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Sample records for plasma initiation produced

  1. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  2. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma

    E-print Network

    C. Labaune; C. Baccou; S. Depierreux; C. Goyon; G. Loisel; V. Yahia; J. Rafelski

    2013-10-08

    The advent of high-intensity pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei, by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments.

  3. Field reversal produced by a plasma gun

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, C.W.; Condit, W.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Prono, D.; Smith, A.C. Jr.; Taska, J.; Turner, W.C.

    1980-04-02

    Experimental results are presented of the production of Field-Reversed Plasma with a high energy coaxial plasma gun. The gun is magnetized with solenoids inside the center electrode and outside the outer electrode so that plasma emerging from the gun entrains the radial fringer field at the muzzle. The plasma flow extends field lines propagating a high electrical conductivity, the flux inside the center electrode should be preserved. However, for low flux, the trapped flux exceeds by 2 or more the initial flux, possibly because of helical deformation of the current channel extending from the center electrode.

  4. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gitomer, S.J. ); Jones, R.D. . Applied Theoretical Physics Div.)

    1991-12-01

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photodynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. In this paper the authors examine those areas of laser medicine in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. We consider examples of the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g., lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g., kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation), and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g., laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented, along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included.

  5. Laser-produced plasmas in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gitomer, S.J.; Jones, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The laser has found numerous applications in medicine, beginning with uses in ophthalmology in the 1960's. Today, lasers are used in tissue cutting, blood coagulation, photo-dynamic cancer therapy, arterial plaque removal, dental drilling, etc. In this paper, we examine those areas of laser medicine in which plasmas (ionized gases) are produced. In fact, the presence of a plasma is essential for the application at hand to succeed. We consider examples of the plasmas produced in ophthalmology (e.g., lens membrane destruction following cataract surgery), in urology and gastroenterology (e.g., kidney and gall stone ablation and fragmentation) and in cardiology and vascular surgery (e.g., laser ablation and removal of fibro-fatty and calcified arterial plaque). Experimental data are presented along with some results from computer simulations of the phenomena. Comments on future directions in these areas are included. 63 refs.

  6. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  7. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  8. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Walter, Kevin Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  9. Arc initiation in cathodic arc plasma sources

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A "triggerless" arc initiation method and apparatus is based on simply switching the arc supply voltage to the electrodes (anode and cathode). Neither a mechanical trigger electrode nor a high voltage flashover from a trigger electrode is required. A conducting path between the anode and cathode is provided, which allows a hot spot to form at a location where the path connects to the cathode. While the conductive path is eroded by the cathode spot action, plasma deposition ensures the ongoing repair of the conducting path. Arc initiation is achieved by simply applying the relatively low voltage of the arc power supply, e.g. 500 V-1 kV, with the insulator between the anode and cathode coated with a conducting layer and the current at the layer-cathode interface concentrated at one or a few contact points. The local power density at these contact points is sufficient for plasma production and thus arc initiation. A conductive surface layer, such as graphite or the material being deposited, is formed on the surface of the insulator which separates the cathode from the anode. The mechanism of plasma production (and arc initiation) is based on explosive destruction of the layer-cathode interface caused by joule heating. The current flow between the thin insulator coating and cathode occurs at only a few contact points so the current density is high.

  10. Measurement of Debye length in laser-produced plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehler, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Debye length of an expanded plasma created by placing an evacuated chamber with an entrance slit in the path of a freely expanding laser produced plasma was measured, using the slab geometry. An independent measurement of electron density together with the observed value for the Debye length also provided a means for evaluating the plasma electron temperature. This temperature has applications in ascertaining plasma conductivity and magnetic field necessary for confinement of the laser produced plasma. Also, the temperature obtained would be useful in analyzing electron-ion recombination rates in the expanded plasma and the dynamics of the cooling process of the plasma expansion.

  11. Measurements of plasma bremsstrahlung and plasma energy density produced by electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Jonathan David

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to gain an understanding on the relative importance of microwave power, neutral pressure, and magnetic field configuration on the behavior of the hot electrons within an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma. This was carried out through measurement of plasma bremsstrahlung with both NaI(Tl) (hv > 30 keV) and CdTe (2 keV < hv < 70 keV) x-ray detectors, and through measurement of the plasma energy density with a diamagnetic loop placed around the plasma chamber. We also examined the anisotropy in x-ray power by simultaneously measuring the x-ray spectra in two orthogonal directions: radially and axially, using NaI(Tl) detectors. We have seen that for a 6.4 GHz ECRIS, both the x-ray power produced by confined electrons and the plasma energy density behave logarithmically with microwave power. The x-ray flux created by electrons lost from the plasma, however, does not saturate. Thus, the small increase in plasma density that occurred at high microwave powers (> 150 W on a 6.4 GHz ECRIS) was accompanied by a large increase in total x-ray power. We suggest that the saturation of x-ray power and plasma energy density was due to rf-induced pitch-angle scattering of the electrons. X-ray power and plasma energy density were also shown to saturate with neutral pressure, and to increase nearly linearly as the gradient of the magnetic field in the resonance zone was decreased. All of these findings were in agreement with the theoretical models describing ECRIS plasmas. We have discussed the use of a diamagnetic loop as a means of exploring various plasma time scales on a relative basis. Specifically, we focused much of our attention on studying how changing ion source parameters, such as microwave power and neutral pressure, would effect the rise and decay of the integrated diamagnetic signal, which can be related to plasma energy density. We showed that increasing microwave power lowers the e-fold times at both the leading edge and the trailing edge of the microwave pulse. Microwave power, however, had almost no impact on the ignition times of the plasma. The plasma energy density e-fold times were insensitive to both neutral pressure and magnetic field setting. Neutral pressure, however, had a dramatic effect on the time of first appearance of the diamagnetic signal ("plasma ignition time"). In addition to neutral pressure, ignition times were also a function the relative abundance of electrons in the plasma chamber at the beginning of a microwave pulse. In all instances, the rise time of the integrated diamagnetic signal was seen to be faster than the decay time. By comparing the unintegrated diamagnetic signal to the ratio of reflected to forward microwave power we theorized that the initial, exponential rise in the diamagnetic signal at the leading edge of a microwave pulse was due to rapid changes in both the average electron energy and density. During the slowly decaying portion of the diamagnetic loop signal, only the hot tail of the electron population was increasing. This theory was supported by time resolved, low energy x-ray measurements that showed that the period of rapid change of the ratio of reflected to forward microwave power coincided with a rapid change in average photon energy. We have also showed that x-rays production in an ECRIS plasma was highly anisotropic, with radial x-ray counts being much greater than axial x-ray counts. This was shown to be true for both the "ECR" (operating at 6.4 GHz) and the higher performance "AECR-U" (operating at 14 GHz). Based on this, we can make the qualitative statement that the electron energy was also highly anisotropic, with a much larger perpendicular energy than parallel energy. The degree of anisotropy was shown to increase with the operating frequency of the ion source. This increase was most likely attributable to the higher power density and greater confinement associated with higher performance machines, and implies that superconducting ECRIS operating at very high freq

  12. Plasma dynamics in a discharge produced by a pulsed dual frequency inductively coupled plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Anurag; Lee, Sehan; Yeom, Geun Y.

    2014-11-01

    Using a Langmuir probe, time resolved measurements of plasma parameters were carried out in a discharge produced by a pulsed dual frequency inductively coupled plasma source. The discharge was sustained in an argon gas environment at a pressure of 10 mTorr. The low frequency (P{sub 2} {sub MHz}) was pulsed at 1 kHz and a duty ratio of 50%, while high frequency (P{sub 13.56} {sub MHz}) was maintained in the CW mode. All measurements were carried out at the center of the discharge and 20?mm above the substrate. The results show that, at a particular condition (P{sub 2} {sub MHz}?=?200 W and P{sub 13.56} {sub MHz?}=?600 W), plasma density increases with time and stabilizes at up to ?200 ?s after the initiation of P{sub 2} {sub MHz} pulse at a plasma density of (2?×?10{sup 17} m{sup ?3}) for the remaining duration of pulse “on.” This stabilization time for plasma density increases with increasing P{sub 2} {sub MHz} and becomes ?300 ?s when P{sub 2} {sub MHz} is 600 W; however, the growth rate of plasma density is almost independent of P{sub 2} {sub MHz}. Interestingly, the plasma density sharply increases as the pulse is switched off and reaches a peak value in ?10 ?s, then decreases for the remaining pulse “off-time.” This phenomenon is thought to be due to the sheath modulation during the transition from “pulse on” to “pulse off” and partly due to RF noise during the transition period. The magnitude of peak plasma density in off time increases with increasing P{sub 2} {sub MHz}. The plasma potential and electron temperature decrease as the pulse develops and shows similar behavior to that of the plasma density when the pulse is switched off.

  13. Microwave produced plasma in a Toroidal Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Edwards, W. F.; Held, E. D.

    2010-11-01

    A currentless toroidal plasma device exhibits a large range of interesting basic plasma physics phenomena. Such a device is not in equilibrium in a strict magneto hydrodynamic sense. There are many sources of free energy in the form of gradients in plasma density, temperature, the background magnetic field and the curvature of the magnetic field. These free energy sources excite waves and instabilities which have been the focus of studies in several devices in last two decades. A full understanding of these simple plasmas is far from complete. At Utah State University we have recently designed and installed a microwave plasma generation system on a small tokamak borrowed from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Microwaves are generated at 2.45 GHz in a pulsed dc mode using a magnetron from a commercial kitchen microwave oven. The device is equipped with horizontal and vertical magnetic fields and a transformer to impose a toroidal electric field for current drive. Plasmas can be obtained over a wide range of pressure with and without magnetic fields. We present some preliminary measurements of plasma density and potential profiles. Measurements of plasma temperature at different operating conditions are also presented.

  14. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    E-print Network

    Annenkov, V V; Volchok, E P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in the realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through the plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in the infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  15. Light source employing laser-produced plasma

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S

    2013-09-17

    A system and a method of generating radiation and/or particle emissions are disclosed. In at least some embodiments, the system includes at least one laser source that generates a first pulse and a second pulse in temporal succession, and a target, where the target (or at least a portion the target) becomes a plasma upon being exposed to the first pulse. The plasma expand after the exposure to the first pulse, the expanded plasma is then exposed to the second pulse, and at least one of a radiation emission and a particle emission occurs after the exposure to the second pulse. In at least some embodiments, the target is a solid piece of material, and/or a time period between the first and second pulses is less than 1 microsecond (e.g., 840 ns).

  16. Laser electron acceleration in the prepulse produced plasma corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, N. E.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Pugachev, L. P.; Levashov, P. R.

    2015-11-01

    The generation of hot electrons at grazing incidence of a subpicosecond relativistic-intense laser pulse onto the plane solid target is analyzed for the parameters of the petawatt class laser systems. We study the preplasma formation on the surface of solid Al target produced by the laser prepulses with different time structure. For modeling of the preplasma dynamics we use a wide-range two-temperature hydrodynamic model. As a result of simulations, the preplasma expansion under the action of the laser prepulse and the plasma density profiles for different contrast ratios of the nanosecond pedestal are found. These density profiles were used as the initial density distributions in 3-D PIC simulations of electron acceleration by the main P-polarized laser pulse. Results of modeling demonstrate the substantial increase of the characteristic energy and number of accelerated electrons for the grazing incidence of a subpicosecond intense laser pulse in comparison with the laser-target interaction at normal incidence.

  17. Laser produced plasma for efficient extreme ultraviolet light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Tony; Cummins, Thomas; O' Gorman, Colm; Li Bowen; Harte, Colm S.; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-05-25

    Extreme ultraviolet emission from laser produced plasma and their relevance to EUV source development is discussed. The current state of the field for Sn LPP sources operating at 13.5 nm is described and initial results are given for EUV emission from CO{sub 2} laser irradiation of a bulk Sn target. A maximum conversion efficiency of 1.7% has been measured and the influence of the CO{sub 2} laser temporal profile on the CE is discussed. A double pulse irradiation scheme is shown to increase CE up to a maximum value of 2.1% for an optimum prepulse - pulse delay of 150 ns. The emergence of a new EUVL source wavelength at 6.7 nm based on Gd and Tb LPPs has been outlined. An initial experiment investigating picosecond laser irradiation as a means to produce strong 6.7 nm emission from a Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} target has been performed and verified.

  18. Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1

    E-print Network

    Liska, Richard

    Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1 R. LISKA,2 AND F.B. ROSMEJ3,4 1 Institute, France (RECEIVED 30 August 2009; ACCEPTED 21 September 2009) Abstract Jets of laser­generated plasma surfaces (walls). The pilot experiments carried out on the iodine laser system (5­200 J, 0.44 mm, 0

  19. Initiation of vacuum insulator surface high-voltage flashover with electrons produced by laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Leopold, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, experiments are described in which cylindrical vacuum insulator samples and samples inclined at 45° relative to the cathode were stressed by microsecond timescale high-voltage pulses and illuminated by focused UV laser beam pulses. In these experiments, we were able to distinguish between flashover initiated by the laser producing only photo-electrons and when plasma is formed. It was shown that flashover is predominantly initiated near the cathode triple junction. Even dense plasma formed near the anode triple junction does not necessarily lead to vacuum surface flashover. The experimental results directly confirm our conjecture that insulator surface breakdown can be avoided by preventing its initiation [J. G. Leopold et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 060401 (2007)] and complement our previous experimental results [J. Z. Gleizer et al., IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 21, 2394 (2014) and J. Z. Gleizer et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 073301 (2015)].

  20. Attenuated APC alleles produce functional protein from internal translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Heppner Goss, Kathleen; Trzepacz, Chris; Tuohy, Thérèse M. F.; Groden, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Some truncating mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene are associated with an attenuated phenotype of familial adenomatous polyposis coli (AAPC). This work demonstrates that APC alleles with 5? mutations produce APC protein that down-regulates ?-catenin, inhibits ?-catenin/T cell factor-mediated transactivation, and induces cell-cycle arrest. Transfection studies demonstrate that cap-independent translation is initiated internally at an AUG at codon 184 of APC. Furthermore, APC coding sequence between AAPC mutations and AUG 184 permits internal ribosome entry in a bicistronic vector. These data suggest that AAPC alleles in vivo may produce functional APC by internal initiation and establish a functional correlation between 5? APC mutations and their associated clinical phenotype. PMID:12034871

  1. Collisional coupling in counterstreaming laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, D. W.; Goforth, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The collisional processes which transfer momentum between counterstreaming plasmas are reviewed and applied to the example of a laser-produced plasma expanding into a partially ionized background. Experimental measurements of the dependence of the ion flow field on collisional momentum transfer demonstrate the validity of the simplified treatment of collision processes which have been adopted. A numerical model which simulates the laser-plasma interaction with the background confirms the importance of collisions in previous experimental studies of momentum coupling, and provides some insight into the distinction between collisional and collisionless flow regimes.

  2. Radiative heat transport instability in a laser produced inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.

    2015-08-01

    A laser produced high-Z plasma in which an energy balance is achieved due to radiation emission and radiative heat transfer supports ion acoustic instability. A linear dispersion relation is derived, and instability is compared to the radiation cooling instability [R. G. Evans, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 751 (1985)]. Under conditions of indirect drive fusion experiments, the driving term for the instability is the radiative heat flux and, in particular, the density dependence of the radiative heat conductivity. A specific example of thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation source has been considered. This instability may lead to plasma jet formation and anisotropic x-ray generation, thus affecting inertial confinement fusion related experiments.

  3. XUV laser-produced plasma sheet beam and microwave agile mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Scharer, J.E.; Porter, B.; Lam, N.T.

    1994-12-31

    An excimer-laser ({lambda} = 193 nm) produced plasma in an organic gas (TMAE) has been generated and studied. These studies have determined the ion-electron recombination coefficient and the photon absorption cross-section, of the neutral gas. The dependences of wave transmission, reflection and absorption on plasma density are obtained. A new optical system with an array of cylindrical XUV coated lenses has been implemented to form a plasma sheet to study its usage as agile mirror microwave reflector. The lens system expands the incident laser beam in X direction and compresses it in Y direction to form a sheet beam. The expanded beam then passes through a vacuum chamber filled with TMAE at 50--500 nTorr to produce the plasma sheet. Space-time measurements of the plasma density and temperature as measured by a Langmuir probe are presented. XUV optical measurements of the laser beam as measured by a photodiode are presented. Initial experiments have generated a plasma sheet of 5--10 mm x 11 cm with peak plasma density of 5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3}. A microwave source will be utilized to study the agile mirror character of the plasma sheet. Modeling of the microwave reflection from the plasma profile will also be discussed.

  4. Collimation of laser-produced plasmas using axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassan, Syed M.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas; Hassanein, A.

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the expansion dynamics of laser-produced plasmas expanding into an axial magnetic field. Plasmas were generated by focusing 1.064 µm Nd:YAG laser pulses onto a planar tin target in vacuum and allowed to expand into a 0.5 T magnetic-filed where field lines were aligned along the plume expansion direction. Gated images employing intensified CCD showed focusing of the plasma plume, which were also compared with results obtained using particle-in-cell modelling methods. The estimated density and temperature of the plasma plumes employing emission spectroscopy revealed significant changes in the presence and absence of the 0.5T magnetic field. In the presence of the field, the electron temperature is increased with distance from the target, while the density showed opposite effects.

  5. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B; Roquemore, A L; Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A

    2009-10-29

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  6. Effects of plasma spatial profile on conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Effects of plasma spatial profile on conversion efficiency of laser-produced plasma sources for EUV of Nuclear Engineering 400 Central Drive West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2017 E-mail: hassanein conversion efficiency of a planar target in com- parison to a spherical target. HEIGHTS can study multiple

  7. Electrostatic structure of a magnetized laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the structure of the electrostatic fields produced by the expansion of a laser-produced plasma into a background magnetized plasma are presented. The three-dimensional measurements of the electrostatic field are made using an emissive probe that measures the time-varying plasma potential on two orthogonal planes, one across and one containing the background magnetic field. The inductive electric field is also calculated from probe measurements of the time-varying magnetic fields. Deviations from local charge neutrality at the level of 10-4 generate a radial electrostatic field with peak strength an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding inductive field. The electrostatic energy density near full expansion is over an order of magnitude larger than that of the induced azimuthal electric field. These measurements show that electrostatic fields must be included in theoretical and computational models of collisionless coupling in magnetized point explosions of laser-produced plasmas and their relation to similar phenomena such as magnetospheric chemical releases.

  8. Instabilities observed at the bubble edge of a laser produced plasma during its expansion in an ambient tenuous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Clark, S. E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Niemann, C.

    2014-10-01

    The Raptor kJ class 1053 nm Nd:Glass laser in the Phoenix laser laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles, is used to ablate a dense debris plasma from a graphite or plastic target embedded in a tenuous, uniform, and quiescent ambient magnetized plasma in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) which provides a peak plasma density of ni ~ 1013 cm-3. Its background magnetic field can vary between 200 and 1200 G. Debris ions from laser produced plasma expand out conically with super-Alfvénic speed (MA ~ 2) and expel the background magnetic field and ambient ions to form a diamagnetic bubble. The debris plasma interacts with the ambient plasma and the magnetic field and acts as a piston which can create collisionless shocks. Flute-type instabilities, which are probably large Larmor radius Rayleigh Taylor instabilities or lower hybrid drift instabilities, are developed at the bubble edge and also observed in the experiment. The amplitude and wavelength dependence of the instabilities, which might be a strong function of debris to ambient mass to charge ratio, is studied and the experimental results are compared to the two dimensional hybrid simulations. the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the Excellence Initiative Darmstadt Graduate School of Energy Science and Engineering (GSC1070).

  9. Microwave Produced Plasma Study in a Cylindrical System

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, V. K.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Bora, D.

    2008-03-19

    Hydrogen plasma using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique is produced and is studied in a small linear system for breakdown parameters. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 GHz for 30 ms during which the breakdown of neutral gas occurs. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface (B = 875 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay and plasma decay time are observed from plasma density measurements, carried out at the centre of plasma system using a specially designed Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (10{sup -5}-10{sup -2} mbar) and input microwave power (160-800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is observed and the parameter space for operating the pulsed experimental system has been identified. All the relevant experimental results obtained are presented.

  10. Laser Discharge Initiation for Gas-fed Pulsed Plasma Thrusters J.W. Berkery

    E-print Network

    (GFPPT), it will release from that surface a certain flux of electrons through the photoelectric effect attempted to use ultraviolet light to draw a current pulse through the photoelectric effect. Infared light is to produce spatially uniform current sheet initiation in gas-fed pulsed plasma thrusters. The effect is ex

  11. Electron energy distribution produced by beam-plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, H. R.; Gordeuk, J.; Jost, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an investigation of a beam-plasma discharge (BPD), the electron energy distribution of an electron beam moving through a partially ionized gas is analyzed. Among other results, it is found that the occurrence of BPD heats the initially cold electron beam from the accelerator. The directional intensity of electrons measured outside the beam core indicates that most particles suffer a single scattering in energy and pitch angle. At low currents this result is expected as beam particles collide with the neutral atmosphere, while in BPD the majority of particles is determined to still undergo a single scattering near the original beam core. The extended energy spectra at various beam currents show two rather distinct plasma populations, one centered at the initial beam energy (approximately 1500 eV) and the other at approximately 150 eV.

  12. Morphology of ceramic particles produced by plasma-chemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, S. S.; Gol'din, V. D.; Zharova, I. K.; Zhukov, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal and diffusion processes in the droplet weakly concentrated metal salt solution during its heating in the plasma chemical reactor, in order to synthesize metal oxide powders are considered. Numerical study is based on previously proposed physical-mathematical model. The results of numerical calculations are analyzed to assess the possible influence of the operation parameters of the reactor and the characteristics of the initial solution (precursor) on the morphology of the particles formed.

  13. Electron-ion hybrid instability in laser-produced plasma expansions across magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyser, T. A.; Manka, C. K.; Ripin, B. H.; Ganguli, G.

