correspond to the tunneling regime of ionization.

  18. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this research. Finally, analysis of emission spectra obtained from the OH(A-X) band at 308 nm by the excited hydroxyl radical was performed to quantify the temperature parameters of the plasma. Boltzmann analysis was performed to quantify the rotational temperature of OH which correlates well to the liquid temperature, and Stark broadening of the ionic lines belonging to hydrogen and oxygen was analysed to estimate electron temperature. It was found that the liquid temperature remained close to bulk temperature with T_(n,i)<500 K, and that the electron temperature was very high Te˜6-10 eV. Finally, based on the characterization of the plasma parameters, several potential avenues for applications of this regime of plasma will be suggested. The complex physical and chemical dynamics established when plasma is generated within a liquid medium has unlocked new and fascinating possibilities in the areas of biomedicine, water treatment, material synthesis and nanoscience. The high density, low temperature plasma formed could potentially be harnessed to unlock new applications across these fields and more.

  19. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  20. A Investigation of Quiet, Steady-State Electron Plasma Columns Produced by Penning Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Roger Curtis

    An electron plasma lens uses the radial space -charge electric field of an electron plasma column to focus a positive ion beam. The plasma is generated by a dc discharge in which cylindrical electrodes are coaxial with a short solenoid. Electrons produced in the discharge are trapped in an axial electrostatic well 16-19 cm long and 2-4 kV deep. Ions are lost axially. Radial electron confine - ment is from column rotation at 60-100 MHz in the axial magnetic field of about 0.1 T. Electron densities of 10('9) -10('10) cm('-3) are required to focus ion beams of 2-5 MeV in a focal length of 65 cm. Normally the electron column generated in a dc discharge fluctuates chaotically. However discharge modes have been found in which the electron column is dynamically stabilized. When the discharge is locked into one of these modes the electron loss rate automatically adjusts to the electron supply rate to keep the plasma column density and dimensions nearly constant. Several of these modes can be found. Each one stabilizes an electron column which is adjustable over a particular range of focusing strengths. Many stable plasma columns have been studied by (1) ray-tracing with 2-3 MeV proton beams, (2) measuring the standing plasma wave response, and (3) measuring the currents flowing from the plasma. Data are presented which indicate that mode stabilization results from wave-induced radial transport from zero frequency plasma waves. These are waves which propagate opposite to the column rotation direction and appear stationary in the lab frame. Such waves can be resonantly driven by errors in the confining fields. Evidence is presented that, at least in some cases, modes are stabilized by \\= 2 diocotron waves. The different modes arise from the standing wave constraint on the axial wavenumber of kL = m(pi) where L is the plasma length. Modes with even values of m seem to be preferred and modes with values of m from 6-16 have been found.

  1. Experimental astrophysics with magnetised laser-produced plasma: UV/X-ray spectroscopy, interferometry and pulsed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, Andrew David

    2006-06-01

    This work presents an experimental investigation of the scaled simulation of high Mach number collisionless shocks found in supernovae remnants, which is part of the experimental collaboration initiated by Woolsey et al. , (Physics of Plasmas, 8, 2439, 2001). Supernovae are one of the most energetic astrophysical phenomena. They distribute new matter created inside stars throughout space and are believed to be the origin of cosmic radiation with energy below 10 15 eV. The evolution of a supernova remnant is governed by the presence of strong forward and reverse shocks and diffusive shock acceleration. Some aspects of these processes can be investigated in the laboratory using scaled experiments with laser produced plasma. The experiments explore the interaction of two rapidly expanding collisionless laser produced plasmas in a magnetic field of up to 12 tesla. The plasmas are produced by multi-beam laser irradiation of 0.1 mm thick C ~12 H ~16 plastic targets by an 80 ps pulse of wavelength 1053 nm focused to an irradiance of between 10 13 W/cm 2 and 10 14 W/cm 2 , which results in expansion velocities of up to 1.5 × 10 8 cm/s. Measurements of the plasma electron density between 10 17 cm -3 and 10 19 cm - 3 are made by interferometry of a 20 ps probe laser pulse at a wavelength of 527 nm and evidence of collisionless interaction between the plasmas is obtained using shadowgram imaging of the probe refracted by the plasmas. Two methods to produce a strong external magnetic field are investigated. In one approach, a laser-driven Helmholtz coil is used providing a magnetic field of 8 tesla in a 20 ns pulse. The field is generated by the circulation of a large return current in a Helmholtz coil. This relies on the generation of a population of hot electrons by resonance absorption of the laser. The hot and cold electron temperatures are estimated from the x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from the target, which is measured by pulse height spectroscopy using a charge coupled device image array. In another approach, a field of up to 12 tesla in a 1.5 ms pulse is generated in an electromagnet driven by a 13 kJ, 2.8 kV capacitor bank. The resulting plasma magnetisation is measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy of Zeeman splitting in the carbon V 1s2s 3 S 1 -1s2p 3 P 2,1,0 triplet at ~2270 Å and the carbon III 1s 2 2s2p 1 P 1 -1s 2 2p 2 1 D 2 line at 2296.9 Å.

  2. Initial Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of Energetic Ion Distributions in NSTX Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2002-11-01

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on NSTX utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer which measures the energy spectra of H and D simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass species with a time resolution of 1 msec. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from 3 - 7 The NPA measures Maxwellian spectra of residual H to obtain ion temperatures and measures the energetic ion spectra produced by injection of up to 100 keV D neutral beams into a D plasma. The NPA views across the co-injection paths of the three neutral beam sources on NSTX. Recent implementation of horizontal scanning capability for the NPA over a sightline tangency range of 92 cm to -15 cm has enabled measurement of the anisotropic energy distribution of the beam ions. Initial measurements of these distributions are presented and compared with TRANSP simulations of the observed NPA spectra. A rich variety of energetic ion behavior resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity is observed in NSTX. For example, onset of an n = 2 mode leads to relatively slow decay of the energetic ion population (E 5 - 100 keV) and consequently the neutron yield. The effect of reconnection events differs from that observed for MHD modes. In this case, prompt loss of the energetic ion population occurs on a time scale of * 2 msec and a precipitous drop in the neutron yield occurs. Variations in the MHD-induced energetic ion behavior with the NPA pitch angle' will be discussed.

  3. Time-resolved visible and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of laser-produced tin plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shay, Joseph Fred

    Previous experimental studies of laser-matter interactions have often been conducted without sufficient accuracy or attention to critical laser parameters. Moreover, much of the work published in the open literature lacks the essential theoretical underpinnings necessary to explain observations and provide predictive capability for future experiments. In this study, we use nanosecond-resolved spectroscopic techniques to investigate fundamental physics in laser-produced tin plasma, and overcome these shortcomings by implementing several metrological innovations to ensure the accuracy of experimental data. Furthermore, we present a side-by-side comparison of experimental results with computational modeling to advance our understanding of the many nonlinear, interrelated processes that occur within transient tin plasma. This dissertation is divided into three primary sections. In the first section, we study the physics governing the generation and early-time evolution of tin plasma in the low-irradiance regime: IL ˜ 4 x 1011 - 1 x 1012W/cm2 . A two-channel XUV photodiode spectrometer has been developed to measure tin plasma temperature, as well as diagnose radiation transport processes during the laser irradiation phase. During laser heating, the radiation spectrum from semi-infinite tin targets was found to approach the blackbody limit in the 10--80 nm spectral range. Through one-dimensional numerical modeling, this is shown to be due to the penetration of a radiative diffusion wave beyond the critical depth. Analysis of the time-dependent tin emission spectrum has shown that nearly 30% of the incident laser energy is converted to energetic photons in the spectral range of 15 < hv < 120 eV. The equilibrium radiation temperature, characteristic of the optically thick ablation front, has shown reasonable agreement with numerical predictions despite the model's limited dimensionality. The second part of this work examines the late-time hydrodynamics associated with the radiative plasma phase studied in the preceding section. Nanosecond-gated optical emission spectroscopy is employed to diagnose electron temperature, electron density, and propagation velocity of the ablation plume. In contrast to the large change in radiation temperature observed for a factor of three increase in laser intensity, it is found that the post-pulse plume hydrodynamics is not significantly affected for the same variation in irradiation conditions. At late times, the ion kinetic energy is found to exceed electron thermal energy by more than 100 times, which serves as a lower bound on the ratio to the ion thermal counterpart. The expanding laser-produced tin plasma is well described by a cylindrical hydrodynamic transport model; a comparison between time-integrated experimental and numerical plasma energy density has shown convergence to within a factor of two. At distances > 3 mm from the target, it was found that the heavy ion tin plasma transitions from Boltzmann to coronal equilibrium, rendering LTE assumptions in the spectral deconvolution procedure invalid. In the final section of this study, we investigate the radiative properties of tin ablation plasma as the laser irradiance is varied by more than an order of magnitude. The effect of increased focused laser energy is manifested in a weak scaling of radiation temperature, and a significant broadening of the emission lifetime at the highest laser intensities. It is found that the resulting radiation conversion efficiency is not a strong function of laser intensity within the parameter regime of this work. It is shown that agreement between experimental and simulated plasma conditions becomes progressively worse in the high-irradiance regime as the ionization and radiative transfer models play increasingly dominant roles in the plasma energetics.

  4. Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, Frederick B.

    1978-01-01

    A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux.

  5. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; S??guin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ß~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore » and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  6. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore » and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  7. Terminal Differentiation into Plasma Cells Initiates the Replicative Cycle of Epstein-Barr Virus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Laichalk, Lauri L.; Thorley-Lawson, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the cells which initiate replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tonsils of healthy carriers are plasma cells (CD38hi, CD10−, CD19+, CD20lo, surface immunoglobulin negative, and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin positive). We further conclude that differentiation into plasma cells, and not the signals that induce differentiation, initiates viral replication. This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that the promoter for BZLF1, the gene that begins viral replication, becomes active only after memory cells differentiate into plasma cells and is also active in plasma cell lines. This differs from the reactivation of BZLF1 in vitro, which occurs acutely and is associated with apoptosis and not with differentiation. We suggest that differentiation and acute stress represent two distinct pathways of EBV reactivation in vivo. The fraction of cells replicating the virus decreases as the cells progress through the lytic cycle such that only a tiny fraction actually release infectious virus. This may reflect abortive replication or elimination of cells by the cellular immune response. Consistent with the later conclusion, the cells did not down regulate major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, suggesting that this is not an immune evasion tactic used by EBV and that the cells remain vulnerable to cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte attack. PMID:15613356

  8. Development of a time-resolved soft x-ray spectrometer for laser produced plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

    2010-10-01

    A 2400 lines/mm variable-spaced grating spectrometer has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 A?) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x rays emitted from the back of the Mylar and the copper foils irradiated at 10(15)?W/cm(2). The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of ?120 at 19 A? with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolutions of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas. PMID:21034016

  9. Spectra of plasmas of Ru, Rh, Pd and Mo produced with nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Sheridan, Paul; Hayden, Patrick; O'Reilly, Fergal; Dunne, Padraig; Endo, Akira; Limpouch, Jiri; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray emission recorded in the 2-12 nm region from Mo, Ru, Rh and Pd ions present in the laser produced plasmas. The spectra were found to be dominated by 3p-3d transitions in the 5-8 nm region, which shift slowly to shorter wavelengths with the increasing atomic number, and by 3d-4p and 3d-4f transitions at shorter wavelengths. These transitions, in a number of neighbouring ion stages, were distinguished by comparison with Cowan code calculations and previously reported data. The experimental results show that strong emission can be observed at the 6.X nm region for Ru, Rh and Pd plasmas.

  10. Filamentation effects and second-harmonic spectra in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khalfaoui, A.H.; Abdelli, S.; Kerdja, T.; Ghobrini, D. )

    1993-08-01

    Sideway scattered second-harmonic spectra emitted from a 1064-nm-laser-produced plasma have been observed to originate from nonlinear coupling near the critical surface. The time evolution of the second-harmonic optical density confirmed the possibility that a plasmon issued from the resonant absorption of the incident beam can recombine with a photon ([omega][sub 0]) to give a transverse wave of frequency 2[omega][sub 0]. A plasmon issued from a parametric decay instability may also, by coalescence with an incident photon, give a transverse wave at a shifted second-harmonic frequency. The threshold of such a combination is determined. Moreover, irregular plasma-parameter variations and the perturbed spatial uniformity of the incident beam appear to alter the second-harmonic spectra. An oscillatory structure of the optical density of the observed second harmonic is interpreted as a result of the coupling physics involved and of laser-beam filamentation.

  11. Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

    2010-05-12

    A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

  12. X-ray spectral line shapes for the excimer-laser-produced high density plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Magunov, A.; Faenov, A.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, T.; Batani, D.; Milani, M.; Conti, A.; Masini, A.; Costato, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Allot, R.; Lisi, N.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi, A.; Flora, F.; Letardi, T.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.

    1997-01-05

    The time and space-integrated emission spectra measurements have been performed in plasma produced by 308 nm wavelength XeCl laser radiation (I{sub L}=(4-10){center_dot}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}, {tau}=10 ns) and by 248 nm wavelength KrF laser pulse train radiation I{sub L}=5{center_dot}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, {tau}=7 ps, 16 pulses in train) on (CF{sub n} plane target. The lines' shapes and intensities modeling of Lyman series and He-like ion resonance series of fluorine up to n=7 by fitting experimental data shows the considerable difference of plasma formation features for these two sets of the laser pulse parameters.

  13. X-ray spectral line shapes for the excimer-laser-produced high density plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Magunov, A.; Faenov, A.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, T.; Batani, D.; Milani, M.; Conti, A. |; Masini, A.; Costato, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Allot, R.; Lisi, N.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi, A.; Flora, F.; Letardi, T.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.

    1997-01-01

    The time and space-integrated emission spectra measurements have been performed in plasma produced by 308 nm wavelength XeCl laser radiation (I{sub L}=(4{minus}10){center_dot}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}, {tau}=10 ns) and by 248 nm wavelength KrF laser pulse train radiation (I{sub L}=5{center_dot}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, {tau}=7 ps, 16 pulses in train) on CF{sub n} plane target. The lines` shapes and intensities modeling of Lyman series and He-like ion resonance series of fluorine up to n=7 by fitting experimental data shows the considerable difference of plasma formation features for these two sets of the laser pulse parameters.

  14. Correlation between laser absorption and radiation conversion efficiency in laser produced tin plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukuma, Hiraku Hosoda, Tatsuya; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Kouge, Kouichiro; Kodama, Takeshi

    2015-09-21

    The correlation between the laser absorption and the conversion efficiency (CE) for 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in a laser-produced tin plasma was investigated. The absorption rate α and the CE were measured simultaneously for a laser-pre-formed low-density tin target as a function of the time delay between the pre-pulse and the main laser pulse. A clear and positive correlation between α and CE was found with increasing delay time; however, the CE decreases rapidly at longer delay times. This result is partly attributed to a reduction in the absorption rate, but is mainly attributed to the self-absorption of EUV light in excessively long-scale plasmas.

  15. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, L. P.; Prez, J. A.; Riascos, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C2 Swan System (d3?g?a3?u), the First Negative System N2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x1018 cm-3 respectively.

  16. Correlation between laser absorption and radiation conversion efficiency in laser produced tin plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukuma, Hiraku; Sunahara, Atsushi; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Kouge, Kouichiro; Kodama, Takeshi; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    The correlation between the laser absorption and the conversion efficiency (CE) for 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in a laser-produced tin plasma was investigated. The absorption rate ? and the CE were measured simultaneously for a laser-pre-formed low-density tin target as a function of the time delay between the pre-pulse and the main laser pulse. A clear and positive correlation between ? and CE was found with increasing delay time; however, the CE decreases rapidly at longer delay times. This result is partly attributed to a reduction in the absorption rate, but is mainly attributed to the self-absorption of EUV light in excessively long-scale plasmas.

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of the excitation transfer from background air to diffusing aluminum laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ribiere, M.; Cheron, B. G.; Karabourniotis, D.

    2009-04-15

    During the relaxation of the plasma plume generated by laser ablation of an aluminum target, a pronounced intensity enhancement is observed at the central wavelength of the 396.15 nm self-reversed resonant line. This spectral special feature is analyzed and related to the interaction of the plasma edge with the background air excited by the shockwave, prompt electrons, and extreme ultraviolet radiation produced at the earliest times of the ablation. In this article, the electron density, the aluminum ground state, and resonant level populations are determined from the fitting of the 396.15 nm calculated line profile to the experimental one at two background pressures (100 and 1000 Pa). The evolution of these densities is derived from experiments performed at delays, after the laser pulse arrival, ranging from 120 to 180 ns.

  18. Plasma Channel Transport for Heavy Ion Fusion: Investigation of Beam Transport, Channel Initiation and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauschwitz, Andreas; Niemann, Christoph; Penache, Dan; Birkner, Richard; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Kobloch, Renate; Neff, Stefan; Presura, Radu; Ponce, Dave; Rosmej, Frank; Yu, Simon

    2002-12-01

    For final beam transport in an IFE reactor three alternatives are mainly discussed. These are neutralized ballistic transport, self-pinched transport, and plasma channel transport. Discharge plasma channels were investigated in the recent years at GSI Darmstadt and at LBNL Berkeley in a number of experiments. Different initiation mechanisms for gas discharges of up to 60 kA were studied and compared. In the Berkeley experiments laser ionization of organic vapors in a buffer gas was used to initiate and direct the discharge while at GSI laser gas heating and ion beam induced gas ionization were tested as initiation mechanisms. Measurements of temperature, electron density, gas density, and magnetic field distribution in the channels are compared with results of beam transport experiments at the GSI UNILAC accelerator and with MHD simulations of the 1D-fluidcode CYCLOPS, which was developed in Berkeley. Good agreement between plasma diagnostics results, measured ion optical properties and MHD simulations was found. Parameters that are required for a reactor application are a discharge current of 50 kA, a channel diameter below 1 cm, a pointing stability better than 500 μm, and MHD stability for more than 10 μs. These parameters have been demonstrated in the recent experiments. The results imply that transport channels work with sufficient stability, reproducibility and ion optical properties in a wide pressure range and for various discharge gases.

  19. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications. PMID:20022170

  20. Extreme ultraviolet spectra from highly charged gadolinium and neodymium ions in the Large Helical Device and laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; O'Gorman, C.; Li, B.; Harte, C. S.; Donnelly, T.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2013-09-01

    We have observed extreme ultraviolet spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd) and neodymium (Nd) ions produced in two different types of light sources for comparative studies. Only broad quasicontinuum feature arising from unresolved transition array was observed in high-density laser produced plasmas of pure/diluted Gd and Nd targets at the University College Dublin, and the spectral feature largely depends on electron temperature in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The difference in spectral feature among a number of spectra can be qualitatively interpreted by considering dominant ion stages and opacity effects in the plasmas.

  1. Spark plasma sintering of alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires.

    PubMed

    An, Vladimir; Khasanov, Alexey; de Izarra, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires were sintered using the spark plasma sintering technique. The results of XRD analysis show that the main phase in the compacted nanopowders is α-Al2O3. According to the SEM observations, the sintered alumina nanopowder consists of micron-sized faceted grains and nano-sized necked grains. The increase in sintering temperature resulted in a higher density of the sintered powders: from 78.44 to 98.21 % of theoretical density. PMID:26543716

  2. Non-fouling microfluidic chip produced by radio frequency tetraglyme plasma deposition.

    PubMed

    Salim, Malinda; Mishra, Gautam; Fowler, Gregory J S; O'sullivan, Brian; Wright, Phillip C; McArthur, Sally L

    2007-04-01

    This Technical Note presents the direct surface modification of a glass/PTFE hybrid microfluidic chip, via radio frequency glow discharge plasma polymerisation of tetraethlylene glycol dimethylether (tetraglyme), to produce hydrophilic, non-fouling, PEO-like surfaces. We use several techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunofluorescent imaging to investigate the channel coatings. Our results indicate the successful deposition of a PEO-like coating onto microchannel surfaces that has both solution and shelf stability (>3 months) and is capable of preventing fibrinogen adsorption to the microchannel surfaces. PMID:17389972

  3. Innovative X-γ ray sources based on laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, A.; Giulietti, D.

    2015-07-01

    The paper concerns with the dynamics and the emitted radiation of electrons undergoing betatron oscillations in laser-produced plasmas. The topic is relevant for a reliable interpretation of data will be obtained in forthcoming experiments in the LASER facility of the National Laboratories of Frascati (LNF) of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The blowout regime will be considered, which makes the electrons reaching very high energies by providing impressive accelerating gradients while keeping a low energy spread value. The accident that the betatron emission occurs meanwhile electrons gain energy is also considered here.

  4. [Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes produce extracellular proteinases--protein C activators of blood plasma].

    PubMed

    Osmolovskiĭ, A A; Kreĭer, V G; Kurakov, A V; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

    2012-01-01

    Natural isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes from soil and plant remains from various regions have been screened. The isolated strains were characterized by similar cultural and morphological features and an identical nucleotide sequence in the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The ability of the extracellular proteinases of A. ochraceus myxomycetes to activate protein C of blood plasma has been established. Differences are revealed in the accumulation of proteinases activating protein C and proteinases with thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in the growth dynamics of producers. PMID:23101392

  5. SiC/C nanocable structure produced in silicon carbide by arc plasma heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Defect-free and long SiC/C nanocables have been produced by heating SiC powder at 3000C by employing dc arc plasma (Ar) in a specially designed configuration of graphite arc. Microstructural characterizations of the heat-treated powder carried out by TEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, and micro Raman spectroscopy showed the nanocables to consist of a SiC shell/sheath stuffed with wire type solid C core. A possible mechanism is discussed to explain the cable-type growth.

  6. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-10-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh.

  7. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Klimov, A. S.; Savkin, K. P.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  8. Emission dynamics of an expanding ultrafast-laser produced Zn plasma under different ambient pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Philip, Reji

    2013-09-07

    We report time and space resolved spectral measurements of neutral Zn emission from an ultrafast laser produced plasma, generated by the irradiation of a Zn target with laser pulses of 100 femtoseconds duration, carried out in a broad ambient pressure range of 0.05 to 100 Torr. The measurement is done for three different axial positions in the expanding plume. The spectra are rich in neutral Zn (Zn I) emissions at 334.5 nm, 468 nm, 472 nm, 481 nm, and 636 nm, respectively, depicting the characteristic triplet structure of Zn. Fast as well as slow peaks are observed in the time of flight data of 481 nm emission, which arise from recombination and atomic contributions, respectively, occurring at different time scales. Average speeds of the fast atomic species do not change appreciably with ambient pressure. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and number density) are evaluated from the measured optical emission spectra. The rates of ionization and recombination can be enhanced by a double-pulse excitation configuration in which optical energy is coupled to the ultrafast plasma through a delayed laser pulse.

  9. Ultrafast laser produced zinc plasma: Stark broadening of emission lines in nitrogen ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kavya H.; Smijesh, N.; Nivas, Jijil JJ; Philip, Reji

    2016-04-01

    The effect of ambient pressure on Stark broadening of emission lines from neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser (100 fs, 800 nm) produced zinc plasma is investigated. Measured spectra reveal that the full width at half maximum (δλ) of neutral lines remains unchanged in the pressure range of 10-6 to 10-1 Torr, shows an even fluctuation in the pressure range of 0.1 to 100 Torr, and then increases with pressure. On the other hand, δλ of ion lines is nearly a constant from 10-6 to 10-3 Torr, and then increases consistently with ambient pressure. A line narrowing of neutral emissions observed in the region of 1 to 100 Torr can be attributed to larger plasma temperatures, whereas the consistent increase in δλ with pressure seen for ion emission results from the prevalence of additional broadening mechanisms related to Coulomb interactions, ion-ion interaction, and Debye shielding. An accurate knowledge of emission line width is crucial for unambiguously calculating number density values for any given ambient pressure. Moreover, it can be relevant for the design of narrow line width, bright plasma sources for various applications.

  10. Ion and atomic species produced in large scale oxygen plasma used for treatments sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasic, Kosta; Skoro, Nikola; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

    2013-09-01

    Asymmetric CCP plasma system operating at 13.56 MHz was successfully used for treatments of textile, seeds and polymers. Central electrode (aluminium rod) was powered electrode while the cylindrical wall of the chamber was grounded electrode. We have used mass spectrometry for detections of ions and neutrals in order to get better insight in plasma chemistry involved in surface reactions on treated samples. Besides of ions, one of the important species for surface modifications is atomic oxygen. Actinometry was used as an additional diagnostic tool to determine the extent of atomic oxygen produced in plasma. Measurements were made in several different mixtures of oxygen with addition of several percent of argon. The range of pressures investigated was 150 to 450 mTorr for powers from 100 to 500 W. Measured atomic oxygen density has a steady rise with power (1019-1020 m-3) . Apart from atomic oxygen species we have detected mass spectra of positive and negative ions. Most abundant ion was O2+while the amounts of O+ and O- were smaller by the order of magnitude compared to O2+. Supported by MESTD, RS, III41011 and ON 171037.

  11. Ion flux enhancements and oscillations in spatially confined laser produced aluminum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. C. Fallon, C.; Hayden, P.; Yeates, P.; Costello, J. T.; Mujawar, M.

    2014-09-15

    Ion signals from laser produced plasmas (LPPs) generated inside aluminum rectangular cavities at a fixed depth d = 2 mm and varying width, x = 1.0, 1.6, and 2.75 mm were obtained by spatially varying the position of a negatively biased Langmuir probe. Damped oscillatory features superimposed on Maxwellian distributed ion signals were observed. Depending on the distance of the probe from the target surface, three to twelve fold enhancements in peak ion density were observed via confinement of the LPP, generated within rectangular cavities of varying width which constrained the plasma plume to near one dimensional expansion in the vertical plane. The effects of lateral spatial confinement on the expansion velocity of the LPP plume front, the temperature, density and expansion velocity of ions, enhancement of ion flux, and ion energy distribution were recorded. The periodic behavior of ion signals was analyzed and found to be related to the electron plasma frequency and electron-ion collision frequency. The effects of confinement and enhancement of various ion parameters and expansion velocities of the LPP ion plume are explained on the basis of shock wave theory.

  12. Colliding laser-produced plasmas as targets for laser-generated extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, T.; O'Gorman, C.; Dunne, P.; Sokell, E.; O'Sullivan, G.; Hayden, P.

    2014-07-28

    Colliding plasmas produced by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser illumination of tin wedge targets form stagnation layers, the physical parameters of which can be controlled to optimise coupling with a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) heating laser pulse and subsequent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) production. The conversion efficiency (CE) of total laser energy into EUV emission at 13.5 nm ± 1% was 3.6%. Neglecting both the energy required to form the stagnation layer and the EUV light produced before the CO{sub 2} laser pulse is incident results in a CE of 5.1% of the CO{sub 2} laser energy into EUV light.

  13. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Ziuzina, D; Patil, S; Cullen, P J; Keener, K M; Bourke, P

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) represents a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal decontamination of foods. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a novel dielectric barrier discharge ACP device against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cherry tomatoes and strawberries, was examined. Bacteria were spot inoculated on the produce surface, air dried and sealed inside a rigid polypropylene container. Samples were indirectly exposed (i.e. placed outside plasma discharge) to a high voltage (70 kVRMS) air ACP and subsequently stored at room temperature for 24 h. ACP treatment for 10, 60 and 120 s resulted in reduction of Salmonella, E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations on tomato to undetectable levels from initial populations of 3.1, 6.3, and 6.7 log10 CFU/sample, respectively. However, an extended ACP treatment time was necessary to reduce bacterial populations attached on the more complex surface of strawberries. Treatment time for 300 s resulted in reduction of E. coli, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes populations by 3.5, 3.8 and 4.2 log10 CFU/sample, respectively, and also effectively reduced the background microflora of tomatoes. PMID:24929725

  14. Note: Characterization of the plasma parameters of a capillary discharge-produced plasma channel waveguide to guide an intense laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Hikida, Masafumi; Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bai Jinxiang; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tao Yezheng

    2010-04-15

    We demonstrated the production of an optical waveguide in a capillary discharge-produced plasma using a cylindrical capillary. Plasma parameters of its waveguide were characterized by use of both a Nomarski laser interferometer and a hydrogen plasma line spectrum. A space-averaged maximum temperature of 3.3 eV with electron densities of the order of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} was observed at a discharge time of 150 ns and a maximum discharge current of 400 A. An ultrashort, intense laser pulse was guided by use of this plasma channel.

  15. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-15

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  16. Vacuum laser-initiated plasma shutters for retropulse isolation in Antares

    SciTech Connect

    Sheheen, T.W.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Hyde, J.; Ainsworth, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    We have demonstrated that sintered LiF spatial filters may be used in a 10/sup -6/-torr vacuum environment as laser-initiated plasma shutters for retropulse isolation in the Antares high-energy laser fusion system. In our experiments, a 1.1-ns pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser, at a 10-..mu..m wavelength and an energy of up to 3.0 J, was used for plasma initiation; a chopped probe laser tuned to a 9l6-..mu..m wavelength was used in determining the blocking time of the plasma. We measured the 10.6- and 9.6-..mu..m beam transmissions as a function of fluence on the aperture edge. For an 800-..mu..m-diam aperture and a 1.2-mm-diam Gaussian beam determined at the 1/e/sup 2/ intensity points, we observed blocking times in excess of 1.0 ..mu..s.

  17. Plans for Conditioning Plasma-Facing Components at Initiation of NSTX-U Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, R.; Blanchard, W.; Cai, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Lucia, M.; Rossi, S.; Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J.-P.; Bedoya, F.

    2014-10-01

    The conditioning of plasma-facing components (PFCs) has been critical to the achievement of high performance plasmas in fusion devices. The NSTX-U PFCs will initially consist of graphite. Well-established PFC conditioning will be applied, including high temperature bakeout and glow discharge cleaning (GDC). As in NSTX, the center stack (CS) will be electrically-isolated from the outer vacuum vessel in NSTX-U for coaxial helicity injection (CHI), and this also permits high currents to pass through the CS for baking. Other conditioning techniques are required to further reduce the dominant impurities, which are expected to be carbon and oxygen. Boronization will first be performed, where helium glow discharge cleaning (GDC) is followed by GDC with a mixture of 95% helium and 5% deuterated trimethyl boron (TMB), and another period of helium GDC. This is to be compared with lithiumization, where lithium vapor is evaporated directly on PFC surfaces. The effectiveness of both conditioning techniques has been inferred from plasma measurements subsequent to their application, but the link between them and actual PFC conditions has not been made. The new Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) is intended to do this with in situ analysis of PFC samples exposed to NSTX-U plasmas. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-SC0010717.

  18. Initial speed of knots in the plasma tail of C/2013 R1(Lovejoy)

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Furusho, Reiko; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Koda, Jin; Fujiwara, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    We report short-time variations in the plasma tail of C/2013 R1(Lovejoy). A series of short (2–3 minutes) exposure images with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope shows faint details of filaments and their motions over a 24 minute observing duration. We identified rapid movements of two knots in the plasma tail near the nucleus (∼3×10{sup 5} km). Their speeds are 20 and 25 km s{sup −1} along the tail and 3.8 and 2.2 km s{sup −1} across it, respectively. These measurements set a constraint on an acceleration model of plasma tail and knots as they set the initial speed just after their formation. We also found a rapid narrowing of the tail. After correcting the motion along the tail, the narrowing speed is estimated to be ∼8 km s{sup −1}. These rapid motions suggest the need for high time-resolution studies of comet plasma tails with a large telescope.

  19. Plasma characteristics of argon glow discharge produced by AC power supply operating at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongpiboolkid, Watcharapon; Mongkolnavin, Rattachat

    2015-04-01

    Non-thermal properties of Argon glow discharge operating with various operating pressures were measured and presented in this work. The Argon plasma is produced by a parallel conducting electrodes coupling with a high voltage AC power supply. The power supply can generate high AC voltage at various frequencies. The frequencies for the operation are in the range of a few kHz. The system is capable of generating electric field between the two metal electrodes discharge system. The characteristics of plasma produced were measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique where electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (ne) can be determined by line intensity ratio method. The value of electron number density was then determined from the Saha-Eggert equation. Our results show that the electron number density of the discharge obtained is of the order of 10-17 - 10-18 m-3 where the electron temperature is between 1.00-2.00 eV for various operating frequencies used which are in good agreement with similar results published earlier.

  20. Plasma characteristics of argon glow discharge produced by AC power supply operating at low frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kongpiboolkid, Watcharapon; Mongkolnavin, Rattachat

    2015-04-24

    Non-thermal properties of Argon glow discharge operating with various operating pressures were measured and presented in this work. The Argon plasma is produced by a parallel conducting electrodes coupling with a high voltage AC power supply. The power supply can generate high AC voltage at various frequencies. The frequencies for the operation are in the range of a few kHz. The system is capable of generating electric field between the two metal electrodes discharge system. The characteristics of plasma produced were measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique where electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (n{sub e}) can be determined by line intensity ratio method. The value of electron number density was then determined from the Saha-Eggert equation. Our results show that the electron number density of the discharge obtained is of the order of 10{sup −17} − 10{sup −18} m{sup −3} where the electron temperature is between 1.00−2.00 eV for various operating frequencies used which are in good agreement with similar results published earlier.

  1. Identification of hydrogenlike and heliumlike transitions in the spectrum of laser-produced magnesium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, J. C.; Goldsmith, S.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Knauer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Nonresonance spectral lines of Mg XII and Mg XI emitted by magnesium laser-produced plasmas have been observed in the extreme-vacuum-ultraviolet region and their transitions classified. As many as eight beams of the Omega laser system of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester were linearly focused onto magnesium-coated flat targets to produce linear plasma radiation sources from 3 to 6 mm long. The spectra were photographed end-on with a grazing-incidence spectrograph. The identified Mg XII lines are classified as 2s-3p, 2p-3d, 2s-4p, 2p-4d, and 3d-4f transitions. The identified Mg XI lines are classified as 1s2s-1s3p, 1s2p-1s3d, 1s2p-1s4d, 1s3p-1s4d, and 1s3d-1s4f.

  2. Diamond-like carbon produced by plasma source ion implantation as a corrosion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Taylor, T.N.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    There currently exists a broad range of applications for which the ability to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications include engine components, orthopedic devices, textile manufacturing components, hard disk media, optical coatings, and cutting and machining tools (e.g., punches, taps, scoring dies, and extrusion dies). Ion beam processing can play an important role in all of these technologies. Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional ion implantation by: (1) reducing the time and expense for implanting onto complex shapes and large areas and (2) extending the thickness of the modification zone through ion beam enhanced plasma growth of surface coatings. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma source and then pulse biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for complex-shaped targets without complex fixturing. If the pulse bias is a relatively high negative potential (20 to 100 kV) ion implantation will result. If however, a low voltage (50--1,200 eV) high duty cycle pulse bias is applied, film deposition from the chamber gas will result, thereby increasing the extent of the surface modification into the 1--10 micron regime. To evaluate the potential for DLC to be used as a corrosion barrier, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and traditional electrochemistry techniques were used to investigate the breakdown mechanism in chloride and nonchloride containing environments. The effect of surface preparation on coating breakdown was also evaluated.

  3. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-07

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10⁻⁶Torr to 10²Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d⁹(²D) 4p → 3d⁹(²D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p⁶3d⁸(³P) 4s→ 3p⁶3d⁹ 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  4. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-01

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10-6 Torr to 102 Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d9(2D) 4p → 3d9(2D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p63d8(3P) 4s→ 3p63d9 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  5. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  10. Electron transport and ion acoustic dynamics in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detering, Frank

    In this thesis laser-plasma processes are studied at transport and ion time scales. In order to study these processes the particle-in-cell code QN-PIC with one spatial dimension and three dimensions in velocity space was developed. Collisional effects are included by a Monte Carlo procedure, and an electric field solver based on the quasineutrality condition has been implemented. This allows long time scale simulations without having to resolve the electron plasma frequency. Collisional heating of the electrons in the laser electric field is one of the major restrictions on the time step in particle-in-cell codes. We have developed a collisional heating procedure that is based on a Langevin equation. It utilizes a Fokker-Planck equation that describes heating time averaged over the laser frequency. This procedure, in conjunction with the fast field solver and procedures to represent collisions, allows simulation of long time scale in laser-plasma interactions without the need to resolve the short time scales to ensure numerical stability and suppress numerical artifacts. We have studied in detail homogeneously heated plasmas and the effects of electron-electron collisions and collisional heating on the electron distribution function. We have suggested a nonlocal, nonlinear heat transport model based on a earlier self-consistent nonlocal transport theory that is formally restricted to small (linearized) temperature perturbations. Our model extends this model to the case of finite temperature perturbations. The model is tested successfully in simulations of hot spot relaxation of an initial temperature distribution that corresponds to the instantaneous release of heat into a spatially Gaussian temperature profile and Maxwellian velocity distributions of the electrons. In simulations of collisionally heated hot spots we qualitatively describe the effects of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions on the heat flux and the change of the distribution function due to transport in nonheated regions. For the representation of ion dynamics in QN-PIC we have conducted studies of the two stream instability with counterstreaming electrons and ions. Predicted growth rates of ion sound waves are recovered and we find it possible to study anomalous heating and resistivity in 1D ion sound turbulence. In laser plasmas ion sound turbulence due to the return current instability is thought to be one of the factors in the reduction of heat flux from hot spots. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. A Langmuir Probe Diagnostic for Use in Inhomogeneous, Time-Varying Plasmas Produced by High-Energy Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J R; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B; Jenkins, P P; Trautz, K M; Seiler, S W; Davis, J F

    2012-05-01

    Langmuir probes (LP) are used extensively to characterize plasma environments produced by radio frequency, pulsed plasma thrusters, and laser ablation. We discuss here the development of a LP diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/{micro}s, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  12. Enhancing extreme ultraviolet photons emission in laser produced plasmas for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-08-01

    Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma sources for the next generation extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are increasing EUV power and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO2 laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As a consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our heights package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

  13. Enhancing extreme ultraviolet photons emission in laser produced plasmas for advanced lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-08-15

    Current challenges in the development of efficient laser produced plasma sources for the next generation extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are increasing EUV power and maximizing lifetime and therefore, reducing cost of devices. Mass-limited targets such as small tin droplets are considered among the best choices for cleaner operation of the optical system because of lower mass of atomic debris produced by the laser beam. The small diameter of droplets, however, decreases the conversion efficiency (CE) of EUV photons emission, especially in the case of CO{sub 2} laser, where laser wavelength has high reflectivity from the tin surface. We investigated ways of improving CE in mass-limited targets. We considered in our modeling various possible target phases and lasers configurations: from solid/liquid droplets subjected to laser beam energy with different intensities and laser wavelength to dual-beam lasers, i.e., a pre-pulse followed by a main pulse with adjusted delay time in between. We studied the dependence of vapor expansion rate, which can be produced as a result of droplet heating by pre-pulse laser energy, on target configuration, size, and laser beam parameters. As a consequence, we studied the influence of these conditions and parameters on the CE and debris mass accumulation. For better understanding and more accurate modeling of all physical processes occurred during various phases of laser beam/target interactions, plasma plume formation and evolution, EUV photons emission and collection, we have implemented in our heights package state-of-the art models and methods, verified, and benchmarked against laboratory experiments in our CMUXE center as well as various worldwide experimental results.

  14. Initial operation of a 10 ms, quasi-steady multi-megawatt, coaxial plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuer, J.T.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Henins, I.; Gerwin, R.A.; Garcia, J.A.; Gribble, R.F. ); Mayo, R.M.; Black, D.C. ); Hoyt, R.P. )

    1993-01-20

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Coaxial Thruster Experiment (CTX) has been upgraded to enable the quasi-steady operation of MPD type thrusters at power levels from 1 to 40 MW for 10 ms. Initial diagnostics include an 8 position, 3 axis magnetic field probe to measure magnetic field fluctuations during the pulse, a triple Langmuir probe to measure ion density, electron temperature and plasma potential and a time-of-flight neutral particle spectrometer to measure specific impulse. Here we report on preliminary investigation of long-pulse quasi-steady coaxial thruster performance.

  15. The Ulysses solar wind plasma investigation: Description and initial in-ecliptic results

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S. J.; Phillips, J. L.; McComas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    During the in-ecliptic flight of Ulysses from the Earth toward its encounter with Jupiter, the Los Alamos solar wind plasma experiment has performed well. Briefly described, the instrumentation contains two independent electrostatic analyzers, one for ions and one for electrons. Initial analysis of solar wind electron core temperatures obtained between 1.15 and 3.76 AU yields a gradient of T {proportional to} R{sup {minus}0.7} which is flatter than expected for adiabatic expansion of a single-temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and steeper than that obtained from Mariner-Voyager.

  16. Diagnosing Pulsed Power Produced Plasmas with X-ray Thomson Scattering at the Nevada Terawatt Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Krauland, C.; Mariscal, D.; Krasheninnikov, I.; Beg, F. N.; Wiewior, P.; Covington, A.; Presura, R.; Ma, T.; Niemann, C.; Mabey, P.; Gregori, G.

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental results on X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) to study current driven plasmas. Using the Leopard laser, ~ 30 J and pulse width of 0.8 ns, we generated He- α emission (4.75 keV) from a thin Ti foil. Initial parameter scans showed that the optimum intensity is ~ 1015W/cm2 with a foil thickness of 2 μm for forward X-ray production. Bandwidth measurements of the source, using a HAPG crystal in the Von Hamos configuration, were found to be ΔE/E ~ 0.01. Giving the scattering angle of our experimental setup of 129 degrees and X-ray probing energy, the non-collective regime was accessed. The ZEBRA load was a 3 mm wide, 500 μm thick, and 10 mm long graphite foil, placed at one of the six current return posts. Estimates of the plasma temperature, density and ionization state were made by fitting the scattering spectra with dynamic structure factor calculations based on the random phase approximation for the treatment of charged particle coupling. The work was partially funded by the Department of Energy grant number DE-NA0001995.

  17. Development of critical surface diagnostic based on the ion acoustic decay instability in laser produced high density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.; Craxton, R.S.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    We have developed a large angle, UV collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic for high density, hot plasma relevant to laser fusion. The CTS measured the basic parameters of the plasma waves (frequency, wave number), or the spectral density function for selected wave vectors of plasma waves, which were excited by the IADI (ion acoustic parametric decay instability). It is a good diagnostic tool for a local electron temperature measurement. The electron temperature was estimated by measuring either ion acoustic wave or electron plasma wave in the laser intensity window of 1plasma waves in laser produced high density plasma.

  18. Comparison of initial value and eigenvalue codes for kinetic toroidal plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1994-04-01

    In plasma physics, linear instability calculations can be implemented either as initial value calculations or as eigenvalue calculations. Here, comparisons between comprehensive linear gyrokinetic calculations employing the ballooning formalism for high-n (toroidal mode number) toroidal instabilities are described. One code implements an initial value calculation on a grid using a Lorentz collision operator and the other implements an eigenvalue calculation with basis functions using a Krook collision operator. An electrostatic test case with artificial parameters for the toroidal drift mode destabilized by the combined effects of trapped particles and an ion temperature gradient has been carefully analyzed both in the collisionless limit and with varying collisionality. Good agreement is found. Results from applied studies using parameters from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiment are also compared.

  19. Plasma Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Initially as a Sub-Cutaneous Supra-Orbital Swelling

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Riddhi; Agarwal, Garima; Singh, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm seen usually in patients over 50 years of age. Some cases may be asymptomatic initially and are detected during a routine test like complete blood count. They only require a close follow-up and monitoring. However, around 1% of these monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance progress to multiple myeloma every year and then they need to be taken care of by chemotherapy, targeted therapy, bisphosphonates and 6 monthly urine and bone examinations. Here, we present a case of 35-year-old female with an initial symptom of a vague backache along with a left subcutaneous supra-orbital swelling which was diagnosed as multiple myeloma by aspiration cytology and confirmed by ancillary tests. She has since been on treatment with bortezomib and prednisone and is responding well.

  20. Few femtosecond, few kiloampere electron bunch produced by a laser-plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundh, O.; Lim, J.; Rechatin, C.; Ammoura, L.; Ben-Ismaïl, A.; Davoine, X.; Gallot, G.; Goddet, J.-P.; Lefebvre, E.; Malka, V.; Faure, J.

    2011-03-01

    Particle accelerators driven by the interaction of ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses with a plasma can generate accelerating electric fields of several hundred gigavolts per metre and deliver high-quality electron beams with low energy spread, low emittance and up to 1GeV peak energy. Moreover, it is expected they may soon be able to produce bursts of electrons shorter than those produced by conventional particle accelerators, down to femtosecond durations and less. Here we present wide-band spectral measurements of coherent transition radiation which we use for temporal characterization. Our analysis shows that the electron beam, produced using controlled optical injection, contains a temporal feature that can be identified as a 15pC, 1.4-1.8fs electron bunch (root mean square) leading to a peak current of 3-4kA depending on the bunch shape. We anticipate that these results will have a strong impact on emerging applications such as short-pulse and short-wavelength radiation sources, and will benefit the realization of laboratory-scale free-electron lasers.

  1. X-ray High-resolution Spectroscopy for Laser-produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbato, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.; Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.

    The study of the emission spectrum gives information about the material generating the spectrum itself and the condition in which this is generated. The wavelength spectra lines are linked to the specific element and plasma conditions (electron temperature, density), while their shape is influenced by several physical effects like Stark and Doppler ones. In this work we study the X-ray emission spectra of a copper laser-produced plasma by using a spherical bent crystal spectrometer to measure the electron temperature. The facility used is the laser TVLPS, at the Tor Vergata University in Rome. It consists of a Nd:Glass source (in first harmonic - 1064 nm) whose pulse parameters are: 8 J in energy, time duration of 15 ns and a focal spot diameter of 200 μm. The adopted spectrometer is based on a spherical bent crystal of muscovite. The device combines the focusing property of a spherical mirror with the Bragg's law. This allows to obtain a great power resolution but a limited range of analysis. In our case the resolution is on average 80 eV. As it is well-known, the position of the detector on the Rowland's circle is linked to the specific spectral range which has been studied. To select the area to be investigated, we acquired spectra by means of a flat spectrometer. The selected area is centered on 8.88 Å. To calibrate the spectrum we wrote a ray-tracing MATLAB code, which calculates the detector alignment parameters and calibration curve. We used the method of line ratio to measure the electron temperature. This is possible because we assumed the plasma to be in LTE condition. The temperature value was obtained comparing the experimental one, given by the line ratio, with the theoretical one, preceded by FLYCHK simulations.

  2. Laser produced plasma sources for nanolithography—Recent integrated simulation and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-05-15

    Photon sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are still facing challenging problems to achieve high volume manufacturing in the semiconductor industry. The requirements for high EUV power, longer optical system and components lifetime, and efficient mechanisms for target delivery have narrowed investigators towards the development and optimization of dual-pulse laser sources with high repetition rate of small liquid tin droplets and the use of multi-layer mirror optical system for collecting EUV photons. We comprehensively simulated laser-produced plasma sources in full 3D configuration using 10–50 μm tin droplet targets as single droplets as well as, for the first time, distributed fragmented microdroplets with equivalent mass. The latter is to examine the effects of droplet fragmentation resulting from the first pulse and prior to the incident second main laser pulse. We studied the dependence of target mass and size, laser parameters, and dual pulse system configuration on EUV radiation output and on atomic and ionic debris generation. Our modeling and simulation included all phases of laser target evolution: from laser/droplet interaction, energy deposition, target vaporization, ionization, plasma hydrodynamic expansion, thermal and radiation energy redistribution, and EUV photons collection as well as detail mapping of photons source size and location. We also simulated and predicted the potential damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma thermal and energetic debris and the requirements for mitigating systems to reduce debris fluence. The debris effect on mirror collection system is analyzed using our three-dimensional ITMC-DYN Monte Carlo package. Modeling results were benchmarked against our CMUXE laboratory experimental studies for the EUV photons production and for debris and ions generation.

  3. On the Rydberg transitions and elemental compositions in the laser produced Al (6063) plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Baig, M. A.; Fareed, M. A.; Rashid, B.; Ali, R.