    1992-08-01

    High-intensity laser irradiation of hollow glass cylinders immersed in a magnetic field results in plasma expansions strongly collimated in the direction transverse to both the initial flow and the magnetic field, but jetlike in the direction parallel to the initial flow. Magnetic fields from B = 0 kG to B = 10 kG produced plasmas with markedly different geometrical features. Fast framing camera photographs show the plasmas propagating across magnetic field lines and undergoing structuring indicative of transverse velocity shear-driven instabilities. Comparison is made between the observed instability characteristics and predictions of Rayleigh-Taylor, classical Kelvin-Helmholtz, and the electron-ion hybrid instabilities. Only the electron-ion hybrid instability is consistent with the experimental results.

  14. Spectroscopic Analysis and Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Wire Produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plechaty, Christopher; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Main, Daniel; Caplinger, James; Wallerstein, Austin; Kim, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The Lower Hybrid Drift Instability (LHDI) in plasma is driven by the presence of inhomogeneities in density, temperature, or magnetic field (Krall 1971, Davidson 1977), and occurs in systems where the electrons are magnetized and the ions are effectively unmagnetized. The LHDI is thought to occur in magnetic reconnection (Huba 1977), and has also been investigated as a mitigation technique which can allow for communications to take place through the plasma formed around hypersonic aircraft (Sotnikov 2010). To further understand the phenomenology of the LHDI, we plan to carry out experiments at the Air Force Research Laboratory, in the newly formed Plasma Physics Sensors Laboratory. In experiment, a pulsed power generator is employed to produce plasma by passing current through single, or dual-wire configurations. To characterize the plasma, a Thomson scattering diagnostic is employed, along with a visible spectroscopy diagnostic. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense by Riverside Research under Contract BAA-FA8650-13-C-1539.

  15. Energetics of oriented nuclei in laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vadim S.

    2004-06-01

    The report presents principal theoretical and experimental results obtained during the first year of the ISTC project # 2155 realization. The mechanisms of high-energy electrons formation in high intensity and short laser pulse interaction with solid targets has been suggested and investigated. Neutron generation (reaction D + D --> 3He + n) from laser-produced plasma at 1017 W/cm2 intensity has been investigated. Neutron yield more than 104 per pulse was received.

  16. Gas Electron Multiplier produced with the plasma etching method

    E-print Network

    Inuzuka, M; Ozawa, K; Tamagawa, T; Isobe, T

    2004-01-01

    We have produced Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) using the plasma etching method. The new GEM has holes with a cylindrical shape and can hold up to 520V in nitrogen. Amplification factor was measured as a function of the applied voltage. A gain of 10^4 was obtained in argon-mixture gases. The gain characteristics are very similar to those of the GEMs made at CERN.

  17. Plasma polymerization of 2-chloro-p-xylene to produce a crystalline plasma parylene C film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Raygoza, Isabel C.; Thamban, Stephan L.; Overzet, Lawrence; Goeckner, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    The following work reports the study of the plasma polymerization of 2-chloro-p-xylene monomer to produce a plasma polymer film like Parylene C, a biocompatible polymer widely used in the medical field. This is the first example of a plasma polymer that presents a degree of crystallinity. Our data suggests that the film growth/polymerization of plasma deposited Parylene C is affected by both the adsorption of the monomer in the surface and the generation of precursors for polymerization by the plasma. Film deposition occurred mostly in areas exposed to ion bombardment, thus polymerization of the films is likely to be enhanced by ions but we cannot discard some small radical contribution. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and an electron beam OES diagnostic tools to study the dissociation, excitation and ionization fragments produced in the plasma discharge. The main products of the monomer breakup are HCl, CH4, C2H2, H, H2, Cl, Cl2, CH, HCl + and a mix of aromatic ions/radicals. By using a novel OES e-beam diagnostic we could track real time changes in the OES intensities of the excited species being produced and consumed in the plasma. This work was supported by CONACYT-UT Dallas scholarship 303255 and NSF Grant CBET- 0922962.

  18. Charge-exchange collisions in interpenetrating laser-produced magnesium plasmas

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Charge-exchange collisions in interpenetrating laser-produced magnesium plasmas S.S. HARILAL,1 C charge-exchange collisions between highly charged Mg ions in colliding laser-produced magnesium plasmas magnesium plasmas. 1. INTRODUCTION Several applications of laser-produced plasmas involve an experimental

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11775 in fresh produce using atmospheric pressure cold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Wemlinger, Erik; Barbosa-Canovas, Gustavo; Pedrow, Patrick; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Food-borne outbreaks are associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in food products such as fresh produce. One of the target microorganisms is Escherichia coli which exhibits resistance to being inactivated with conventional disinfection methods for vegetables. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) was tested to disinfect three vegetables with challenge surfaces, lettuce, carrots and tomatoes. The produce was inoculated with the bacteria to reach an initial microbial concentration of 107 cfu/g. Vegetables were initially exposed to the APCP discharges from a needle array at 5.7 kV RMS in argon, processing times of 0.5, 3 and 5 min. Initial results indicate that microbial decontamination is effective on the lettuce (1.2 log reduction) when compared with other vegetables. To claim disinfection, a 3 log reduction or more is needed, which makes APCP treatment very promising technology for decontamination of produce. We propose that with method refinements full disinfection can be achieved using APCP.

  20. Initial Results from the ASTRAL Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, Robert

    2003-10-01

    The Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity (ASTRAL) is 2 m long Helicon source designed to investigate basic plasma and space plasma processes. The device produces a plasma with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 to 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 to 20 eV and Ti = 0.03 to 0.1 eV. A series of large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.2 kGauss. Operating pressure varies from 0.1 to 100 mTorr and any gas can be used for the discharge. A fractional helix antenna is used to introduce up to 2 kWatt of RF power into the plasma through a matching pi circuit. A number of diagnostics are presently installed on the plasma device. A RF compensated Langmuir probe is used to measure electron temperature and plasma density. A 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator with a high performance CCD camera is used to measure impurity concentration and to develop novel spectroscopy diagnostic. A diode laser based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is used to obtain ion temperature and ion drift in the plasma column. A microwave interferometer is also used to calibrate the Langmuir probe. First experimental results associated with this new facility are presented.

  1. Plasma irregularities in the D-region ionosphere in association with sprite streamer initiation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianqi; Pasko, Victor P; McHarg, Matthew G; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    Sprites are spectacular optical emissions in the mesosphere induced by transient lightning electric fields above thunderstorms. Although the streamer nature of sprites has been generally accepted, how these filamentary plasmas are initiated remains a subject of active research. Here we present observational and modelling results showing solid evidence of pre-existing plasma irregularities in association with streamer initiation in the D-region ionosphere. The video observations show that before streamer initiation, kilometre-scale spatial structures descend rapidly with the overall diffuse emissions of the sprite halo, but slow down and stop to form the stationary glow in the vicinity of the streamer onset, from where streamers suddenly emerge. The modelling results reproduce the sub-millisecond halo dynamics and demonstrate that the descending halo structures are optical manifestations of the pre-existing plasma irregularities, which might have been produced by thunderstorm or meteor effects on the D-region ionosphere. PMID:24806314

  2. Plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Han, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. The optimal fill gas pressures for the azimuthally uniform plasma-puff were about 120 mTorr less than P(opt) less than 450 Torr for He and N2. For Argon 120 mTorr less than P(opt) less than 5 Torr for argon. The inverse pinch switch was triggered with the plasma-puff and the switching capability under various electrical parameters and working gas pressures of Ar, He and N2 was determined. It was also shown that the azimuthally uniform switching discharges were dependent on the type of fill gas and its fill pressure. A new concept of plasma-focus driven plasma-puff was also discussed in comparison with hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff triggering. The main discharge of the inverse pinch switch with the plasma-focus driven plasma-puff trigger is found to be more azimuthally uniform than that with the hypocycloidal pinch plasma-puff trigger in a gas pressure region between 80 mTorr and 1 Torr. In order to assess the effects of plasma current density on material erosion of electrodes, emissions from both an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) and from a spark gap switch under test were studied with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA). The color temperature of the argon plasma was approximately 4,000 K which corresponded with the peak continuum emission near 750 nm. There are the strong line emissions of argon in the 650 - 800 nm range and a lack of line emissions of copper and other solid material used in the switch. This indicates that the plasma current density during closing is low and the hot spot or hot filament in the switch is negligible. This result also indicates considerable reduction of line emission with the INPIStron switch over that of a spark-gap switch. However, a strong carbon line emission exists due to vaporization of the plastic insulator used. In order to reduce the vaporization of the insulator, the plexiglass insulating material of INPIStron was replaced with Z-9 material. A comparative study of the INPIStron and a spark gap also reveals that the INPIStron, with a low impedance of Z equals 9 ohms, can transfer a high voltage pulse with a superior pulse-shape fidelity over that of a spark gap with Z equals 100 ohms.

  3. Acceleration of neutrals in a nanosecond laser produced nickel plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Philip, Reji

    2014-12-01

    Time of flight dynamics of slow neutrals, fast neutrals, and ions from a nanosecond laser produced nickel (Ni) plasma are investigated. Species arrival times confirm the hypothesis that fast neutrals are formed by the recombination of fast ions with free electrons. Both neutrals and ions are found to accelerate for a short interval immediately after ablation, which is attributed to internal Coulomb forces which create electrostatic potentials resulting in the charged particle acceleration. This process is further enhanced by laser-plasma energy coupling. Emission from neutrals could be measured for longer axial distances in the plume compared to that of ions confirming that the ions recombine to form neutrals as they move away from the target surface.

  4. Acceleration of neutrals in a nanosecond laser produced nickel plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Philip, Reji

    2014-12-15

    Time of flight dynamics of slow neutrals, fast neutrals, and ions from a nanosecond laser produced nickel (Ni) plasma are investigated. Species arrival times confirm the hypothesis that fast neutrals are formed by the recombination of fast ions with free electrons. Both neutrals and ions are found to accelerate for a short interval immediately after ablation, which is attributed to internal Coulomb forces which create electrostatic potentials resulting in the charged particle acceleration. This process is further enhanced by laser-plasma energy coupling. Emission from neutrals could be measured for longer axial distances in the plume compared to that of ions confirming that the ions recombine to form neutrals as they move away from the target surface.

  5. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.

  6. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Griem, H.R.; Cohen, L.; Richardson, M.C.

    1988-07-15

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, TiXIII through TiXXI, and CVI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high intensity, 4 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm,/sup 2/ laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s TiXIII resonance lines had an average shift of +0.023 A relative to the CVI and TiXX spectral lines. No shift was found between the CVI, TiXIX, and TiXX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 7/ cm/s in the expansion velocities of TiXIX and TiXX ions compared to TiXIII ions.

  7. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n plasma is essential to understanding LPI initiation in inertial confinement fusion research. In the recent Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (? = 263 nm, ?t = 10 ps) beamlets (50 ?m spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  8. Innovative X-? ray sources based on laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, A.; Giulietti, D.

    2015-07-01

    The paper concerns with the dynamics and the emitted radiation of electrons undergoing betatron oscillations in laser-produced plasmas. The topic is relevant for a reliable interpretation of data will be obtained in forthcoming experiments in the LASER facility of the National Laboratories of Frascati (LNF) of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). The blowout regime will be considered, which makes the electrons reaching very high energies by providing impressive accelerating gradients while keeping a low energy spread value. The accident that the betatron emission occurs meanwhile electrons gain energy is also considered here.

  9. Numerical analysis of the plasma-produced region in a plasma spraying system

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, T.; Sakata, N.; Kato, S.; Nagayama, T.; Fujita, K.

    1999-07-01

    For this study, the Arcjet Plasmodynamic Analysis Code (APAC) developed by Fujita has been significantly modified in order to investigate the physical phenomena of the plasma-produced region in a plasma spraying system. For self-consistent determination of the heating process of working gas, plasma flow, which contains complicated physical phenomena, is obtained by interconnecting flow field analysis with electric field analysis. The main conclusions obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Discharge voltage decreased with discharge current significantly. On the other hand, it increases slightly with hydrogen flow rate. (2) Current density distribution governs physical phenomena in plasma flow. (3) Temperature and velocity distribution at the nozzle exit depend on the discharge current.

  10. Saturation of Langmuir waves in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This dissertation deals with the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma (a quasineutral collection of electrons and ions). During this interaction, the laser drives large-amplitude waves through a class of processes known as parametric instabilities. Several such instabilities drive one type of wave, the Langmuir wave, which involves oscillations of the electrons relative to the nearly-stationary ions. There are a number of mechanisms which limit the amplitude to which Langmuir waves grow. In this dissertation, these mechanisms are examined to identify qualitative features which might be observed in experiments and/or simulations. In addition, a number of experiments are proposed to specifically look for particular saturation mechanisms. In a plasma, a Langmuir wave can decay into an electromagnetic wave and an ion wave. This parametric instability is proposed as a source for electromagnetic emission near half of the incident laser frequency observed from laser-produced plasmas. This interpretation is shown to be consistent with existing experimental data and it is found that one of the previous mechanisms used to explain such emission is not. The scattering version of the electromagnetic decay instability is shown to provide an enhanced noise source of electromagnetic waves near the frequency of the incident laser.

  11. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. PMID:23948051

  12. Stability of Human Thrombin Produced From 11 ml of Plasma Using the Thrombin Processing Device

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Madsen, Trista; Zhu, Haihong; Semple, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Autologous thrombin can be produced by activating the patient’s own plasma. By adding calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the anticoagulated plasma, the coagulation cascade will be initiated, and active thrombin will be produced. However, thrombin obtained by this method degrades very quickly and is not practical for use during surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the thrombin produced using the thrombin processing device (TPD; Thermogenesis Corporation). The TPD consists of a tubular chamber containing a negatively charged surface for activation. Plasma (11 ml) and reagent (CaCl2 and ethanol, 3.75 ml) were added to the TPD, and active thrombin was harvested after a 20-minute incubation. The production of thrombin was done at 18°C (64°F), 24°C (75°F), and 27°C (81°F) (n = 4/group). The produced thrombin was stored at the production temperature, 4°C (39°F), and 35°C (95°F). The thrombin activity was assessed by time to clot formation, using a fibrinogen concentrate as substrate, after 2, 4, and 6 hours of storage. Thrombin produced at 18°C had clot times of less than 5 seconds for 2 hours (4.42 ± 1.3 seconds) when stored at 4°C, but 4 hours (4.1 ± 1.3 seconds) when stored at 35°C. In contrast, when thrombin was produced at 24°C, the clot times were 4.3 ± 0.7 and 4.6 ± 1.6 seconds at 4°C and 35°C, respectively, for up to 6 hours. Similar results were obtained for thrombin produced at 27°C. Active thrombin produced by the TPD is dependent on both the production temperature and the storage temperature. Autologous human thrombin with a stability of up to 6 hours can be obtained using the TPD when produced at 24°C or 27°C and stored at 4°C. PMID:16524159

  13. Two-dimensional mapping of the electron density in laser-produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Two-dimensional mapping of the electron density in laser-produced plasmas Mathew Polek, Sivanandan S. Harilal,* and A. Hassanein School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials under Extreme density in a laser-produced plasma with high spatial and temporal resolution. The plasma was produced

  14. Detection of electromagnetic pulses produced by hypervelocity micro particle impact plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Close, Sigrid; Lee, Nicolas; Johnson, Theresa; Goel, Ashish; Fletcher, Alexander; Linscott, Ivan; Strauss, David; Lauben, David; Srama, Ralf; Mocker, Anna; Bugiel, Sebastian

    2013-09-15

    Hypervelocity micro particles (mass < 1 ng), including meteoroids and space debris, routinely impact spacecraft and produce plasmas that are initially dense (?10{sup 28} m{sup ?3}), but rapidly expand into the surrounding vacuum. We report the detection of radio frequency (RF) emission associated with electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) from hypervelocity impacts of micro particles in ground-based experiments using micro particles that are 15 orders of magnitude less massive than previously observed. The EMP production is a stochastic process that is influenced by plasma turbulence such that the EMP detection rate that is strongly dependent on impact speed and on the electrical charge conditions at the impact surface. In particular, impacts of the fastest micro particles occurring under spacecraft charging conditions representative of high geomagnetic activity are the most likely to produce RF emission. This new phenomenon may provide a source for unexplained RF measurements on spacecraft charged to high potentials.

  15. On a characteristic initial value problem in Plasma physics

    E-print Network

    Simone Calogero

    2005-06-01

    The relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system of plasma physics is considered with initial data on a past light cone. This characteristic initial value problem arises in a natural way as a mathematical framework to study the existence of solutions isolated from incoming radiation. Various consequences of the mass-energy conservation and of the absence of incoming radiation condition are first derived assuming the existence of global smooth solutions. In the spherically symmetric case, the existence of a unique classical solution in the future of the initial cone follows by arguments similar to the case of initial data at time $t=0$. The total mass-energy of spherically symmetric solutions equals the (properly defined) mass-energy on backward and forward light cones.

  16. Recent Science Education Initiatives at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Gershman, Sophia; Guilbert, Nick; Merali, Aliya; Ortiz, Deedee

    2013-10-01

    An integrated approach to program development and implementation has significantly enhanced a variety of Science Education initiatives for students and teachers. This approach involves combining the efforts of PPPL scientists, educators, research and education fellows, and collaborating non-profit organizations to provide meaningful educational experiences for students and teachers. Our undergraduate internship program continues to have outstanding success, with 72% of our participants going to graduate school and 45% concentrating in plasma physics. New partnerships have allowed us to increase the number of underrepresented students participating in mentored research opportunities. The number of participants in our Young Women's Conference increases significantly each year. Our Plasma Camp workshop, now in its 15th year, recruits outstanding teachers from around the country to create new plasma-centered curricula. Student research in the Science Education Laboratory concentrates on the development of a high-fidelity plasma speaker, a particle dropper for a dusty plasma experiment, microplasmas along liquid surfaces for a variety of applications, an Internet-controlled DC glow discharge source for students, and a Planeterrella for demonstrating the aurora and other space weather phenomenon for the general public.

  17. Plasma processes for producing silanes and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Laine, Richard M; Massey, Dean Richard; Peterson, Peter Young

    2014-03-25

    The invention is generally related to process for generating one or more molecules having the formula Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z, and mixtures thereof, where x,y and z are integers .gtoreq.1, H is hydrogen and D is deuterium, such as silane, comprising the steps of: providing a silicon containing material, wherein the silicon containing material includes at least 20 weight percent silicon atoms based on the total weight of the silicon containing material; generating a plasma capable of vaporizing a silicon atom, sputtering a silicon atom, or both using a plasma generating device; and contacting the plasma to the silicon containing material in a chamber having an atmosphere that includes at least about 0.5 mole percent hydrogen atoms and/or deuterium atoms based on the total moles of atoms in the atmosphere; so that a molecule having the formula Si.sub.xH.sub.y; (e.g., silane) is generated. The process preferably includes a step of removing one or more impurities from the Si.sub.xH.sub.y (e.g., the silane) to form a clean Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z (e.g., silane). The process may also include a step of reacting the Si.sub.xH.sub.y, Si.sub.xD.sub.y, Si.sub.xH.sub.yD.sub.z (e.g., the silane) to produce a high purity silicon containing material such as electronic grade metallic silicon, photovoltaic grade metallic silicon, or both.

  18. Plasma Parameter of a Capillary Discharge-Produced Plasma Channel to Guide an Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bai, Jin-xiang; Yugami, Noboru

    2009-01-22

    We have observed the optical guiding of a 100-fs laser pulse with the laser intensity in the range of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} using a 1.5-cm long capillary discharge-produced plasma channel for compact electron acceleration applications. The optical pulse propagation using the plasma channel is achieved with the electron densities of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and the electron temperatures of 0.5-4 eV at a discharge time delay of around 150 ns and a discharge current of 500 A with a pulse duration of 100-150 ns. An energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons from a laser-plasma acceleration scheme showed a peak at 1.3 MeV with a maximum energy tail of 1.6 MeV.

  19. [Testing of medicinal products produced from pooled plasma].

    PubMed

    Unkelbach, U; Hunfeld, A; Breitner-Ruddock, S

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal products produced from human plasma fall under the administrative batch release procedure of the competent authority. In Germany, this has been carried out since 1995 by the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI), the responsible state control agency for blood products. Medicinal products released for the European and national market are tested for quality, efficacy and safety. Experimental testing of the final product and the starting materials, the plasma pools, as well as control of the production documentation guarantee a constantly high product safety. In the 28,000 batches tested since the beginning of the state controlled batch release testing of these blood products at the PEI, there has been no transmission of infectious viruses (HIV, HBV and HCV) to any patient. The batch release has made a contribution to the improvement of product quality. This procedure is still an important tool to ensure safety of blood products. The PEI is integrated in the batch release network of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM) in Strasbourg. Regulations and guidelines for official control authority batch release (OCABR) ensure harmonized procedures for mutual recognition of batch release on the European level. The EU certificates and German national certificates are requested and accepted in over 70 countries worldwide. Experimental testing in the EU and the requisite certificates have developed into a seal of quality for the world market. PMID:25213735

  20. Atmospheric plasma inactivation of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce surfaces.

    PubMed

    Critzer, Faith J; Kelly-Wintenberg, Kimberly; South, Suzanne L; Golden, David A

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma (OAUGDP) on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on apples, cantaloupe, and lettuce, respectively. A five-strain mixture of cultured test organisms was washed, suspended in phosphate buffer, and spot inoculated onto produce (7 log CFU per sample). Samples were exposed inside a chamber affixed to the OAUGDP blower unit operated at a power of 9 kV and frequency of 6 kHz. This configuration allows the sample to be placed outside of the plasma generation unit while allowing airflow to carry the antimicrobial active species, including ozone and nitric oxide, onto the food sample. Cantaloupe and lettuce samples were exposed for 1, 3, and 5 min, while apple samples were exposed for 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. After exposure, samples were pummeled in 0.1% peptone water-2% Tween 80, diluted, and plated in duplicate onto selective media and tryptic soy agar and incubated as follows: E. coli O157:H7 (modified eosin methylene blue) and Salmonella (xylose lysine tergitol-4) for 48 h at 37 degrees C, and L. monocytogenes (modified Oxford medium) at 48 h for 32 degrees C. E. coli O157:H7 populations were reduced by >1 log after 30-s and 1-min exposures and >2 log after a 2-min exposure. Salmonella populations were reduced by >2 log after 1 min. Three- and 5-min exposure times resulted in >3-log reduction. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced by 1 log after 1 min of exposure. Three- and 5-min exposure times resulted in >3- and >5-log reductions, respectively. This process has the capability of serving as a novel, nonthermal processing technology to be used for reducing microbial populations on produce surfaces. PMID:17969610

  1. Detailed energy distributions in laser-produced plasmas of solid gold and foam gold planar targets

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yunsong; Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 ; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Jiamin; Shang, Wanli

    2013-12-15

    Foam gold was proposed to increase the laser to x-ray conversion efficiency due to its important applications. To understand the mechanism of x-ray enhancement, the detailed energy distributions and plasma profiles for laser-irradiated solid gold and foam gold targets were studied comparatively by hydrodynamic simulations using the code Multi-1D. It is confirmed that the radiation heat wave is subsonic for the normal solid gold target, while supersonic for the foam gold target. The shock wave, which is behind the supersonic radiation heat wave for the foam gold target, generates a plasma temperature gradient with high temperature near the shock wave front to produce an additional net outward radiation for enhancement of the x-ray emission. Much larger inward plasma velocity is also driven by the shock wave as an initial plasma velocity for the laser deposition and electron thermal conduct zone, which decreases the expanding plasma kinetic energy loss and helps to increase the x-ray radiation.

  2. Plasma waves near Saturn: Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn provided the first opportunity to investigate plasma wave interactions in the magnetosphere of Saturn. An overview of the principal results from the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument is presented starting with the initial detection of Saturn and ending about four weeks after closest approach. A survey plot of the electric field intensities detected during the Saturn encounter is shown starting shortly before the inbound shock crossing and ending shortly after the outbound magnetopause crossing. Many intense waves were observed in the vicinity of Saturn. To provide a framework for presenting the observations, the results are discussed more or less according to the sequence in which the data were obtained.

  3. Initiation of nuclear reactions in femtosecond laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golovinski, P. A.; Mikhin, E. A.

    2013-01-15

    Mechanisms of electron interaction with a nucleus via a direct electron-nucleus collision and via bremsstrahlung generated in electron scattering on a nucleus in a femtosecond laser plasma are considered. The description of this interaction is simplified substantially by using the instantaneous-impact and equivalent-photon approximations. The yields of photons, electron-positron pairs, and products of nuclear reactions initiated by a laser pulse for some nuclei are calculated. In particular, this is done for {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 232}Th fission in a laser field of intensity 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Visible spectral power emitted from a laser produced uranium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Jalufka, N. W.

    1975-01-01

    The development of plasma-core nuclear reactors for advanced terrestrial and space-power sources is researched. Experimental measurements of the intensity and the spectral distribution of radiation from a nonfissioning uranium plasma are reported.

  5. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John

    2011-11-15

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3}) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm{sup 2} at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

  6. Ion emission and expansion in laser-produced tin plasma

    E-print Network

    Burdt, Russell Allen

    2011-01-01

    plasmas, PhD dissertation, University of California San Diego, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,Plasma by Russell Allen Burdt Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (Plasma A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering (

  7. Focused excimer laser initiated and radio frequency sustained plasma formation in high pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giar, Ryan

    A doctoral thesis project was performed to experimentally investigate the feasibility of focused excimer laser initiation of air plasmas for radio frequency sustainment. A 193 nm, 15 MW, 300 mJ laser was focused with a 18 cm focal length lens to form a small, high density (ne ~ 10 14 cm--3) seed plasma. These laser plasmas were produced inside a borosilicate glass tube around which was wrapped a 5 turn helical antenna. This antenna was powered with 5 kW of 13.56 MHz of radiation for 1.5 s. This was accomplished at a pressure of 22 Torr, resulting in a large volume (300 cm3) air plasma. Diagnostic measurements of this air plasma determined an electron density of 5E10 cm-3 and an electron temperature 1.3 eV with a neutral temperature of 3500 K. The collision frequency was measured to be 9E10 Hz which resulted in a plasma-loaded antenna resistance of 6 O with a voltage reflection coefficient of 0.7.

  8. Structure of an exploding laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Collette, A.; Gekelman, W.

    2011-05-15

    Currents and instabilities associated with an expanding dense plasma embedded in a magnetized background plasma are investigated by direct volumetric probe measurements of the magnetic field and floating potential. A diamagnetic cavity is formed and found to collapse rapidly compared to the expected magnetic diffusion time. The three-dimensional current density within the expanding plasma includes currents along the background magnetic field, in addition to the diamagnetic current. Correlation measurements reveal that flutelike structures at the plasma surface translate with the expanding plasma across the magnetic field and extend into the current system that sustains the diamagnetic cavity, possibly contributing to its collapse.

  9. Initial biocompatibility of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films with different wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasteva, N. A.; Toromanov, G.; Hristova, K. T.; Radeva, E. I.; Pecheva, E. V.; Dimitrova, R. P.; Altankov, G. P.; Pramatarova, L. D.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between material surface properties, behaviour of adsorbed proteins and cellular responses is essential to design optimal material surfaces for tissue engineering. In this study we modify thin layers of plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDS) by ammonia treatment in order to increase surface wettability and the corresponding biological response. The physico-chemical properties of the polymer films were characterized by contact angle (CA) measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as model system for the initial biocompatibility studies following their behavior upon preadsorption of polymer films with three adhesive proteins: fibronectin (FN), fibrinogen (FG) and vitronectin (VN). Adhesive interaction of HUVEC was evaluated after 2 hours by analyzing the overall cell morphology, and the organization of focal adhesion contacts and actin cytoskeleton. We have found similar good cellular response on FN and FG coated polymer films, with better pronounced vinculin expression on FN samples while. Conversely, on VN coated surfaces the wettability influenced significantly initial celular interaction spreading. The results obtained suggested that ammonia plasma treatment can modulate the biological activity of the adsorbed protein s on PPHMDS surfaces and thus to influence the interaction with endothelial cells.

  10. Parameters of atmospheric plasmas produced by electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alexey; Canady, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Electrosurgical systems are extensively utilized in general surgery, surgical oncology, plastic and reconstructive surgery etc. In this work we study plasma parameters created by electrosurgical system SS-200E/Argon 2 of US Medical Innovations. The maximal length of the discharge plasma column at which the discharge can be sustained was determined as function of discharge power and argon flow rate. Electrical parameters including discharge current and voltage were measured. Recently proposed Rayleigh microwave scattering method for temporally resolved density measurements of small-size atmospheric plasmas was utilized. Simultaneously, evolution of plasma column was observed using intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera.

  11. Microwave reflections from a vacuum ultraviolet laser produced plasma sheet

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    is attractive because of its short turn on/off time, high reflectivity, and because it has negligible inertia close to that from a metal plate. The optically generated plasma in this experiment has a high plasma density making it useful for the reflection of higher frequency microwaves and has a turn-on time of on 10

  12. Characterization of linear plasma synthetic jet actuators in an initially quiescent medium

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Reasor, Daniel A. Jr.; LeBeau, Raymond P. Jr.

    2009-04-15

    The plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is a geometrical variant of the aerodynamic plasma actuator that can be used to produce zero-mass flux jets similar to those created by mechanical devices. This jet can be either three-dimensional using annular electrode arrays (annular PSJA) or nearly two dimensional using two rectangular-strip exposed electrodes and one embedded electrode (linear PSJA). Unsteady pulsing of the PSJA at time scales decoupled to the ac input frequency results in a flow field dominated by counter-rotating vortical structures similar to conventional synthetic jets, and the peak velocity and momentum of the jet is found to be affected by a combination of the pulsing frequency and input power. This paper investigates the fluid dynamic characteristics of linear plasma synthetic jet actuators in an initially quiescent medium. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements on the actuator are used to validate a previously developed numerical model wherein the plasma behavior is introduced into the Navier-Stokes equations as an electrohydrodynamic force term calculated from Maxwell's equations and solved for the fluid momentum. The numerical model was implemented in an incompressible, unstructured grid code. The results of the simulations are observed to reproduce some aspects of the qualitative and quantitative experimental behavior of the jet for steady and pulsed modes of actuator operation. The self-similarity behavior of plasma synthetic jets are examined and compared to mechanically driven continuous and synthetic jets.

  13. Structure of an Exploding Laser-Produced Plasma A. Collette* and W. Gekelman

    E-print Network

    Carter, Troy

    Structure of an Exploding Laser-Produced Plasma A. Collette* and W. Gekelman Department of Physics with a 1 Hz laser system reveal complex three-dimensional current systems within the expanding plasma striations. Space-borne chemical releases [2,3] to study plasma expansion in situ within Earth

  14. Plasma produced by impacts of fast dust particles on a thin film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried

    1994-01-01

    The thin-film impact plasma detector was pioneered by Berg for detecting small cosmic dust particles and measuring their approximate velocities in a time-of-flight configuration. While Berg's device was highly successful in establishing the flux of interplanetary dust, the accuracy of measuring the velocities of individual particles was a moderate 18 percent in magnitude and 27 degrees in angle. A much greater accuracy of less than or equal to 1 percent in determining the velocity components appears desirable in order to associate a particle with its parent body. In order to meet that need, research was initiated to determine if a thin-film detector can be designed to provide such accurate velocity measurements. Previous laboratory investigations of the impact plasma uncovered two difficulties: (1) solid or liquid spray is ejected from a primary impact crater and strikes neighboring walls where it produces secondary impact craters and plasma clouds; as a result, both quantity and time of detection of the plasma can vary significantly with the experiment configuration. Particles from an accelerator rarely have speeds v greater than or equal to 10-15 km/s, while cosmic dust particles typically impact at v = 10-72 km/s. The purpose of the tests discussed in this paper was to resolve the two difficulties mentioned. That is, the experiment configuration was designed to reduce the contribution of plasma from secondary impacts. In addition, most particles with v less than or equal to 25 km/s and all particles with v less than or equal to 10 km/s were eliminated from the beam.

  15. Laser-produced plasma jets - Collimation and instability in strong transverse magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostovych, A. N.; Ripin, B. H.; Stamper, J. A.

    1989-06-01

    Highly collimated plasma jets are produced with laser irradiation of solid barium targets. The plasma streams many Larmor radii across a strong transverse magnetic field (10 kG) with little inhibition. The plasma jet is observed to narrow or 'focus' in the plane perpendicular to the field, while in the plane of the field the plasma expands along the field lines and displays flutelike striations. The narrowing of the plasma jet is understood in terms of the configuration of the plasma polarization fields, while the flute structure is identified as an electron-ion hybrid velocity-shear instability.

  16. Persistence of uranium emission in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    LaHaye, N. L.; Harilal, S. S. Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-04-28

    Detection of uranium and other nuclear materials is of the utmost importance for nuclear safeguards and security. Optical emission spectroscopy of laser-ablated U plasmas has been presented as a stand-off, portable analytical method that can yield accurate qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a variety of samples. In this study, optimal laser ablation and ambient conditions are explored, as well as the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma for spectral analysis of excited U species in a glass matrix. Various Ar pressures were explored to investigate the role that plasma collisional effects and confinement have on spectral line emission enhancement and persistence. The plasma-ambient gas interaction was also investigated using spatially resolved spectra and optical time-of-flight measurements. The results indicate that ambient conditions play a very important role in spectral emission intensity as well as the persistence of excited neutral U emission lines, influencing the appropriate spectral acquisition conditions.

  17. Dynamics of C2 formation in laser-produced carbon plasma in helium environment

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Dynamics of C2 formation in laser-produced carbon plasma in helium environment K. F. Al-Shboul, S the role of helium ambient gas on the dynamics of C2 species formation in laser-produced carbon plasma from the C2 species was studied using optical emission spectroscopy, and spectrally resolved

  18. Diagnostics Techniques of Plasmas Produced by Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Villagran Muniz, M.; Sobral, H.; Sanchez Ake, C.; Sangines de Castro, R.; Sterling, E.; Bredice, F.

    2005-04-21

    Laser ablation in addition for thin film growing is also used for analytical techniques as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and for applications as simulation of natural lightning. In this work we present several diagnostic techniques such as probe beam deflection, shadowgraphy, interferometry, pulsed laser photoacoustic and the electrical perturbation induced by laser ablation plasmas that's gives essential information of the plasma, hot core air and shock wave expansion.

  19. Transient fields produced by a cylindrical electron beam flowing through a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firpo, Marie-Christine

    2012-10-01

    Fast ignition schemes (FIS) for inertial confinement fusion should involve in their final stage the interaction of an ignition beam composed of MeV electrons laser generated at the critical density surface with a dense plasma target. In this study, the out-of-equilibrium situation in which an initially sharp-edged cylindrical electron beam, that could e.g. model electrons flowing within a wire [1], is injected into a plasma is considered. A detailed computation of the subsequently produced magnetic field is presented [2]. The control parameter of the problem is shown to be the ratio of the beam radius to the electron skin depth. Two alternative ways to address analytically the problem are considered: one uses the usual Laplace transform approach, the other one involves Riemann's method in which causality conditions manifest through some integrals of triple products of Bessel functions.[4pt] [1] J.S. Green et al., Surface heating of wire plasmas using laser-irradiated cone geometries, Nature Physics 3, 853--856 (2007).[0pt] [2] M.-C. Firpo, http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00695629, to be published (2012).

  20. Initial study of the optical spectrum of the ISIS H{sup -} ion source plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Philippe, K.

    2012-02-15

    The front end test stand is being constructed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, with the aim of producing a 60 mA, 2 ms, 50 Hz, perfectly chopped H{sup -} ion beam. To meet the beam requirements, a more detailed understanding of the ion source plasma is required. To this end, an initial study is made of the optical spectrum of the plasma using a digital spectrometer. The atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen and caesium are clearly distinguished and a quantitative comparison is made when the ion source is run in different conditions. The electron temperature is 0.6 eV and measured line widths vary by up to 75%.

  1. Research on plasma-puff initiation of high Coulomb transfer switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for an azimuthally uniform surface flashover which initiates plasma-puff under wide ranges of fill gas pressures of Ar, He and N2. Research is presented and resulting conference papers are attached. These papers include 'Characteristics of Plasma-Puff Trigger for an Inverse-Pinch Plasma Switch'; 'Ultra-High-Power Plasma Switch INPUTS for Pulse Power Systems'; 'Characteristics of Switching Plasma in an Inverse-Pinch Switch'; 'Comparative Study of INPIStron and Spark Gap'; and 'INPIStron Switched Pulsed Power for Dense Plasma Pinches.'

  2. Suprathermal electrons produced by beam-plasma-discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments conducted with a low energy plasma lens, HARP, in the electron beam of the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center indicate that an enhanced population of 50 to 300 volt electrons appear when the beam goes into the Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) mode. Below the BPD instability the electron distribution appears to be characterized as non-energized single particle scattering and energy loss. At 100 cm from the beam core in the BPD mode the fluxes parallel to the beam are reduced by a factor of 20 with respect to the fluxes at 25 cm. Some evidence for isotropy near the beam core is presented.

  3. Suprathermal electrons produced by Beam-Plasma-Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments conducted with a low energy plasma lens, HARP, in the electron beam of the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center indicate that an enhanced population of 50 to 300 volt electrons appear when the beam goes into the Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) mode. Below the BPD instability the electron distribution appears to be characterized as non-energized single particle scattering and energy loss. At 100 cm from the beam core in the BPD mode the fluxes parallel to the beam are reduced by a factor of 20 with respect to the fluxes at 25 cm. Some evidence for isotropy near the beam core is presented.

  4. Generation of collisionless shock in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiuza, Frederico

    2015-08-01

    Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments and are tightly connected with magnetic-field amplification and particle acceleration. The fast progress in high-power laser technology is bringing the study of high Mach number shocks into the realm of laboratory plasmas, where in situ measurements can be made helping us understand the fundamental kinetic processes behind shocks. I will discuss the recent progress in laser-driven shock experiments at state-of-the-art facilities like NIF and Omega and how these results, together with ab initio massively parallel simulations, can impact our understanding of magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas.

  5. OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    high power laser with irradiance range in between 10 GW cm-2 to 100 GW cm-2 _The characterization and extremely high temperatures. At lower laser irradiances heating without phase change occurs while at higher irradiances, ionization occurs which leads to the plasma formation. Spectroscopic studies of optical emission

  6. Analysis of plasma distribution near the extraction region in surface produced negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, A.; Hatayama, A.

    2014-02-01

    In study of a negative ion source, it is important to understand the plasma characteristics near the extraction region. A recent experiment in the NIFS-R&D ion source has suggested that a "double ion plasma layer" which is a region consisting of hydrogen positive and negative ions exists near the plasma grid (PG). Density distribution of plasma near the extraction region is studied analytically. It is shown that the density distribution depends on an amount of the surface produced negative ions and the double ion plasma layer is formed near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production.

  7. Analysis of plasma distribution near the extraction region in surface produced negative ion sources.

    PubMed

    Fukano, A; Hatayama, A

    2014-02-01

    In study of a negative ion source, it is important to understand the plasma characteristics near the extraction region. A recent experiment in the NIFS-R&D ion source has suggested that a "double ion plasma layer" which is a region consisting of hydrogen positive and negative ions exists near the plasma grid (PG). Density distribution of plasma near the extraction region is studied analytically. It is shown that the density distribution depends on an amount of the surface produced negative ions and the double ion plasma layer is formed near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production. PMID:24593563

  8. Robe Development for Electrical Conductivity Analysis in an Electron Gun Produced Helium Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Bitteker, Leo; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion systems, potentially coupled with a fission power source, is currently being investigated as a driver for an advanced propulsion system, such as a plasma thruster. The efficiency of a MHD generator is strongly dependent on the electrical conductivity of the fluid that passes through the generator; power density increases as fluid conductivity increases. Although traditional MHD flows depend on thermal ionization to enhance the electrical conductivity, ionization due to nuclear interactions may achieve a comparable or improved conductivity enhancement while avoiding many of the limitations inherent to thermal ionization. Calculations suggest that nuclear-enhanced electrical conductivity increases as the neutron flux increases; conductivity of pure He-3 greater than 10 mho/m may be achievable if exposed to a flux greater than 10(exp 12) neutrons/cm2/s.) However, this remains to be demonstrated experimentally. An experimental facility has been constructed at the Propulsion Research Center at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, using helium as the test fluid. High energy electrons will be used to simulate the effects of neutron-induced ionization of helium gas to produce a plasma. These experiments will be focused on diagnosis of the plasma in a virtually static system; results will be applied to future tests with a MHD system. Initial experiments will utilize a 50 keV electron gun that can operate at up to a current of 200 micro A. Spreading the electron beam over a four inch diameter window results in an electron flux of 1.5x 10(exp 13) e/sq cm/s. The equivalent neutron flux that would produce the same ionization fraction in helium is 1x10(exp 12) n/sq cm/s. Experiments will simulate the neutron generated plasma modeled by Bitteker, which takes into account the products of thermal neutron absorption in He-3, and includes various ion species in estimating the conductivity of the resulting plasma. Several different probes will be designed and implemented to verify the plasma kinetics model. System parameters and estimated operating ranges are summarized. The predicted ionization fraction, electron density, and conductivity levels are provided in for an equivalent neutron flux of 1x10(exp 12) n/cm2/s. Understanding the complex plasma kinetics throughout a MHD channel is necessary to design an optimal power conversion system for space propulsion applications. The proposed experiments seek to fully characterize the helium plasma and to determine the reliability of each measurement technique, such that they may be applied to more advanced MHD studies. The expected value of each plasma parameter determined from theoretical models will be verified experimentally by several independent techniques to determine the most reliable method of obtaining each parameter. The results of these experiments will be presented in the final paper.

  9. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    gases, medical sterilization,2 and drag and radar cross-section reduction of aircraft.3­6 Air plasmasFocused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas Ryan Giara processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm

  10. Structure of Nanoparticles of Aluminum and Silicon Nitrides Produced by RF Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Kaito, Chihiro; Saito, Yoshio

    AlN and Si3N4 particles with sizes of the order of 50 nm were produced by passing Al and Si smoke particles of the order of 50 nm in size through a plasma field. The resulting particles showed the characteristic crystal structure of a nitride. When Al and Si particles were produced in a mixture gas of N2 and Ar without plasma, the particles produced were covered with an amorphous nitride layer composed of microcrystallites. Since the flow rate of metallic particles in the plasma region is of the order of 1 m/s, the present particles changed into nitride particles instantaneously.

  11. Topical applications of resonance internal conversion in laser produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2007-04-01

    Physical aspects of resonance effects arising in plasma due to interactions of nuclei with the electrons are considered. Among them are resonance conversion (TEEN) and the reverse process of NEET. These processes are of great importance for pumping the excited nuclear states (isomers) and for accelerating their decay. Experiment is discussed on studying the unique 3.5-eV 229m Th nuclide.

  12. NEW INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD: A CASE STUDY OF AN ORGANIC PRODUCER

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    and policy recommendations are made. Keywords: governance, sustainability, agri-food networks, organic foodNEW INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD: A CASE STUDY OF AN ORGANIC PRODUCER COOPERATIVE By Gill Seyfang CSERGE Working Paper EDM 04-11 #12;New Initiatives for Sustainable Food: A Case Study

  13. Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Chen, Shi-You; Ma, Jing-Long; Hou, Lei; Liao, Guo-Qian; Wang, Jin-Guang; Han, Yu-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Long; Teng, Hao; Han, Hai-Nian; Li, Yu-Tong; Chen, Li-Ming; Wei, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A long air plasma channel can be formed by filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses. However, the lifetime of the plasma channel produced by a single femtosecond laser pulse is too short (only a few nanoseconds) for many potential applications based on the conductivity of the plasma channel. Therefore, prolonging the lifetime of the plasma channel is one of the key challenges in the research of femtosecond laser filamentation. In this study, a unique femtosecond laser source was developed to produce a high-quality femtosecond laser pulse sequence with an interval of 2.9?ns and a uniformly distributed single-pulse energy. The metre scale quasi-steady-state plasma channel with a 60–80?ns lifetime was formed by such pulse sequences in air. The simulation study for filamentation of dual femtosecond pulses indicated that the plasma channel left by the previous pulse was weakly affected the filamentation of the next pulse in sequence under our experimental conditions.