    2011-08-15

    We present new studies on the optical emission spectra of the laser produced Al 6063 alloy plasma generated by the 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser. The spectrum reveals Rydberg transitions; nd {sup 2}D{sub 3/2,5/2}{yields} 3p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} (n = 3 - 8), ns {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields} 3p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} (n 4-6), and the dominant spectral lines of the other constituent elements. We have extracted the relative abundance of the impurities using the relative intensity ratio method. Besides, we have calculated the electron temperature ({approx}7580 K) from the Boltzmann plot method and the electron number densities ({approx}1.4 x 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3}) from the Stark widths of the aluminum spectral lines. The plasma parameters determined in the present work are in agreement with that reported in the literature. The molecular vibrational transitions of the AlO free radical associated with the B {sup 2}{Sigma}{yields}X {sup 2}{Sigma} band system have also been identified.

  4. Simulation of particle velocity in a laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Araghy, Homaira Parchamy; Endo, Akira

    2011-06-15

    In connection with fast heating in a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the superheating behavior of bulk tin (Sn) at high heating rates is investigated. A constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics simulation using modified Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials suitable for studying the liquid structure of Sn is employed in order to derive the caloric curves of the solid and liquid phases. The results have shown transient effects on the phase transitions. Superheating is observed during the melting and vaporizing processes. The velocity distribution of Sn particles against typical laser fluence in a LPP EUV light source has been numerically investigated using a simplified method including a one-dimensional, two-temperature, molecular dynamics, and steady-state ionization model. In the framework of our model, it was found that ejected Sn particles have a maximum velocity on the order of 10 to 40 km/s in plasma created using a nanosecond pre-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.06 {mu}m) laser in EUV lithography experiments.

  5. Laboratory Magnetic Reconnection Experiments with Colliding, Magnetized Laser-Produced Plasma Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W. R., II; Bhattacharjee, A.; Deng, W.; Moissard, C.; Germaschewski, K.; Fiksel, G.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P. Y.; Hu, S.; Nilson, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from experiments and simulations of magnetic reconnection between colliding plumes of laser-produced plasma. In the experiments, which open up a new experimental regime for reconnection study, bubbles of high-temperature, high-density plasma are created by focusing lasers down to sub-millimeter-scale spots on a plastic or metal foil, ionizing the foil into hemispherical bubbles that expand supersonically off the surface of the foil. If multiple bubbles are created at small separation, the bubbles expand into one another, and the embedded magnetic fields (either self-generated or externally imposed) are squeezed together and reconnect. We will review recent experiments, which have observed magnetic field annihilation, outflow jets, particle energization, and the formation of elongated current sheets. We compare the results against experiments with unmagnetized plumes, which observe the Weibel instability as the two plumes collide and interact. Particle-in-cell simulations of the strongly driven reconnection in these experiments show fast reconnection due to two-fluid effects, flux pile-up, and plasmoid formation, and show particle energization by reconnection.

  6. Kinetics of ion and prompt electron emission from laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.; Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian ; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Ding, H.

    2013-07-15

    We investigated ion emission dynamics of laser-produced plasma from several elements, comprised of metals and non-metals (C, Al, Si, Cu, Mo, Ta, W), under vacuum conditions using a Faraday cup. The estimated ion flux for various targets studied showed a decreasing tendency with increasing atomic mass. For metals, the ion flux is found to be a function of sublimation energy. A comparison of temporal ion profiles of various materials showed only high-Z elements exhibited multiple structures in the ion time of flight profile indicated by the observation of higher peak kinetic energies, which were absent for low-Z element targets. The slower ions were seen regardless of the atomic number of target material propagated with a kinetic energy of 1–5 keV, while the fast ions observed in high-Z materials possessed significantly higher energies. A systematic study of plasma properties employing fast photography, time, and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and electron analysis showed that there existed different mechanisms for generating ions in laser ablation plumes. The origin of high kinetic energy ions is related to prompt electron emission from high-Z targets.

  7. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  8. Neutral cluster debris dynamics in droplet-based laser-produced plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, Duane; Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza

    2016-05-01

    The neutral cluster debris dynamics of a droplet-based laser-produced plasma is studied experimentally and analytically. Experiments were done imaging the debris with a high-speed shadowgraph system and using image processing to determine the droplet debris mean radial velocity \\overline{V} dependence on laser pulse irradiance E e. The data shows a power law dependence between the mean radial debris velocity and the incident irradiance giving \\overline{V}\\propto E\\text{e}n with n≈ 0.65 . A scaled analytical model was derived modeling the plasma ablation pressure on the droplet surface as the primary momentum exchange mechanism between the unablated droplet material and the laser pulse. The relationship between droplet debris trajectory and the droplet alignment with the laser was quantified analytically. The derived analytical model determines that the neutral cluster debris trajectory for an ablated droplet is a function of the laser profile f L, the droplet diameter D and the axial misalignment h between the laser axis and the droplet center. The analytical calculations from these models were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. This analysis has practical significance for understanding ablated droplet debris, droplet deformation by laser pulsing, and droplet breakup from very short timescale shocks.

  9. Gaussian energy distribution of fast ions emitted by laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krása, J.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of ion collector signals with the use of a time-of-fight signal function derived from a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution is used to quantify the ion characteristics as the ion temperature and velocity of centre-of-mass motion of groups of ionized species constituting the ablated plasma. The analysis is also focused on velocity and energy distributions derived from the signal of a time-of-flight detector taking into account the underlying principle of sensor operation. The energy Maxwell spectra of ions are compared with the Gauss distribution with respect to the ratio of the centre-of-mass energy of ions to their temperature. The difference threshold between the Gauss and energy Maxwell spectra is determined via the limited validity of the basic relationship between spreads in energy and time-of-flight spectra ½ΔE/E = Δt/t. The analysis of velocity spectrum of fast ions emitted by Ti plasma produced with 300 ps, kJ-class iodine laser operating at PALS facility shows that ion bursts consist of almost monoenergetic ion beams.

  10. Analysis of laser produced plasmas of gold in the 1-7 nm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Yugami, Noboru; Dunne, Padraig; Kilbane, Deirdre; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2014-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from gold laser produced plasmas were recorded in the 1-7 nm region using two Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths of 150 ps and 10 ns, respectively, operating at a range of power densities. The maximum focused peak power density was 9.5 × 1013 W cm-2 for the former and 5.3 × 1012 W cm-2 for the latter. Two intense quasicontinuous intensity bands resulting from n = 4-n = 4 and n = 4-n = 5 unresolved transition arrays dominate the 4-5.5 and 1.5-3.6 nm regions of both spectra. Comparison with atomic structure calculations performed with the Cowan suite of atomic structure codes as well as consideration of previous experimental and theoretical results aided identification of the most prominent features in the spectra. For the ns spectrum, the highest ion stage that could be identified from the n = 4-n = 5 arrays was Au28+ while for the ps plasma the presence of significantly higher stages was deduced and lines due to 4d104f-4d94f2 transitions in Ag-like Au32+ give rise to the strongest observed features within the n = 4-n = 4 array while in the n = 4-n = 5 array it was possible to identify a number of previously unidentified spectral features as resulting from 4f-5g transitions in the spectra of Au XX to Au XXXIII.

  11. Possible role of ionospheric oxygen in the initiation and development of plasma sheet instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Young, D.T.; Birn, J.

    1982-12-01

    We relate measurements made during substorm growth and expansion to available plasma compositional observations and propose that asymmetries in the distribution of enhanced densities of O/sup +/ (of ionospheric origin) may define regions of the plasma sheet in which tearing mode growth rates are increased and the instability threshold is lowered. We make qualitative estimates of the growth rates of the linear ion tearing mode using statistical models of the dusk-dawn and earthward-tailward distributions of O/sup +/. The theoretical results predict maximum ion tearing growth rate in the range X/sub GSM/ = -10 to -15 R/sub E/ and Y/sub GSM/approx.5 R/sub E/. These values are in reasonable accord with substorm observations since many asymmetries in particle and field phenomena associated with substorms favor the interpretation that substorm onset occurs in the dusk sector of the near-earth plasma sheet. Present results therefore suggest that substorm initiation and development may be closely related to distribution patterns of ionospheric ions.

  12. Interstitial fluid, plasma protein, colloid, and leukocyte uptake into initial lymphatics.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, F; Hunt, J; Hanna, G; Schmid-Schönbein, G W

    1996-11-01

    Lymphatics serve to remove from the interstitium a range of materials, including plasma proteins, colloid materials, and cells. Lymph flow rates can be enhanced by periodic tissue compression or venous pressure elevation, but little is known to what degree enhancement of lymph flow affects material transport. The objective was to examine the uptake of plasma proteins, a colloidal perflubron emulsion (LA-11063, mean particle diameter = 0.34 micron), and leukocytes into lymphatics. Prenodal collecting lymphatics in the lower hindlimb of rabbits were cannulated with and without foot massage and after elevation of venous pressure (40 mmHg). The average lymph flow rates were elevated approximately 22-fold by the skin massage but only about threefold by venous pressure elevation. Lymph-to-plasma protein concentration ratio remained unchanged by the massage but decreased significantly after venous pressure elevation. Lymph colloid concentration and leukocyte counts were elevated on average 47 and 8.5 times, respectively, by foot massage, but both decreased after venous pressure elevation. These results suggest that skin movement by massage and elevation of the venous pressure lead to opposite lymph transport kinetics of protein, colloids, and cells. Massage is more effective to enhance material transport out of the interstitium into the initial lymphatics. PMID:8941530

  13. Residual-current excitation in plasmas produced by few-cycle laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Silaev, A A; Vvedenskii, N V

    2009-03-20

    Along with the generation of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation, gas ionization by an intense few-cycle laser pulse can also induce the generation of low-frequency terahertz waves. The latter is caused by the excitation of a residual quasi-dc current in the produced plasma by the electric field of the laser pulse. We describe this phenomenon using the quantum-mechanical approach based on solving the 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We calculate the dependences of the residual-current density on the carrier-envelope phase, duration, and intensity of the few-cycle laser pulse, and find optimal conditions for high-efficiency realization of the studied phenomenon. PMID:19392210

  14. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma.

    PubMed

    Cone, K V; Baldis, H A; Dunn, J; May, M J; Purvis, M A; Schneider, M B; Scott, H A

    2012-10-01

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated by a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in two-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target. PMID:23126959

  15. Features in the ion emission of Cu, Al, and C plasmas produced by ultrafast laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, T. J.; Butler, T.; Walsh, N.; Hayden, P.; Costello, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The bi-modal nature of charge integrated ion kinetic energy distributions, which result from ultrafast laser produced plasmas, is discussed in this paper. A negatively biased Faraday cup was used as a charge collector to measure ion distributions from three different solid targets that had been irradiated with an ultrafast laser in the fluence range 0.1 -1 J/cm 2 . A bi-modal time of flight distribution is found for all three targets (C, Al, and Cu). In the case of the metallic targets (Al and Cu), high- and low-kinetic energy peaks exhibit quite different dependencies on laser fluence, whereas for the semi-metallic target (C), both peaks scale similarly with ultrafast laser fluence. The results are discussed within the framework of a one dimensional capacitor model resulting in ion acceleration.

  16. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A; May, M J; Purvis, M A; Scott, H A; Schneider, M B

    2012-05-02

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  17. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tetsuji Akiyama, Tomoya

    2014-05-07

    Magnets of Co-Zr-B, one of the permanent magnetic compounds without rare-earth elements, were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering method. The resultant Co-Zr-B magnets had high densities of 92%–96% and consisted mainly of the Co{sub x}Zr (x ≈ 5) phase. The coercivity of the Co-Zr-B magnets was highly dependent on the consolidation temperature and the boron content. The highest maximum energy product of 6.0 MGOe, with a remanence of 6.4 kG and the coercivity of 4.0 kOe, was achieved by the Co{sub 80}Zr{sub 18}B{sub 2} magnets consolidated at 873 K.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet light sources and soft x-ray laser based on discharge produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Sakai, Yusuke; Hayashi, Yasushi; Niimi, Gohta; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Qiushi; Song, Inho; Watanabe, Masato

    2015-07-01

    Due to the demand to realize shorter wavelength light sources, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources and soft x-ray laser (SXRL) are under development. The development of EUV sources at the wavelength of 13.5 nm started to realize light sources to be used for next generation lithography. Xenon was used at the beginning of development, however, to attain higher conversion efficiency, tin is now used as fuel. As a coherent light source, capillary discharge SXRL is under development. After the demonstration of Ne-like Ar SXRL by using electron collisional excitation scheme, the effort to shorten the wavelength has been made by adopting recombination scheme such as H-like N. Though the challenge has not yet been successful, the source has potential to be used as a SXR source in the water window wavelength region. Current status of EUV and SXR sources based on discharge produced plasma will be given.

  19. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  20. Ultrafine grained high density manganese zinc ferrite produced using polyol process assisted by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudisson, T.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Valenzuela, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the polyol process and their consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique at relatively low temperature and short time, namely 500 °C for 10 min. NPs were obtained as perfectly epitaxied aggregated nanoclusters forming a kind of spherical pseudo-single-crystals of about 40 nm in size. The results on NPs consolidation by SPS underlined the importance of this clustering on the grain growth mechanism. Grain growth proceeds by coalescing nanocrystalline aggregates into single grain of almost the same average size, thus leading to a high density ceramic. Due to magnetic exchange interactions between grains, the produced ceramic does not exhibit thermal relaxation whereas their precursor polyol-made NPs are superparamagnetic.

  1. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  2. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngießer, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  3. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie; Cowan, Thomas E.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Rassuchine, Jennifer

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  4. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:25832284

  5. Gas dynamic effects on formation of carbon dimers in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2011-09-26

    We investigated the effect of helium and nitrogen pressures on the dynamics of molecular species formation during laser ablation of carbon. For producing plasmas, planar carbon targets were irradiated with 1064 nm, 6 ns pulses from an Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The emission from excited C{sub 2} and CN molecules was studied using space resolved optical time-of-flight emission spectroscopy and spectrally resolved fast imaging. The intensity oscillations in C{sub 2} and CN monochromatic fast imaging and their emission space-time contours suggest that recombination is the major mechanism of C{sub 2} formation within the laser ablation carbon plumes in the presence of ambient gas.

  6. Study of Ozone-Initiated Limonene Reaction Products by Low Temperature Plasma Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørgaard, Asger W.; Vibenholt, Anni; Benassi, Mario; Clausen, Per Axel; Wolkoff, Peder

    2013-07-01

    Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products were investigated in situ by low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry. Helium was used as discharge gas and the protruding plasma generated ~850 ppb ozone in front of the glass tube by reaction with the ambient oxygen. Limonene applied to filter paper was placed in front of the LTP afterglow and the MS inlet. Instantly, a wide range of reaction products appeared, ranging from m/ z 139 to ca. 1000 in the positive mode and m/ z 115 to ca. 600 in the negative mode. Key monomeric oxidation products including levulinic acid, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene, limonene oxide, 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal, and the secondary ozonide of limonene could be identified by collision-induced dissociation. Oligomeric products ranged from the nonoxidized dimer of limonene (C20H30) and up to the hexamer with 10 oxygen atoms (C60H90O10). The use of LTP for in situ ozonolysis and ionization represents a new and versatile approach for the assessment of ozone-initiated terpene chemistry.

  7. Study of ozone-initiated limonene reaction products by low temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Asger W; Vibenholt, Anni; Benassi, Mario; Clausen, Per Axel; Wolkoff, Peder

    2013-07-01

    Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products were investigated in situ by low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry. Helium was used as discharge gas and the protruding plasma generated ~850 ppb ozone in front of the glass tube by reaction with the ambient oxygen. Limonene applied to filter paper was placed in front of the LTP afterglow and the MS inlet. Instantly, a wide range of reaction products appeared, ranging from m/z 139 to ca. 1000 in the positive mode and m/z 115 to ca. 600 in the negative mode. Key monomeric oxidation products including levulinic acid, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene, limonene oxide, 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal, and the secondary ozonide of limonene could be identified by collision-induced dissociation. Oligomeric products ranged from the nonoxidized dimer of limonene (C20H30) and up to the hexamer with 10 oxygen atoms (C60H90O10). The use of LTP for in situ ozonolysis and ionization represents a new and versatile approach for the assessment of ozone-initiated terpene chemistry. PMID:23666602

  8. Physical and chemical properties of dust produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} RF plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ouni, F.; Alcouffe, G.; Szopa, C.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Adande, G.; Thissen, R.; Quirico, E.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Laprevote, O.

    2008-09-07

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} mixture. The produced solid particles are analysed ex-situ. Chemical properties are deduced from: elemental composition, FTIR and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Optical properties are deduced from reflectivity in visible and IR range.

  9. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  10. Investigation of temporal-resolved emission spectra of highly charged Al ions from laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, M. G.; Cao, S. Q.; Sun, D. X.; Min, Q.; Dong, C. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Temporal evolution of extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced aluminum (Al) plasma has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. Al plasmas have been measured by using the temporal-spatially resolved laser-produced plasma technique. The emission lines can be identified from 2p-3s, 3d, 4s, 4d, 5d transition lines from Al3+ to Al6+ ions. In order to quickly diagnose the plasma, the assumptions of a normalized Boltzmann distribution among the excited states and a steady-state collisional-radiative model are used to estimate the values of electron temperature and electron density in plasma. We succeeded in reproducing the simulated spectra related to the different time delays, which are in good agreement with experiments. Temporal evolution behavior of highly charged Al ions in plasma has been analyzed, and the exponential decay about electron temperature and electron density has been obtained. The results indicate that the temporal-spatially resolved measurement is essential for accurate understanding of evolution behavior of highly charged ions in laser-produced plasmas.

  11. Laser Produced Plasmas as a Source of Ions, Protons and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanuik, Robert

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily focused on the use of a laser produced plasma as a source of protons, ions and X-rays. It explores high impact applications of both high power ultrafast lasers and nanosecond lasers. Section 1 gives a general introduction to the physics governing the experiments and the lasers in the following sections. Section 2 describes all the laser systems used in this thesis. Section 3 is covers two different experiments involving the generation of X-rays from a laser produced plasma. Section 4 describes a laser accelerated proton experiment conducted in the Center for Plasma Research in Queens University Belfast, using the TARANIS laser system. In this experiment 13 MeV protons were accelerated from10 μm gold foil targets into a sample of BK-7 glass. The interaction of the protons with the glass were observed by taking spatially resolved images of the transient opacity induced by the protons interacting with the BK-7 Glass and an optical probe beam. These spatially resolved images are presented in Section 4.3. Section 5 describes the refurbishment of the 1-m normal incidence VUV spectrometer. It describes the replacement of a photographic plate based detection system with a linear CCD array. The CCD array can detect the VUV radiation through a sodium salicylate phosphor coating which emits at 410 nm on interacting with VUV radiation. Different phosphors are compared in terms of sensitivity and ease of coating and the grounds for choosing sodium salicylate are explained. The adaptations to the spectrometer to use the linear CCD array are described and the details on calibrating the spectrometer are explained. Finally, Section 6 describes a set of spectroscopic experiments which use the refurbished 1-m normal incidence spectrometer. First Section 6.2 describes a repeat of the photoabsorption of indium and indium plus which was conducted previously on the spectrometer. This was designed as a proof of principle of the working of the new phosphor based linear CCD array system. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. Structure and properties of commercially pure titanium nitrided in the plasma of a low-pressure gas discharge produced by a PINK plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yu F.; Akhmadeev, Yu H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Petrikova, E. A.; Krysina, V.; Koval, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The paper analyzes the surface structure and properties of commercially pure VT1-0 titanium nitrided in the plasma of a low-pressure gas discharge produced by a PINK plasma generator. The analysis demonstrates that the friction coefficient of the nitrided material decreases more than four times and its wear resistance and microhardness increases more than eight and three times, respectively. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of strength and tribological properties of the material are discussed.

  13. Initial Studies of Validation of MHD Models for MST Reversed Field Pinch Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, C. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Craig, D.; McCollam, K. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Triana, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative validation of visco-resistive MHD models for RFP plasmas takes advantage of MST's advanced diagnostics. These plasmas are largely governed by MHD relaxation activity, so that a broad range of validation metrics can be evaluated. Previous nonlinear simulations using the visco-resistive MHD code DEBS at Lundquist number S = 4 ×106 produced equilibrium relaxation cycles in qualitative agreement with experiment, but magnetic fluctuation amplitudes b~ were at least twice as large as in experiment. The extended-MHD code NIMROD previously suggested that a two-fluid model may be necessary to produce b~ in agreement with experiment. For best comparisons with DEBS and to keep computational expense tractable, NIMROD is run in single-fluid mode at low S. These simulations are complemented by DEBS at higher S in cylindrical geometry, which will be used to examine b~ as a function of S. Experimental measurements are used with results from these simulations to evaluate validation metrics. Convergence tests of previous high S DEBS simulations are also discussed, along with benchmarking of DEBS and NIMROD with the SPECYL and PIXIE3D codes. Work supported by U.S. DOE and NSF.

  14. Microstructure of the nitride layer of AISI 316 stainless steel produced by intensified plasma assisted processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J. C.; Meletis, E. I.

    2000-10-01

    Nitrided austenitic 316 stainless steel produced by intensified plasma assisted processing has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and image simulation techniques. Cross-sectional TEM studies showed that the nitride layer is composed of a single phase that was found to possess a simple cubic structure. This nitride is produced by introducing one N atom into one of the interstitial sites of the octahedra within the unit cell of the γ-austenite. The lattice constant of the nitrided simple cubic structure was determined to be a=3.78 Å, which is expanded by about 5.4% from that of austenite. Stacking faults, antiphase domains, and antiphase domain boundaries in the nitride layer were observed using dark-field and high-resolution TEM imaging. The evolution of the nitride phase seems to be preceded by lattice expansion and formation of stacking faults due to the presence of N and is consistent with the observed lattice constant reduction with depth.

  15. From the regulatory functions of B cells to the identification of cytokine-producing plasma cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Dang, Van Duc; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Ries, Stefanie; Shen, Ping; Fillatreau, Simon

    2014-06-01

    B lymphocytes have a unique role as antibody-producing cells. Antibodies are key mediators of humoral immunity against infections, and are thought to account for the protection afforded by successful vaccines. B cells can also secrete cytokines and subsequently regulate immune responses mediated by T and innate cells. Remarkably, recent studies identified plasma blasts/plasma cells as the main types of activated B cells producing the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-35, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, and GM-CSF in various contexts in mice. Here, we discuss these observations, which suggest the existence of various subsets of plasma blast/plasma cells distinguishable through their cytokine expression pattern. PMID:24637161

  16. Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min; Bennett, Murray S.; Yang, Liyou

    1999-08-24

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  17. Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min; Bennett, Murray S.; Yang, Liyou

    1997-07-08

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  18. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOEpatents

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  19. Large-Scale Filamentary Structures in Laser-Produced Plasmas as a Sign of Strong Magnetic Field Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    1998-11-01

    The method [1] of multilevel dynamical contrasting is applied to available database from experiments on interaction of a powerful short-pulsed laser beam with a flat target. It was found from processing the soft X-ray images that the expanding plasma produces a dynamical filamentary structures, a long-living ones as compared to inertial lifetimes of plasma inhomogeneities in laser-produced plasmas. Such a structuring appears to be similar to the networking of filamented electric currents in high-current gaseous discharges (dense Z-pinch [1] and plasma focus [2]). The structuring disclosed suggests a view into the role of electric current filamentation in the following phenomena in laser-produced plasmas: (i) generation of a strong magnetic field by the strong filamentary electric currents; (ii) formation of closed electric currents and large-scale closed magnetic configurations; (iii) axial stratification of the emerging dense Z-pinch; (iv) formation of long-range bonds between the core and the periphery of expanding plasma. [1] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Laser and Particle Beams, 16(3) 1998 (to be published). [2] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Terentiev A.R., Fusion Technology, 32 (1997) 83.