  14. Beam heated linear theta-pinch device for producing hot plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, Ihor O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device for producing hot plasmas comprising a single turn theta-pinch coil, a fast discharge capacitor bank connected to the coil, a fuel element disposed along the center axis of the coil, a predetermined gas disposed within the theta-pinch coil, and a high power photon, electron or ion beam generator concentrically aligned to the theta-pinch coil. Discharge of the capacitor bank generates a cylindrical plasma sheath within the theta-pinch coil which heats the outer layer of the fuel element to form a fuel element plasma layer. The beam deposits energy in either the cylindrical plasma sheath or the fuel element plasma layer to assist the implosion of the fuel element to produce a hot plasma.

  15. Laser-produced aluminum plasma expansion inside a plastic plasma envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Parys, P.; Renner, O.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.

    2012-09-01

    Previous experimental results demonstrated that the plasma pressure decreases with the growing atomic number of the target material. In this context, a question arose if the Al plasma outflow could be collimated using the plastic plasma as a compressor. To solve this problem, an experiment using a plastic target with an Al cylindrical insert was performed. The focal spot diameter substantially larger than that of the insert ensured simultaneous heating both target materials. This experiment proved that a production of Al plasma jets collimated by an action of outer plastic plasma is feasible [Kasperczuk et al., Laser Part. Beams 30, 1 (2012)]. The results of investigations presented here provide additional information on distributions of electron temperature in the outflowing plasma and time and space characteristics of ion emission, both registered at bare and constrained-flow Al targets. The experiment was carried out at the Prague asterix laser system iodine laser facility. The laser provided a 250 ps (full width at half maximum) pulse with the energy of 130 J at the third harmonic frequency (?3 = 0.438 ?m). A plastic target with an Al cylindrical insert of 400 ?m in diameter as well as a bare Al target (for comparison) was used. The focal spot diameter (?L) 1200 ?m ensured the lateral pressure effect of the plastic plasma strong enough to guarantee the effective Al plasma compression. The electron temperature measurements have shown that such Al plasma compression is accompanied by the increase of its temperature, dominance of which starts at distance of 0.5 mm from the target surface. Measurements of ion emission characteristics confirm the earlier numerical simulation prediction that in these conditions the plasma expansion geometry is closer to planar. The constrained Al plasma jet is very narrow and its axial velocity is considerably larger than the velocity of freely expanding Al plasma stream. It means that the plastic plasma envelope, besides the Al plasma compression, also strongly accelerates the Al plasma in its axial motion.

  16. Modeling of two-dimensional effects in hot spot relaxation in laser-produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Skupin, Stefan

    may lead to an enhanced laser incoherence. This phenom- enon, known as plasma-induced smoothingModeling of two-dimensional effects in hot spot relaxation in laser-produced plasmas J.-L. Feugeas,1,a Ph. Nicolaï,1 X. Ribeyre,1 G. Schurtz,1 V. Tikhonchuk,1 and M. Grech1,2 1 Centre Lasers Intenses

  17. Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas K. F. Al pressures. Plasmas were generated by irradiating planar graphite targets using 40 fs pulses of 800 nm species popu- lations, emission, and kinetics. In recent years, graphite based nanomaterials (graphene

  18. A US Strategy to Explore the Science and Technology of Energy-Producing Plasmas

    E-print Network

    1 A US Strategy to Explore the Science and Technology of Energy-Producing Plasmas Discussion Draft the fusion process. The specific objectives of the fusion program are to: (1) advance plasma science in pursuit of national science and technology goals, (2) identify and study fusion science, technology

  19. Heating dynamics and extreme ultraviolet radiation emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    Heating dynamics and extreme ultraviolet radiation emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas S. Yuspeh 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emissions in Sn plasmas is investigated experimentally and numerically extreme ultraviolet EUV light source for next generation lithogra- phy for semiconductor microchips

  20. Angular emission of ions and mass deposition from femtosecond and nanosecond laser-produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    and atoms emanating from femto- and nanosecond laser-produced metal plasmas under similar laser fluence interacts with the tar- get surface, and the rest of the laser energy is imparted to the expanding plasma ablation (fLA) due to very limited penetration length of thermal diffusion.10 In fs laser

  1. Time-Resolved Analysis of High-Power-Laser Produced Plasma Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Malka, V.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

    2006-04-07

    We consider the results of an experimental investigation of the temporal evolution of plasmas produced by high power laser irradiation of various materials. The experiment was done at the LULI Laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris). A comparative analysis is presented.

  2. Ballistic pendula for measuring the momentum of a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Grun, J.; Ripin, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    We describe the use of a ballistic pendulum array to measure the momentum of a laser-produced plasma. An in situ calibration method is described and the pendulum results are compared to measurements made with other diagnostics.

  3. Ballistic pendula for measuring the momentum of a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Grun, J.; Ripin, B.H.

    1982-09-17

    We describe the use of a ballistic pendulum array to measure the momentum of a laser-produced plasma. An insitu calibration method is described and the pendulum results are compared to measurements made with other diagnostics.

  4. Ion beam and plasma methods of producing diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of plasma and ion beam techniques was employed to generate diamondlike carbon films. These methods included the use of RF sputtering, dc glow discharge, vacuum arc, plasma gun, ion beam sputtering, and both single and dual ion beam deposition. Since films were generated using a wide variety of techniques, the physico-chemical properties of these films varied considerably. In general, these films had characteristics that were desirable in a number of applications. For example, the films generated using both single and dual ion beam systems were evaluated for applications including power electronics as insulated gates and protective coatings on transmitting windows. These films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicated hydrogen to carbon ratios to be 1.00, which allowed the films to have good transmittance not only in the infrared, but also in the visible. Other evaluated properties of these films include band gap, resistivity, adherence, density, microhardness, and intrinsic stress. The results of these studies and those of the other techniques for depositing diamondlike carbon films are presented.

  5. Stimulated Raman scattering in inhomogeneous collisional laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, H.C.; Boyd, T.J.M.; Mackwood, A.P. )

    1994-04-01

    Convective gain and absolute growth of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are determined for a hot inhomogeneous collisional plasma using an integrated global model that includes the effects of wave propagation and both collisional and Landau damping in a density ramp. This unifies the time asymptotic theory of SRS occurring near the quarter-critical density of the laser light and that occurring at lower densities. The level of collisions has a striking effect on the convective behavior of the instability. When collisions are weak, no significant regime of convective gain exists. In consequence, absolute resonances are very sensitive and susceptible to detuning, particularly so near the quarter-critical density. This is shown to be a key factor in understanding the Raman gap'' seen in experiments. No such gap appears in highly collisional regimes in which the absolute resonances are insensitive and significant convective gain occurs over the whole range of wavelengths.

  6. Analysis, simulation, and experimental studies of YAG and CO2 laser-produced plasma for EUV lithography sources

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    characteristics of plasmas produced by CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers were analyzed and compared both experimentallyAnalysis, simulation, and experimental studies of YAG and CO2 laser- produced plasma for EUV are alternatively investigating the use of high power CO2 laser systems. However, CO2 laser-produced plasmas (LPP

  7. Heating dynamics and extreme ultraviolet radiation emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yuspeh, S.; Sequoia, K. L.; Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Burdt, R. A.; Najmabadi, F.

    2010-06-28

    The impact of 1.064 mum laser absorption depth on the heating and in-band (2% bandwidth) 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emissions in Sn plasmas is investigated experimentally and numerically. In-band emission lasting longer than the laser pulse and separation between the laser absorption and in-band emission region are observed. Maximum efficiency is achieved by additional heating of the core of the plasma to allow the optimal temperature to expand to a lower and more optically thin density. This leads to higher temperature plasma that emits less in-band light as compared to CO{sub 2} produced plasma sources for the same application.

  8. Thomson scattering measurement of a shock in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, T.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 ; Tomita, K.; Nakayama, K.; Inoue, K.; Uchino, K.; Ide, T.; Tsubouchi, K.; Nishio, K.; Ide, H.; Kuwada, M.

    2013-09-15

    We report the first direct measurement of temporally and spatially resolved plasma temperatures at a shock as well as its spatial structure and propagation in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas. Two shocks are formed in counter-streaming collisionless plasmas early in time, and they propagate opposite directions. This indicates the existence of counter-streaming collisionless flows to keep exciting the shocks, even though the collisional effects increase later in time. The shock images are observed with optical diagnostics, and the upstream and downstream plasma parameters of one of the shocks are measured using Thomson scattering technique.

  9. Ultrafast gated imaging of laser produced plasmas using the optical Kerr effect

    SciTech Connect

    Symes, D. R.; Wegner, U.; Ahlswede, H.-C.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Gallegos, P. L.; Divall, E. J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Neely, D.; Smith, R. A.

    2010-01-04

    Optical imaging is a versatile diagnostic for investigations of plasmas generated under intense laser irradiation. Electro-optic gating techniques operating on the >100 ps timescale are commonly used to reduce the amount of light detected from self-emission of hot plasma or improve the temporal resolution of the detector. The use of an optical Kerr gate enables a superior dynamic range and temporal resolution compared to electronically gated devices. The application of this method for enhanced imaging of laser produced plasmas with gate time approx100 fs is demonstrated, and the possibility to produce a sub-10 fs, high dynamic range 'all optical' streak camera is discussed.

  10. Hydrogen ions produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using nickel grid

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Kawata, K.; Hibino, T.

    2013-06-15

    Positive and negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid, where the irradiation current density of positive ions onto the grid can be controlled by the discharge power. The irradiation energy can be controlled by both the grid potential and the discharge plasma potential. Extraction properties and energy distributions of positive and negative ions produced in the cases of using the grid and a porous nickel plate are compared. Two production mechanisms of negative ions are found in the process of plasma-assisted catalytic ionization.

  11. Laser-produced aluminum plasma expansion inside a plastic plasma envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Parys, P.; Renner, O.; Rohlena, K.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Skala, J.

    2012-09-15

    Previous experimental results demonstrated that the plasma pressure decreases with the growing atomic number of the target material. In this context, a question arose if the Al plasma outflow could be collimated using the plastic plasma as a compressor. To solve this problem, an experiment using a plastic target with an Al cylindrical insert was performed. The focal spot diameter substantially larger than that of the insert ensured simultaneous heating both target materials. This experiment proved that a production of Al plasma jets collimated by an action of outer plastic plasma is feasible [Kasperczuk et al., Laser Part. Beams 30, 1 (2012)]. The results of investigations presented here provide additional information on distributions of electron temperature in the outflowing plasma and time and space characteristics of ion emission, both registered at bare and constrained-flow Al targets. The experiment was carried out at the Prague asterix laser system iodine laser facility. The laser provided a 250 ps (full width at half maximum) pulse with the energy of 130 J at the third harmonic frequency ({lambda}{sub 3} = 0.438 {mu}m). A plastic target with an Al cylindrical insert of 400 {mu}m in diameter as well as a bare Al target (for comparison) was used. The focal spot diameter ({Phi}{sub L}) 1200 {mu}m ensured the lateral pressure effect of the plastic plasma strong enough to guarantee the effective Al plasma compression. The electron temperature measurements have shown that such Al plasma compression is accompanied by the increase of its temperature, dominance of which starts at distance of 0.5 mm from the target surface. Measurements of ion emission characteristics confirm the earlier numerical simulation prediction that in these conditions the plasma expansion geometry is closer to planar. The constrained Al plasma jet is very narrow and its axial velocity is considerably larger than the velocity of freely expanding Al plasma stream. It means that the plastic plasma envelope, besides the Al plasma compression, also strongly accelerates the Al plasma in its axial motion.

  12. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 using cold atmospheric pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Baier, Matthias; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Ehlbeck, Jörg; Knorr, Dietrich; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    From cultivation to the end of the post-harvest chain, heat-sensitive fresh produce is exposed to a variety of sources of pathogenic microorganisms. If contaminated, effective gentle means of sanitation are necessary to reduce bacterial pathogen load below their infective dose. The occurrence of rare or new serotypes raises the question of their tenacity to inactivation processes. In this study the antibacterial efficiency of cold plasma by an atmospheric pressure plasma-jet was examined against the Shiga toxin-producing outbreak strain Escherichia coli O104:H4. Argon was transformed into non-thermal plasma at a power input of 8 W and a gas flow of 5 L min(-1). Basic tests were performed on polysaccharide gel discs, including the more common E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli DSM 1116. At 5 mm treatment distance and 10(5) cfu cm(-2) initial bacterial count, plasma reduced E. coli O104:H4 after 60 s by 4.6 ± 0.6 log, E. coli O157:H7 after 45 s by 4.5 ± 0.6 log, and E. coli DSM 1116 after 30 s by 4.4 ± 1.1 log. On the surface of corn salad leaves, gentle plasma application at 17 mm reduced 10(4) cfu cm(-2) of E. coli O104:H4 by 3.3 ± 1.1 log after 2 min, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated by 3.2 ± 1.1 log after 60 s. In conclusion, plasma treatment has the potential to reduce pathogens such as E. coli O104:H4 on the surface of fresh produce. However, a serotype-specific adaptation of the process parameters is required. PMID:25782617

  13. Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Bridge, H S; Bagenal, F; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Sullivan, J D; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M

    1982-01-29

    Results of measurements of plasma electrons and poitive ions made during the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn have been combined with measurements from Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 to define more clearly the configuration of plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The general morphology is well represented by four regions: (i) the shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath, observed between about 30 and 22 Saturn radii (RS) near the noon meridian; (ii) a variable density region between approximately 17 RS and the magnetopause; (iii) an extended thick plasma sheet between approximately 17 and approximately 7 RS symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis; and (iv) an inner plasma torus that probably originates from local sources and extends inward from L approximately 7 to less than L approximately 2.7 (L is the magnetic shell parameter). In general, the heavy ions, probably O(+), are more closely confined to the equatorial plane than H(+), so that the ratio of heavy to light ions varies along the trajectory according to the distance of the spacecraft from the equatorial plane. The general configuration of the plasma sheet at Saturn found by Voyager 1 is confirmed, with some notable differences and additions. The "extended plasma sheet," observed between L approximately 7 and L approximately 15 by Voyager 1 is considerably thicker as observed by Voyager 2. Inward of L approximately 4, the plasma sheet collapses to a thin region about the equatorial plane. At the ring plane crossing, L approximately 2.7, the observations are consistent with a density of O(+) of approximately 100 per cubic centimeter, with a temperature of approximately 10 electron volts. The location of the bow shock and magnetopause crossings were consistent with those previously observed. The entire magnetosphere was larger during the outbound passage of Voyager 2 than had been previously observed; however, a magnetosphere of this size or larger is expected approximately 3 percent of the time. PMID:17771279

  14. Initial Operation of the Proto-MPEX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Diem, S. J.; Pesavento, P. V.; Rapp, J.; Ray, H. B.; Shaw, G. C.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-10-01

    The Prototype Materials Plasma Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas, as well as exploring source interactions with a downstream target. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz rf power at levels up to 100 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (up to ~200 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). Ion cyclotron heating (~30 kW) is via a magnetic beach approach. Tungsten baffles are used to help control neutral pressure between the helicon source and a tungsten target. Plasma diagnostics include Thomson Scattering and a retarding field energy analyzer to determine plasma parameters near the target, while a microwave interferometer and Langmuir probes are used to determine plasma parameters near the source and elsewhere in the system. High plasma densities have been produced in He (>3 × 1019/m3) and D (>1.5 × 1019/m3) , and operation in magnetic field strengths up to 1 T has been demonstrated. Details of the experimental results will be presented, as well as future plans for studying plasma surface interactions and rf antenna plasma interactions. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  15. Injection of a coaxial-gun-produced magnetized plasma into a background helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Lynn, Alan; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2014-10-01

    A compact coaxial plasma gun is employed for experimental investigation of plasma bubble relaxation into a lower density background plasma. Experiments are being conducted in the linear device HelCat at UNM. The gun is powered by a 120-uF ignitron-switched capacitor bank, which is operated in a range of 5 to 10 kV and 100 kA. Multiple diagnostics are employed to investigate the plasma relaxation process. Magnetized argon plasma bubbles with velocities 1.2Cs, densities 1020 m-3 and electron temperature 13eV have been achieved. The background helicon plasma has density 1013 m-3, magnetic field from 200 to 500 Gauss and electron temperature 1eV. Several distinct operational regimes with qualitatively different dynamics are identified by fast CCD camera images. Additionally a B-dot probe array has been employed to measure the spatial toroidal and poloidal magnetic flux evolution to identify plasma bubble configurations. Experimental data and analysis will be presented.

  16. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-08-15

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 10{sup 14?}W/cm{sup 2}, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5%?±?1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6.× nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48?nm (La-?) and 2.88?nm (He-?) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.×?nm sources.

  17. Ion species control in high flux deuterium plasma beams produced by a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.-N.; Shu, W.M.; Nakamura, H.; O'Hira, S.; Nishi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The ion species ratios in low energy high flux deuterium plasma beams formed in a linear plasma generator were measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. And the species control in the plasma generator was evaluated by changing the operational parameters like neutral pressure, arc current, and axial magnetic confinement to the plasma column. The measurements reveal that the lower pressures prefer to form more D{sup +} ions, and the medium magnetic confinement at the higher pressures results in production of more D{sub 2}{sup +}, while the stronger confinement and/or larger arc current are helpful to D{sub 2}{sup +} conversion into D{sub 3}{sup +}. Therefore, the ion species can be controlled by adjusting the operational parameters of the plasma generator. With suitable adjustment, we can achieve plasma beams highly enriched with a single species of D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, or D{sub 3}{sup +}, to a ratio over 80%. It has been found that the axial magnetic configuration played a significant role in the formation of D{sub 3}{sup +} within the experimental pressure range.

  18. Late-time particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Polek, M.

    2011-09-01

    We report a late-time "fireworks-like" particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma during its evolution. Plasmas were produced using graphite targets excited with 1064 nm Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser in vacuum. The time evolution of graphite plasma was investigated using fast gated imaging and visible emission spectroscopy. The emission dynamics of plasma is rapidly changing with time and the delayed firework-like emission from the graphite target followed a black-body curve. Our studies indicated that such firework-like emission is strongly depended on target material properties and explained due to material spallation caused by overheating the trapped gases through thermal diffusion along the layer structures of graphite.

  19. Late-time particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Polek, M.

    2011-09-01

    We report a late-time ''fireworks-like'' particle emission from laser-produced graphite plasma during its evolution. Plasmas were produced using graphite targets excited with 1064 nm Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser in vacuum. The time evolution of graphite plasma was investigated using fast gated imaging and visible emission spectroscopy. The emission dynamics of plasma is rapidly changing with time and the delayed firework-like emission from the graphite target followed a black-body curve. Our studies indicated that such firework-like emission is strongly depended on target material properties and explained due to material spallation caused by overheating the trapped gases through thermal diffusion along the layer structures of graphite.

  20. Measurement of Noise Produced by a Plasma Contactor Operating in Ground Based Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Steve

    1996-01-01

    Methods to measure electric field fluctuations accurately in a plasma with an active monopole antenna are described. It is shown that the conductive surfaces of the antenna must be adequately isolated from the ambient plasma and that the monopole must be sufficiently short to avoid antenna amplifier saturation. Experimental results illustrate that the noise produced by plasma contactor operation and sensed by the antenna is due to plasma phenomena and is not induced by laboratory power supplies. A good correlation is shown between the current fluctuations in the contactor electrical circuit and the noise detected by the antenna. A large body of experimental data support the conclusion that the majority of noise sensed by the antenna at frequencies less than 1 MHz is due to current fluctuations (electrostatic waves) in the plasma adjacent to the antenna and not to electromagnetic wave radiation. Caution is suggested when comparing antenna noise measurements to conventional specifications for radiated emissions.

  1. Plasma waves produced by the xenon ion beam experiment on the Porcupine sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Kelley, M.

    1982-01-01

    The production of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves by a perpendicular ion beam in the F-region ionosphere is described. The ion beam experiment was part of the Porcupine program and produced electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves just above harmonics of the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. The plasma process may be thought of as a magnetized background ionosphere through which an unmagnetized beam is flowing. The dispersion equation for this hypothesis is constructed and solved. Preliminary solutions agree well with the observed plasma waves.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of artificial plasma layers produced by two intersecting beams in a chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    The work done on the Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave produced plasma layers is reported. Also summarized is the work accomplished on the propagation of high power microwave pulses in an air breakdown environment. Ongoing work on the theoretical model and numerical results of pulse propagation in air is also presented as are the results of studying the decay of plasma density and temperature.

  3. Axial distribution of a VHF H2 plasma produced by a narrow gap discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Chen; Chen, Chia-Fu; Lien, Cheng-Yang; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Shi, Jen-Bin; Tsai, Yu-Jer; Lien, Ting-Kuei; Ogiwara, Kohei; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A capacitively coupled VHF H2 plasma was produced with a conventional parallel plate electrode of 400 × 300 mm2. Axial distributions of the plasma parameters were examined using a movable Langmuir probe. The electron density had a hill-like profile near the center while the electron temperature around the discharge electrode was higher than that near the center. It was found that the axial distribution of the plasma potential was considerably different from that based on ohmic heating. The measured sheath potentials around the discharge electrode were lower than the theoretical potentials. A simulation using a hybrid model was performed and compared the results with the experimental results.

  4. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized plasma jets produced by radial foil configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Seyler, C. E.; Bland, S. N.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.

    2012-10-01

    Although no one argues that plasma resistivity is important to include in the astrophysical simulations, based upon experiments with magnetized jets on pulsed power machines in the laboratory, we believe it may also be important to include the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law in astrophysics simulation codes. In this talk, experiments carried out at Cornell University and at Imperial College on 1 to 1.5 MA pulsed power generators feature a plasma disk and a collimated, axial plasma jet with large Re (10^5) and Rem (10^3). The plasma jet is generated by ablation from electrical currents, which flow in a thin aluminum foil and converge to a central multi-pin cathode located under the foil. A twist in the pins produce the axial magnetic field necessary to magnetized the jet. It was observed that changing the polarity of the current alters drastically the plasma dynamics, an indication of the importance of the Hall effect in plasmas produced by radial foils. The overall agreement between experimental results and numerical simulations indicates that PERSEUS accounts properly for Hall physics in this geometry and plasma parameter range. Scaling to astrophysical occurrences via numerical simulations should highlight how Hall physics affects the dynamics of larger accretion disks.

  5. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Tai Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Williams, Arthur H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasmas generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  6. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Augustoni, A.L.; Gerardo, J.B.; Raymond, T.D.

    1992-12-29

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography is disclosed. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser. 8 figs.

  7. Spectroscopic study using line ratios of lithiumlike ions in a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.C.; Goldsmith, S.; Griem, H.R.

    1989-02-15

    Spectra of highly ionized titanium and calcium in the extreme ultraviolet region were observed in laser-produced plasmas using the OMEGA 24 beam (351 nm) laser system at the University of Rochester. The plasmas were produced using glass microballoon targets coated with a layer of a medium Z element and a layer of parylene (CH). Time-integrated electron temperatures and densities were obtained by comparing measured line intensity ratios of lithiumlike charge states of Ti and Ca to numerical calculations from a collisional-radiative model. The variation of line intensity ratios with electron density and temperature using the collisional-radiative model is discussed.

  8. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Augustoni, Arnold L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gerardo, James B. (Albuquerque, NM); Raymond, Thomas D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser.

  9. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 ?s.

  10. Quasi-steady-state air plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse sequence

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Chen, Shi-You; Ma, Jing-Long; Hou, Lei; Liao, Guo-Qian; Wang, Jin-Guang; Han, Yu-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Long; Teng, Hao; Han, Hai-Nian; Li, Yu-Tong; Chen, Li-Ming; Wei, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A long air plasma channel can be formed by filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses. However, the lifetime of the plasma channel produced by a single femtosecond laser pulse is too short (only a few nanoseconds) for many potential applications based on the conductivity of the plasma channel. Therefore, prolonging the lifetime of the plasma channel is one of the key challenges in the research of femtosecond laser filamentation. In this study, a unique femtosecond laser source was developed to produce a high-quality femtosecond laser pulse sequence with an interval of 2.9?ns and a uniformly distributed single-pulse energy. The metre scale quasi-steady-state plasma channel with a 60–80?ns lifetime was formed by such pulse sequences in air. The simulation study for filamentation of dual femtosecond pulses indicated that the plasma channel left by the previous pulse was weakly affected the filamentation of the next pulse in sequence under our experimental conditions. PMID:26493279

  11. Dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced Zn plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Rao, Kavya H.; Philip, Reji

    2015-03-01

    Optical time of flight dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced zinc plasma generated by irradiating a solid zinc target using 100 fs laser pulses is investigated. An acceleration of ions is observed which arises from internal Coulomb forces acting between charged species in the plasma. Some of the fast ions recombine with electrons in the plasma and generate fast neutrals. Plasma plume imaging performed at various ambient pressures indicates adiabatic expansion at lower pressures and plume front deceleration at higher pressures: at lower pressures the plume front-time (R-t) plot displays a linear expansion, shock wave model fits to the data at 5 Torr and at higher pressures the data fits better to the drag model. Furthermore, around an intermediate pressure of 10 Torr, the R-t plot fits to the shock wave model at earlier stages of plasma expansion, while it fits to the drag model at the later stages. These investigations provide relevant information on the acceleration of ions and neutrals in an expanding zinc plasma plume produced by ultrafast laser pulses.

  12. Dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced Zn plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Rao, Kavya H.; Philip, Reji

    2015-03-15

    Optical time of flight dynamics of neutrals and ions in an ultrafast laser produced zinc plasma generated by irradiating a solid zinc target using 100 fs laser pulses is investigated. An acceleration of ions is observed which arises from internal Coulomb forces acting between charged species in the plasma. Some of the fast ions recombine with electrons in the plasma and generate fast neutrals. Plasma plume imaging performed at various ambient pressures indicates adiabatic expansion at lower pressures and plume front deceleration at higher pressures: at lower pressures the plume front-time (R-t) plot displays a linear expansion, shock wave model fits to the data at 5?Torr and at higher pressures the data fits better to the drag model. Furthermore, around an intermediate pressure of 10?Torr, the R-t plot fits to the shock wave model at earlier stages of plasma expansion, while it fits to the drag model at the later stages. These investigations provide relevant information on the acceleration of ions and neutrals in an expanding zinc plasma plume produced by ultrafast laser pulses.

  13. Surface analysis of alumina ceramic exposed to shock waves produced by plasma expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, R. P.; Campos, E.; Santos, C. N.; Lucena, E. F.; Machida, M.; Melo, F. C. L.

    2015-03-01

    Material surface treatment by plasma expander is relatively recent. Plasma expander is based on the inverse pinch effect. The shock waves produced by plasma expander may also promote modifications in ceramic materials exposed to the expander. These modifications are mainly made by ablation phenomenon. This work was intended to verify the shock wave effects on the ionic ceramic samples with high dielectric constant. The alumina ceramic samples were formed by both uniaxial and isostatic pressing methods and sintered at 1650 °C. They were also produced with addition 0.15 wt% of MgO in order to obtain a high densification. The ceramic samples were divided in groups and exposed to 700, 1000 and 1440 pulses during 20 min. These pulses were generated by nitrogen plasma expander at 13.0 Pa and 6 kV. After plasma exposure, there was an increase in roughness parameter values of Al2O3 ceramic surface. The treatment by plasma expander did not modify the hydrophilic characteristic of the alumina ceramic samples. The results of hardness test presented no significant changes on hardness mean values.

  14. Measuring the electron density, temperature, and electronegativity in electron beam-generated plasmas produced in argon/SF6 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, D. R.; Fernsler, R. F.; Walton, S. G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents measurements of electron density (ne0), electron temperature (Te), and electronegativity (?) in electron beam-generated plasmas produced in mixtures of argon and SF6 using Langmuir probes and plasma resonance spectroscopy. Langmuir probe measurements are analyzed using a model capable of handling multi-component plasmas with both positive and negative ions. Verification of the model is provided through plasma frequency resonance measurements of ne0. The results suggest a simple approach to ascertaining ? in negative-ion-containing plasmas using Langmuir probes alone. In addition, modest amounts of SF6 are shown to produce sharp increases in both Te and ? in electron beam generated plasmas.

  15. Initial Operation of the PhIX High Intensity Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Bigelow, T. S.; Diem, S. J.; Pesavento, P. V.; Rapp, J.; Shaw, G. C.

    2013-10-01

    The Physics Integration eXperiment (PhIX) is a linear high-intensity rf plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with an electron heating section. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration, as well as exploring source interactions with a downstream target. The helicon plasma is produced by coupling 13.56 MHz rf power at levels up to 100 kW. Microwaves at 18 GHz are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via whistler waves and Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW). An energy analyzer embedded in the target substrate is being used to determine the ion energy and ion flux at the target, while a microwave interferometer and Langmuir probes are used to determine plasma parameters near the source and near the target. High plasma densities have been produced in He (>5 × 1019/m3) and H (>1.5 × 1019/m3) , and operation in magnetic field strengths up to 0.5T has been demonstrated. Details of the experimental results will be presented, as well as future plans for studying plasma surface interactions and rf antenna plasma interactions. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  16. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Wang, Xinbing Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150??m are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-01

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 ?m are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer-Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Dust particle charge screening in the dry-air plasma produced by an external ionization source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenev, I. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    The ionic composition of the plasma produced by an external ionization source in dry air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature and the screening of the electric field of a dust particle in such a plasma have been investigated. The point sink model based on the diffusion-drift approximation has been used to solve the screening problem. We have established that the main species of ions in the plasma under consideration are O{4/+}, O{2/-}, and O{4/-} and that the dust particle potential distribution is described by a superposition of four exponentials with four different constants. We show that the first constant coincides with the inverse Debye length, the second is described by the inverse ambipolar diffusion length of the positive and negative plasma components in the characteristic time of their recombination, the third is determined by the conversion of negative ions, and the fourth is determined by the attachment and recombination of electrons and diatomic ions.

  19. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  20. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in ?~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore »and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  1. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  2. Reflectivity profiles of phase conjugate waves produced via four-wave mixing in laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.P.; Sinha, B.K.

    1996-10-01

    Theoretical profiles of power reflectivity of a phase conjugate electromagnetic wave generated by nearly degenerate four-wave mixing in a carbon plasma via parametric decay instability (PDI) are studied. The plasma is considered to be produced by irradiating a carbon slab target with an Nd:glass high-power laser pulse at an intensity above the PDI threshold. The plasma refractive index corresponding to the PDI region is taken into account in the wave equations. Two electromagnetic pump waves counterpropagating in the plasma are Nd:glass laser light waves and a weak electromagnetic probe wave incident upon the plasma, which is very slightly frequency upshifted relative to the pump waves. The effects of the frequency and angular detuning between the pump and probe waves, pump wave intensity, and plasma parameters on the reflectivity profiles have been investigated. It is noted that the plasma refractive index significantly affects the reflectivity profiles of the phase conjugate wave. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Ion shock acceleration by large amplitude slow ion acoustic double layers in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.

    2014-02-15

    A kinetic model for the shock acceleration of ions in laser-produced plasmas is developed. A fraction of the warm ions are accelerated by the large amplitude monotonic potential of the shock created due the plasma compression and electron heating by the laser. The kinetic model for the monotonic shock is based on the slow ion acoustic double layer (SIADL). It is found that the amplitude of the large amplitude SIADL is almost uniquely defined by the electron temperature. Therefore, a balance between electron heating and plasma compression is needed for optimal ion acceleration by this scheme. Typical Mach numbers of the monotonic shocks are close to 1.5. The scheme could potentially produce monoenergetic ions with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. The model is compared with recent simulations and experiments, where efficient shocks acceleration and production of monoenergetic protons have been observed. Similarities and differences with other shock models are pointed out and discussed.

  4. XUV spectral analysis of ns- and ps-laser produced platinum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O’Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O’Sullivan, Gerry

    2015-12-01

    XUV spectra of ns- and ps-laser produced platinum (Pt) plasmas in the 1–7 nm wavelength region, where ?n = 1 n = 4–5 and ?n = 0 n = 4-4 transitions dominate the observed emission, were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ab initio calculations using the Hartree–Fock with configuration interaction (HFCI) Cowan suite of codes and the unresolved transition array (UTA) formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, together with spectra obtained under different laser power densities are all employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Pt XX to Pt XLII. The possible reasons for the main differences between the ns- and ps-laser plasmas spectra are also demonstrated. This work extends previous analyses of the XUV spectra of laser produced gold, tungsten, tantalum, hafnium and rhenium plasmas in the 1–7 nm wavelength range.

  5. A study of subsurface crack initiation produced by rolling contact fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun M.; Hahn, George T.; Rubin, Carol A.

    1993-02-01

    Results of subsurface crack initiation studies produced by pure rolling contact fatigue in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy are presented in this article. Microstructural changes and subsequent crack initiation below the contacting surface in cylindrical test specimens subjected to repeated rolling contact are illustrated. The rolling conditions are simulated in a three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element model in order to estimate the plastic strains and residual stresses in the test material. The numerically estimated distribution of plastic strains in the model correlate well with the extent of microstructural changes observed in the test specimen. Results also indicate that a combination of plastic strains and low values of residual stresses is conducive to subsurface crack initiation and growth.

  6. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1?g/cm{sup ?3}. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foam–solid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  7. Possibility of deexcitation of isomeric nuclei in plasmas produced by subpicosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, V. I.

    2009-02-15

    Possible schemes of X-ray-activated deexcitation of isomers of rhodium, silver, tellurium, and bismuth are considered. It is shown that conditions necessary for deexcitation of rhodium isomer can, in principle, be achieved in a high-temperature solid-body-density plasma produced by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  8. Comparison of optical emission from nanosecond and femtosecond laser produced plasma in atmosphere and vacuum conditions

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Comparison of optical emission from nanosecond and femtosecond laser produced plasma in atmosphere and atmosphere environments using identical laser fluences in order to better understand the differ- ences in an ambient atmosphere environment, the impact of low-pressure envi- ronments is also important for certain

  9. Plasma-chemical method for producing metal oxide powders and their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, I.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Promakhov, V.; Bondarchuk, I.; Zhukov, A.; Vorozhtsov, A.

    2015-11-01

    Structure and properties of ZrO2 and Al2O3 powders produced using plasma chemical technique were studied in the framework of this research. Obtained Al2O3 powder was used for reinforcement of Al alloy. Improvement of mechanical properties of Al alloy associated with introduction of alumina particles into the melt was demonstrated.

  10. Analysis of atomic and ion debris features of laser-produced Sn and Li plasmas

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Environment, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA Received 3 May 2010; accepted 5 August 2010-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulses for producing plasmas. A suite of diagnostics were used to analyze width,13 spot size,14 power density,15,16 etc. and target mass density,15 target geometry,16 etc

  11. Time-Resolved Analysis of High-Power-Laser Produced Plasma Expansion in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Aliverdiev, A.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Malka, V.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

    2005-05-16

    Here we consider the results of an experimental investigation of the temporal evolution of plasmas produced by high power laser irradiation of various types of target materials. The experiment was performed at the LULI Laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris). We have developed a method to analyze time-resolved streak-camera images and analyzed a number of results obtained with various materials.

  12. Towards laboratory-produced relativistic electron-positron pair-plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Beiersdorfer, P; Cauble, R; Dollar, F; Falk, K; Hazi, A; Murphy, C D; Park, J; Seely, J; Szabo, C I; Shepherd, R; Tommasini, R; Zulick, K

    2010-08-31

    Relativistic pair-plasmas and jets are believed to exist in many astrophysical objects and are often invoked to explain energetic phenomena related to Gamma Ray Bursts and Black Holes. On earth, positrons from radioactive isotopes or accelerators are used extensively at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science positron emission tomography and basic antimatter science. Experimental platforms capable of producing the high-temperature pair-plasma and high-flux jets required to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. In the last few years, we performed extensive experiments generating positrons with intense lasers where we found that relativistic electron and positron jets are produced by irradiating a solid gold target with an intense picosecond laser pulse. The positron temperatures in directions parallel and transverse to the beam both exceeded 0.5 MeV, and the density of electrons and positrons in these jets are of order 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} and 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, respectively. With the advent of high-energy ultra-short laser pulses, we expect that a charge-neutral, relativistic pair-plasma is achievable, a novel regime of laboratory-produced hot dense matter. This talk will present some details of the laser-produced pair-plasma experiments.

  13. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  14. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  15. Initiation of fibrinolysis in alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor deficient plasma. Role of fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinose, A.; Aoki, N.

    1986-03-15

    Plasmin activity and fibrin degradation products (FDP) are found in alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2-PI) deficient plasma only when clotted, but are not found when the plasma is not clotted. To determine whether fibrin itself could initiate fibrinolysis without activating coagulation enzymes, fibrin monomers were prepared and added to alpha 2-PI deficient plasma. The addition of fibrin monomers resulted in the generation of plasmin activity, a marked increase in FDP concentration, and the release of /sup 125/I from /sup 125/I-labeled fibrin monomers. Replenishment of the deficient plasma with purified alpha 2-PI abolished the effects of fibrin monomers on the initiation of fibrinolysis. Neither development of plasmin activity, increase of FDP, nor release of /sup 125/I was observed. These findings indicate that fibrinolysis can be induced by fibrin itself without activation of coagulation cascade and the induction of fibrinolysis is efficiently blocked by alpha 2-PI.

  16. Focal smooth muscle proliferation in the aortic intima produced by an initiation-promotion sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Majesky, M W; Reidy, M A; Benditt, E P; Juchau, M R

    1985-01-01

    Human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques display a clonal character similar to many benign neoplasms. We report here that chickens treated with an initiation-promotion sequence developed focal intimal smooth muscle lesions in the thoracic aorta that resemble early forms of atherosclerosis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed small mound-like lesions protruding from an intact endothelium in birds treated with an initiating dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (Me2BA) followed by twice weekly injections of the alpha 1-selective adrenergic agonist methoxamine for 20 weeks. Intimal lesion foci were composed of densely packed modified smooth muscle cells, abundant extracellular matrix, and occasional mononuclear cells (possibly monocytes). There was no ultrastructural evidence of lipid accumulation or alteration of the underlying media. These intimal lesions appeared in aortic segments of treated chickens in a pattern similar to that observed in classical experiments of multistage tumorigenesis in epidermis and other tissues. The treatment with Me2BA followed by methoxamine produced more focal lesions per thoracic segment and more segments per group with lesions than did treatment with either Me2BA or methoxamine alone. Thoracic intimal foci were absent from untreated and vehicle-treated groups. In contrast, the growth of a spontaneously arising atheroma in the distal abdominal aorta was not demonstrably affected by the initiation-promotion regimen. Likewise, weekly injections of Me2BA for 23 weeks, while greatly enhancing abdominal atheroma growth, produced no thoracic lesions. These results provide evidence that focal proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cells, a critical early event in atherogenesis, can be produced by an initiation-promotion treatment sequence. Images PMID:3923478

  17. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  18. Morphological and structural effects on tungsten targets produced by fusion plasma pulses from a table top plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inestrosa-Izurieta, M. J.; Ramos-Moore, E.; Soto, L.

    2015-09-01

    A table top plasma focus device operating at hundreds of joules was used to simulate an equivalent damage factor than the obtained on the divertor in tokamak experiments. Using the ejected plasma produced after the pinch disruptions, the effects on tungsten targets from 50 cumulative plasma shocks with power fluxes per shot between 2.6 and 9200?kW?cm-2 and with a duration time in the order of tens of nanoseconds (damage factor in the order of 100-103?(W?cm-2)s1/2) were studied. Morphological analysis shows an increasing appearance of cracked surfaces with holes, fissures and defects, suggesting a potential progression of stress effects and a fast heat load that melts the surface, ending in thermal contractions that recrystallize the surface of the target. A structural analysis demonstrates a compressive stress development and suggests that part of the energy is released in the melting of the surface in case of a plasma shock with a power flux of 9.2?MW?cm-2, 75?ns duration pulse, 2.5???×???103?(W?cm-2)s1/2 damage factor. How to increase the damage factor by one order of magnitude up to the expected value from type I ELMs on the ITER divertor, i.e. 104?(W?cm-2)s1/2 is discussed.

  19. Transient loss of plasma from a theta pinch having an initially reversed magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the transient loss of plasma from a 25-cm-long theta pinch initially containing a reversed trapped magnetic field are presented. The plasma, amenable to MHD analyses, was a doubly ionized helium plasma characterized by an ion density N/sub i/ = 2 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and an ion temperature T/sub i/ = 15 eV at midcoil and by N/sub i/ = 0.5 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and T/sub i/ = 6 eV at a position 2.5 cm beyond the end of the theta coil.

  20. Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-05-28

    We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of ionic, neutral, and molecular species generated by femtosecond laser produced plasma under varying ambient nitrogen gas pressures. Plasmas were generated by irradiating planar graphite targets using 40 fs pulses of 800 nm radiation from a Ti:Sapphire laser. The results show that in the presence of an ambient gas, the molecular species spatial extension and lifetime are directly correlated to the evolution of excited ions. The present studies also provide valuable insights into the evolution history of various species and their excitation during ultrafast laser ablation.

  1. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei, Daniel; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, ?ukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Vyšín, Lud?k; Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Pina, Ladislav; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray "water window" spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280-540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 103 photons/?m2/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms' sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the "water window", where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET - Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  2. Momentum transfer interaction of a laser-produced plasma with a low-pressure background.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The expansion of a laser-produced metallic plasma into a photoionized hydrogen background has been experimentally studied. Langmuir probe and microwave diagnostics have detected an interaction front which decelerates with a dependence on background density and time consistent with a momentum coupling between the laser plasma and the ionized fraction of the background. An ion percursor has also been observed. Calculations of scattering cross sections indicate that multiple-encounter Coulomb scattering will dominate collisional momentum transfer. The leading edge of the laser plasma contains multiply charged ions of charge state z greater than or equal to 5, and collisional effects appear adequate to explain the principal features of the momentum coupling. The ion precursor may have a collisionless origin.

  3. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the self-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzaie, M.; Shokri, B.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2010-01-15

    The dynamic behavior of a high power microwave beam propagating through a gaseous medium, which is ionized in the wave field is investigated. By solving the wave equation, the reflection index of the produced plasma is obtained. It is shown that the cut off condition is different from that of the steady state approximation. The reflection index is less than unity when the plasma density reaches the critical value estimated in the steady state approximation. So, the wave can still propagate through the plasma. By comparing the reflection indexes in the presence and absence of the time delay of the ionization process at different points of the medium, it is shown that it becomes unity much later in the first case. Therefore, the wave propagation takes much more time and consequently the medium is ionized much more.