  20. Neutropenia-associated ELANE mutations disrupting translation initiation produce novel neutrophil elastase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Tidwell, Timothy; Wechsler, Jeremy; Nayak, Ramesh C.; Trump, Lisa; Salipante, Stephen J.; Cheng, Jerry C.; Donadieu, Jean; Glaubach, Taly; Corey, Seth J.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Lutzko, Carolyn; Cancelas, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neutropenia is usually caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the ELANE gene encoding neutrophil elastase (NE). How mutations cause disease remains uncertain, but two hypotheses have been proposed. In one, ELANE mutations lead to mislocalization of NE. In the other, ELANE mutations disturb protein folding, inducing an unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we describe new types of mutations that disrupt the translational start site. At first glance, they should block translation and are incompatible with either the mislocalization or misfolding hypotheses, which require mutant protein for pathogenicity. We find that start-site mutations, instead, force translation from downstream in-frame initiation codons, yielding amino-terminally truncated isoforms lacking ER-localizing (pre) and zymogen-maintaining (pro) sequences, yet retain essential catalytic residues. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulate hematopoietic and molecular phenotypes. Expression of the amino-terminally deleted isoforms in vitro reduces myeloid cell clonogenic capacity. We define an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within ELANE and demonstrate that adjacent mutations modulate IRES activity, independently of protein-coding sequence alterations. Some ELANE mutations, therefore, appear to cause neutropenia via the production of amino-terminally deleted NE isoforms rather than by altering the coding sequence of the full-length protein. PMID:24184683

  1. Neutropenia-associated ELANE mutations disrupting translation initiation produce novel neutrophil elastase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Timothy; Wechsler, Jeremy; Nayak, Ramesh C; Trump, Lisa; Salipante, Stephen J; Cheng, Jerry C; Donadieu, Jean; Glaubach, Taly; Corey, Seth J; Grimes, H Leighton; Lutzko, Carolyn; Cancelas, Jose A; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-23

    Hereditary neutropenia is usually caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the ELANE gene encoding neutrophil elastase (NE). How mutations cause disease remains uncertain, but two hypotheses have been proposed. In one, ELANE mutations lead to mislocalization of NE. In the other, ELANE mutations disturb protein folding, inducing an unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we describe new types of mutations that disrupt the translational start site. At first glance, they should block translation and are incompatible with either the mislocalization or misfolding hypotheses, which require mutant protein for pathogenicity. We find that start-site mutations, instead, force translation from downstream in-frame initiation codons, yielding amino-terminally truncated isoforms lacking ER-localizing (pre) and zymogen-maintaining (pro) sequences, yet retain essential catalytic residues. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulate hematopoietic and molecular phenotypes. Expression of the amino-terminally deleted isoforms in vitro reduces myeloid cell clonogenic capacity. We define an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within ELANE and demonstrate that adjacent mutations modulate IRES activity, independently of protein-coding sequence alterations. Some ELANE mutations, therefore, appear to cause neutropenia via the production of amino-terminally deleted NE isoforms rather than by altering the coding sequence of the full-length protein. PMID:24184683

  2. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  3. Initial duct growth determined from cold-start plasma-line data recorded at Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldrew, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    The initial development of the HF-enhanced plasma line in a cold ionosphere is investigated. The plasma line is first observed after 3 ms very close to the HF-reflection height and not at the height expected from weak-turbulence theory in a uniformly varying ionosphere. Natural field-aligned ducts with a diameter of a few meters or more can trap Langmuir waves (L waves) generated by the parametric decay instability and propagating nearly parallel to the magnetic field B. The ponderomotive force of the trapped L waves near the highest HF interference maximum causes electrons to be expelled parallel to B and ions to be expelled perpendicular to B. The ion gyroradius is comparable to the smallest duct diameter than can trap L waves. Since it only takes a few milliseconds for the ions to move at their thermal velocity across the duct, the duct can grow in a few milliseconds to a level where L waves capable of backscattering the Arecibo radar can be trapped. Duct growth is eventually limited by Landau damping and/or escape of the ducted L waves.

  4. Excimer v. Nd:YAG: comparative analysis of initial ultrastructural alterations produced by two distinct lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevorotin, Alexey J.

    1990-09-01

    Fine structural alteratious produced iediate1y after irradiation with either XeC1 excimer or Nd:Y.AG laser have been studied in rat liver samples processed histochemically for glucose-6-phosphatase (GP) activity, a marker enzyme for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. General vesiculation of ER along with moderate inactivation of GP was apparent following excimer lazing which contrasted with better structural but poorer enzymatic preservation of ER in the hepatocytes irradiated with Nd:YAG laser. c'i the basis of this and our recent study. (A. Nevorotin, M. Kul 1 . 1989. Arch. Pathol . v. 51, N 7, pp. 63'TO ) a conclus ion is drawn on a potential surgical advantage of excimer laser over its Nd:YAG counterpart due presumably to lesser extent of cellular and macromolecular damage implicative in the process of healing of laser-inflicted lesions. A mechanism of ER vesiculation is considered in the iignt of probable dynamic impact transferred to the ER membranes by excimer irradiation by analogy with other nign energy mechanical forces (e.g. nign gravitation or ultrasonication) known to interfere with membrane structural organization.

  5. Aqueous-Based Latex Systems for Producing Durable Waste Forms-Initial Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Troy N.; Russell, Renee L. ); Smith, Harry D. ); Liang, Liang ); Smith, Gary L. )

    2000-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to identify and successfully demonstrate a water-based polyceram system suitable for producing an environmentally stable waste form highly loaded with salt wastes. The backbone for this idea is the development of aqueous based sol-gel technology. Most interest in sol-gel synthesis of ceramics in recent years has concentrated on the hydrolysis of metal alkoxides in organic media, but the alternative sol-gel process in aqueous media may offer acceptable results without the need for hazardous precursors or waste products. To accomplish this, water micelle (like an emulsion) systems will be substituted for the organic based systems already identified. Preliminary tests show that emulsions such as Styrene/Butadiene and Acrylic latex are good candidates for the aqueous media. Both of these materials when mixed with a percentage of natural latex have been shown to effectively immobilize salt wastes with loadings over 10 wt%. The low cost, availability, and ease of preparation (low temperature of cure) of these products makes them strong contenders as a waste form. Techniques for improving both chemical and physical properties, such as adding cross-linking agents and fine-tuning the curing process, are currently in development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories along with collaboration with staff from the University of Arizona.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by a combination of suspension plasma spray and very low pressure plasma spray.

    SciTech Connect

    Slamovich, Elliot; Fleetwood, James; McCloskey, James F.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Trice, Rodney Wayne

    2010-07-01

    Plasma spray coating techniques allow unique control of electrolyte microstructures and properties as well as facilitating deposition on complex surfaces. This can enable significantly improved solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), including non-planar designs. SOFCs are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. However, electrolytes deposited using conventional plasma spray are porous and often greater than 50 microns thick. One solution to form dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs is to combine suspension plasma spray (SPS) with very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS). Increased compositional control is achieved due to dissolved dopant compounds in the suspension that are incorporated into the coating during plasma spraying. Thus, it is possible to change the chemistry of the feed stock during deposition. In the work reported, suspensions of sub-micron diameter 8 mol.% Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) powders were sprayed on NiO-YSZ anodes at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Thermal Spray Research Laboratory (TSRL). These coatings were compared to the same suspensions doped with scandium nitrate at 3 to 8 mol%. The pressure in the chamber was 2.4 torr and the plasma was formed from a combination of argon and hydrogen gases. The resultant electrolytes were well adhered to the anode substrates and were approximately 10 microns thick. The microstructure of the resultant electrolytes will be reported as well as the electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system via potentiodynamic testing and impedance spectroscopy.

  7. Optical transmission and reflection of a plasma produced in nanosecond laser induced air breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, M. H.; Akbari J., M.; Bababei, Z.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate dynamics of optical breakdown in air induced by a pump- probe laser beam technique. The optical breakdown was generated by an Nd:YAG laser beam (operating at 10 ns pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength). A small part of the beam was separated from the main beam by an optical splitter and was aligned to probe the breakdown plasma transversely. Monitoring the time resolved reflectivity from the breakdown plasma may give information on critical density and together with its transmittivity through the plasma provides information on plasma absorptivity. The results of this experiment can be also used to describe dynamics of breakdown plasma evolution.

  8. Development of a collective Thomson scattering system for laser-produced tin plasmas for extreme-ultraviolet light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Kentaro; Sato, Yuta; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Wada, Yasunori; Kunishima, Masahito; Kodama, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) of laser-produced Sn plasmas for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light sources have been obtained using a new collective Thomson scattering system, which has been optimized for the measurement of the ion feature spectrum. The system has an 18 pm spectral resolution, a 5 ns temporal resolution, a 50 µm spatial resolution, and sufficient stray-light rejection near the probing laser wavelength. With this system, measurements of the laser-produced Sn plasmas in the parameter ranges of 3 × 1023 < ne < 1025 m-3 and 10 < Te < 20 eV have been performed.

  9. The application of photoconductive detectors to the measurement of x-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, D.R.; Bell, P.; Trebes, J.

    1987-08-01

    Photoconductive detectors (PCDs) offer an attractive alternative for the measurement of pulsed x-rays from laser produced plasmas. These devices are fast (FWHM approx.100 ps), sensitive and simple to use. We have used InP, GaAs, and Type IIa diamond as PCDs to measure x-rays emission from 100 eV to 100 keV. Specifically, we have used these detectors to measure total radiation yields, corona temperatures, and hot electron generated x-rays from laser produced plasmas. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Triglycerides produced in the livers of fasting rabbits are predominantly stored as opposed to secreted into the plasma

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Chinkes, David L.; Wang, Lijian; Wu, Zhanpin; Rodriguez, Noe A.; Herndon, David N.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The liver plays a central role in regulating fat metabolism; however, it is not clear how the liver distributes the synthesized triglycerides (TGs) to storage and to the plasma. Materials and Methods We have measured the relative distribution of TGs produced in the liver to storage and the plasma by means of U-13C16-palmitate infusion in anesthetized rabbits after an overnight fast. Results The fractional synthesis rates of TGs stored in the liver and secreted into the plasma were not significantly different (Stored vs. Secreted: 31.9 ± 0.8 vs. 27.7 ± 2.6 %•h−1, p > 0.05. However, the absolute synthesis rates of hepatic stored and secreted TGs were 543 ± 158 and 27 ± 7 nmol·kg−1·min−1 respectively, indicating that in fasting rabbits the TGs produced in the liver were predominately stored (92±3%) rather than secreted (8±3%) into the plasma. This large difference was mainly due to the larger pool size of the hepatic TGs which was 21±9-fold that of plasma TGs. Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) contributed 47±1% of the FA precursor for hepatic TG synthesis, and the remaining 53±1% was derived from hepatic lipid breakdown and possibly plasma TGs depending on the activity of hepatic lipase. Plasma palmitate concentration significantly correlated with hepatic palmitoyl-CoA and TG synthesis. Conclusion In rabbits, after an overnight fast, the absolute synthesis rate of hepatic stored TGs was significantly higher than that of secreted due to the larger pool size of hepatic TGs. The net synthesis rate of TG was approximately half the absolute rate. Plasma FFA is a major determinant of hepatic TG synthesis, and therefore hepatic TG storage. PMID:25682063

  11. Structure and surface correlations to the optical properties of nonthermal plasma-produced silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Rebecca Joy

    Nanomaterials have diverse capabilities to enable new technology and to deepen our understanding of our world, providing exciting prospects for scientists and the public alike in a vast span of uses. In the past decade, however, the potential held by nanotechnology has been reframed in the context of helping to slow global climate change and to alter the ways in which we use our energy to reflect more efficient technology and renewable energy sources. Silicon is a standout material in this new framework: as a nanomaterial, silicon can emit light when exposed to an applied voltage or ultraviolet optical excitation source. Silicon nanocrystals also exhibit size-dependent light emission, due to quantum confinement. This thesis is an exploration of the synthesis and processing parameters that affect the optical performance of silicon nanocrystals produced in a nonthermal plasma reactor. The efficiency of this light emission is sensitive to both synthesis environment and post-synthesis treatment. The work presented here is an attempt to deepen our understanding of the effects of different reactor and treatment parameters on the light emission efficiency from silicon nanoparticles, such that the luminescence behavior of the nanoparticles can be specifically engineered. Being able to fine-tune the structure, surface, and optical characteristics of the silicon nanocrystals is key in maximizing their use in luminescence applications. For all of the experiments described here, a nonthermal plasma flow-through reactor has been used to create the silicon nanoparticles. Silane gas is dissociated in the plasma and fragments come together to form silicon clusters, then grow to create nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were collected from the reactor for further processing, characterization, and experiments. The first discovery in this project was that by adjusting the power to the plasma reactor, the crystallinity of the silicon particles can be tuned: low power results in amorphous silicon nanoparticles, and high power yields crystalline nanoparticles. Even more important, the crystallinity of a nanoparticle ensemble relates directly to the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, or quantum yield, from the ensemble: crystalline silicon nanoparticle samples, after alkyl functionalization, exhibit PL efficiencies of 40% or greater, while amorphous samples emit light with very poor efficiency (<2%). Additional studies of the plasma reactor revealed the importance of injecting a flow of hydrogen gas into the afterglow of the plasma, which turns out to have dramatic implications for the ultimate PL quantum yields of the nanocrystals. This injection scheme was systematically studied by varying the injected gas and its position. Hydrogen injected directly into the plasma afterglow was found to be vital for achieving high quantum-yield silicon nanocrystals, likely due to a reduction in surface trap states due to additional hydrogen passivation at the nanocrystal surface. Further investigations into the nanocrystal surface and how it relates to PL quantum yield showed that the photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals is not only dependent on synthesis parameters, but also on processing temperatures and procedures following synthesis. While the highest PL efficiencies are found for silicon nanocrystals capped with alkyl chains, the PL efficiency of a nanocrystal ensemble can also be improved simply by heating the sample to temperatures between 150-200° C. This heating step also leads to a change in the hydride structure at the nanocrystal surface, which appears to be brought about by the effusion of silyl (or disilane) groups. Finally, details of the construction of a silicon-nanocrystal-based LED will be discussed. The LED project is part of a collaboration, and while the majority of device-specific aspects of the project were carried out in the lab of Professor R. Holmes by his Ph.D. student Kai-Yuan Cheng, the processing and alterations made to the nanocrystals used in the LED were all the responsibility of the author. The details of the project and a summary of the results bear discussion here in this thesis, as well as outlining of a novel scheme for deposition of SiNCs for device construction.

  12. Calibration of a flat field soft x-ray grating spectrometer for laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E W; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-10-01

    We have calibrated the x-ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range of ∼6-60 Å. The calibration results presented here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from the hydrogenlike and heliumlike ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x-ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer. PMID:21034017

  13. Rapid, absolute calibration of x-ray filters employed by laser-produced plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Emig, J; Frankel, M; Gu, M F; Heeter, R F; Magee, E; Thorn, D B; Widmann, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S

    2008-10-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of x-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen x-ray energies. X rays are detected using the high resolution EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. X-ray filter transmission efficiency is determined by dividing the x-ray counts detected when the filter is in the line of sight by those detected when out of the line of sight. Verification of filter thickness can be completed in only a few hours, and absolute efficiencies can be calibrated in a single day over a broad range from about 0.1 to 15 keV. The EBIT calibration lab has been used to field diagnostics (e.g., the OZSPEC instrument) with fully calibrated x-ray filters at the OMEGA laser. Extensions to use the capability for calibrating filter transmission for the DANTE instrument on the National Ignition Facility are discussed. PMID:19044471

  14. Characterization of gas targets for laser produced extreme ultraviolet plasmas with a Hartmann-Shack sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Peth, Christian; Kranzusch, Sebastian; Mann, Klaus; Vioel, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    A table top extreme ultraviolet (EUV)-source was developed at Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen for the characterization of optical components and sensoric devices in the wavelength region from 11 to 13 nm. EUV radiation is generated by focusing the beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser into a pulsed xenon gas jet. Since a directed gas jet with a high number density is needed for an optimal performance of the source, conical nozzles with different cone angles were drilled with an excimer laser to produce a supersonic gas jet. The influence of the nozzle geometry on the gas jet was characterized with a Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor. The deformation of a planar wave front after passing the gas jet was analyzed with this sensor, allowing a reconstruction of the gas density distribution. Thus, the gas jet was optimized resulting in an increase of EUV emission by a factor of two and a decrease of the plasma size at the same time.

  15. Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yar, Mazher Ahmed; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, Hanadi G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    High purity W and W-0.9La 2O 3 (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 °C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (W-O-La) in the sintered metals.

  16. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-10-15

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10{sup 14} to 1.8 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

  17. Rapid, Absolute Calibration of X-ray Filters Employed By Laser-Produced Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Emig, J; Frankel, M; Gu, M F; Heeter, R F; Magee, E; Thorn, D B; Widmann, K; . Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S

    2008-05-11

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of X-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen X-ray energies. X-rays are detected using the high-resolution EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. X-ray filter transmission efficiency is determined by dividing the X-ray counts detected when the filter is in the line of sight by those detected when out of the line of sight. Verification of filter thickness can be completed in only a few hours, and absolute efficiencies can be calibrated in a single day over a broad range from about 0.1 to 15 keV. The EBIT calibration lab has been used to field diagnostics (e.g., the OZSPEC instrument) with fully calibrated X-ray filters at the OMEGA laser. Extensions to use the capability for calibrating filter transmission for the DANTE instrument on the National Ignition Facility are discussed.

  18. Space resolved XUV and NUV spectra from a KrF laser-produced plasma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, E. J.; Griem, H. R.; Elton, R.; Welch, B. L.

    1997-11-01

    We use a KrF laser that generates pulses of 10^15 watt/cm^2 when focused onto graphite and boron nitride targets. We study the emitted light of the laser produced plasmas in the XUV and near UV region of the spectrum. For the XUV we use a 1-m grazing incidence spectrograph equipped with a crossed slit that allows us to measure the space resolved spectra of CVI, CV, BV, BIV. Line profiles will be shown together with 1D simulations. In the NUV we do polarization spectroscopy to measure the Zeeman splitting on n=2,Δ n=0 ; lines of helium-like carbon and boron ions. We measured simultaneously the σ ; and π components of the lines, with a 0.5; Å resolution, to discriminate against Stark and Doppler broadening. We used a 2D Peltier-cooled intensified CCD in order to optimize our signal to noise ratio, as compared with former measurements(APS Bulletin,38^th) DPP,9p33, 1996. Results of the measured magnetic field, as a function of distance from the target surface, as infered from the measured line profiles including Stark and Doppler broadening, will be discussed. E.J.Iglesias-Perm.Address.Universidad-Simón- Bolívar,Venezuela

  19. Fast Initiation and Mode Transition of Radio Frequency Induction Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure Using Tungsten Pin Electrodes Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzak, M. Abdur; Takamura, Shuichi; Ohno, Noriyasu

    The effects of using an array of tungsten pin electrodes on the ignition dynamics of radio frequency (rf) discharges generated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique at atmospheric pressure are investigated experimentally. The experimental observations reveal that the array of tungsten pin electrodes successfully enhance the initial discharges maintained by the strong electrostatic field with stable and fast ignition, which enables us to sustain efficient rf induction plasmas at atmospheric pressure range.

  20. Surface plasma preionization produced on a specially patterned PCB and its application in a pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Pakmanesh, Nahid; Rastegari, Ali; Abdolghader, Pedram; Feizollah, Peyman; Siadati, Neda

    2016-04-01

    The performance of an atmospheric pressure pulsed carbon dioxide laser employing surface plasma preionization, produced on a specially patterned printed circuit board (PCB), is reported. The surface plasma is formed due to many tiny plasma channels produced in millimeter sized open circular gaps, made by lithography on one side of PCB. The preionizing plasma is mostly consisted of corona or glow stage and transition to spark one hardly occurs. This type of preionization allows a maximum of 220 J/l energy deposition into the main plasma, while up scaling is yet possible by more optimization of PCB and the pattern. The laser output energy of 1.2 J per pulse with overall efficiency of 7% has been obtained with gas mixture of He:CO2:N2=3:1:1. This type of surface plasma preionization is specifically appropriate for very large volumes and high pressures, where the conventional UV emitting preionizations like spark arrays or corona are not effective.

  1. Collision of an Arched Plasma-Filled Flux Rope with a Target Cloud of Initially Neutral Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Bellan, Paul M.

    2015-11-01

    The Caltech solar loop experiment apparatus had been used to create an arched plasma-filled flux rope that expands to collide with a pre-injected initially-neutral gas. We investigated such a situation in two regimes: (i) plasma made by heavy gas impacting a much lighter neutral gas cloud and (ii) a light-gas plasma impacting much heavier neutral gas. The neutral gas became ionized immediately upon impact. In regime (i), multiple shock layers were formed in the target cloud; these magnetized collisionless shocks are relevant to solar physics as such shocks develop ahead of Coronal Mass Ejections and occur in Co-rotating Interaction Regions. In regime (ii), plasma expansion was inhibited. In both cases, fast camera images, magnetic probe measurements, and spectroscopy data will be reported. The analysis of plasma and shock expansion, as well as associated density and temperature changes, will be presented.

  2. Experimental study of the behavior of two laser produced plasmas in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zefeng; Wei, Wenfu; Han, Jiaxun; Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli

    2015-07-01

    The interactions among two laser ablated Al plasmas and their shock wave fronts (SWFs) induced by double laser pulses in air were studied experimentally. The evolution processes, including the expansion and interaction of the two plasmas and their shocks, were investigated by laser shadowgraphs, schlieren images, and interferograms. Remarkably, the distribution of the compressed air and the laser plasmas during the colliding process was clearly obtained using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From the refractive index profiles, typical plasmas density and gas density behind the shock front were estimated as ˜5.2 × 1018 cm-3 and ˜2.4 × 1020 cm-3. A stagnation layer formed by the collision of gas behind the shock front is observed. The SWFs propagated, collided, and reflected with a higher velocity than plasmas. The results indicated that the slower plasma collided at middle, leading to the formation of the soft stagnation.

  3. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 < n < nc/4) of the plasma is essential to understanding the LPI observation. However, numerical simulation was the only way to access the profiles for the previous experiments. In the current Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  4. Observation and modelling of hollow multicharged ion x-ray spectra radiated by laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James P; Abdallah, Joseph; Faenov, A Ya

    2008-01-01

    The role of the highly charged hollow ions in the X-Ray emission plasma spectTa is investigated for 2 cases: (1) plasma obtained under inadiation of Ar clusters by ultrashort laser pulses and (2) Mg-plasma heated by a short-wavelength long (nanosecond) laser pulse. Experimental measurements are presented. Calculations in support of these measurements have been performed using a detailed atomic kinetics model with the ion distributions found from solution of the time-dependent rate equations.

  5. Pump-probe imaging of nanosecond laser-induced bubbles in distilled water solutions: Observations of laser-produced-plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R.; Camacho-López, S.

    2010-11-01

    This article presents the analysis of the laser-produced-plasma (LPP) formed by the focusing of a 9 ns laser pulse, λ =532 nm, with a NA=0.6 aspherical lens using energies between 100-1500 μJ, into distilled water with varying solutions of table salt. Observations of the filamentation plasma were made, which are explained by self-focusing of the laser pulse by the LPP through ponderomotive cavitation of the electron plasma in the center of the beam. The filamentation of the beam through a low density plasma wave guide explains why the transmission of the pump laser through the interaction region was notably higher on previous experiments that we performed [R. Evans et al., Opt. Express 16, 7481 (2008)], than a very similar set of experiments performed by Noack and Vogel [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999)].

  6. Pump-probe imaging of nanosecond laser-induced bubbles in distilled water solutions: Observations of laser-produced-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Camacho-Lopez, S.

    2010-11-15

    This article presents the analysis of the laser-produced-plasma (LPP) formed by the focusing of a 9 ns laser pulse, {lambda}=532 nm, with a NA=0.6 aspherical lens using energies between 100-1500 {mu}J, into distilled water with varying solutions of table salt. Observations of the filamentation plasma were made, which are explained by self-focusing of the laser pulse by the LPP through ponderomotive cavitation of the electron plasma in the center of the beam. The filamentation of the beam through a low density plasma wave guide explains why the transmission of the pump laser through the interaction region was notably higher on previous experiments that we performed [R. Evans et al., Opt. Express 16, 7481 (2008)], than a very similar set of experiments performed by Noack and Vogel [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999)].

  7. First Results from Detailed Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements of the Interaction of a Laser-Produced and Ambient Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, D. B.; Hofer, L. R.; Heuer, P. V.; Constantin, C. G.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing high-repetition lasers combined with a high-repetition ambient plasma allows for detailed 3D scans of the interaction of the laser-produced and ambient plasmas. We present the first results from experiments combining a newly-commissioned high-repetition (1 Hz) laser with the 1 Hz ambient plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California, Los Angeles. The laser (20 J, 14 ns) was focused on a cylindrical plastic target embedded in the ambient LAPD plasma, resulting in an ablated debris-plasma that expanded perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The debris-ambient plasma interaction was studied with 3-axis magnetic flux probes, mounted on a 3D motion drive for detailed, high-resolution planar scans both along and perpendicular to the background field. Measurements were also taken using filtered fast-gate (ns) imaging, emissive Langmuir probes, and emissive spectroscopy. The results show that the debris ions are de-energized inside the diamagnetic cavity, while the ambient ions are accelerated through laminar electric fields.

  8. High-order harmonic generation in a plasma plume of in situ laser-produced silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Chakravarty, U.; Vora, H. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Navathe, C. P.; Deb, S. K.; Gupta, P. D.; Ganeev, R. A.

    2010-10-15

    The results of the experimental study of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from the interaction of 45-fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses with plasma plumes of Ag nanoparticles produced in situ are presented in this article. The nanoparticles were generated by the interaction of 300-ps, 20-mJ laser pulses with bulk silver targets at an intensity of {approx}1x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. The spectral characteristics of the HHG from nanoparticles produced in situ are compared with the HHG from monoparticle plasma plumes and with the HHG from preformed nanoparticle-containing plasma plumes. The cutoff harmonic order generated using the in situ silver nanoparticles is at the 21st harmonic order.

  9. Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Wang, To-Mai; Lee, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Kin-Seng; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2010-10-15

    This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat municipal solid waste incinerator ashes. A feasible fiberization method was developed and applied to produce man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) from plasma vitrified slag. MMVF were obtained through directly blending the oxide melt stream with high velocity compressed air. The basic technological characteristics of MMVF, including morphology, diameter, shot content, length and chemical resistance, are described in this work. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the fiber-reinforced concrete. The effects of fibrous content on compressive strength and flexural strength are presented. The experimental results showed the proper additive of MMVF in concrete can enhance its mechanical properties. MMVF products produced from incinerator ashes treated with the thermal plasma technique have great potential for reinforcement in concrete. PMID:20580155

  10. A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. Methods Antiretroviral-nave Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. Results The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/?L). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.475.74ng/mL] versus median 1.32ng/mL [IQR 0.352.18ng/mL], p?=?0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. Conclusions Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection. PMID:23734875

  11. Risk factors for initial respiratory disease in United States' feedlots based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael W; Dargatz, David A; Wagner, Bruce A

    2008-04-01

    The incidence of initial respiratory disease was followed for 12 weeks in 122 pens of feedlot cattle, based on producer-collected daily morbidity counts. Weekly incidence density was calculated based on the number of new cases and the population at risk. Incidence density was greatest in the 1st week after arrival and decreased in following weeks. Weekly incidence rate varied between pens and over time from 0 to 27.7 cases per 100 animal weeks at risk. A negative binomial model controlling for multiple events within pens and over time was used to model effects on the number of new cases. Mixed gender groups, cattle from multiple sources and increasing distance shipped were associated with increased risk for initial respiratory morbidity. Heavier entry weight was associated with decreased morbidity risk. These factors may be useful in categorizing groups of calves into risk groups for targeted purchase and management decision making. PMID:18481546

  12. Study of DC discharge plasma polymerization kinetics, film properties and applications and initial study of silica powder surface modification by RF plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sheyu

    1998-09-01

    In this work, two kinds of plasma polymerization for surface modification are discussed. In part-I, DC plasma polymerization is investigated for film properties, film growth mechanism and film application. The monomers heaxamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and pyrrole were selected to study the deposition rates change with discharge parameters such as pressure, flow rate, power, discharge current density. Structures and properties of film deposited at extreme conditions (high power/low pressure or low power/high pressure) were studied with FT-IR, SEM, TOF-SIMS, AIM, surface energy measurement and tribology test. This work also investigated DC plasma polymerization kinetics by combining plasma parameters with film deposited rate at different conditions. Both single and double Langmuir probes were used to measure the plasma parameters in pulsed power and continuous discharges. Plasma density and electron temperature are reported. A DC plasma polymerization kinetic model is Proposed based on the experimental data and a best-fit mathematical method. DC plasma polymerization application was the other object of this study. Cold-rolled steel and copper were coated with pyrrole and HMDSO, respectively. Corrosion rate were obtained from electrochemical polarization methods, and tests in humidity chamber directly. Various monomers were used to change the substrate surface energy. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface were achieved respectively by different monomers. A water-soluble film was obtained with acrylic acid in mild plasma conditions. In part-II, a initial study of powder surface modification has been done. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of changing powder surface properties with plasma-polymerized coatings. RF inductive plasma was used as a source to excite plasma polymerization for powder treatment. Plasma-polymerized pyrrole films were deposited on silica surface. Several techniques such as SEM, EDX, TOF-SIMS, FT-IF, DSC&TGA, and surface energy measurement were used for treated powder characterization. It was found that the film with several hundred angstrom thickness was deposited on silica surface. The silica became very hydrophobic. The performance test also showed that the rubber property was changed with pyrrole plasma treated silica.

  13. Investigation of a laser-produced bismuth plasma soft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Takamitsu; Hayden, Paddy; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yugami, Noboru

    2013-10-01

    The emission spectra of many high- Z plasmas, with Z close to or greater than 50, are dominated in the soft X-ray region by a bright spectral feature known as an Unresolved Transition Array (UTA). This feature is attributed to hundreds of thousands of near-degenerate resonance lines from 4 d - 4 f and 4 p - 4 d type transitions. According to previous work, it was shown that the UTA peak wavelength depends on atomic number and will therefore extend down towards the water window region for high atomic numbers. In our previous paper, emission spectra from Bi plasma were observed to have a UTA peak around 4 nm. Calculated results also showed that there is strong UTA emission at 3.3 nm for plasma temperatures higher than 900 eV. However, this UTA emission has yet to be observed. Possible reasons for not observing this feature are the optical thickness of the Bi plasma itself and an inability to reach a sufficiently high plasma temperature. In order to obtain information on the optical thickness, absorption spectroscopy was carried out by way of the dual laser plasma photoabsorption technique. Two Nd:YAG lasers were focused on planar W and Bi targets. Emission from the W plasma was used to backlight Bi plasmas. Both emission and absorption spectra will be shown in the presentation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24?10265 and SFI Grant No. 07/ IN.1/1771.

  14. Cold plasma technologies for the inactivation of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in cold plasma processing at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center is focused on developing this technology into an effective tool to improve the safety of a variety of foods. Cold plasma applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the ...

  15. Cold Plasma Inactivates Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Fresh Produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize recent advances in cold plasma technology at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center. Cold plasma generated in a gliding arc was applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the surfaces of golden delicious apples. ...

  16. Real-time measurement of materials properties at high temperatures by laser produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yong W.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of elemental composition and thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures, as visualized in the context of containerless materials processing in a microgravity environment, presents a variety of unusual requirements owing to the thermal hazards and interferences from electromagnetic control fields. In addition, such information is intended for process control applications and thus the measurements must be real time in nature. A new technique is described which was developed for real time, in-situ determination of the elemental composition of molten metallic alloys such as specialty steel. The technique is based on time-resolved spectroscopy of a laser produced plasma (LPP) plume resulting from the interaction of a giant laser pulse with a material target. The sensitivity and precision were demonstrated to be comparable to, or better than, the conventional methods of analysis which are applicable only to post-mortem specimens sampled from a molten metal pool. The LPP technique can be applied widely to other materials composition analysis applications. The LPP technique is extremely information rich and therefore provides opportunities for extracting other physical properties in addition to the materials composition. The case in point is that it is possible to determine thermophysical properties of the target materials at high temperatures by monitoring generation and transport of acoustic pulses as well as a number of other fluid-dynamic processes triggered by the LPP event. By manipulation of the scaling properties of the laser-matter interaction, many different kinds of flow events, ranging from shock waves to surface waves to flow induced instabilities, can be generated in a controllable manner. Time-resolved detection of these events can lead to such thermophysical quantities as volume and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, specific heat, mass density, and others.

  17. Propagation of charge-exchange plasma produced by an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Brady, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Under the proper conditions there is an end-effect of a long, cylindrical Langmuir probe which allows a significant increase in collected ion current when the probe is aligned with a flowing plasma. This effect was used to determine the charge-exchange plasma flow direction at various locations relative to the ion thruster. The ion current collected by the probe as a function of its angle with respect to the plasma flow allows determination of the plasma density and plasma flow velocity at the probe's location upstream of the ion thruster optics. The density values obtained from the ion current agreed to within a factor of two of density values obtained by typical voltage-current Langmuir probe characteristics.

  18. Sterilization of Long Tube Inner Surface Using Oxygen and Water Vapor Plasmas Produced by AC HV Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2009-10-01

    Oxygen and water vapor plasmas inside a narrow long tube were produced using an AC HV glow discharge at low pressure in order to sterilize the inner surface of a tube. In order to produce plasma inside a narrow tube, an AC high voltage was adopted. The material of the tube used in this experiment was silicon rubber. The length and diameter of the tubes ranged from 300 to 1,000 mm and from 1 to 4 mm, respectively. The tube was placed in a stainless steel vacuum chamber and was evacuated to 10 Pa using a rotary pump. The material gas for plasma and radical productions was pure oxygen or water vapor, which was introduced to the chamber from a gas cylinder or water reservoir. Light emission spectral lines of oxygen and OH radicals were observed at 777 nm and 306 nm, respectively. The chemical indicator was inserted into the tube and turned to a yellowish color (from the original red) after a treatment, which indicates the generation of sufficient oxygen on OH radicals for sterilization. A tube with the length of 500 mm and diameter of 4 mm is sterilized using oxygen plasma by 10 minutes treatment. Also a tube with the length of 300 mm and diameter of 2 mm is sterilized using water vapor plasma by 5 minutes treatment.

  19. Development of a Laser-Produced Plasma X-ray source for Phase-Contrast Radiography of DT Ice layers

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Landen, O L; Koch, J A

    2008-07-21

    Refraction enhanced x-ray phase contrast imaging is crucial for characterization of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer roughness in optically opaque inertial confinement fusion capsules. To observe the time development of DT ice roughness over {approx} second timescales, we need a bright x-ray source that can produce an image faster than the evolution of the ice surface roughness. A laser produced plasma x-ray source is one of the candidates that can meet this requirement. We performed experiments at the Janus laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and assessed the characteristics of the laser produced plasma x-ray source as a potential backlight for in situ target characterization.

  20. Discharge characteristics and hydrodynamics behaviors of atmospheric plasma jets produced in various gas flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric nonequilibrium plasma jets have been widely employed in biomedical applications. For biomedical applications, it is an important issue to understand the complicated mechanism of interaction of the plasma jet with liquid. In this study, we present analysis of the discharge characteristics of a plasma jet impinging onto the liquid surface under various gas flow patterns such as laminar and turbulence flows. For this purpose, we analyzed gas flow patters by using a Schlieren gas-flow imaging system in detail The plasma jet impinging into the liquid surface expands along the liquid surface. The diameter of the expanded plasma increases with gas flow rate, which is well explained by an increase in the diameter of the laminar gas-flow channel. When the gas flow rate is further increased, the gas flow mode transits from laminar to turbulence in the gas flow channel, which leads to the shortening of the plasm-jet length. Our experiment demonstrated that the gas flow patterns strongly affect the discharge characteristics in the plasma-jet system. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  1. Visualizing electromagnetic fields in laser-produced counter-streaming plasma experiments for collisionless shock laboratory astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kugland, N. L.; Ross, J. S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Huntington, C.; Martinez, D.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Park, H.-S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D. H.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M.; Kuranz, C.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Koenig, M.; Pelka, A.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Collisionless shocks are often observed in fast-moving astrophysical plasmas, formed by non-classical viscosity that is believed to originate from collective electromagnetic fields driven by kinetic plasma instabilities. However, the development of small-scale plasma processes into large-scale structures, such as a collisionless shock, is not well understood. It is also unknown to what extent collisionless shocks contain macroscopic fields with a long coherence length. For these reasons, it is valuable to explore collisionless shock formation, including the growth and self-organization of fields, in laboratory plasmas. The experimental results presented here show at a glance with proton imaging how macroscopic fields can emerge from a system of supersonic counter-streaming plasmas produced at the OMEGA EP laser. Interpretation of these results, plans for additional measurements, and the difficulty of achieving truly collisionless conditions are discussed. Future experiments at the National Ignition Facility are expected to create fully formed collisionless shocks in plasmas with no pre-imposed magnetic field.

  2. The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-06-28

    Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from {approx}0.1 mm to {approx}0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of {approx}80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

  3. Dependence of terahertz power from laser-produced plasma on laser intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Jin, Z.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.

    2012-07-01

    Power of terahertz radiation from plasma which is generated from air irradiated by coupled (ω, 2ω) femtosecond laser pulses is analyzed for high laser intensities, for which non-linear plasma effects on the pulse propagation become essential, with multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations including the self-consistent plasma kinetics. The growth rate of THz power becomes slower as the laser intensity increases. A reason of such a lowering of efficiency in THz emission is found to be ionization of air by the laser pulse, which results in poor focusing of laser pulses.

  4. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy of subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krushelnick, K. M.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.

    1996-02-01

    Experiments that examine the interaction of high-intensity subpicosecond laser radiation ( \\similar 1018 W / cm2) with solid targets are performed. Soft-x-ray spectra from interactions with Teflon and aluminum targets that imply the creation of high-temperature ( > 200 eV) high-density ( > 10 23 cm -3 ) plasmas are obtained. Effects of a prepulse on the plasma characteristics are examined. The applicability of short, intense laser pulses for the formation of population inversions on x-ray transitions during recombination of high-density plasmas is discussed. 42.55.Vc.

  5. Method for producing nanomaterials in the plasma of a low-pressure pulsed arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, I. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Fedorov, L. Yu.; Lepeshev, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    A new method for the production of nanomaterials in the plasma of a low-pressure arc discharge is developed and experimentally studied. This method can be used to synthesize nanoparticles 5-10 nm in size with a narrow size distribution. In this method, a low-pressure arc discharge is used to melt a material, to disperse the molten material, to deliver liquid material droplets to the plasma, to cool the liquid nanoparticles forming in the plasma up to their solidification, and to deposit the solidified nanoparticles onto a substrate.

  6. Plasma channel produced by femtosecond laser pulses as a medium for amplifying electromagnetic radiation of the subterahertz frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatskaya, A V; Volkova, E A; Popov, A M

    2013-12-31

    The electron energy distribution function in the plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse with a wavelength of 248 nm in atmospheric-pressure gases was considered. Conditions were determined whereby this channel may be employed for amplifying electromagnetic waves up to the terahertz frequency range over the energy spectrum relaxation time ∼10{sup -7} s. Gains were calculated as functions of time and radiation frequency. The effect of electron – electron collisions on the rate of relaxation processes in the plasma and on its ability to amplify the electromagnetic radiation was investigated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  7. Probes of the quark-gluon plasma as it might be produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    1984-01-01

    The energy densities which might be achieved in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions are discussed. Using these estimates, promising probes of a quark-gluon plasma as it might be produced in such collisions are reviewed. I discuss in detail the emission of photons and di-leptons. The consequences of hydrodynamic expansion and a first order phase transition are explored for the transverse momentum spectrum of hadrons. Fluctuations in the rapidity distribution of hadrons are also discussed as a possible signal for a first order phase transition. The possibility that copious production of strange particles may signal the production of a quark-gluon plasma is also critically assessed. 24 references.

  8. Thermal inequilibrium of atmospheric helium microwave plasma produced by an axial injection torch

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.; Rodero, A.; Quintero, M.C.; Sola, A.; Gamero, A.; Ortega, D.

    2005-11-01

    The population density of several excited states has been obtained spectroscopically in a helium plasma sustained by a torch device at atmospheric pressure as a function of the radius in the plasma for different conditions of microwave power and plasma gas flow. The ground-state atom density is determined from the gas temperature, which is deduced from the rotational temperature of the molecular nitrogen ions. The population distribution is fitted to the theoretical results of a collisional-radiative model that includes particle transport. A large deviation of the measured populations is found from the theoretical populations for local thermodynamic equilibrium. The plasma at any radial position is far from local thermodynamic equilibrium; the equilibrium deviation parameter of the ground state is larger than 10 000. The equilibrium deviation parameters of the measured excited-state populations obey the theoretical p{sub k}{sup -6} exponential law.

  9. Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.

  10. Small-scale plasma irregularities produced during electron attachment chemical releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.; Siefring, C. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of small-scale plasma density irregularities made during sounding rocket experiments that released electron attachment materials into the ionosphere are presented. A 2D electrostatic simulation model that includes attachment chemistry is used to study the source and evolution of these irregularities. The simulation shows (1) that large electron flow velocity shears develop on the boundary of the electron depletion and (2) these shears drive a plasma instability that is the likely source of the irregularities.

  11. X-ray characterization of high energy density plasmas produced in mega-joule laser experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-03-01

    With completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the quest for producing a burning fusion plasma has begun. The goal of these experiments is to compress matter to densities and temperatures higher than the interior of the sun to initiate nuclear fusion and burn of hydrogen isotopes. In the first indirect-drive hohlraum experiments on NIF, we have demonstrated symmetric capsule implosions at unprecedented conditions of mega-joule laser energies. 192 simultaneously fired laser beams heat ignition hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 3.3 million Kelvin compressing 2-millimeter capsules by the soft x rays produced inside the hohlraum. In these experiments, symmetry and velocity of the implosion are measured by imaging the 9 keV capsule x-ray emission on a temporally resolving 2-D detector. In addition, x-ray radiography and scattering techniques are being developed for measuring the density and temperature of the implosion. The experiments indicate conditions suitable for compressing deuterium-tritium filled capsules with the goal to produce burning fusion plasmas in the laboratory.

  12. Spectral and ion emission features of laser-produced Sn and SnO2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Lan; Xin-Bing, Wang; Du-Luo, Zuo

    2016-03-01

    We have made a detailed comparison of the atomic and ionic debris, as well as the emission features of Sn and SnO2 plasmas under identical experimental conditions. Planar slabs of pure metal Sn and ceramic SnO2 are irradiated with 1.06 μm, 8 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. Fast photography employing an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and optical time of flight emission spectroscopy are used as diagnostic tools. Our results show that the Sn plasma provides a higher extreme ultraviolet (EUV) conversion efficiency (CE) than the SnO2 plasma. However, the kinetic energies of Sn ions are relatively low compared with those of SnO2. OES studies show that the Sn plasma parameters (electron temperature and density) are lower compared to those of the SnO2 plasma. Furthermore, we also give the effects of the vacuum degree and the laser pulse energy on the plasma parameters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304235) and the Director Fund of WNLO, China.

  13. Refraction-Enhanced X-ray Radiography for Inertial Confinement Fusion and Laser-Produced Plasma Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Kozioziemski, B J; Izumi, N; Dewald, E L; Salmonson, J D; Hammel, B A

    2008-08-26

    We explore various laser-produced plasma and inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) applications of phase-contrast x-ray radiography, and we show how the main features of these enhancements can be considered from a geometrical optics perspective as refraction enhancements. This perspective simplifies the analysis, and often permits simple analytical formulae to be derived that predict the enhancements. We explore a raytrace approach to various material interface applications, and we explore a more general example of refractive bending of x-rays by an implosion plasma. We find that refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography of implosions may provide a means to quantify density differences across shock fronts as well as density variations caused by local heating due to high-Z dopants. We also point out that refractive bending by implosions plasmas can blur fine radiograph features, and can also provide misleading contrast information in area-backlit pinhole imaging experiments unless its effects are taken into consideration.

  14. Measurement of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering from Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Serlin, V.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E. A.; Manka, C. K.

    2010-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜3 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique research opportunities and potential for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous Nike experiments observed two plasmon decay (TPD) driven signals from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2 with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 ps FWHM pulses. We have performed a further experiment with longer laser pulses (0.5˜4.0 ns FWHM) and will present combined results of the experiments focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. Time- or space-resolved spectral features of TPD were detected at different viewing angles and the absolute intensity calibrated spectra of thermal background were used to obtain blackbody temperatures in the plasma corona. The wave vector distribution in k-space of the participating TPD plasmons will be also discussed. These results show promise for the proposed direct-drive designs.

  15. Infrared nanosecond laser-metal ablation in atmosphere: Initial plasma during laser pulse and further expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-04-22

    We have investigated the dynamics of the nanosecond laser ablated plasma within and after the laser pulse irradiation using fast photography. A 1064 nm, 15 ns laser beam was focused onto a target made from various materials with an energy density in the order of J/mm{sup 2} in atmosphere. The plasma dynamics during the nanosecond laser pulse were observed, which could be divided into three stages: fast expansion, division into the primary plasma and the front plasma, and stagnation. After the laser terminated, a critical moment when the primary plasma expansion transited from the shock model to the drag model was resolved, and this phenomenon could be understood in terms of interactions between the primary and the front plasmas.

  16. Sweep Langmuir Probe and Triple Probe Diagnostics for Transient Plasma Produced by Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Enling; Xiang, Shenghai; Yang, Minghai; Li, Lexin

    2012-08-01

    Two techniques are applied to diagnose characteristic parameters of plasma created by hypervelocity impact, such as electron temperature and electron density. The first technique is a sweep Langmuir probe (SLP), which is a new apparatus based on a dual channel circuit that can compensate for stray capacitance and obtain a good synchronicity, so that electrostatic turbulence with a good temporal resolution can be acquired. The second technique is a triple Langmuir probe (TLP), which is an electrostatic triple Langmuir probe diagnostic system, in which no voltage and frequency sweep is required. This technique allows to measure electron temperature, electron density as a function of time. Moreover, the triple Langmuir probe diagnostic system allows the direct display of electron temperature and semidirect display of electron density by an appropriate display system, the system permits us to eliminate almost all data processing procedures. SLP and TLP were applied to obtain fluctuations of the characteristic parameters of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact. As an example of their application to time-dependent plasma measurement, the electron temperature and electron density of plasmas were acquired in hypervelocity impact experiments. Characteristic parameters of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact were compared by the two kinds of diagnostic techniques mentioned above.

  17. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M.; Uyar, A.; Correia, E.; Díez, C.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A.; Caamaño, J. N.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Trigal, B.; Humblot, P.; Ponsart, C.; Guyader-Joly, C.; Carrocera, S.; Martin, D.; Marquant Le Guienne, B.; Seli, E.; Gomez, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate = 52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80 ± 0.053; plasma: 0.89 ± 0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607 ± 0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672 ± 0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  18. A hemispherical Langmuir probe array detector for angular resolved measurements on droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gambino, Nadia Brandstätter, Markus; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a new diagnostic tool for laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) is presented. The detector is based on a multiple array of six motorized Langmuir probes. It allows to measure the dynamics of a LPP in terms of charged particles detection with particular attention to droplet-based LPP sources for EUV lithography. The system design permits to temporally resolve the angular and radial plasma charge distribution and to obtain a hemispherical mapping of the ions and electrons around the droplet plasma. The understanding of these dynamics is fundamental to improve the debris mitigation techniques for droplet-based LPP sources. The device has been developed, built, and employed at the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zürich. The experimental results have been obtained on the droplet-based LPP source ALPS II. For the first time, 2D mappings of the ion kinetic energy distribution around the droplet plasma have been obtained with an array of multiple Langmuir probes. These measurements show an anisotropic expansion of the ions in terms of kinetic energy and amount of ion charge around the droplet target. First estimations of the plasma density and electron temperature were also obtained from the analysis of the probe current signals.