  4. High-temperature plasma produced on a free liquid surface by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Roman V; Gordienko, Vyacheslav M; Mikheev, Pavel M; Savel'ev, Andrei B; Uryupina, D S

    2004-02-28

    The plasma formed by femtosecond laser radiation with an intensity higher than 10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2} at the free surface of a liquid (VM-1 vacuum oil) in vacuum has parameters which are similar to the parameters of the high-temperature plasma produced at the surface of a solid target. The hot-electron temperature (derived from X-ray and ion time-of-flight measurements) is 6 {+-} 3 keV for the VM-1 oil target and 4 {+-} 1 keV for a crystal silicon target. The optical diagnostics of the relaxation of the liquid target surface revealed that the limiting laser pulse-repetition rate whereby the interaction takes place with the unperturbed liquid surface may be as high as 10 Hz. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Investigation of a Gas Jet-Produced Hollow Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, N; Blumenfeld, I.; Hogan, M.J.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.R.; Davidson, A.W.; Huang, C.; /UCLA

    2009-05-21

    The effect of ion motion and the need for practical positron propagation in a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) have incited interest in hollow plasma channels. These channels are typically assumed to be cylindrically symmetric; however, a different geometry might be easier to achieve. The introduction of an obstruction into the outlet of a high Mach number gas jet can produce two parallel slabs of gas separated by a density depression. Here, there is a detailed simulation study of the density depression created in such a system. This investigation reveals that the density depression is insufficient at the desired plasma density. However, insights from the simulations suggest another avenue for the creation of the hollow slab geometry.

  6. Influence of a magnetic field on laser-produced Sn plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, H.; Wang, X. B.; Chen, H.; Zuo, D. L.; Lu, P. X.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of an external magnetic field on Nd:YAG laser-produced Sn plasma have been investigated. The characteristics of ion debris from Sn plasma, emission spectra, and EUV radiation have been studied by the time-of-flight method and the optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the ion kinetic energies of the plume species can be effectively reduced with a modest magnetic field of 0.6 T. With the presence of a magnetic field, the spectral intensities of Sn I and Sn II show significant enhancement and the electron density of plasma is about 2 times higher. We have not found any influence of magnetic field on the characteristics of EUV emissions.

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 056407 (2012) Characterization of single and colliding laser-produced plasma bubbles using Thomson

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 056407 (2012) Characterization of single and colliding laser-produced plasma combined with proton radiography data for comprehensive characterization of individual laser, 52.70.Kz I. INTRODUCTION Characterization of laser-produced plasmas is important in a variety

  8. Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses

    E-print Network

    Limpouch, Jiri

    Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

  9. Analytical description of generation of the residual current density in the plasma produced by a few-cycle laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Silaev, A. A. Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2015-05-15

    When a gas is ionized by a few-cycle laser pulse, some residual current density (RCD) of free electrons remains in the produced plasma after the passage of the laser pulse. This quasi-dc RCD is an initial impetus to plasma polarization and excitation of the plasma oscillations which can radiate terahertz (THz) waves. In this work, the analytical model for calculation of RCD excited by a few-cycle laser pulse is developed for the first time. The dependences of the RCD on the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), wavelength, duration, and intensity of the laser pulse are derived. It is shown that maximum RCD corresponding to optimal CEP increases with the laser pulse wavelength, which indicates the prospects of using mid-infrared few-cycle laser pulses in the schemes of generation of high-power THz pulses. Analytical formulas for optimal pulse intensity and maximum efficiency of excitation of the RCD are obtained. Basing on numerical solution of the 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation for hydrogen atoms, RCD dependence on CEP is calculated in a wide range of wavelengths. High accuracy of analytical formulas is demonstrated at the laser pulse parameters which correspond to the tunneling regime of ionization.

  10. Modification of semiconductor materials with the use of plasma produced by low intensity repetitive laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowski, J.; Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Parys, P.; Turan, R.; Yerci, S.

    2008-03-19

    This work reports experiments concerning specific application of laser-produced plasma at IPPLM in Warsaw. A repetitive pulse laser system of parameters: energy up to 0.8 J in a 3.5 ns-pulse, wavelength of 1.06 {mu}m, repetition rate of up to 10 Hz, has been employed in these investigations. The characterisation of laser-produced plasma was performed with the use of 'time-of-flight' ion diagnostics simultaneously with other diagnostic methods. The results of laser-matter interaction were obtained in dependence on laser pulse parameters, illumination geometry and target material. The modified SiO{sub 2} layers and sample surface properties were characterised with the use of different methods at the Middle-East Technological University in Ankara and at the Warsaw University of technology. The production of the Ge nanocrystallites has been demonstrated for annealed samples prepared in different experimental conditions.

  11. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  12. Analytical characterization of plasma membrane-derived vesicles produced via osmotic and chemical vesiculation.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Chan, Robin B; Zhou, Bowen; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-07-01

    Plasma membrane-derived vesicles are being used in biophysical and biochemical research as a simple, yet native-like model of the cellular membrane. Here we report on the characterization of vesicles produced via two different vesiculation methods from CHO and A431 cell lines. The first method is a recently developed method which utilizes chloride salts to induce osmotic vesiculation. The second is a well established chemical vesiculation method which uses DTT and formaldehyde. We show that both vesiculation methods produce vesicles which contain the lipid species previously reported in the plasma membrane of these cell lines. The two methods lead to small but statistically significant differences in two lipid species only; phosphatidylcholine (PC) and plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine (PEp). However, highly significant differences were observed in the degree of incorporation of a membrane receptor and in the degree of retention of soluble cytosolic proteins within the vesicles. PMID:25896659

  13. Activated air produced by shielded sliding discharge plasma mediates plasmid DNA delivery to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Heller, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Cold plasma is emerging as a potential method for medical applications. The current study assessed the efficacy of a novel cold plasma reactor based on shielded sliding discharge producing cathode-directed streamers generated in ambient air for the delivery of plasmid DNA. Experiments were performed with mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) and human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding luciferase. Quantitative results measured over a 72-h period displayed luciferase expression levels as high as 5-fold greater in cells exposed to plasma-activated air (PAA) than levels obtained from the inoculation of plasmid DNA alone (P?plasma for DNA delivery is attractive as it provides a non-viral, non-invasive method where the electrode or the plasma itself never directly contacts the exposed site. The current device design provides localized DNA transfer using a novel technology. Our report suggests PAA warrants further exploration as an alternative or supplemental approach for DNA transfer. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2583-2590. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26041378

  14. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.

    2009-07-15

    Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.

  15. The rapidly evolving field of decadal climate prediction, using initialized climate models to produce time-evolving predictions of regional climate, is producing new results for

    E-print Network

    , and it is on those time scales of interest to water managers that decadal climate prediction is being appliedThe rapidly evolving field of decadal climate prediction, using initialized climate models to produce time-evolving predictions of regional climate, is producing new results for predictions

  16. Analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Gilad; Louzon, Einat; Henis, Zohar; Maman, Shlomo; Mandelbaum, Pinchas

    2007-05-15

    A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum (5-10.2 A ring ) emitted by laser-produced plasma of dysprosium (Dy) is given using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic trends. Resonance 3d-4p, 3d-nf (n=4 to 7), 3p-4s, and 3p-4d transitions of Ni I-like Dy XXXIX and neighboring ion satellite transitions (from Dy XXXIV to Dy XL) are identified.

  17. Current initiation in low-density foam z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M.; Nash, T.; Allshouse, G.

    1996-07-01

    Low density agar and aerogel foams were tested as z-pinch loads on the SATURN accelerator. In these first experiments, we studied the initial plasma conditions by measuring the visible emission at early times with a framing camera and 1-D imaging. At later time, near the stagnation when the plasma is hotter, x-ray imaging and spectral diagnostics were used to characterize the plasma. Filamentation and arcing at the current contacts was observed. None of the implosions were uniform along the z-axis. The prime causes of these problems are believed to be the electrode contacts and the current return configuration and these are solvable. Periodic phenomena consistent with the formation of instabilities were observed on one shot, not on others, implying that there may be a way of controlling instabilities in the pinch. Many of the issues involving current initiation may be solvable. Solutions are discussed.

  18. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  19. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

  20. Kinetic effects and nonlinear heating in intense x-ray-laser-produced carbon plasmas.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Y; Paraschiv, I; Royle, R; Mancini, R C; Johzaki, T

    2014-11-01

    The x-ray laser-matter interaction for a low-Z material, carbon, is studied with a particle-in-cell code that solves the photoionization and x-ray transport self-consistently. Photoionization is the dominant absorption mechanism and nonthermal photoelectrons are produced with energy near the x-ray photon energy. The photoelectrons ionize the target rapidly via collisional impact ionization and field ionization, producing a hot plasma column behind the laser pulse. The radial size of the heated region becomes larger than the laser spot size due to the kinetic nature of the photoelectrons. The plasma can have a temperature of more than 10 000 K (>1eV), an energy density greater than 10^{4} J/cm^{3}, an ion-ion Coulomb coupling parameter ??1, and electron degeneracy ??1, i.e., strongly coupled warm dense matter. By increasing the laser intensity, the plasma temperature rises nonlinearly from tens of eV to hundreds of eV, bringing it into the high energy density matter regime. The heating depth and temperature are also controllable by changing the photon energy of the incident laser light. PMID:25493733

  1. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Sakawa, Y; Kuramitsu, Y; Dono, S; Ide, T; Shibata, S; Aoki, H; Tanji, H; Sano, T; Shiroshita, A; Waugh, J N; Gregory, C D; Woolsey, N C; Takabe, H

    2012-10-01

    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of ~10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)]. PMID:23126856

  2. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, L. P.; Pérez, J. A.; Riascos, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C2 Swan System (d3?g?a3?u), the First Negative System N2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x1018 cm-3 respectively.

  3. Development of a time-resolved soft x-ray spectrometer for laser produced plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K. V.; Park, J.; Dunn, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; James, D. L.; May, M. J.; Shepherd, R.; Widmann, K.; Baldis, H. A.

    2010-10-15

    A 2400 lines/mm variable-spaced grating spectrometer has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 A) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x rays emitted from the back of the Mylar and the copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx}120 at 19 A with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolutions of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

  4. In-package nonthermal plasma degradation of pesticides on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Misra, N N; Pankaj, S K; Walsh, Tony; O'Regan, Finbarr; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2014-04-30

    In-package nonthermal plasma (NTP) technology is a novel technology for the decontamination of foods and biological materials. This study presents the first report on the potential of the technology for the degradation of pesticide residues on fresh produce. A cocktail of pesticides, namely azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil and pyriproxyfen was tested on strawberries. The concentrations of these pesticides were monitored in priori and post-plasma treatment using GC-MS/MS. An applied voltage and time dependent degradation of the pesticides was observed for treatment voltages of 60, 70 and 80 kV and treatment durations ranging from 1 to 5 min, followed by 24h in-pack storage. The electrical characterisation revealed the operation of the discharge in a stable filamentary regime. The discharge was found to generate reactive oxygen and excited nitrogen species as observed by optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:24598029

  5. Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

    2010-05-12

    A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

  6. Study of nanosecond laser-produced plasmas in atmosphere by spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-09-21

    We investigate the evolution of the species from both the target and the air, and the plasma parameter distribution of the nanosecond laser-produced plasmas in atmospheric air. The technique used is spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It is argued that the N II from the air, which is distributed over a wider region than the target species in the early stages of the discharge, is primarily formed by the shock wave. The ionized species have a larger expansion velocity than the excited atoms in the first ?100 ns, providing direct evidence for space-charge effects. The electron density decreases with the distance from the target surface in the early stages of the discharge, and both the electron density and the excited temperature variation in the axial direction are found to become insignificant at later stages.

  7. Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an under-dense, laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, C; Back, C A; Fournier, K B; Gregori, G; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Dewald, E L; Miller, M C

    2004-10-22

    We observe a laser-driven supersonic ionization wave heating a mm-scale plasma of sub-critical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures. Propagation velocities initially 10 times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat wave propagation.

  8. Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an underdense, laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, C.; Back, C.A.; Fournier, K.B.; Gregori, G.; Landen, O.L.; Glenzer, S.H.; Dewald, E.L.; Miller, M.C.

    2005-06-15

    A laser-driven supersonic ionization wave propagating through a millimeter-scale plasma of subcritical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures was observed. Propagation velocities initially ten times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat-wave propagation.

  9. Microradiography With Laser-Produced Plasma Sources - Surface Roughness on PMMA Resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, P. C.; Kim, H.; Wittman, M. D.

    1988-02-01

    The use of a laser produced plasma as an x-ray source for high resolution microradiqgraphy has several advantages over conventional x-ray sources: a very small source size (<100 pm in diameter) and a pulsed exposure with a less than 1 ns duration. The former provides the possibility of high spatial resolution, and the latter produces high temporal resolution. It has been proposed that the pulsed exposure is ideal for imaging living biological specimens. In order to obtain high resolution images, modern microradiography uses high molecular wight polymers (photo-resists) as the photochemical detector on which a surface relief image is formed. Therefore, one of the factors affecting image resolution is the surface roughness of the resist. This paper reports the surface roughness on the resist polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) which has been exposed to the radiation from a laser-produced plasma x-ray source. The surface roughness was investigated by transmission electron microscopy using a metal replica technique.

  10. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications. PMID:20022170

  11. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Klimov, A. S.; Savkin, K. P.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  12. Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas stagnating on a radiative coolant of solid density.

    PubMed

    Kodama, R; Mochizuki, T

    1987-12-01

    Population inversion between the n = 3 and n = 2 levels of the Mg(+11) ion (the wavelength of the transition is 4.5 nm) was observed in a laser-produced plasma that was stagnated and rapidly cooled on a high-Z (Au) plate. The ratio of the population inversion was determined to be 1.4 - 1.8 when the opacity effect was taken into account. From the dependence of the inversion on the coolant's Z number, we found that the major cooling mechanism is radiative heat loss rather than thermal conduction to a cold inner part of the plate. PMID:19741938

  13. Spark plasma sintering of alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires.

    PubMed

    An, Vladimir; Khasanov, Alexey; de Izarra, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Alumina nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires were sintered using the spark plasma sintering technique. The results of XRD analysis show that the main phase in the compacted nanopowders is ?-Al2O3. According to the SEM observations, the sintered alumina nanopowder consists of micron-sized faceted grains and nano-sized necked grains. The increase in sintering temperature resulted in a higher density of the sintered powders: from 78.44 to 98.21 % of theoretical density. PMID:26543716

  14. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Ziuzina, D; Patil, S; Cullen, P J; Keener, K M; Bourke, P

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) represents a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal decontamination of foods. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of a novel dielectric barrier discharge ACP device against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cherry tomatoes and strawberries, was examined. Bacteria were spot inoculated on the produce surface, air dried and sealed inside a rigid polypropylene container. Samples were indirectly exposed (i.e. placed outside plasma discharge) to a high voltage (70 kVRMS) air ACP and subsequently stored at room temperature for 24 h. ACP treatment for 10, 60 and 120 s resulted in reduction of Salmonella, E. coli and L. monocytogenes populations on tomato to undetectable levels from initial populations of 3.1, 6.3, and 6.7 log10 CFU/sample, respectively. However, an extended ACP treatment time was necessary to reduce bacterial populations attached on the more complex surface of strawberries. Treatment time for 300 s resulted in reduction of E. coli, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes populations by 3.5, 3.8 and 4.2 log10 CFU/sample, respectively, and also effectively reduced the background microflora of tomatoes. PMID:24929725

  15. Dynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas for a monochromatic 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet source

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    the critical density, a narrower EUV x-ray spectrum and a higher conversion efficiency from laser concentration of Sn. Keywords: laser plasma, dynamics, EUV 1. INTRODUCTION Pulsed laser-produced plasma has been for the EUV source because of its high conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to monochromatic 13.5 nm. Laser

  16. Ion flux enhancements and oscillations in spatially confined laser produced aluminum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. C. Fallon, C.; Hayden, P.; Yeates, P.; Costello, J. T.; Mujawar, M.

    2014-09-15

    Ion signals from laser produced plasmas (LPPs) generated inside aluminum rectangular cavities at a fixed depth d?=?2?mm and varying width, x?=?1.0, 1.6, and 2.75?mm were obtained by spatially varying the position of a negatively biased Langmuir probe. Damped oscillatory features superimposed on Maxwellian distributed ion signals were observed. Depending on the distance of the probe from the target surface, three to twelve fold enhancements in peak ion density were observed via confinement of the LPP, generated within rectangular cavities of varying width which constrained the plasma plume to near one dimensional expansion in the vertical plane. The effects of lateral spatial confinement on the expansion velocity of the LPP plume front, the temperature, density and expansion velocity of ions, enhancement of ion flux, and ion energy distribution were recorded. The periodic behavior of ion signals was analyzed and found to be related to the electron plasma frequency and electron-ion collision frequency. The effects of confinement and enhancement of various ion parameters and expansion velocities of the LPP ion plume are explained on the basis of shock wave theory.

  17. Emission dynamics of an expanding ultrafast-laser produced Zn plasma under different ambient pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Philip, Reji

    2013-09-07

    We report time and space resolved spectral measurements of neutral Zn emission from an ultrafast laser produced plasma, generated by the irradiation of a Zn target with laser pulses of 100 femtoseconds duration, carried out in a broad ambient pressure range of 0.05 to 100 Torr. The measurement is done for three different axial positions in the expanding plume. The spectra are rich in neutral Zn (Zn I) emissions at 334.5 nm, 468 nm, 472 nm, 481 nm, and 636 nm, respectively, depicting the characteristic triplet structure of Zn. Fast as well as slow peaks are observed in the time of flight data of 481 nm emission, which arise from recombination and atomic contributions, respectively, occurring at different time scales. Average speeds of the fast atomic species do not change appreciably with ambient pressure. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and number density) are evaluated from the measured optical emission spectra. The rates of ionization and recombination can be enhanced by a double-pulse excitation configuration in which optical energy is coupled to the ultrafast plasma through a delayed laser pulse.

  18. Ion and atomic species produced in large scale oxygen plasma used for treatments sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasic, Kosta; Skoro, Nikola; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

    2013-09-01

    Asymmetric CCP plasma system operating at 13.56 MHz was successfully used for treatments of textile, seeds and polymers. Central electrode (aluminium rod) was powered electrode while the cylindrical wall of the chamber was grounded electrode. We have used mass spectrometry for detections of ions and neutrals in order to get better insight in plasma chemistry involved in surface reactions on treated samples. Besides of ions, one of the important species for surface modifications is atomic oxygen. Actinometry was used as an additional diagnostic tool to determine the extent of atomic oxygen produced in plasma. Measurements were made in several different mixtures of oxygen with addition of several percent of argon. The range of pressures investigated was 150 to 450 mTorr for powers from 100 to 500 W. Measured atomic oxygen density has a steady rise with power (1019-1020 m-3) . Apart from atomic oxygen species we have detected mass spectra of positive and negative ions. Most abundant ion was O2+while the amounts of O+ and O- were smaller by the order of magnitude compared to O2+. Supported by MESTD, RS, III41011 and ON 171037.

  19. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-12-30

    Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry. PMID:26282219

  20. Colliding laser-produced plasmas as targets for laser-generated extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, T.; O'Gorman, C.; Dunne, P.; Sokell, E.; O'Sullivan, G.; Hayden, P.

    2014-07-28

    Colliding plasmas produced by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser illumination of tin wedge targets form stagnation layers, the physical parameters of which can be controlled to optimise coupling with a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) heating laser pulse and subsequent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) production. The conversion efficiency (CE) of total laser energy into EUV emission at 13.5?nm?±?1% was 3.6%. Neglecting both the energy required to form the stagnation layer and the EUV light produced before the CO{sub 2} laser pulse is incident results in a CE of 5.1% of the CO{sub 2} laser energy into EUV light.

  1. Geomagnetic signatures of current wedge produced by fast flows in a plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jin-Bin; Yan, Chunxiao; Dunlop, Malcolm; Reme, Henri; Dandouras, Iannis; Zhang, Tielong; Yang, Dongmei; Moiseyev, Alexey; Solovyev, Stepan I.; Wang, Z. Q.; Leonoviche, A.; Zolotukhina, N.; Mishin, V.

    2010-08-01

    This paper uses the plasma data from Cluster and TC-1 and geomagnetic data to study the geomagnetic signatures of the current wedge produced by fast-flow braking in the plasma sheet. The three fast flows studied here occurred in a very quiet background and were accompanied by no (or weak) particle injections, thus avoiding the influences from other disturbances. All the geomagnetic signatures of a substorm current wedge can be found in the geomagnetic signatures of a current system produced by the braking of fast flows, indicating that the fast flows can produce a complete current wedge which contains postmidnight downward and premidnight upward field-aligned currents, as well as a westward electrojet. The Pi2 precursors exist not only at high latitudes but also at midlatitudes. The starting times of midlatitude Pi2 precursors can be identified more precisely than those of high-latitude Pi2 precursors, providing a possible method to determine the starting time of fast flows in their source regions. The AL drop that a bursty bulk flow produces is proportional to its velocity and duration. In three cases, the AL drops are <100 nT. Because the AE increase of a typical substorm is >200 nT, whether a substorm can be triggered depends mainly on the conditions of the braking regions before fast flows. The observations of solar wind before the three fast flows suggest that it is difficult for the fast flows to trigger a substorm when the interplanetary magnetic field Bz of solar wind is weakly southward.

  2. Identification of hydrogenlike and heliumlike transitions in the spectrum of laser-produced magnesium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, J. C.; Goldsmith, S.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Knauer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Nonresonance spectral lines of Mg XII and Mg XI emitted by magnesium laser-produced plasmas have been observed in the extreme-vacuum-ultraviolet region and their transitions classified. As many as eight beams of the Omega laser system of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester were linearly focused onto magnesium-coated flat targets to produce linear plasma radiation sources from 3 to 6 mm long. The spectra were photographed end-on with a grazing-incidence spectrograph. The identified Mg XII lines are classified as 2s-3p, 2p-3d, 2s-4p, 2p-4d, and 3d-4f transitions. The identified Mg XI lines are classified as 1s2s-1s3p, 1s2p-1s3d, 1s2p-1s4d, 1s3p-1s4d, and 1s3d-1s4f.