  19. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Uyar, A; Correia, E; Díez, C; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A; Caamaño, J N; Martínez-Bello, D; Trigal, B; Humblot, P; Ponsart, C; Guyader-Joly, C; Carrocera, S; Martin, D; Marquant Le Guienne, B; Seli, E; Gomez, E

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate=52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80±0.053; plasma: 0.89±0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607±0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672±0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  20. Advanced properties of extended laser-produced plasmas for efficient generation of the high-order harmonics of ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2015-04-01

    The review of the studies showing the advanced properties of extended plasma plumes (5 mm) for efficient high-order harmonic generation of laser radiation compared with the short lengths of plasmas (~0.3-0.5 mm) used in previous studies is presented. The harmonic conversion efficiency quadratically increased with the growth of plasma length at the optimal conditions of plasma formation. The studies of this process using the long plasma jets produced on various metal surfaces, particularly including the resonance-enhanced harmonic generation, two-color pump, and extended nanoparticle plasma, are discussed.

  1. High density collimated beams of relativistic ions produced by petawatt laser pulses in plasmas

    PubMed

    Sentoku; Liseikina; Esirkepov; Califano; Naumova; Ueshima; Vshivkov; Kato; Mima; Nishihara; Pegoraro; Bulanov

    2000-11-01

    Under optimal interaction conditions ions can be accelerated up to relativistic energies by a petawatt laser pulse in both underdense and overdense plasmas. Two-dimensional particle in cell simulations show that the laser pulse drills a channel through an underdense plasma slab due to relativistic self-focusing. Both ions and electrons are accelerated in the head region of the channel. However, ion acceleration is more effective at the end of the slab. Here electrons from the channel expand in vacuum and are followed by the ions dragged by the Coulomb force arising from charge separation. A similar mechanism of ion acceleration occurs when a superintense laser pulse interacts with a thin slab of overdense plasma and the pulse ponderomotive pressure moves all the electrons away from a finite-diameter spot. PMID:11102086

  2. Injection and acceleration of electron bunch in a plasma wakefield produced by a chirped laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-06-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wakefield which can trap and accelerate charged particles up to GeV. One-dimensional analysis of electron injection, trapping, and acceleration by different chirped pulses propagating in plasma is investigated numerically. In this paper, we inject electron bunches in front of the chirped pulses. It is indicated that periodical chirped laser pulse can trap electrons earlier than other pulses. It is shown that periodical chirped laser pulses lead to decrease the minimum momentum necessary to trap the electrons. This is due to the fact that periodical chirped laser pulses are globally much efficient than nonchirped pulses in the wakefield generation. It is found that chirped laser pulses could lead to much larger electron energy than that of nonchirped pulses. Relative energy spread has a lower value in the case of periodical chirped laser pulses.

  3. Modeling of strongly collimated jets produced by high energy density plasmas on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.

    2014-03-01

    Jet collimation in astrophysical plasmas and in the laboratory has recently received much attention. When the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is used to represent both systems, scale invariance allows for the simple extension of the parameters encountered in laboratory experiments to much larger systems, like astrophysical outflows. However, the validation of such a model requires a precise comparison of numerical simulations with experimental data. Using radial foils as an experimental setup to generate strongly collimated plasma jets, we show that the Hall MHD model included in the PERSEUS code does well to capture the plasma dynamics of collimated jets, even with restrictive conditions such as a constant ionization number and the neglect of normally important transport processes. Very importantly, we show that jet collimation is not only the result of magnetic forces, but also converging radial flows.

  4. A Black-box Modelling Engine for Discharge Produced Plasma Radiation Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, S. V.; Choi, P.; Krukovskiy, A. Y.; Novikov, V. G.; Zakharov, V. S.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    A Blackbox Modelling Engine (BME), is an instrument based on the adaptation of the RMHD code Z*, integrated into a specific computation environment to provide a turn key simulation instrument and to enable routine plasma modelling without specialist knowledge in numerical computation. Two different operating modes are provided: Detailed Physics mode & Fast Numerics mode. In the Detailed Physics mode, non-stationary, non-equilibrium radiation physics have been introduced to allow the modelling of transient plasmas in experimental geometry. In the Fast Numerics mode, the system architecture and the radiation transport is simplified to significantly accelerate the computation rate. The Fast Numerics mode allows the BME to be used realistically in parametric scanning to explore complex physical set up, before using the Detailed Physics mode. As an example of the results from the BME modelling, the EUV source plasma dynamics in the pulsed capillary discharge are presented.

  5. Influence of atomic modeling on integrated simulations of laser-produced Au plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Yechiel; Raicher, Erez; Ehrlich, Yosi; Hurvitz, Gilad; Shpilman, Zeev; Fraenkel, Moshe; Zigler, Arie; Henis, Zohar

    2015-11-01

    Time-integrated x-ray emission spectra of laser-irradiated Au disks were recorded using transmission grating spectrometry, at laser intensities of 1013 to 1014W/cm2 . Radiation-hydrodynamics and atomic physics calculations were used to simulate the emitted spectra. Three major plasma regions can be recognized: the heat wave, the corona, and an intermediate region connecting them. An analysis of the spectral contribution of these three plasma regions to the integrated recorded spectrum is presented. The importance of accurate atomic modeling of the intermediate plasma region, between the corona and the heat wave, is highlighted. The influence of several aspects of the atomic modeling is demonstrated, in particular multiply-excited atomic configurations and departure from local thermal equilibrium.

  6. Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave-produced plasma layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    A set of parallel plasma layers is generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in a chamber containing dry air at a pressure comparable to the upper atmosphere. The dependencies of breakdown conditions on the pressure and pulse length are examined. The results are shown to be consistent with the appearance of tail erosion of the microwave pulse caused by air breakdown. A Bragg scattering experiment, using the plasma layers as a Bragg reflector, is then performed. Both time domain and frequency domain measurements of wave scattering are conducted. The experimental results are found to agree very well with the theory.

  7. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  8. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J L; Karasik, M; Chan, L Y

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (∼1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 10(15) W/cm(2). The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 10(21) cm(-3) with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting n(e) and T(e) profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light. PMID:26329186

  9. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  10. Soft X-ray spectrum of laser-produced aluminum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vergunova, G. A.; Grushin, A. S.; Kologrivov, A. A.; Novikov, V. G.; Osipov, M. V.; Puzyrev, V. N. Rozanov, V. B. Starodub, A. N. Yakushev, O. F.

    2015-05-15

    Soft X-ray spectra (30–70 Å) of aluminum plasma have been measured in experiments carried out at the Kanal-2 laser facility at laser intensities of (1–7) × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. It is shown that the measured spectra satisfactory agree with those calculated using the RADIAN numerical code.

  11. Rheological characterization of a gel produced using human blood plasma and alginate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Malagón-Romero, Dionisio; Hernández, Nicolás; Cardozo, Carmen; Godoy-Silva, Rubén D

    2014-06-01

    Human blood plasma is a material used to generate tissue equivalents due to presence of fibrinogen. However, gels formed using human blood plasma has weak mechanical properties. In this study, different mixtures of sodium alginate and blood plasma were performed and evaluated. By determining ζ potential can be established the stability of the plasma-alginate mixture and by dynamic rheology can determine the most suitable parameters for the gelation of the above mixtures, when calcium chloride is used as a crosslinker. Experimental results evidence an increment in ζ potential at alginate concentrations of 0.8% and 1.6% with a resulting pseudoplastic behavior of evaluated mixtures, which described the homogenization of the mixture. On the other hand, mixtures were gelled by using aspersion of calcium chloride and characterized by dynamic rheology. Solid behavior is dominant in all range of frequency sweep test between 0.1Hz and 100Hz. Finally, the ultimate tensile strength of a gel reach 6.36938±0.24320kPa, which is enough for manual handling of the gel. Between the tasks of the gel would be used for cell entrapment, for controlled release of drugs or in the manufacture of wound dressings. PMID:24603213

  12. Plasma waves near Saturn: initial results from Voyager 1. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D.A.; Kurth, W.S.; Scarf, F.L.

    1981-01-31

    The Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected many familiar types of plasma waves during the encounter with Saturn, including ion-acoustic waves and electron plasma oscillations upstream of the bow shock, an intense burst of electrostatic noise at the shock, and chorus, hiss, electrostatic (n + 1/2)fg waves and UHR emissions in the inner magnetosphere. A clock-like Saturn rotational control of low-frequency radio emissions was observed, and evidence was obtained of possible control by the moon Dione. Strong plasma wave emissions were detected at the Titan encounter indicating the presence of a turbulent sheath extending around Titan, and UHR measurements of the electron density show the existence of a dense plume of plasma being carried downstream of Titan by the interaction with the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Saturn.

  13. Magnetospheric plasma analyzer: Initial three-spacecraft observations from geosynchronous orbit

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Bame, S.J.; Barraclough, B.L.; Donart, J.R.; Elphic, R.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Moldwin, M.B.; Moore, K.R.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-08-01

    The first three magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA) instruments have been returning data from geosynchronous orbit nearly continuously since late 1989, 1990, and 1991. These identical instruments provide for the first time simultaneous plasma observations from three widely spaced geosynchronous locations. The MPA instruments measure the three-dimensional velocity space distributions of both electrons and ions with energies between 1 eV/q and 40 keV/q. The authors use the simultaneous observations from three longitudinally separated spacecraft to synthesize a synoptic view of the morphology of the magnetosphere at geosynchronous orbit over a 6-week interval in early 1992. The MPA observations indicate that the spacecraft encountered seven regions with characteristic plasma populations during this period: (1) the cool, dense plasmasphere (13.1% of the data); (2) a warmer, less dense plasma trough (22.5%); (3) the hot plasma sheet (40.3%); (4) a combination of plasma trough and plasma sheet (18.6%); (5) an empty trough region, devoid of plasma sheet, plasmasphere, or plasma trough populations (4.3%); (6) the magnetosheath and/or low-latitude boundary layer (0.7%); and (7) the lobe (0.3%). As expected, the plasmapause is found to have a highly variable shape, at various times showing (1) a stable dusk side bulge, (2) a variable bulge which expands, contracts, and moves, (3) an overall expansion and contraction of the plasmasphere, and (4) even more complicated behavior which is best accounted for by large-scale structure of the plasmapause and/or disconnected plasma blobs. During the 6 weeks of data examined, the magnetosheath was encountered on several occasions at synchronous orbit, preferentially on the prenoon side of the magnetosphere. For the first time, simultaneous prenoon and postnoon observations confirm this asymmetry and demonstrate that the magnetopause shape can be highly asymmetric about the Earth-Sun line. 26 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Diagnostics of plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulse impact upon a target with an internal nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Gasilov, S. V.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Magunov, A. I.; Boldarev, A. S.; Gasilov, V. A.

    2010-12-15

    X-ray diagnostics of the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with CO{sub 2} clusters and frozen nanosize water particles is carried out. The stage of cluster expansion and the formation of a plasma channel, which governs the parameters of the formed X-ray radiation source and accelerated ion flows, is studied. The measurements are based on recording spatially resolved X-ray spectra of H- and He-like oxygen ions. Utilization of Rydberg transitions for spectra diagnostics makes it possible to determine plasma parameters on a time scale of t {approx} 10 ps after the beginning of a femtosecond pulse. The role of the rear edge of the laser pulse in sustaining the plasma temperature at a level of {approx}100 eV in the stage of a nonadiabatic cluster expansion is shown. The analysis of the profiles and relative intensities of spectral lines allows one to determine the temperature and density of plasma electrons and distinguish the populations of 'thermal' ions and ions that are accelerated up to energies of a few tens of kiloelectronvolts. It is shown that the use of solid clusters made of frozen nanoscale water droplets as targets leads to a substantial increase in the number of fast He-like ions. In this case, however, the efficiency of acceleration of H-like ions does not increase, because the time of their ionization in plasma exceeds the time of cluster expansion.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of magnesium plasma produced by fundamental and second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, S. U. Ahmat, L.; Mumtaz, M.; Nadeem, A.; Shakeel, Hira; Mahmood, S.

    2015-08-15

    In the present experimental work, laser induced magnesium plasma has been characterized using plasma parameters. The plasma has been generated by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonics (532 nm) of Nd:YAG laser. The plasma parameters such as electron temperature and electron number density have been extracted using Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profile, respectively. The laser irradiance dependence and spatial behavior of electron temperature and number density in laser induced magnesium plasma have been studied. The electron temperature as a function of laser irradiance (0.5 to 6.5 GW/cm{sup 2}) ranges from (9.16–10.37) × 10{sup 3 }K and (8.5–10.1)× 10{sup 3 }K, and electron number density from (0.99–1.08) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} and (1.04–1.22) × 10{sup 16}cm{sup −3} for 1064 and 532 nm, respectively. These parameters exhibit fast increase at low laser irradiance and slow increase at high irradiance. The spatial distribution of electron temperature and electron number density shows same decreasing trend up to 2.25 mm from the target surface. The electron temperature and number density decrease from (9.5–8.6) × 10{sup 3 }K, (1.27–1.15) × 10{sup 16}cm{sup −3} and (10.56–8.85)× 10{sup 3 }K, (1.08–0.99) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for 532 nm and 1064 nm laser ablation wavelengths, respectively.

  16. Fast reversal of the initial reaction steps of the plasma membrane (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Cavieres, J D

    1987-05-12

    Calmodulin-depleted red cell membranes catalyse a Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent ATP-[3H]ADP exchange at 37 degrees C. The Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent exchange, measured at 20 microM CaCl2, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 1.5 mM ADP and 1.5 mM ATP, is comparable to the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity, between 0.3 and 0.8 mmol/litre original cells per h. EDTA-washed membranes present a Ca2+-dependent ATP-ADP exchange whose rate is not more than 7% of that found in a Mg2+-containing medium, while their Ca2+-dependent ATPase is essentially zero. Addition of 1.5 mM MgCl2 to the medium restores both activities to the levels found with membranes not treated with EDTA. Calmodulin (16 micrograms/ml) produces an eight-fold stimulation of the Ca2+-dependent ATP-ADP exchange, slightly less than it stimulates the Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis. The effect of 1.5 mM MgCl2 on the exchange is greater in the presence than in the absence of calmodulin. It is proposed that the reversal of the initial phosphorylation of the Ca2+ pump, occurring at a fast rate at 37 degrees C, involves a conformational change in the phosphoenzyme. Thus, it would be an ADP-liganded phosphoenzyme of the form EP(ADP) that would experience the fast conformational transition at 37 degrees C. The great difficulty in producing an overall reversal of the Ca2+ pump should then be due to one or more reaction steps later than and including Ca2+ release and dephosphorylation. PMID:2952171

  17. Plasma Spray-CVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Produce Thin Films from Liquid or Gaseous Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindrat, M.; Höhle, H.-M.; von Niessen, K.; Guittienne, Ph.; Grange, D.; Hollenstein, Ch.

    2011-06-01

    New dedicated coating processes which are based on the well-known LPPS™ technology but operating at lower work pressure (100 Pa) are being actively developed. These hybrid technologies contribute to improve the efficiencies in the turbine industry such as aero-engines and land-based gas turbines. They also have a great potential in the domain of new energy concepts in applications like Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, membranes, and photovoltaic with the adoption of new ways of producing coatings by thermal spray. Such processes include Plasma Spray-Thin Film (PS-TF) which gives the possibility to coat thin and dense layers from splats through a classical thermal spray approach but at high velocities (400-800 m/s) and enthalpy (8000-15000 kJ/kg). Plasma Spray-PVD (PS-PVD) which allows producing thick columnar-structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (100-300 μm) from the vapor phase with the employment of the high enthalpy gun and specific powder feedstock material. On the other hand, the Plasma Spray-CVD (PS-CVD) process uses modified conventional thermal spray components operated below 100 Pa which allows producing CVD-like coatings (<1-10 μm) at higher deposition rates using liquid or gaseous precursors as feedstock material. The advantages of such thermal spray-enhanced CVD processes are the high ionization degree and high throughput for the deposition of thin layers. In this article, we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations encountered while producing thin film coatings using liquid and gaseous precursors with this new type of low pressure plasma spray equipment and point out the challenges faced to obtain efficient injection and mixing of the precursors in the plasma jet. In particular, SiO x thin films from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO or C6H18OSi2) can be deposited on wafers at deposition rates of up to 35 nm/s at an efficiency of about 50%. The process was also used for producing metal oxide coatings (Al2O3, ZnO, and SnO2) by evaporating different metals in combination with an oxygen gas flow. The effect of process parameters on the deposition rate, coating build up, uniformity, and quality of the coatings are discussed. An overview of different potential applications of this new technology will be also presented.

  18. Multiple solutions in the theory of direct current glow discharges: Effect of plasma chemistry and nonlocality, different plasma-producing gases, and 3D modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S.

    2013-10-15

    The work is aimed at advancing the multiple steady-state solutions that have been found recently in the theory of direct current (DC) glow discharges. It is shown that an account of detailed plasma chemistry and non-locality of electron transport and kinetic coefficients results in an increase of the number of multiple solutions but does not change their pattern. Multiple solutions are shown to exist for discharges in argon and helium provided that discharge pressure is high enough. This result indicates that self-organization in DC glow microdischarges can be observed not only in xenon, which has been the case until recently, but also in other plasma-producing gases; a conclusion that has been confirmed by recent experiments. Existence of secondary bifurcations can explain why patterns of spots grouped in concentric rings, observed in the experiment, possess in many cases higher number of spots in outer rings than in inner ones.

  19. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E.; Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P.; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-15

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  20. Sharpening of the 6.8 nm peak in an Nd:YAG laser produced Gd plasma by using a pre-formed plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yong; Song, Xiaolin; Xie, Zhuo; Gao, Jian; Dou, Yinping; Li, Bochao; Lin, Jingquan; Tomie, Toshihisa

    2016-03-01

    For effective use of a laser-produced-plasma (LPP) light source, an LPP is desired to emit a narrow spectral peak because the reflection spectrum of multilayer mirrors for guiding emission from the source is very narrow. While a Gd plasma has been studied extensively as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source at around 6.8 nm, where La/B4C multilayer is reported to have a high reflectivity with a bandwidth of about 0.6 %, all previous works using an Nd:YAG laser reported very broad spectra. This paper reports the first narrowing of the 6.8 nm peak in the case of using an Nd:YAG laser to generate a Gd plasma by using a pre-pulse. The best peak narrowing is observed when a pre-formed plasma is heated by a 1064 nm main laser pulse with a duration of 10 ns at the irradiation density of 4x 1011 W/cm2 at a delay time of 50 ns after the pre-pulse irradiation. The observed spectral width of about 0.3 nm is about one fifth of the value for no pre-formed plasma. The peak wavelength of the 6.8 nm band shifted to a longer wavelength side and the peak was broadened both for lower and higher laser irradiation density. It is discussed that this robustness of the peak position of the 6.8 nm Gd peak against temperature change is suitable to achieve a narrow bandwidth from an LPP generated on solid. The observed spectra are compared with those previously reported in various conditions.

  1. Three-dimensional microscopy of laser-produced plasmas using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Naumov, A N; Konorov, Stanislav O; Fedotov, Andrei B; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2000-12-31

    A three-dimensional microscopy of an optical-breakdown plasma based on third-harmonic generation (THG) is experimentally implemented. THG is shown to offer a universal method for three-dimensional microscopy of inhomogeneities of linear and nonlinear optical parameters of various media. Due to the nonlinear-optical character of this process, THG microscopy allows the transverse spatial resolution to be considerably improved as compared with conventional methods of microscopy. A high spatial resolution along the direction of probing is achieved due to the fact that the prohibition on THG in the regime of tight focusing is removed whenever inhomogeneities of linear and/or nonlinear optical parameters are probed by THG. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  2. Expansion dynamics of ultrafast laser produced plasmas in the presence of ambient argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Phillips, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the expansion dynamics of fs laser ablated brass plasma in Ar at various pressure levels ranging from 10-5 Torr to atmospheric conditions using time-resolved and spectrally resolved two-dimensional imaging. Significant changes in plume morphology were noticed at varying pressure levels which included free expansion, spherical to cylindrical geometry changes, sharpening, and confinement. The temporal evolution of excited Cu and Zn species in the plume were imaged using narrow band-pass interference filters, and their hydrodynamic expansion features were compared. 2D imaging coupled with monochromatic line selection showed velocity differences, uneven distribution, and aspect ratio differences among the plume species. Plume morphological changes were found to be significant at intermediate pressure levels (˜10 Torr) where plasma emissivity was found to be maximum. The expansion features of plume were compared with various models and found to be generally in good agreement.

  3. Pressure Ionization and Line Merging in Strongly Coupled Plasmas Produced by 100-fs Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nantel, M.; Ma, G.; Gu, S.; Cote, C.Y.; Itatani, J.; Umstadter, D.

    1998-05-01

    Time- and space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectra of carbon plasmas, created with 100-fs laser pulses, are obtained with the novel technique of picosecond jitter-free streak-camera averaging. Spectroscopic diagnostics indicate electron densities and temperatures evolving from 10{sup 23} to 10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3} and 80 to 50eV, respectively, implying less than one particle in a Debye sphere at early times. The emission reveals conditions of extreme pressure ionization and line merging. Comparisons of the experimental spectra with numerical simulations validate the use of the Inglis-Teller limit for line merging, and confirm that pressure ionization models based on the Debye-Huckel potential are inapplicable in such strongly coupled plasmas. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Surface initiated polymerization on pulsed plasma deposited polyallylamine: a polymer substrate-independent strategy to soft surfaces with polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Yameen, Basit; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Knoll, Wolfgang; Förch, Renate; Jonas, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    The deposition of polyallylamine (PAA) adlayers by pulsed plasma polymerization on various types of polymeric substrates has been explored as a general route to amino functionalized polymeric surfaces. These amino groups are highly suitable for anchoring an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator via a robust amide linkage. Subsequent surface initiated ATRP (SI-ATRP) of monomethoxy oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (MeOEGMA) resulted in polyMeOEGMA brush grafted polymer surfaces. This combined strategy of pulsed plasma polymerization with SI-ATRP was demonstrated for five different polymeric substrates namely polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide (PI), polypropylene (PP), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Analysis of brush layers by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) fully corroborated the success of the proposed strategy for all substrate types. PMID:21858892

  5. K-shell emission from 140 femtosecond laser-produced plasmas created from porous aluminum targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.; Price, D.; White, B.; Osterheld, A.; Walling, R.; Slaughter, D.; Stewart, R.; Gordan, S.

    1992-06-05

    The K-shell emission from flat and porous aluminum targets is used to infer the efficiency of creating a high temperature (>100eV), thermal plasma with 800 nm, 140 fs laser light. The K-shell emission from flat aluminum targets is fond to be significantly less than that of the porous targets, implying a lower temperature and less efficient coupling between the target and ultra-short pulse laser light.

  6. Non-inductive plasma initiation and plasma current ramp-up on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Kakuda, H.; Oosako, T.; Shinya, T.; Wakatsuki, T.; Ambo, T.; Furui, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kasahara, H.; Kato, K.; Kumazawa, R.; Moeller, C. P.; Mutoh, T.; Nakanishi, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Saito, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Seki, T.; Sonehara, M.; Shino, R.; Togashi, H.; Watanabe, O.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2013-06-01

    Plasma current (Ip) start-up in a spherical tokamak (ST) by waves in the lower-hybrid (LH) frequency range was investigated on TST-2. A low current (˜1 kA) ST configuration can be formed by waves over a broad frequency range (21 MHz-8.2 GHz in TST-2), but further Ip ramp-up (to ˜10 kA) is most efficient with waves in the LH frequency range. Ip ramp-up to 15 kA was achieved with 60 kW of net RF power PRF in the fast wave (FW) polarization at 200 MHz excited by the inductively coupled combline antenna. X-ray measurements showed that the photon flux and temperature are higher in the direction opposite to Ip, consistent with acceleration of electrons by a uni-directional RF wave. There is evidence that the LH wave is excited nonlinearly by the FW, based on the frequency spectra measured by magnetic probes. Similar efficiencies of Ip ramp-up were obtained with the inductive combline antenna and the dielectric-loaded waveguide array (‘grill’) antenna, and tendencies for the current drive efficiency to increase with plasma current and toroidal field were observed. During operation of the grill antenna, wavevector components were measured by an array of magnetic probes. Results were qualitatively consistent with expectations based on dispersion relations for the FW and the LH wave. A capacitively coupled combline antenna has been developed to improve coupling to the plasma and the wavenumber spectrum of the excited LH wave, and will be tested in 2013.

  7. Measurement of Neutrons Produced by Beam-Target Interactions via a Coaxial Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, Scott; Poehlmann, Flavio; Rieker, Gregory; Cappelli, Mark

    2011-10-01

    This poster presents a method to measure neutron yield from a coaxial plasma accelerator. Stored electrical energies between 1 and 19 kJ are discharged within a few microseconds across the electrodes of the coaxial gun, accelerating deuterium gas samples to plasma beam energies well beyond the keV energy range. The focus of this study is to examine the interaction of the plasma beam with a deuterated target by designing and fabricating a detector to measure neutron yield. Given the strong electromagnetic pulse associated with our accelerator, indirect measurement of neutrons via threshold-dependent nuclear activation serves as both a reliable and definitive indicator of high-energy particles for our application. Upon bombardment with neutrons, discs or stacks of metal foils placed near the deuterated target undergo nuclear activation reactions, yielding gamma-emitting isotopes whose decay is measured by a scintillation detector system. By collecting gamma ray spectra over time and considering nuclear cross sections, the magnitude of the original neutron pulse is inferred.

  8. Expansion Dynamics of Ultrafast Laser Produced Plasmas in the Presence of Ambient Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, A.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2014-10-07

    In this paper, we report the emission features of fs laser ablated brass plasma plumes at various Ar background pressure levels ranging from vacuum to atmospheric conditions. Spectrally integrated 2D-imaging of plasma self-emission showed several interesting features at various pressure levels which consists of plume morphological changes, increase in persistence, confinement, and internal structures. Spatially resolved wavelength dispersed images of the plume were recorded for characterizing the spectral features at various pressure levels and also used for obtaining spatial distribution of Cu I and Zn I species in the plume, signal to noise ratios and fundamental parameters of the plasma; viz. temperature and density. The spatial evolution of excitation temperature and density showed significant changes at various ambient pressure levels and these results were correlated to morphological changes seen in the plume images. Optimum signal to background ratios for emission lines were observed in the moderate pressure range (~ 1-10 Torr). Optical time-of-flight profiles were used to study time evolution of various species in the plume and noticed oscillations at intermediate pressure levels. Possible mechanisms for observed changes in plume shape, optical emission intensity, and dual peak structures in time-of-flight profiles were discussed.

  9. Astrophysical Weibel instability in counter-streaming laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.

    2014-10-01

    Astrophysical shock waves play diverse roles, including energizing cosmic rays in the blast waves of astrophysical explosions, and generating primordial magnetic fields during the formation of galaxies and clusters. These shocks are typically collisionless and require collective electromagnetic fields to couple the upstream and downstream plasmas. The Weibel instability has been proposed to provide the requisite interaction mechanism for shock formation in weakly-magnetized shocks by generating turbulent electric and magnetic fields in the shock front. This work presents the first laboratory identification of this Weibel instability between counterstreaming supersonic plasma flows and confirms its basic features, a significant step towards understanding these shocks. In the experiments, conducted on the OMEGA EP laser facility at the University of Rochester, a pair of plasmas plumes are generated by irradiating of a pair of opposing parallel plastic (CH) targets. The ion-ion interaction between the two plumes is collisionless, so as the plumes interpenetrate, supersonic, counterstreaming ion flow conditions are obtained. Electromagnetic fields formed in the interaction of the two plumes were probed with an ultrafast laser-driven proton beam, and we observed the growth of a highly striated, transverse instability with extended filaments parallel to the flows. The instability is identified as an ion-driven Weibel instability through agreement with analytic theory and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of colliding ablation flows, which include a collision operator. The experimental proton-radiography results are compared with synthetic ray-tracing through 3-D simulations.

  10. Experimental observation of left polarized wave absorption near electron cyclotron resonance frequency in helicon antenna produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C.

    2013-01-15

    Asymmetry in density peaks on either side of an m = +1 half helical antenna is observed both in terms of peak position and its magnitude with respect to magnetic field variation in a linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. The plasma is produced by powering the m = +1 half helical antenna with a 2.5 kW, 13.56 MHz radio frequency source. During low magnetic field (B < 100 G) operation, plasma density peaks are observed at critical magnetic fields on either side of the antenna. However, the density peaks occurred at different critical magnetic fields on both sides of antenna. Depending upon the direction of the magnetic field, in the m = +1 propagation side, the main density peak has been observed around 30 G of magnetic field. On this side, the density peak around 5 G corresponding to electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) is not very pronounced, whereas in the m = -1 propagation side, very pronounced ECR peak has been observed around 5 G. Another prominent density peak around 12 G has also been observed in m = -1 side. However, no peak has been observed around 30 G on this m = -1 side. This asymmetry in the results on both sides is explained on the basis of polarization reversal of left hand polarized waves to right hand polarized waves and vice versa in a bounded plasma system. The density peaking phenomena are likely to be caused by obliquely propagating helicon waves at the resonance cone boundary.

  11. Detailed Hydrodynamic and X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of a Laser-Produced Rapidly-Expanding Aluminum Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; Wolfrum, E; Gouveia, A; Lee, R W; Marjoribanks, R S; Renner, O; Sondhauss, P; Topping, S; Young, P E; Pinto, P A; Wark, J S

    2001-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of K-shell emission from laser-produced rapidly-expanding aluminum plasmas. This work forms part of a series of experiments performed at the Vulcan laser facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. 1-D planar expansion was obtained by over-illuminating Al-microdot targets supported on CH plastic foils. The small size of the Al-plasma ensured high spatial and frequency resolution of the spectra, obtained with a single crystal spectrometer, two vertical dispersion variant double crystal spectrometers, and a vertical dispersion variant Johann Spectrometer. The hydrodynamic properties of the plasma were measured independently by spatially and temporally resolved Thomson scattering, utilizing a 4{omega} probe beam. This enabled sub- and super- critical densities to be probed relative to the 1{omega} heater beams. The deduced plasma hydrodynamic conditions are compared with those generated from the 1-D hydro-code Medusa, and the significant differences found in the electron temperature discussed. Synthetic spectra generated from the detailed term collisional radiative non-LTE atomic physics code Fly are compared with the experimental spectra for the measured hydrodynamic parameters, and for those taken from Medusa. Excellent agreement is only found for both the H- and He-like Al series when careful account is taken of the temporal evolution of the electron temperature.

  12. The Advantages of Non-Thermal Plasma for Detonation Initiation Compared with Spark Plug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dianfeng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of detonation combustion ignited by AC-driven non-thermal plasma and spark plug in air/acetylene mixture have been compared in a double-tube experiment system. The two tubes had the same structure, and their closed ends were installed with a plasma generator and a spark plug, respectively. The propagation characteristics of the flame were measured by pressure sensors and ion probes. The experiment results show that, compared with a spark plug, the non-thermal plasma obviously broadened the range of equivalence ratio when the detonation wave could develop successfully, it also heightened the pressure value of detonation wave. Meanwhile, the detonation wave development time and the entire flame propagation time were reduced by half. All of these advantages benefited from the larger ignition volume when a non-thermal plasma was applied. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51176001)

  13. Propagation of guided modes in strongly non-uniform helicon-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Yu. M.; Krämer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical as well as numerical analysis of the full set of Maxwell's equations was carried out to study axisymmetric (m = 0) as well as non-axisymmetric (m ≠ 0) guided modes in a helicon discharge (radius R). In detail, the propagation of various guided modes for conditions of strong radial inhomogeneity was treated. The m = 1 helicon dispersion exhibits for kzR ≪1 a quadratic frequency dependence on the axial wavenumber, ω ∝kz2, if the radial density gradient is steep enough. These modes reveal non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal (θ) direction, that is, only modes with positive azimuthal mode numbers, m > 0, can propagate. This is in contrast to the linear dispersion relation, ω ∝kz (kzR ≪1), for common helicon mode propagation in weakly non-uniform plasma. The results agree reasonably with those obtained from the 2nd-order helicon wave equation derived for Ez = 0. Furthermore, guided electrostatic (ES) modes were analyzed using the 2nd-order wave equation and their eigen mode spectrum was obtained. These modes reveal also non-reciprocal behavior with respect to θ and obey a quadratic dispersion law in strongly non-uniform plasma. A particular objective is mode coupling (MC) occurring when the helicon and the ES dispersion branches merge in a certain layer. For m = 1 modes, mode coupling may arise at rather low density when the radial density gradient is steep enough. In any case, new modes, denoted as localized-coupled (LC) modes, may occur in the presence of an MC layer within the plasma. As for helicon and ES modes, the m = 1 LC modes exhibit quadratic scaling in strongly non-uniform plasma. As a particular case, we examined the propagation of m = 1 modes in a plasma column with a peaked density distribution in the center. The field distribution was found to be drastically altered due to mode coupling, thus leading to strongly enhanced wave absorption near the axis.

  14. Initial measurement of the kinetic dust temperature of a weakly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jeremiah D.; Thomas, Edward Jr.

    2006-06-15

    Measurements of the velocity space distribution function of 2.9 {mu}m diameter silica particles in an argon dc glow discharge dusty plasma are made through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). These distribution functions are then used to determine the kinetic temperature of the dust component. These measurements show that the kinetic temperature of the dust component is significantly larger than the other plasma components (electrons, ions, and background neutrals)

  15. The initial steps of biogenesis of cyanobacterial photosystems occur in plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Elena; Norling, Birgitta; Maitra, Radhashree; Huang, Fang; Andersson, Bertil; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2001-01-01

    During oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of plants and eukaryotic algae, conversion of light energy to biologically useful chemical energy occurs in the specialized thylakoid membranes. Light-induced charge separation at the reaction centers of photosystems I and II, two multisubunit pigment-protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes, energetically drive sequential photosynthetic electron transfer reactions in this membrane system. In general, in the prokaryotic cyanobacterial cells, the thylakoid membrane is distinctly different from the plasma membrane. We have recently developed a two-dimensional separation procedure to purify thylakoid and plasma membranes from the genetically widely studied cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the purified plasma membrane contained a number of protein components closely associated with the reaction centers of both photosystems. Moreover, these proteins were assembled in the plasma membrane as chlorophyll-containing multiprotein complexes, as evidenced from nondenaturing green gel and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy data. Furthermore, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis showed that in the partially assembled photosystem I core complex in the plasma membrane, the P700 reaction center was capable of undergoing light-induced charge separation. Based on these data, we propose that the plasma membrane, and not the thylakoid membrane, is the site for a number of the early steps of biogenesis of the photosynthetic reaction center complexes in these cyanobacterial cells. PMID:11687660

  16. Commissioning of an ECR Plasma Source for Lithium Surface Science Studies and Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Capece, Angie; Faroranti, Oluseyi; Skinner, Charles; Koel, Bruce

    2012-10-01

    Lithium-conditioned plasma facing components reduce hydrogen recycling in plasmas by readily forming hydride compounds, which results in improved plasma confinement and performance. A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-compatible electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, which allows surface spectroscopic studies, was recently commissioned at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to study the uptake of deuterium by lithium coatings on single crystal molybdenum as a precursor to NSTX experiments. The ECR plasma source is capable of delivering deuterium ions to the surface at energies of 50-2000 eV and current densities between 0.05 and 2.0 mA/cm^2. Surface science studies will be performed on clean Li films on Mo(100) substrates before and after D+ irradiation under UHV conditions at base pressures of 10-10 Torr. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be used to determine the chemical state of lithium, and thermal desorption spectroscopy will be used to measure the amount of deuterium retained in the sample as a function of ion fluence and temperature.

  17. Initial Operation of the Miniaturized Inductively Heated Plasma Generator IPG6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Koch, Helmut; Gomringer, Chris; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2012-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma wind tunnel facilities of similar type have been established using the inductively heated plasma source IPG6 which is based on proven IRS designs. The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160m^3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control in a wide range. First experiments have been conducted with Air, O2 and N2 as working gases and volumetric flow rates of up to 14 L/min at pressures of a few 100 Pa, although pressures below 1 Pa are achievable at lower flow rates. The maximum tested electric power so far was 8 kW. Plasma powers and total pressures in the plasma jet have been obtained. In the near future the set up of additional diagnostics, the use of other gases (i.e. H2, He), and the integration of a dust particle accelerator are planned. The intended fields of research are basic investigation in thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. in fusion devices or during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  18. Low plasma ApoE levels are associated with smaller hippocampal size in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative cohort.

    PubMed

    Teng, Edmond; Chow, Nicole; Hwang, Kristy S; Thompson, Paul M; Gylys, Karen H; Cole, Gregory M; Jack, Clifford R; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Soares, Holly D; Weiner, Michael W; Apostolova, Liana G

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest known genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the utility of plasma ApoE levels for assessing the severity of underlying neurodegenerative changes remains uncertain. Here, we examined cross-sectional associations between plasma ApoE levels and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging indices of the hippocampus from 541 participants [57 with normal cognition (NC), 375 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 109 with mild AD] who were enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Across the NC and MCI groups, lower plasma ApoE levels were significantly correlated with smaller hippocampal size, as measured by either hippocampal volume or hippocampal radial distance. These associations were driven primarily by findings from carriers of an APOE ε4 allele and are consistent with prior reports that lower plasma ApoE levels correlate with greater global cortical Pittsburgh Compound B retention. In this high-risk group, plasma ApoE levels may represent a peripheral marker of underlying AD neuropathology in nondemented elderly individuals. PMID:25547651

  19. Plasma cytokine concentration and the cytokine producing ability of whole blood cell cultures from healthy females with pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Lackovic, V; Veselková, Z; Horváthová, M; Koska, J; Blazícková, S; Vigas, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia on plasma cytokine concentration and blood leukocyte cytokine production in healthy female volunteers. No changes were found in the plasma concentration of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-13 during hyperprolactinemia when compared with control values. Using unseparated blood leukocytes, we found that the spontaneous production of IL-6 (4-8 h) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 (2-4 h) was significantly decreased and that the in vitro stimulated production of IFN-gamma (2-8 h) and TNF (4 h) was significantly increased compared with control. Our data concerning the increased IFN-gamma and TNF producing capacity of unseparated leukocytes during pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia strongly support the possibility that the lymphocyte production of these cytokines can be rapidly amplified by prolactin via a priming mechanism. PMID:10568223

  20. Study of self-generated magnetic fields in laser produced plasmas using a three-channel polaro-interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Barnwal, S.; Naik, P. A.; Kamath, M. P.; Joshi, A. S.; Kumbhare, S. R.; Gupta, P. D.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A.; Rupasov, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    Self-generated magnetic fields produced in laser plasmas at moderate laser intensities have been measured using a three-channel polaro-interferometer. The main elements of this device are two birefringent calcite wedges placed between two crossed polarizers. Using this device, the spatial profiles of (a) the rotation angle (polarometry), (b) the electron density (interferometry), and (c) the transmitted probe beam intensity (shadowgraphy) are recorded simultaneously using a digital camera with a large format CCD in a single laser shot. Magnetic fields of 2-4 MG had been estimated in aluminum plasma at laser intensities {approx}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. It is also possible to use this device in other configurations to get time resolved information.

  1. Stimulated Raman scatter from laser-produced plasmas: Merely nonlinear or also chaotic

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.P.; Batha, S.H.

    1990-08-21

    Stimulated Raman scattering in plasmas is a three-wave instability with important practical consequences for laser fusion. Most studies of this process to date have focused on its threshold. Even the linear-theory threshold poses interesting problems; and observed thresholds have been difficult to interpret. However, with increasing evidence that this instability often becomes absolute, it has become appropriate to examine saturation mechanisms as well. A number of such mechanisms are discussed here, one of which has been reported to have a chaotic regime. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  2. DESTRUCTION OF NEUTRAL PARTICLES IN A DEVICE FOR PRODUCING A HIGH DENSITY PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Simon, A.

    1962-05-01

    A method and apparatus are described for burning out neutral particles in an evacuated region and within a strong magnetic field. The method comprises injecting energetic molecular ions into the region perpendicular to the magnetic field and into the path of a dissociating, energetic arc discharge, the atomic ions formed in the dissociating process being trapped by the magnetic field, and then increasing the value of the trapped atomic ion current to such a value that the neutral particles are destroyed faster than they are formed, thereby causing a dense, energetic plasma to be built up and sustained by the magnetic field. (AEC)

  3. Magnetic properties of Sm5Fe17/Fe composite magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tetsuji; Miyoshi, Hiroya

    2012-04-01

    Mixtures of powdered Sm5Fe17 melt-spun ribbon and Fe powder were consolidated into bulk magnets by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Although these bulk magnets consisted of the hard magnetic Sm5Fe17 and soft magnetic α-Fe phases, they had a smooth hysteresis loop and exhibited coercivity. Among the magnets studied, the Sm5Fe17/Fe composite magnet with 30%Fe showed a remanence of 94 emu/g with a coercivity of 2.9 kOe.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak power densities as high as 520 mW/cm2 at 800 C for YSZ and 350 mW/cm 2 at 800 C for YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolytes.

  5. X-ray emission spectra of the plasma produced by an ultrashort laser pulse in cluster targets

    SciTech Connect

    Stenz, C; Bagnoud, V; Blasco, F; Roche, J R; Salin, F; Faenov, A Ya; Skobelev, I Yu; Magunov, A I; Pikuz, T A

    2000-08-31

    The first observation of x-ray emission spectra of multiply charged ions in the plasma produced by a 35-fs laser pulse with an intensity up to 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2} in CO{sub 2} and Kr gas jet targets is reported. The emission in the wavelength ranges of the 1snp-1s{sup 2}(n=3-6) transitions of O VII ions and the Ly{sub {alpha}} line of O VIII ions, as well as of the (2s{sub 1/2}2p{sup 6}3p{sub 3/2}){sub 1}-2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {sup 1}S{sub 0} and (2s{sub 1/2}2p{sup 6}3p{sub 1/2}){sub 1}-2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {sup 1}S{sub 0} lines of Ne-like KrXXVII ions testifies that the highly ionised plasma is formed by collision processes in clusters. Modelling the shape of the spectral lines of oxygen ions by including the principal mechanisms of broadening and absorption in optically dense plasmas reveals that the main contribution to the time-integrated intensity is made by the plasma with the parameters N{sub e}=(2-20)x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and T{sub e}=100 - 115 eV. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. Spatial and temporal measurements of electrostatic fields of a field-aligned, magnetized laser-produced plasma expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) in laboratory environments form supersonic and super-Alfénic flows that, when properly scaled, can model naturally occurring phenomena such as shock structures in supernovae and astrophysical jets. Our interest lies in understanding the evolution of these flows and how they interact with ambient, magnetized plasma. An LPP was generated using a 1011 W / cm2 laser pulse on a solid target. It expanded into a pre-formed, magnetized plasma and was directed along the background magnetic field (cs <Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on fresh produce by cold atmospheric gas plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Noriega, E; Thompson, A

    2013-02-01

    Cold atmospheric gas plasma treatment (CAP) is an alternative approach for the decontamination of fresh and minimally processed food. In this study, the effects of growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime on the inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by Nitrogen CAP were examined. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAP treatment for decontaminating lettuce and strawberry surfaces and potato tissue inoculated with S. Typhimurium was evaluated. It was found that the rate of inactivation of S. Typhimurium was independent of the growth phase, growth temperature and chemical treatment regime. Under optimal conditions, a 2 min treatment resulted in a 2.71 log-reduction of S. Typhimurium viability on membrane filters whereas a 15 min treatment was necessary to achieve 2.72, 1.76 and 0.94 log-reductions of viability on lettuce, strawberry and potato, respectively. We suggest that the differing efficiency of CAP treatment on the inactivation of S. Typhimurium on these different types of fresh foods is a consequence of their surface features. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface structures of contaminated samples of lettuce, strawberry and potato revealed topographical features whereby S. Typhimurium cells could be protected from the active species generated by plasma. PMID:23122497

  8. Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudipta; Narayanan, V; Ding, Wen Jun; Lad, Amit D; Hao, Biao; Ahmad, Saima; Wang, Wei Min; Sheng, Zheng Ming; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, Amita; Kumar, G Ravindra

    2012-05-22

    Turbulence in fluids is a ubiquitous, fascinating, and complex natural phenomenon that is not yet fully understood. Unraveling turbulence in high density, high temperature plasmas is an even bigger challenge because of the importance of electromagnetic forces and the typically violent environments. Fascinating and novel behavior of hot dense matter has so far been only indirectly inferred because of the enormous difficulties of making observations on such matter. Here, we present direct evidence of turbulence in giant magnetic fields created in an overdense, hot plasma by relativistic intensity (10(18) W/cm(2)) femtosecond laser pulses. We have obtained magneto-optic polarigrams at femtosecond time intervals, simultaneously with micrometer spatial resolution. The spatial profiles of the magnetic field show randomness and their k spectra exhibit a power law along with certain well defined peaks at scales shorter than skin depth. Detailed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations delineate the underlying interaction between forward currents of relativistic energy "hot" electrons created by the laser pulse and "cold" return currents of thermal electrons induced in the target. Our results are not only fundamentally interesting but should also arouse interest on the role of magnetic turbulence induced resistivity in the context of fast ignition of laser fusion, and the possibility of experimentally simulating such structures with respect to the sun and other stellar environments. PMID:22566660

  9. Polyurethane coating with thin polymer films produced by plasma polymerization of diglyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Ramos, A. S.; Manfredini, M. I.; Alves, H. A.; Y Honda, R.; Kostov, K. G.; Lucena, E. F.; Ramos, E. C. T.; Mota, R. P.; Algatti, M. A.; Kayama, M. E.

    2009-05-01

    Aqueous-based polyurethane dispersions have been widely utilized as lubricants in textile, shoes, automotive, biomaterial and many other industries because they are less aggressive to surrounding environment. In this work thin films with different thickness were deposited on biocompatible polyurethane by plasma polymerization process using diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (Diglyme) as monomer. Molecular structure of the films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The spectra exhibited absorption bands of O-H (3500-3200cm-1), C-H (3000-2900cm-1), C=O (1730-1650cm-1), C-O and C-O-C bonds at 1200-1600cm-1. The samples wettability was evaluated by measurements of contact angle using different liquids such as water, glycerol, poly-ethane and CMC. The polyurethane surface showed hydrophilic behavior after diglyme plasma-deposition with contact angle dropping from 85° to 22°. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that diglyme films covered uniformly the polyurethane surfaces ensuring to it a biocompatible characteristic.

  10. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Qijin Zhang, Fengyan; Yan, Wei; Randeniya, Lakshman; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-03-28

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu{sub 2}O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (∼140 °C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147 s, respectively. The Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  11. Measurement of transient force produced by a propagating arc magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator in quiescent atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Joon; Sirohi, Jayant; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted on a magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator consisting of two parallel, six inch long, copper electrodes flush mounted on an insulating ceramic plate. An electrical arc is generated by a  ∼1 kA current pulse at  ∼100 V across the electrodes. A self-induced Lorentz force drives the arc along the electrodes. The motion of the arc induces flow in the surrounding air through compression as well as entrainment, and generates a transient force, about  ∼4 ms in duration. Experiments were performed on a prototype actuator in quiescent atmospheric air to characterize the motion of the arc and the momentum transferred to the surrounding air. Measurements included transient force and total impulse generated by the actuator as well as the armature voltage and current. The arc shape and transit velocity were determined by high-speed imaging. A peak force of 0.4 N imparting an impulse of 0.68 mN-s was measured for a peak current of 1.2 kA. The force scaled with the square of the armature current and the impulse scaled linearly with the spent capacitor energy. The results provide insight into the mechanisms of body force generation and momentum transfer of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator.

  12. Analysis based on global model of nitrogen plasma produced by pulsed microwave at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Feng; Yan, Eryan Meng, Fanbao; Ma, Hongge; Liu, Minghai

    2015-07-15

    This paper analyzes certain evolution processes in nitrogen plasmas discharged using pulsed microwaves at low pressure. Comparing the results obtained from the global model incorporating diffusion and the microwave transmission method, the temporal variation of the electron density is analyzed. With a discharge pressure of 300 Pa, the results obtained from experiments and the global model calculation show that when the discharge begins the electron density in the plasma rises quickly, to a level above the critical density corresponding to the discharge microwave frequency, but falls slowly when the discharge microwave pulse is turned off. The results from the global model also show that the electron temperature increases rapidly to a peak, then decays after the electron density reaches the critical density, and finally decreases quickly to room temperature when the discharge microwave pulse is turned off. In the global model, the electron density increases because the high electron temperature induces a high ionization rate. The decay of the electron density mainly comes from diffusion effect.