  3. Spectroscopic study of plasmas produced by a laser equipped with distribution phase plates

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Griem, H.R. ); Cohen, L. ); Knauer, J. )

    1993-07-01

    The spectra emitted by Al and Si laser-produced plasmas were recorded in the region of 18--350 A. The bandlike structures observed near the Al XI and Si XII 2[ital p]--3[ital d] transitions at 52 and 44 A, respectively, are identified as Be-like dielectronic satellite transitions in Al and Si. The plasmas were produced with the Omega laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Typical laser pulse lengths were 650 ps at a laser wavelength of 351 nm, with an intensity of 5--9[times]10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2]. The spherical targets employed in these experiments consisted of solid-glass spheres coated with a 2 [mu]m layer of Al and an outer layer of parylene 0--8 [mu]m thick, illuminated by 24 laser beams equipped with distributed phase plates (DPP's) to improve the uniformity of illumination. The dielectronic transitions associated with the observed bands belong to the transition arrays 1[ital s][sup 2]2[ital pnl]--1[ital s][sup 2]3[ital dnl], where [ital n] is the principal quantum number (greater than 2) and [ital l] is the azimuthal quantum number of the spectator electron. The observation of Be-like dielectronic transitions suggests that this emission occurs from a lower temperature ([ital T][sub [ital e

  4. Plasma characteristics of argon glow discharge produced by AC power supply operating at low frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kongpiboolkid, Watcharapon; Mongkolnavin, Rattachat

    2015-04-24

    Non-thermal properties of Argon glow discharge operating with various operating pressures were measured and presented in this work. The Argon plasma is produced by a parallel conducting electrodes coupling with a high voltage AC power supply. The power supply can generate high AC voltage at various frequencies. The frequencies for the operation are in the range of a few kHz. The system is capable of generating electric field between the two metal electrodes discharge system. The characteristics of plasma produced were measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique where electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (n{sub e}) can be determined by line intensity ratio method. The value of electron number density was then determined from the Saha-Eggert equation. Our results show that the electron number density of the discharge obtained is of the order of 10{sup ?17} ? 10{sup ?18} m{sup ?3} where the electron temperature is between 1.00?2.00 eV for various operating frequencies used which are in good agreement with similar results published earlier.

  5. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-01

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10-6 Torr to 102 Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d9(2D) 4p ? 3d9(2D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p63d8(3P) 4s? 3p63d9 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  6. Diamond-like carbon produced by plasma source ion implantation as a corrosion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Taylor, T.N.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    There currently exists a broad range of applications for which the ability to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications include engine components, orthopedic devices, textile manufacturing components, hard disk media, optical coatings, and cutting and machining tools (e.g., punches, taps, scoring dies, and extrusion dies). Ion beam processing can play an important role in all of these technologies. Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional ion implantation by: (1) reducing the time and expense for implanting onto complex shapes and large areas and (2) extending the thickness of the modification zone through ion beam enhanced plasma growth of surface coatings. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma source and then pulse biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for complex-shaped targets without complex fixturing. If the pulse bias is a relatively high negative potential (20 to 100 kV) ion implantation will result. If however, a low voltage (50--1,200 eV) high duty cycle pulse bias is applied, film deposition from the chamber gas will result, thereby increasing the extent of the surface modification into the 1--10 micron regime. To evaluate the potential for DLC to be used as a corrosion barrier, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and traditional electrochemistry techniques were used to investigate the breakdown mechanism in chloride and nonchloride containing environments. The effect of surface preparation on coating breakdown was also evaluated.

  7. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-07

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10??Torr to 10²Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d?(²D) 4p ? 3d?(²D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p?3d?(³P) 4s? 3p?3d? 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  8. A Langmuir Probe Diagnostic for Use in Inhomogeneous, Time-Varying Plasmas Produced by High-Energy Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J R; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B; Jenkins, P P; Trautz, K M; Seiler, S W; Davis, J F

    2012-05-01

    Langmuir probes (LP) are used extensively to characterize plasma environments produced by radio frequency, pulsed plasma thrusters, and laser ablation. We discuss here the development of a LP diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/{micro}s, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  9. Optimization of laser-produced plasmas for nanolithography and materials detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Justin R.

    In this work, laser-matter interactions and resultant plasma emission using traditional short pulsed lasers are studied in the context of semiconductor lithography and material sensing applications. Ultrafast laser ablation and plasma emission results are then compared to those using traditional short pulsed lasers. Then fundamental laser-matter interactions and ablation processes of ultrafast lasers are investigated. This work focuses on laser-produced plasma (LPP) light sources at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The out-of-band (OoB) light emission as well as ionic and atomic debris from the plasma source, which are capable of damaging collection optics, have been studied as a function of incident laser wavelength to characterize the angular distributions of debris and identify the differences in debris from longer and shorter laser excitation wavelengths. By applying a prepulse to create improved laser-target coupling conditions, conversion efficiency (CE) from laser energy to 13.5 nm light emission from the plasma source can be improved by 30% or higher. Energetic ions escaping from the plasma can cause significant damage to light collection optics, greatly reducing their lifetimes, but by implementing a prepulse, it has been shown that most-probable ion energies can be reduced significantly, minimizing damage caused to collection optics. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique used to identify the elemental constituents of unknown samples by studying the optical light spectra emitted from a LPP. Despite advantages such as in situ capabilities and near-instant results, detection limits of LIBS systems are not as competitive as other laboratory-based systems. To overcome such limitations, a double pulse (DP) LIBS system is arranged using a long-wavelength laser for the second pulse and heating of the plume created by the first pulse. Detector gating parameters were optimized and different first-pulse laser energies were investigated to study improvements with increasing mass ablation. The long-wavelength laser does not increase mass ablation in DP-LIBS and through optimization, it is found that maximum enhancements are observed for cases of smallest mass ablation; an important consideration for analysis of delicate samples. For bulk element analysis, enhancements of 14 and 10 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, are seen, and for trace element analysis, enhancements of 7 and 3 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, are seen. Due to extremely short pulse durations, the ablation mechanisms for ultrafast lasers are not fully understood, meaning their implementation in existing and novel laser applications are hindered. The differences in visible emission dynamics from nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) laser ablation (LA) plumes are reported and the effects that vacuum and ambient pressure environments play on plasma plume expansion dynamics. Lastly, a fundamental study of ultrafast laser ablation is performed to better understand ablation mechanisms and resultant plasma plume properties. Under ns laser ablation, ion time of flight analysis typically shows a single-peak profile, however, under fs laser ablation a double-peak profile is observed and the source of the faster peak is heavily disputed. To better understand the nature of the fast peak, ion time of flight profiles are investigated for several high-purity metals under ns and fs laser irradiation. Ion peak velocities are compared to material thermal properties to confirm the thermal nature of the slower peak observed under fs laser ablation and its correlation to the ns laser ablation results. The faster ion peak from fs laser ablation does not show any relation to thermal properties and in fact shows similar velocity for all elements investigated, despite widely varying atomic mass. The results combine to confirm the non-thermal nature of the fast ion peak observed under ultrafast laser ablation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-15

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  11. Initial speed of knots in the plasma tail of C/2013 R1(Lovejoy)

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Furusho, Reiko; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Koda, Jin; Fujiwara, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    We report short-time variations in the plasma tail of C/2013 R1(Lovejoy). A series of short (2–3 minutes) exposure images with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope shows faint details of filaments and their motions over a 24 minute observing duration. We identified rapid movements of two knots in the plasma tail near the nucleus (?3×10{sup 5} km). Their speeds are 20 and 25 km s{sup ?1} along the tail and 3.8 and 2.2 km s{sup ?1} across it, respectively. These measurements set a constraint on an acceleration model of plasma tail and knots as they set the initial speed just after their formation. We also found a rapid narrowing of the tail. After correcting the motion along the tail, the narrowing speed is estimated to be ?8 km s{sup ?1}. These rapid motions suggest the need for high time-resolution studies of comet plasma tails with a large telescope.

  12. Physical and chemical properties of dust produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} RF plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ouni, F.; Alcouffe, G.; Szopa, C.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Adande, G.; Thissen, R.; Quirico, E.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Laprevote, O.

    2008-09-07

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} mixture. The produced solid particles are analysed ex-situ. Chemical properties are deduced from: elemental composition, FTIR and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Optical properties are deduced from reflectivity in visible and IR range.

  13. X-ray High-resolution Spectroscopy for Laser-produced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbato, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.; Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.

    The study of the emission spectrum gives information about the material generating the spectrum itself and the condition in which this is generated. The wavelength spectra lines are linked to the specific element and plasma conditions (electron temperature, density), while their shape is influenced by several physical effects like Stark and Doppler ones. In this work we study the X-ray emission spectra of a copper laser-produced plasma by using a spherical bent crystal spectrometer to measure the electron temperature. The facility used is the laser TVLPS, at the Tor Vergata University in Rome. It consists of a Nd:Glass source (in first harmonic - 1064 nm) whose pulse parameters are: 8 J in energy, time duration of 15 ns and a focal spot diameter of 200 ?m. The adopted spectrometer is based on a spherical bent crystal of muscovite. The device combines the focusing property of a spherical mirror with the Bragg's law. This allows to obtain a great power resolution but a limited range of analysis. In our case the resolution is on average 80 eV. As it is well-known, the position of the detector on the Rowland's circle is linked to the specific spectral range which has been studied. To select the area to be investigated, we acquired spectra by means of a flat spectrometer. The selected area is centered on 8.88 Å. To calibrate the spectrum we wrote a ray-tracing MATLAB code, which calculates the detector alignment parameters and calibration curve. We used the method of line ratio to measure the electron temperature. This is possible because we assumed the plasma to be in LTE condition. The temperature value was obtained comparing the experimental one, given by the line ratio, with the theoretical one, preceded by FLYCHK simulations.

  14. Schlieren-cinematographic and holographic diagnostic of a laser-produced plasma in xenon.

    PubMed

    Hugenschmidt, M; Vollrath, K; Hirth, A

    1972-02-01

    We have studied extensively a gas breakdown in xenon produced by a giant pulse ruby laser with a power <100 MW. Detailed information concerning the structure of the laser plasma formation and of the following expansion has been obtained by different optical methods, including schlieren techniques (single frames and ultra high speed cinematography) and holography. The high quality of the holographic pictures was achieved by the use of a monomode laser. With this we were able to visualize the plasma history and to determine the velocities of the boundary layer and of the blast wave with utmost accuracy. Investigations of the electron density and electron temperature showed that a relaxation time of about 10 nsec is necessary to establish local thermodynamic equilibrium states. After this relaxation time it is then possible to carry out thermodynamic calculations, applying the shock-wave theory, to relate the optically measured expansion velocity with the plasma parameters involved. The mean specific internal energy epsilon , for instance, attained values in excess of 10(12) erg/g which decayed rapidly during the first 100 nsec to about 5. 10(10) erg/g. By comparing the results to theoretical calculations of we obtained a first estimate of the temperature, taking into consideration the partial densities n(j) as well as the partition functions Z(j)((i)) of the xenon atoms, the single-charged ions, and the double-charged ones. Furthermore, a two-step iteration computer program was used to give more detailed and more accurate results on the variations of the pressure, temperature, partial densities, and enthalpy as a function of time. PMID:20111505

  15. Laser produced plasma sources for nanolithography—Recent integrated simulation and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-05-15

    Photon sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are still facing challenging problems to achieve high volume manufacturing in the semiconductor industry. The requirements for high EUV power, longer optical system and components lifetime, and efficient mechanisms for target delivery have narrowed investigators towards the development and optimization of dual-pulse laser sources with high repetition rate of small liquid tin droplets and the use of multi-layer mirror optical system for collecting EUV photons. We comprehensively simulated laser-produced plasma sources in full 3D configuration using 10–50 ?m tin droplet targets as single droplets as well as, for the first time, distributed fragmented microdroplets with equivalent mass. The latter is to examine the effects of droplet fragmentation resulting from the first pulse and prior to the incident second main laser pulse. We studied the dependence of target mass and size, laser parameters, and dual pulse system configuration on EUV radiation output and on atomic and ionic debris generation. Our modeling and simulation included all phases of laser target evolution: from laser/droplet interaction, energy deposition, target vaporization, ionization, plasma hydrodynamic expansion, thermal and radiation energy redistribution, and EUV photons collection as well as detail mapping of photons source size and location. We also simulated and predicted the potential damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma thermal and energetic debris and the requirements for mitigating systems to reduce debris fluence. The debris effect on mirror collection system is analyzed using our three-dimensional ITMC-DYN Monte Carlo package. Modeling results were benchmarked against our CMUXE laboratory experimental studies for the EUV photons production and for debris and ions generation.

  16. Structure and properties of commercially pure titanium nitrided in the plasma of a low-pressure gas discharge produced by a PINK plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yu F.; Akhmadeev, Yu H.; Lopatin, I. V.; Petrikova, E. A.; Krysina, V.; Koval, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The paper analyzes the surface structure and properties of commercially pure VT1-0 titanium nitrided in the plasma of a low-pressure gas discharge produced by a PINK plasma generator. The analysis demonstrates that the friction coefficient of the nitrided material decreases more than four times and its wear resistance and microhardness increases more than eight and three times, respectively. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of strength and tribological properties of the material are discussed.

  17. Diagnostics of Zinc-Selenium plasma produced by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Arif, F.

    2015-07-01

    We present the optical emission studies of the Zinc-Selenium (Zn-Se) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of laser beam in air at atmospheric pressure. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral zinc (Zn I) at 249.34, 256.77, 271.24 and 277.09 nm respectively have been used to extract the electron temperature using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density has been determined from the Stark broadening method using the neutral zinc (Zn I) line at 481.05 nm. The electron temperature is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of number density as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface. It is observed that electron temperature and electron number density increases as laser energy is increased.

  18. Simulation of particle velocity in a laser-produced tin plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Araghy, Homaira Parchamy; Endo, Akira

    2011-06-15

    In connection with fast heating in a laser produced plasma (LPP) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the superheating behavior of bulk tin (Sn) at high heating rates is investigated. A constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics simulation using modified Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials suitable for studying the liquid structure of Sn is employed in order to derive the caloric curves of the solid and liquid phases. The results have shown transient effects on the phase transitions. Superheating is observed during the melting and vaporizing processes. The velocity distribution of Sn particles against typical laser fluence in a LPP EUV light source has been numerically investigated using a simplified method including a one-dimensional, two-temperature, molecular dynamics, and steady-state ionization model. In the framework of our model, it was found that ejected Sn particles have a maximum velocity on the order of 10 to 40 km/s in plasma created using a nanosecond pre-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.06 {mu}m) laser in EUV lithography experiments.

  19. Using a Z-pinch precursor plasma to produce a cylindrical, hotspot ignition, ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, Jeremy

    2005-10-01

    We show that if the same precursor plasma that exists in metal wire arrays can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then this precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The precursor is generated from a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the ?R required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057.

  20. Kinetics of ion and prompt electron emission from laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.; Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian ; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Ding, H.

    2013-07-15

    We investigated ion emission dynamics of laser-produced plasma from several elements, comprised of metals and non-metals (C, Al, Si, Cu, Mo, Ta, W), under vacuum conditions using a Faraday cup. The estimated ion flux for various targets studied showed a decreasing tendency with increasing atomic mass. For metals, the ion flux is found to be a function of sublimation energy. A comparison of temporal ion profiles of various materials showed only high-Z elements exhibited multiple structures in the ion time of flight profile indicated by the observation of higher peak kinetic energies, which were absent for low-Z element targets. The slower ions were seen regardless of the atomic number of target material propagated with a kinetic energy of 1–5 keV, while the fast ions observed in high-Z materials possessed significantly higher energies. A systematic study of plasma properties employing fast photography, time, and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and electron analysis showed that there existed different mechanisms for generating ions in laser ablation plumes. The origin of high kinetic energy ions is related to prompt electron emission from high-Z targets.

  1. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A; May, M J; Purvis, M A; Scott, H A; Schneider, M B

    2012-05-02

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  2. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Kanngießer, Birgit; Witte, Katharina; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  3. Calibration of a Flat Field Soft X-ray Grating Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Brown, G V; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Beiersdorfer, P; Cone, K V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Magee, E; May, M J; Porter, F S

    2010-05-12

    We have calibrated the x ray response of a variable line spaced grating spectrometer, known as the VSG, at the Fusion and Astrophysics Data and Diagnostic Calibration Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The VSG has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasmas, such as those created at the Jupiter Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility at LLNL, and at both the Omega and Omega EP lasers at University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The bandwidth of the VSG spans the range from {approx} 6 to 60 {angstrom}. The calibration results present here include the VSG's dispersion and quantum efficiency. The dispersion is determined by measuring the x rays emitted from hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and aluminum. The quantum efficiency is calibrated to an accuracy of 30% or better by normalizing the x ray intensities recorded by the VSG to those simultaneously recorded by an x ray microcalorimeter spectrometer.

  4. Extreme ultraviolet light sources and soft x-ray laser based on discharge produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Sakai, Yusuke; Hayashi, Yasushi; Niimi, Gohta; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Qiushi; Song, Inho; Watanabe, Masato

    2015-07-01

    Due to the demand to realize shorter wavelength light sources, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources and soft x-ray laser (SXRL) are under development. The development of EUV sources at the wavelength of 13.5 nm started to realize light sources to be used for next generation lithography. Xenon was used at the beginning of development, however, to attain higher conversion efficiency, tin is now used as fuel. As a coherent light source, capillary discharge SXRL is under development. After the demonstration of Ne-like Ar SXRL by using electron collisional excitation scheme, the effort to shorten the wavelength has been made by adopting recombination scheme such as H-like N. Though the challenge has not yet been successful, the source has potential to be used as a SXR source in the water window wavelength region. Current status of EUV and SXR sources based on discharge produced plasma will be given.

  5. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  6. Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas

    DOEpatents

    Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie (Reno, NV); Cowan, Thomas E. (Reno, NV); Sentoku, Yasuhiko (Reno, NV); Rassuchine, Jennifer (Reno, NV)

    2009-06-30

    In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.

  7. Ultrafine grained high density manganese zinc ferrite produced using polyol process assisted by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudisson, T.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Valenzuela, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report the synthesis of Mn-Zn ferrite (MZFO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the polyol process and their consolidation by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique at relatively low temperature and short time, namely 500 °C for 10 min. NPs were obtained as perfectly epitaxied aggregated nanoclusters forming a kind of spherical pseudo-single-crystals of about 40 nm in size. The results on NPs consolidation by SPS underlined the importance of this clustering on the grain growth mechanism. Grain growth proceeds by coalescing nanocrystalline aggregates into single grain of almost the same average size, thus leading to a high density ceramic. Due to magnetic exchange interactions between grains, the produced ceramic does not exhibit thermal relaxation whereas their precursor polyol-made NPs are superparamagnetic.

  8. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-B magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tetsuji Akiyama, Tomoya

    2014-05-07

    Magnets of Co-Zr-B, one of the permanent magnetic compounds without rare-earth elements, were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering method. The resultant Co-Zr-B magnets had high densities of 92%–96% and consisted mainly of the Co{sub x}Zr (x ? 5) phase. The coercivity of the Co-Zr-B magnets was highly dependent on the consolidation temperature and the boron content. The highest maximum energy product of 6.0 MGOe, with a remanence of 6.4 kG and the coercivity of 4.0 kOe, was achieved by the Co{sub 80}Zr{sub 18}B{sub 2} magnets consolidated at 873?K.

  9. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  12. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment of...

  14. Structure formation, tearing and merging of relativistic electron beam propagating through a laser produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, T.; Antonsen, T. M.; Liu, C. S.; Mima, K.; Sentoku, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Sakagami, H.

    2002-04-01

    Hot electron transport in a high density plasmas has been studied using a two dimensional hybrid code. The results show that the initially cylindrical solid beam evolves into a hollow, annular beam due to the Weibel instability and generates strong magnetic fields on both sides of the annular ring. The annular structure subsequently breaks up into several beamlets due to a mechanism similar to a tearing instability. It is found that the magnetic fields parallel to the direction of beam propagation also grow during the tearing process. These beamlets are attract each other and finally they merged into a single beam which carries a net electric current. The tearing and merging processes have also been analyzed by the hybrid code for a uniform initial condition to determine an asymptotic behaviors of the total number of hot electron beams. We also have performed a three dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation to compare with the results of 2D hybrid code. It shows that the spatial variation of cold electron density is much more uniform than that obtained by 2D code. .

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Electromagnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario J.-E.

    Spontaneous electromagnetic fields can be important to the dynamic evolution of a plasma by directing heat flow as well as providing additional pressures on the conducting fluids through the Lorentz force. Electromagnetic fields are predicted to affect fluid behavior during the core-collapse of supernovae through generation of fields due to hydrodynamic instabilities. In the coronae of stars, self-generated magnetic fields lead to filamentary structure in the hot plasma. Recent experiments by Gregori et al. investigated sources of protogalactic magnetic fields generated by laser-produced shock waves. In inertial confinement fusion experiments, self-generated electromagnetic fields can also play a role and have recently become of great interest to the community. Present day laser facilities provide a unique opportunity to study spontaneous field-generation in these extreme environments under controlled conditions. Instability-induced electromagnetic fields were investigated using a novel monoenergetic-proton radiography system. Fusion protons generated by an 'exploding-pusher' implosion were used to probe laser-irradiated plastic foils with various preimposed surface perturbations. Imaging protons are sensitive to electromagnetic fields and density modulations in the plasma through the Lorentz force and Coulomb collisions, respectively. Corresponding x-ray radiographs of these targets provided mass density distributions and Coulomb effects on protons were assessed using a Monte Carlo code written using the Geant4 framework. Proton fluence distributions were recorded on CR-39 detectors and Fourier analyzed to infer path-integrated field strengths. Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth of preimposed surface perturbations generated magnetic fields by the RT-induced Biermann battery and were measured for the first time. Good data were obtained during linear growth and when compared to ideal calculations, demonstrated that field diffusion near the source played an important role. At later times in the plasma evolution, 3-D cellular structures were observed for all foil types. These features were found to be analogous to previously observed filamentary field structures by Seguin et al. in laser-driven spherical targets. Face-on images of these field structures provided good data to quantitatively analyze the size of these features, not previously attainable due to the complexity of the 3-D spherical data. Work presented here demonstrates that these field structures are likely caused by the magnetothermal instability in the underdense corona. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  16. The Ulysses solar wind plasma investigation: Description and initial in-ecliptic results

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, S. J.; Phillips, J. L.; McComas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    During the in-ecliptic flight of Ulysses from the Earth toward its encounter with Jupiter, the Los Alamos solar wind plasma experiment has performed well. Briefly described, the instrumentation contains two independent electrostatic analyzers, one for ions and one for electrons. Initial analysis of solar wind electron core temperatures obtained between 1.15 and 3.76 AU yields a gradient of T {proportional to} R{sup {minus}0.7} which is flatter than expected for adiabatic expansion of a single-temperature Maxwellian velocity distribution and steeper than that obtained from Mariner-Voyager.