  13. Electrostatic turbulence in the earth's central plasma sheet produced by multiple-ring ion distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Chen, J.; Anderson, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a mechanism to generate a broad spectrum of electrostatic turbulence in the quiet time central plasma sheet (CPS) plasma. It is shown theoretically that multiple-ring ion distributions can generate short-wavelength (less than about 1), electrostatic turbulence with frequencies less than about kVj, where Vj is the velocity of the jth ring. On the basis of a set of parameters from measurements made in the CPS, it is found that electrostatic turbulence can be generated with wavenumbers in the range of 0.02 and 1.0, with real frequencies in the range of 0 and 10, and with linear growth rates greater than 0.01 over a broad range of angles relative to the magnetic field (5-90 deg). These theoretical results are compared with wave data from ISEE 1 using an ion distribution function exhibiting multiple-ring structures observed at the same time. The theoretical results in the linear regime are found to be consistent with the wave data.

  14. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya

    2015-03-23

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 10{sup 19 }cm{sup –3} and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  15. Plasma composition in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Initial results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Gliem, F.; Hamilton, D. C.; Ipavich, F. M.; Livi, S.; Mall, U.

    1992-01-01

    The ion composition in the Jovian environment was investigated with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Ulysses. A hot tenuous plasma was observed throughout the outer and middle magnetosphere. In some regions two thermally different components were identified. Oxygen and sulfur ions with several different charge states, from the volcanic satellite Io, make the largest contribution to the mass density of the hot plasma, even at high latitude. Solar wind particles were observed in all regions investigated. Ions from Jupiter's ionosphere were abundant in the middle magnetosphere, particularly in the high-latitude region on the dusk side, which was traversed for the first time.

  16. Plasma Composition in Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Initial Results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Geiss, J; Gloeckler, G; Balsiger, H; Fisk, L A; Galvin, A B; Gliem, F; Hamilton, D C; Ipavich, F M; Livi, S; Mall, U; Ogilvie, K W; von Steiger, R; Wilken, B

    1992-09-11

    The ion composition in the Jovian environment was investigated with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Ulysses. A hot tenuous plasma was observed throughout the outer and middle magnetosphere. In some regions two thermally different components were identified. Oxygen and sulfur ions with several different charge states, from the volcanic satellite lo, make the largest contribution to the mass density of the hot plasma, even at high latitude. Solar wind particles were observed in all regions investigated. Ions from Jupiter's ionosphere were abundant in the middle magnetosphere, particularly in the highlatitude region on the dusk side, which was traversed for the first time. PMID:17776164

  17. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  18. Optimizing conversion efficiency and reducing ion energy in a laser-produced Gd plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, Thomas; Li Bowen; O'Gorman, Colm; Dunne, Padraig; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Yugami, Noboru; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira

    2012-02-06

    We have demonstrated an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source at 6.7 nm by irradiating Gd targets with 0.8 and 1.06 {mu}m laser pulses of 140 fs to 10 ns duration. Maximum conversion efficiency of 0.4% was observed within a 0.6% bandwidth. A Faraday cup observed ion yield and time of flight signals for ions from plasmas generated by each laser. Ion kinetic energy was lower for shorter pulse durations, which yielded higher electron temperatures required for efficient EUV emission, due to higher laser intensity. Picosecond laser pulses were found to be the best suited to 6.7 nm EUV source generation.

  19. Processes for forming exoergic structures with the use of a plasma and for producing dense refractory bodies of arbitrary shape therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch; Kelly, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma spraying methods of forming exoergic structures and coatings, as well as exoergic structures produced by such methods, are provided. The methods include the plasma spraying of reactive exoergic materials that are capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction onto a flat substrate or into molds of arbitrary shape and igniting said plasma sprayed materials, either under an inert gas pressure or not, to form refractory materials of varying densities and of varying shapes.

  20. Getting the most out of your cerium oxide glass polishing slurry: reducing risk and improving performance with plasma produced particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Patrick G.; Hooper, Abigail; Keleher, Jason; Kaiser, Jordan; Nichol, Meghan

    2013-09-01

    Recent dramatic price volatility and assurance of supply concerns with cerium oxide have left many users of this material in an uncertain and vulnerable position. Since few viable alternatives to ceria for precision glass polishing exist, and much of the supply is very concentrated geographically, technology which conserves ceria, improves absolute removal rate and promotes slurry longevity becomes extremely attractive under these circumstances. Using a plasma-based process to produce cerium oxide confers some unique attributes to the particles which make them particularly well suited for precision glass polishing operations. Many of those same particle characteristics, such as full crystallinity, near theoretical density, very high surface and bulk purity and extremely high zeta potentials in water can also be useful in mitigating the risks associated with a limited and costly ceria supply. This paper will explore how plasma-derived particles, in combination with a high performance chemistry package, can together constitute a fully formulated precision glass polishing slurry with very high activity, extended slurry lifetime, ability to recycle, and excellent overall process economics. Results showing the effect of particle longevity and chemical additives on removal rate and process stability will be discussed in detail, and selected examples which distinguish the benefits of a fully formulated, plasma-derived cerium oxide polishing slurry over conventional milled ceria will be shown.

  1. Formation of hot spots in the plasma of a Z-pinch produced from low-density deuterated polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Akunets, A. A.; Anan'ev, S. S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Bryzgunov, V. A.; Vikhrev, V. V.; Volobuev, I. V.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Zelenin, A. A.; Kazakov, E. D.; Korolev, V. D.; Meshcherov, B. R.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Shchagin, V. A.

    2010-08-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the plasma formation dynamics in a Z-pinch produced from a cylindrical microporous agar-agar load. The experiments were performed on the S-300 facility at a current of 2 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. To enhance the energy concentration, a deuterated polyethylene neck with a mass density of 50-75 {mu}g/cm{sup 3} and diameter of 1-2 mm was made in the central part of the load. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the Z-pinch were studied using an optical streak camera and fast frame photography in the optical and soft X-ray spectral ranges. X-ray emission was detected using semiconductor and vacuum diodes, and neutron emission was studied by means of the time-of-flight method. It is found that, in the course of continuous plasma production, hot spots with a diameter of 100 {mu}m form in the pinch plasma. The hot spots emit short soft X-ray pulses with a duration of 2-4 ns, as well as neutron pulses with an average neutron energy of about 2.45 MeV. The maximum neutron yield was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup 9} neutrons per shot. The scenario of hot spot formation is adequately described by two-dimensional MHD simulations.

  2. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  3. Filamentary structure of plasma produced by compression of puffing deuterium by deuterium or neon plasma sheath on plasma-focus discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kubes, P.; Cikhardt, J.; Kortanek, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2014-12-15

    The present experiments were performed on the PF-1000 plasma focus device at a current of 2 MA with the deuterium injected from the gas-puff placed in the axis of the anode face. The XUV frames showed, in contrast with the interferograms, the fine structure: filaments and spots up to 1?mm diameter. In the deuterium filling, the short filaments are registered mainly in the region of the internal plasmoidal structures and their number correlates with the intensity of neutron production. The longer filamentary structure was recorded close to the anode after the constriction decay. The long curve-like filaments with spots were registered in the big bubble formed after the pinch phase in the head of the umbrella shape of the plasma sheath. Filaments can indicate the filamentary structure of the current in the pinch. Together with the filaments, small compact balls a few mm in diameter were registered by both interferometry and XUV frame pictures. They emerge out of the dense column and their life-time can be greater than hundreds of ns.

  4. Filamentary structure of plasma produced by compression of puffing deuterium by deuterium or neon plasma sheath on plasma-focus discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubes, P.; Paduch, M.; Cikhardt, J.; Kortanek, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Zielinska, E.

    2014-12-01

    The present experiments were performed on the PF-1000 plasma focus device at a current of 2 MA with the deuterium injected from the gas-puff placed in the axis of the anode face. The XUV frames showed, in contrast with the interferograms, the fine structure: filaments and spots up to 1 mm diameter. In the deuterium filling, the short filaments are registered mainly in the region of the internal plasmoidal structures and their number correlates with the intensity of neutron production. The longer filamentary structure was recorded close to the anode after the constriction decay. The long curve-like filaments with spots were registered in the big bubble formed after the pinch phase in the head of the umbrella shape of the plasma sheath. Filaments can indicate the filamentary structure of the current in the pinch. Together with the filaments, small compact balls a few mm in diameter were registered by both interferometry and XUV frame pictures. They emerge out of the dense column and their life-time can be greater than hundreds of ns.

  5. Influence of magnetic field on laser-produced barium plasmas: Spectral and dynamic behaviour of neutral and ionic species

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Makaraju Srinivasa; Gopinath, Pramod; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2014-10-21

    The expansion dynamics and spectral behaviour of plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser (λ=1.064 μm, pulse width: 8 ns) from barium target and expanding in 0.45 T transverse magnetic field in vacuum (10⁻⁵Torr pressure) are investigated using time-of-flight optical emission spectroscopy. The experiments are carried out at various laser fluences from 12 to 31 J/cm². The temporal profiles of neutral (Ba I 553.5 and 577.7 nm) lines are temporally broadened, while that of ionic (Ba II 413.0 and 455.4 nm) lines show strong confinement in the presence of a magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic field, the temporal profile of Ba I 553.5 nm is exactly reproduced by fitting with two Shifted Maxwell Boltzmann (SMB) Distribution components, while in the presence of a magnetic field the profile could only be fitted with three components. The field enhanced and field induced SMB components of neutral profile are correlated with populations of ground state, metastable states, and long-lived Rydberg states present in the barium plasma, while SMB components of ionic lines are explained on the basis of the presence of super-elastic collisions among the excited species in the plasma. The spatial variation of electron temperature and temporal variation of electron density are deduced and correlated to the different collisional processes in the barium plasma. The ionic profiles show efficient confinement in the presence of a magnetic field at higher fluences.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of ODS and non-ODS Fe-14Cr model alloys produced by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M. A.; de Castro, V.; Leguey, T.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this work the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been explored as an alternative consolidation route for producing ultra-fine grained Fe-14Cr model alloys containing a dispersion of oxide nanoparticles. Elemental powders of Fe and Cr, and nanosized Y2O3 powder have been mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill and rapidly sintered in a spark plasma furnace. Two alloys, with nominal compositions Fe-14%Cr and Fe-14%Cr-0.3%Y2O3 (wt.%), have been fabricated and their microstructure and mechanical properties investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for other powder metallurgy processed alloys of the same composition but consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. The SPS technique under the present conditions has produced Fe-14Cr materials that apparently exhibit different microstructures yielding inferior mechanical properties than the counterpart material consolidated by hot isostatic pressing. Although the presence of a dispersion of Y-rich particles is evident, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr alloy consolidated by SPS exhibits poor tensile properties. The extensive decoration of the powder particle surfaces with Cr-rich precipitates and the residual porosity appear to be responsible for the impaired properties of this ODS alloy consolidated by SPS.

  7. Modulation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phytotoxic lipodepsipeptides produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae.

    PubMed

    Batoko, H; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Kinet, J M; Bouharmont, J; Gage, R A; Maraite, H; Boutry, M

    1998-07-17

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae produces the lipodepsipeptides syringotoxin, fuscopeptin A and fuscopeptin B concurrently. These phytotoxins inhibit acidification of the external medium by fusicoccin-treated rice leaf sheath discs. When tested in vitro on H+-ATPase of rice shoot plasma membranes, syringotoxin and its structural analogue syringomycin, produced by P. syringae pv. syringae, displayed a double effect. At low concentrations they stimulated the ATPase activity of native right-side-out membrane vesicles in a detergent-like manner. At higher concentrations, however, this stimulation was reversed. With membranes treated with the detergent Brij 58, inhibition of ATPase activity was observed at low concentrations of the nonapeptides. The latter effect required the presence of an intact lactone ring formed by the nonapeptide head of these molecules. In contrast, fuscopeptins A and B inhibited enzyme activity regardless of the orientation of the vesicles. These observations were confirmed using plasma membranes from a yeast strain whose own H+-ATPase had been replaced by a single plant H+-ATPase isoform, PMA2, from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. The kinetics of inhibition induced by the most active compound fuscopeptin B, showed a non-competitive pattern, with a Ki of about 1 microM. The combination of syringotoxin (or syringomycin) with the more hydrophobic fuscopeptins, in amounts with little or no effect, resulted in strong inhibition of the enzyme activity of rice membranes, suggesting a synergistic effect for the two types of toxins. PMID:9675287

  8. Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-08-01

    The progress in development of commercial system for next generation EUV lithography requires, among other factors, significant improvement in EUV photon sources such as discharge produced plasma (DPP) and laser produced plasma (LPP) devices. There are still many uncertainties in determining the optimum device since there are many parameters for the suitable and efficient energy source and target configuration and size. Complex devices with trigger lasers in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency (CE) and components lifetime. We considered in our analysis a promising LPP source configuration using 10-30 {mu}m tin droplet targets, and predicted conditions for the most efficient EUV radiation output and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual-beam lasers and their relationship to target size. We used our HEIGHTS comprehensive and integrated full 3D simulation package to study and optimize LPP processes with various target sizes to maximize the CE of the system.

  9. Generation mechanism of hydroxyl radical species and its lifetime prediction during the plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Pankaj; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Park, Ji Hoon; Hong, Young J.; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    Through this work, we have elucidated the mechanism of hydroxyl radicals (OH•) generation and its life time measurements in biosolution. We observed that plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were responsible for the continues generation of OH• species, that resulted in OH• to be major reactive species (RS) in the solution. The density and lifetime of OH• species acted inversely proportional to each other with increasing depth inside the solution. The cause of increased lifetime of OH• inside the solution is predicted using theoretical and semiempirical calculations. Further, to predict the mechanism of conversion of hydroxide ion (OH−) to OH• or H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and electron, we determined the current inside the solution of different pH. Additionally, we have investigated the critical criterion for OH• interaction on cancer cell inducing apoptosis under effective OH• exposure time. These studies are innovative in the field of plasma chemistry and medicine. PMID:25790968

  10. Generation mechanism of hydroxyl radical species and its lifetime prediction during the plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attri, Pankaj; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Park, Ji Hoon; Hong, Young J.; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    Through this work, we have elucidated the mechanism of hydroxyl radicals (OH•) generation and its life time measurements in biosolution. We observed that plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were responsible for the continues generation of OH• species, that resulted in OH• to be major reactive species (RS) in the solution. The density and lifetime of OH• species acted inversely proportional to each other with increasing depth inside the solution. The cause of increased lifetime of OH• inside the solution is predicted using theoretical and semiempirical calculations. Further, to predict the mechanism of conversion of hydroxide ion (OH-) to OH• or H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and electron, we determined the current inside the solution of different pH. Additionally, we have investigated the critical criterion for OH• interaction on cancer cell inducing apoptosis under effective OH• exposure time. These studies are innovative in the field of plasma chemistry and medicine.

  11. Ruminant-produced trans-fatty acids raise plasma total and small HDL particle concentrations in male Hartley guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rice, Beth H; Kraft, Jana; Destaillats, Frédéric; Bauman, Dale E; Lock, Adam L

    2010-12-01

    Although trans-fatty acid (tFA) intake has been positively associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), the relative effect of consuming industrially produced (IP)- compared with ruminant-produced (RP)-tFA on CHD risk factors is unclear. This study was designed to examine the effects of feeding partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), IP-tFA source, and butter oil (BO), RP-tFA source, on the development of atherosclerosis and risk factors associated with CHD. Forty-eight male Hartley guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing (9% by weight) PHVO, BO, coconut oil (CO; positive control), or soybean oil (SO; negative control) for 8 or 12 wk (n = 6/group). Morphological analysis revealed that none of the groups developed atherosclerosis. Plasma and hepatic lipids did not differ between the tFA groups, but total and small HDL particles were significantly higher in the BO group than in the PHVO group and mean HDL particle size was significantly smaller in the BO group than in the PHVO group. Compared with the other treatment groups, the SO treatment resulted in significantly lower total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol in plasma, whereas hepatic TC was significantly higher in the SO group than in the other treatment groups. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations did not differ between the tFA and CO treatments. These results demonstrate that when fed at a high dose, IP- and RP-tFA had the same effect on established CHD risk factors in male Hartley guinea pigs. The effects of RP-tFA on HDL particle sizes and concentrations warrant further investigation. PMID:20980644

  12. Space-time resolved measurements of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Dudzak, R.; Chodukowski, T.; Dostal, J.; Demchenko, N. N.; Korneev, Ph.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kalal, M.; Renner, O.; Smid, M.; Borodziuk, S.; Krousky, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.; Golasowski, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2015-10-01

    The first space-time resolved spontaneous magnetic field (SMF) measurements realized on Prague Asterix Laser System are presented. The SMF was generated as a result of single laser beam (1.315 μm) interaction with massive planar targets made of materials with various atomic numbers (plastic and Cu). Measured SMF confirmed azimuthal geometry and their maximum amplitude reached the value of 10 MG at the laser energy of 250 J for both target materials. It was demonstrated that spatial distributions of these fields are associated with the character of the ablative plasma expansion which clearly depends on the target material. To measure the SMF, the Faraday effect was employed causing rotation of the vector of polarization of the linearly polarized diagnostic beam. The rotation angle was determined together with the phase shift using a novel design of a two-channel polaro-interferometer. To obtain sufficiently high temporal resolution, the polaro-interferometer was irradiated by Ti:Sa laser pulse with the wavelength of 808 nm and the pulse duration of 40 fs. The results of measurements were compared with theoretical analysis.

  13. Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets (thick films) produced by a vacuum-plasma-spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, G.; Wecker, J.; Rodewald, W.; Sattler, W.; Bach, Fr.-W.; Duda, T.; Unterberg, W.

    2000-05-01

    Thick, hard-magnetic Nd-Fe-B films (˜1 mm) were deposited on different substrates (Cu, steel) by a low-pressure plasma-spraying process. The properties of the applied Nd-Fe-B powders (e.g., grain size, composition) and the conditions of the spraying process were optimized with respect to the mechanical and magnetic properties of the films. Film thicknesses up to 1.2 mm were achieved with good adhesive properties (bond strength>40 MPa). Cracks at the interface or within the films during the deposition process could be suppressed by adjusting the temperature profile of the substrate and controlling the deposition rate. Depending on the maximum temperature of the substrate and the thickness of the Nd-Fe-B films, either amorphous or microcrystalline structures were obtained. In general, the magnetic properties were improved by a postdeposition annealing treatment. Coercivities HcJ up to 16 kA/cm and isotropic remanences of about 0.6 T were achieved.

  14. Space-time resolved measurements of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Borodziuk, S.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.; Golasowski, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.; Demchenko, N. N.; Korneev, Ph.; Kalal, M.; Renner, O.; Smid, M.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2015-10-15

    The first space-time resolved spontaneous magnetic field (SMF) measurements realized on Prague Asterix Laser System are presented. The SMF was generated as a result of single laser beam (1.315 μm) interaction with massive planar targets made of materials with various atomic numbers (plastic and Cu). Measured SMF confirmed azimuthal geometry and their maximum amplitude reached the value of 10 MG at the laser energy of 250 J for both target materials. It was demonstrated that spatial distributions of these fields are associated with the character of the ablative plasma expansion which clearly depends on the target material. To measure the SMF, the Faraday effect was employed causing rotation of the vector of polarization of the linearly polarized diagnostic beam. The rotation angle was determined together with the phase shift using a novel design of a two-channel polaro-interferometer. To obtain sufficiently high temporal resolution, the polaro-interferometer was irradiated by Ti:Sa laser pulse with the wavelength of 808 nm and the pulse duration of 40 fs. The results of measurements were compared with theoretical analysis.

  15. Measurements of the optical emission produced during the laboratory beam plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, T. J.; Leinbach, H.; Mantjoukis, G.; Bernstein, W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical observations of a beam-plasma discharge (BPD) in the laboratory showed that the discharge remained confined to a diameter little more than double that of the beam for injection parallel to the magnetic field and approximately equal to that of the beam for injection at large pitch angles. The diameter was independent of beam current but varied linearly with beam velocity and inversely with magnetic field strength. The ionization rate inferred from the total emission of 3914 A, integrated over the radial extent of the beam, was proportional to the excess beam current above that requied for BPD ignition. The proportionality constant ( 12 + or - 2) x 10 to the 14th ions/cm s A was valid over a wide range of pressure and of magnetic field strength. Power loss to ionization in a 20 m path was estimated at up to 4 percent of the beam power. Evidence is presented for effective confinement of suprathermal electrons (parallel to B) by some unidentified process other than electrostatic confinement.

  16. Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guihua; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Xie, Hongqiang; Yao, Jinping; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xu, Huailiang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Yao et al. demonstrated the creation of coherent emissions in nitrogen gas with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) ultrafast laser pulses [J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, New J. Phys. 15, 023046 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/2/023046]. Based on this two-color scheme, here we report on systematic investigation of temporal characteristics of the radiation emitted at 391 nm [N2+: B2Σu+(ν =0) -X2Σg+(ν =0)] by experimentally examining its temporal profiles with the increase of the plasma channel induced by the intense 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses at a nitrogen-gas pressure of ˜25 mbar. We reveal unexpected temporal profiles of the coherent emissions, which show significant superradiance signatures owing to the cooperation of an ensemble of excited N2+ molecules that are coherently radiating in phase. Our findings shed more light on the mechanisms behind the coherent laserlike emissions induced by strong-field ionization of molecules.

  17. Molecular Classification and Pharmacogenetics of Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: An Initial Approach toward Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974

  18. Initiation, growth and plasma characteristics of ‘Gatchina’ water plasmoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.; Dumas, Shelby; Komala-Noor, Laurence; McMinn, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Plasmoids generated by discharging a high-voltage capacitor through electrodes submerged in a weak aqueous electrolyte have attracted attention because of their resemblance to the natural phenomenon of ball lightning. We describe an extensive series of experimental studies which elucidate the mechanism responsible for the production of water plasmoids. We show that a plasma jet from a cathode spot is responsible for the formation of the main plasmoid, which grows in accordance with a current surge due to increasing contact area of the plasma with the liquid-air surface of the electrolyte. Spectra of optical emissions and scanning electron microscope studies indicate that the plasmoids glow because of a combination of chemiluminescence, atomic and molecular excitation, and possible incandescence from small particulates.

  19. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B <= 1200G. The main focus is to understand the neutral particle dynamics and ionization mechanism with helicon waves to establish a high-density plasma (10 ∧ 20/m ∧ 3) at substantial electron (Te ~5-15eV) and ion (Ti ~1-3eV) temperature. To achieve this, installation of higher RF Power <= 15kW is planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  20. Development and initial operating characteristics of the 20 megawatt linear plasma accelerator facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, A. F.; Weaver, W. R.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Wood, G. P.

    1971-01-01

    A 20-megawatt linear plasma accelerator facility, a steady flow, Faraday-type plasma accelerator facility for high velocity aerodynamic testing, was constructed, developed, and brought to an operational status. The accelerator has a 63.5-mm-square and 0.5-meter-long channel and utilizes nitrogen-seeded with 2 % mole fraction of cesium vapor. Modification of the original accelerator design characteristics and the improvements necessary to make the arc heater a suitable plasma source are described. The measured accelerator electrode current distribution and the electrode-wall potential distributions are given. The computed and the measured values are in good agreement. Measured pitot pressure indicates that an accelerator exit velocity of 9.2 km/sec, is obtained with 30 of the 36 electrode pairs powered and corresponds to a velocity increase to about 2 1/4 times the computed entrance velocity. The computed stagnation enthalpy at the accelerator exit is 92 MJ/kg, and the mass density corresponds to an altitude of about 58 km. The 92 MJ/kg stagnation enthalpy corresponds to a kinetic energy content at low temperature equivalent to a velocity of 13.6 km/sec.