  17. Laser Produced Plasmas as a Source of Ions, Protons and X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanuik, Robert

    The work presented in this thesis is primarily focused on the use of a laser produced plasma as a source of protons, ions and X-rays. It explores high impact applications of both high power ultrafast lasers and nanosecond lasers. Section 1 gives a general introduction to the physics governing the experiments and the lasers in the following sections. Section 2 describes all the laser systems used in this thesis. Section 3 is covers two different experiments involving the generation of X-rays from a laser produced plasma. Section 4 describes a laser accelerated proton experiment conducted in the Center for Plasma Research in Queens University Belfast, using the TARANIS laser system. In this experiment 13 MeV protons were accelerated from10 ?m gold foil targets into a sample of BK-7 glass. The interaction of the protons with the glass were observed by taking spatially resolved images of the transient opacity induced by the protons interacting with the BK-7 Glass and an optical probe beam. These spatially resolved images are presented in Section 4.3. Section 5 describes the refurbishment of the 1-m normal incidence VUV spectrometer. It describes the replacement of a photographic plate based detection system with a linear CCD array. The CCD array can detect the VUV radiation through a sodium salicylate phosphor coating which emits at 410 nm on interacting with VUV radiation. Different phosphors are compared in terms of sensitivity and ease of coating and the grounds for choosing sodium salicylate are explained. The adaptations to the spectrometer to use the linear CCD array are described and the details on calibrating the spectrometer are explained. Finally, Section 6 describes a set of spectroscopic experiments which use the refurbished 1-m normal incidence spectrometer. First Section 6.2 describes a repeat of the photoabsorption of indium and indium plus which was conducted previously on the spectrometer. This was designed as a proof of principle of the working of the new phosphor based linear CCD array system. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M.; Uyar, A.; Correia, E.; Díez, C.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A.; Caamaño, J. N.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Trigal, B.; Humblot, P.; Ponsart, C.; Guyader-Joly, C.; Carrocera, S.; Martin, D.; Marquant Le Guienne, B.; Seli, E.; Gomez, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate = 52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80 ± 0.053; plasma: 0.89 ± 0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607 ± 0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672 ± 0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  19. Increased Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1997-07-08

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  20. Increasing Stabilized Performance Of Amorphous Silicon Based Devices Produced By Highly Hydrogen Diluted Lower Temperature Plasma Deposition.

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yaun-Min (Langhorne, PA); Bennett, Murray S. (Langhorne, PA); Yang, Liyou (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1999-08-24

    High quality, stable photovoltaic and electronic amorphous silicon devices which effectively resist light-induced degradation and current-induced degradation, are produced by a special plasma deposition process. Powerful, efficient single and multi-junction solar cells with high open circuit voltages and fill factors and with wider bandgaps, can be economically fabricated by the special plasma deposition process. The preferred process includes relatively low temperature, high pressure, glow discharge of silane in the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen gas.

  1. Time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas originating at the parylene layer of microballon targets

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, H.R.; Moreno, J.

    1991-03-01

    In experiments this past year at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics we obtained time-integrated and time-resolved spectra from the ultraviolet to the x-ray region. We have investigated various phenomena in laser-produced plasmas including spectral line broadening, plasma expansion velocities, ionization and recombination of low-Z materials in spherical targets, and the formation of satellites near some resonance lines. In addition we have improved our spectroscopic instrumentation.

  2. Initial stages of few-layer graphene growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Vitchev, Roumen; Malesevic, Alexander; Petrov, Roumen H; Kemps, Raymond; Mertens, Myrjam; Vanhulsel, Annick; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2010-03-01

    A promising method for the production of few-layer graphene (FLG) is microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MW PECVD). However, the growth mechanism of PECVD-synthesized FLG is not completely understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the initial stages of the growth process of FLG deposited by MW PECVD on several substrates (quartz, silicon, platinum). The deposited thin films were characterized by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the initial stages of the deposition were different for the three chosen substrate materials. However, the fully grown FLG layers were similar for all substrates. PMID:20110582

  3. Initial stages of few-layer graphene growth by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitchev, Roumen; Malesevic, Alexander; Petrov, Roumen H.; Kemps, Raymond; Mertens, Myrjam; Vanhulsel, Annick; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2010-03-01

    A promising method for the production of few-layer graphene (FLG) is microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MW PECVD). However, the growth mechanism of PECVD-synthesized FLG is not completely understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the initial stages of the growth process of FLG deposited by MW PECVD on several substrates (quartz, silicon, platinum). The deposited thin films were characterized by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the initial stages of the deposition were different for the three chosen substrate materials. However, the fully grown FLG layers were similar for all substrates.

  4. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.31 - Initial nomination and appointment of producer members and alternates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order The Hass Avocado Board § 1219.31 Initial nomination and appointment...

  9. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 ?s. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  10. Study of Ozone-Initiated Limonene Reaction Products by Low Temperature Plasma Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørgaard, Asger W.; Vibenholt, Anni; Benassi, Mario; Clausen, Per Axel; Wolkoff, Peder

    2013-07-01

    Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products were investigated in situ by low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry. Helium was used as discharge gas and the protruding plasma generated ~850 ppb ozone in front of the glass tube by reaction with the ambient oxygen. Limonene applied to filter paper was placed in front of the LTP afterglow and the MS inlet. Instantly, a wide range of reaction products appeared, ranging from m/ z 139 to ca. 1000 in the positive mode and m/ z 115 to ca. 600 in the negative mode. Key monomeric oxidation products including levulinic acid, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene, limonene oxide, 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal, and the secondary ozonide of limonene could be identified by collision-induced dissociation. Oligomeric products ranged from the nonoxidized dimer of limonene (C20H30) and up to the hexamer with 10 oxygen atoms (C60H90O10). The use of LTP for in situ ozonolysis and ionization represents a new and versatile approach for the assessment of ozone-initiated terpene chemistry.

  11. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (? = 263 nm, ?t = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 ?m along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  12. Development of a collective Thomson scattering system for laser-produced tin plasmas for extreme-ultraviolet light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Kentaro; Sato, Yuta; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Wada, Yasunori; Kunishima, Masahito; Kodama, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) of laser-produced Sn plasmas for extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light sources have been obtained using a new collective Thomson scattering system, which has been optimized for the measurement of the ion feature spectrum. The system has an 18 pm spectral resolution, a 5 ns temporal resolution, a 50 µm spatial resolution, and sufficient stray-light rejection near the probing laser wavelength. With this system, measurements of the laser-produced Sn plasmas in the parameter ranges of 3 × 1023 < ne < 1025 m?3 and 10 < Te < 20 eV have been performed.

  13. Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    E-print Network

    to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows by a typical Z pinch. Ideal MHD theory 3 , which ignores plasma resistivity, predicts that the only unstable

  14. Study of ultra-intense laser produced plasmas via computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrisman, Brian R.

    Recent advances in the development of intense short pulse lasers have led to exciting progress in high energy density physics (HEDP). As an example, a several mum thin foil that is irradiated by a 100 TW, sub-picosecond laser pulse reaches keV (1 keV ˜ 11,000,000 C) temperatures at solid density. The resultant electron distribution is temporarily far out of equilibrium, featuring two or more widely distinct temperatures. In modeling such extreme plasmas, both kinetic and collisional effects on the energy transport are essential. Of particular difficulty are the large density gradients between the critical density (the density at which the laser is absorbed), and solid densities exceeding several hundred times the critical density. For a 1 mum wavelength laser pulse, the critical density, nc, is 1021 cm --3. This means that a numerical model needs to describe the laser-plasma interaction in the low density region, as well as fast particle transport in the extremely dense target region where Coulomb collision processes are important for energy transfer. In cone-guided fast ignition inertial confinement fusion experiments, fuel previously compressed by an ablative implosion is ignited by the injection of an intense short laser pulse via a cone embedded within the fuel target. The implosion precondition creates density scales which range over five orders of magnitude from the cone interior to the highly compressed core. A critical issue for this process is whether the hot electrons produced in the interaction are in an energy range conducive to efficient heating of the core. In this work, Particle-in-Cell simulations evaluate the entire cone-guided fast ignition experiment for the first time, including hot electron generation at the cone tip, energy transport to the compressed fuel core, and subsequent collisional core heating. The laser-plasma interaction within the cone target is particularly important, as temperatures of hot electrons generated here are found to be lower than previously expected while overall absorption is influenced by non-linear electrodynamic processes.

  15. Investigation on recovery of gap insulation strength and EUV radiation in the post-discharge stage of a laser-triggered discharge produced tin plasma EUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Kitajima, S.; Lim, S.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.; Teramoto, Y.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the recovery of gap insulation strength and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the post-discharge stage of a laser-triggered discharge produced tin plasma (LTDPP) EUV source. Gap insulation strength recovers more quickly under a shorter gap length. The gap breakdown voltage recovered to 19.4?kV with a breakdown probability of 25% at 80?µs after an 8?J discharge under a 2.5?mm gap. The same discharge energy under a 5?mm gap required 140?µs for equal recovery. The EUV radiation recovery process was measured utilizing a double laser triggered discharge system. EUV radiation recovery lagged behind the gap insulation strength recovery for both the 2.5 and 5?mm gap. In the case of the 8?J input pulse energy, EUV radiation recovered to the same level as the first EUV pulse at about 600 and 160?µs for the 5 and 2.5?mm gaps, corresponding to a 1.67?kHz and 6.25?kHz repetition rate, respectively. In the case of the 2.5?mm gap and 4?J input pulse energy, our EUV source could work with a repetition rate of upto 23?kHz, enabling the EUV output to reach 345?W/2?sr which was 4.5 times as the value of the 5?mm gap and 8?J input energy. To discuss the slower EUV radiation process, the initial laser trigger phase and plasma pinch stage during the first and second laser-triggered discharge were visualized by means of high speed visible light imaging and laser Schlieren imaging. Comparative results suggest that tin droplets influenced the initial laser-produced plasma plume, consequently affecting the Z-pinch plasma dynamics and its EUV radiation which resulted in the delayed EUV recovery process.

  16. Theory and three-dimensional simulation of light filamentation in laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.L.; Lasinski, B.F.; Kaiser, T.B.; Williams, E.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Cohen, B.I. )

    1993-07-01

    A desire to interpret recent experiments on filamentation with and without beam-smoothing techniques led to the development of a three-dimensional fluid model that includes the effects of nonlocal electron transport and kinetic ion damping of the acoustic waves. The damping of the electron-temperature perturbations that drive thermal filamentation by nonlocal electron conduction, valid in the diffusive limit, is supplemented in the present model by electron Landau damping in the collisionless limit when the wavelength of the perturbation is much less than the electron--ion scattering mean-free path. In this collisionless limit, Landau damping of the temperature'' fluctuations makes ponderomotive forces universally more important than thermal forces. Simulations in plasmas of current interest illustrate the relative importance of thermal and ponderomotive forces for strongly modulated laser beams. Although thermal forces may initiate filamentation, the most intense filaments are associated with ponderomotive forces. The present simulations of filamentation model well the density perturbations observed in experiments [Young [ital et] [ital al]., Phys. Rev. Lett. [bold 61], 2336 (1988)]. In addition, a simple criterion is obtained analytically and supported by simulations for stabilization of filamentation by laser beam-smoothing techniques such as induced spatial incoherence and random phase plates [Eq. (1)].

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by a combination of suspension plasma spray and very low pressure plasma spray.

    SciTech Connect

    Slamovich, Elliot; Fleetwood, James; McCloskey, James F.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Trice, Rodney Wayne

    2010-07-01

    Plasma spray coating techniques allow unique control of electrolyte microstructures and properties as well as facilitating deposition on complex surfaces. This can enable significantly improved solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), including non-planar designs. SOFCs are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. However, electrolytes deposited using conventional plasma spray are porous and often greater than 50 microns thick. One solution to form dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs is to combine suspension plasma spray (SPS) with very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS). Increased compositional control is achieved due to dissolved dopant compounds in the suspension that are incorporated into the coating during plasma spraying. Thus, it is possible to change the chemistry of the feed stock during deposition. In the work reported, suspensions of sub-micron diameter 8 mol.% Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) powders were sprayed on NiO-YSZ anodes at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Thermal Spray Research Laboratory (TSRL). These coatings were compared to the same suspensions doped with scandium nitrate at 3 to 8 mol%. The pressure in the chamber was 2.4 torr and the plasma was formed from a combination of argon and hydrogen gases. The resultant electrolytes were well adhered to the anode substrates and were approximately 10 microns thick. The microstructure of the resultant electrolytes will be reported as well as the electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system via potentiodynamic testing and impedance spectroscopy.

  18. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 < n < nc/4) of the plasma is essential to understanding the LPI observation. However, numerical simulation was the only way to access the profiles for the previous experiments. In the current Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (?= 263 nm, ?t = 10 psec) beamlets (50?m spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  19. Rapid, Absolute Calibration of X-ray Filters Employed By Laser-Produced Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Emig, J; Frankel, M; Gu, M F; Heeter, R F; Magee, E; Thorn, D B; Widmann, K; . Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S

    2008-05-11

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of X-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen X-ray energies. X-rays are detected using the high-resolution EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. X-ray filter transmission efficiency is determined by dividing the X-ray counts detected when the filter is in the line of sight by those detected when out of the line of sight. Verification of filter thickness can be completed in only a few hours, and absolute efficiencies can be calibrated in a single day over a broad range from about 0.1 to 15 keV. The EBIT calibration lab has been used to field diagnostics (e.g., the OZSPEC instrument) with fully calibrated X-ray filters at the OMEGA laser. Extensions to use the capability for calibrating filter transmission for the DANTE instrument on the National Ignition Facility are discussed.

  20. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-10-15

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10{sup 14} to 1.8 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

  1. Pump-probe imaging of nanosecond laser-induced bubbles in distilled water solutions: Observations of laser-produced-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Camacho-Lopez, S.

    2010-11-15

    This article presents the analysis of the laser-produced-plasma (LPP) formed by the focusing of a 9 ns laser pulse, {lambda}=532 nm, with a NA=0.6 aspherical lens using energies between 100-1500 {mu}J, into distilled water with varying solutions of table salt. Observations of the filamentation plasma were made, which are explained by self-focusing of the laser pulse by the LPP through ponderomotive cavitation of the electron plasma in the center of the beam. The filamentation of the beam through a low density plasma wave guide explains why the transmission of the pump laser through the interaction region was notably higher on previous experiments that we performed [R. Evans et al., Opt. Express 16, 7481 (2008)], than a very similar set of experiments performed by Noack and Vogel [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999)].

  2. Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Wang, To-Mai; Lee, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Kin-Seng; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2010-10-15

    This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat municipal solid waste incinerator ashes. A feasible fiberization method was developed and applied to produce man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) from plasma vitrified slag. MMVF were obtained through directly blending the oxide melt stream with high velocity compressed air. The basic technological characteristics of MMVF, including morphology, diameter, shot content, length and chemical resistance, are described in this work. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the fiber-reinforced concrete. The effects of fibrous content on compressive strength and flexural strength are presented. The experimental results showed the proper additive of MMVF in concrete can enhance its mechanical properties. MMVF products produced from incinerator ashes treated with the thermal plasma technique have great potential for reinforcement in concrete. PMID:20580155

  3. Laser wavelength effects on the charge state resolved ion energy distributions from laser-produced Sn plasma

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    Laser wavelength effects on the charge state resolved ion energy distributions from laser of laser wavelength on the charge state resolved ion energy distributions from laser-produced Sn plasma freely expanding into vacuum are investigated. Planar Sn targets are irradiated at laser wavelengths

  4. Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers

    E-print Network

    Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers B. Ne´meta,*, K. Musiolb , I. Sa´ntaa , J. Zachorowskib a Institute of Physics, Janus Pannonius form 20 January 1999; accepted 20 January 1999 Abstract Optical emission studies of the C2 molecule

  5. Demonstration of resistive inhibition of fast electrons from laser-produced plasmas in low-density gold targets

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, D.J.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1980-07-28

    A numerical model is used to show that the range of suprathermal electrons from laser produced plasmas can be significantly reduced by the electric field needed to drive a return current of cold electrons. Direct experimental evidence of a reduction of preheat by at least a factor of 3 is presented for targets containing a low-density gold layer.

  6. Charged-particle acceleration and energy loss in laser-produced plasmas D. G. Hicks,a)

    E-print Network

    Charged-particle acceleration and energy loss in laser-produced plasmas D. G. Hicks,a) C. K. Li, F, particle energy shifts were dominated by acceleration effects. Using a simple model for the accelerating T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 1997 . Comparing the energy shifts of four particle types

  7. Effects of initially energetic electrons on relativistic laser-driven electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdanpanah, J. Anvari, A.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, using kinetic calculations and accurate 1D2V particle-in-cell simulations, we point out the important role of initially energetic electrons of the distribution tail in the behavior of high amplitude electron plasma waves (EPWs). In the presence of these electrons, the conventional warm fluid theory (WFT) breaks at very high wave amplitudes that are still noticeably lower than the wave breaking amplitude (WBA). The fluid breakdown results in electron super-heating with respect to the adiabatic laws. Indeed, a new kinetic regime of the relativistic EPWs appears below the WBA. It is argued that the mentioned super-heating results in WBA values lower than the corresponding WFT prediction.

  8. Experimental study of the behavior of two laser produced plasmas in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zefeng; Wei, Wenfu; Han, Jiaxun; Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli

    2015-07-01

    The interactions among two laser ablated Al plasmas and their shock wave fronts (SWFs) induced by double laser pulses in air were studied experimentally. The evolution processes, including the expansion and interaction of the two plasmas and their shocks, were investigated by laser shadowgraphs, schlieren images, and interferograms. Remarkably, the distribution of the compressed air and the laser plasmas during the colliding process was clearly obtained using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From the refractive index profiles, typical plasmas density and gas density behind the shock front were estimated as ˜5.2 × 1018 cm-3 and ˜2.4 × 1020 cm-3. A stagnation layer formed by the collision of gas behind the shock front is observed. The SWFs propagated, collided, and reflected with a higher velocity than plasmas. The results indicated that the slower plasma collided at middle, leading to the formation of the soft stagnation.

  9. Investigation of plasmas produced by laser ablation using single and double pulses for food analysis demonstrated by probing potato skins.

    PubMed

    Beldjilali, S; Yip, W L; Hermann, J; Baba-Hamed, T; Belasri, A

    2011-06-01

    We report on investigations of plasmas produced by laser ablation of fresh potatoes using infrared nanosecond laser radiation. A twin laser system consisting of two Nd:YAG oscillators was used to generate single or double pulses of adjustable interpulse delay. The potatoes were irradiated under ambient air with moderate pulse energies of about 10 mJ. The expansion dynamics of the ablation plume was characterized using fast imaging with a gated camera. In addition, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy was applied to study the spectral line emission of the various plasma species. The electron density was deduced from Stark broadening, and the plasma temperature was inferred from the relative emission intensities of spectral lines. The relative concentrations of metals were estimated from the comparison of the measured emission spectra to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. It is shown that the plasma produced by double pulses has a larger volume and a lower density. These properties lead to an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2 and thus to an improved measurement sensitivity. PMID:21461618

  10. Experiments on a laser-produced plasma cross-field motion for simulation of interaction between CRRES releases and geoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, Yu.P.; Wolowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    A new class of simulation experiments with laser-produced plasmas is discussed with reference to recent results of CRRES-mission investigations. For better understanding of a low-Ma interaction processes of ionospheric and magnetospheric Barium releases with a surrounding magnetized geoplasma, simulation experiments are proposed at high-intensity magnetic fields and with the presence of a low-density partially ionized background. Such experiments have become possible owing to successful simulations of the AMPTE-release and preliminary studies of cross-field plasma motion performed at the KI-1 facility in Novosibirsk, as well as due to extension of the possibilities of high-intensity magnetic field--laser-produced plasma interaction experiments in Warsaw. In particular, the authors hope to achieve the value of the main similarity criterion of the problem of the ion magnetization parameter, in common simulation experiments. In such conditions, it is very interesting to simulate the development of high-mode ({ge} 50) flute instabilities as well as propagation of plasma blobs across the field at the distance > Rh. In simulation of an ionospheric release, the main goal is to study the background plasma influence on such propagation, its acceleration by Ba cloud, and finally, recently revealed development of Langmuir and ion-cyclotron wave activities in the last processes. The authors present some discussion on the physics of the above mentioned interaction processes (for performing simulation experiments with adequate similarity criteria) as well as the parameters of such experiments and methods for their accomplishment.

  11. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  12. Development of a Laser-Produced Plasma X-ray source for Phase-Contrast Radiography of DT Ice layers

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Landen, O L; Koch, J A

    2008-07-21

    Refraction enhanced x-ray phase contrast imaging is crucial for characterization of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer roughness in optically opaque inertial confinement fusion capsules. To observe the time development of DT ice roughness over {approx} second timescales, we need a bright x-ray source that can produce an image faster than the evolution of the ice surface roughness. A laser produced plasma x-ray source is one of the candidates that can meet this requirement. We performed experiments at the Janus laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and assessed the characteristics of the laser produced plasma x-ray source as a potential backlight for in situ target characterization.

  13. Initial experimental results from a laboratory size beam plasma discharge device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, A.; Bernstein, W.; Bulgher, D. L.; Garrity, J. O.; Winkler, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory beam plasma discharge (BPD) device produced BPD in N2, A, and He. All features of the BPD observed in the device agree with those observed in a large vacuum chamber. The empirical ignition criteria determined in the large chamber apply in the small device but do not fit when used for extrapolation between the large and the small geometry. At some energies and magnetic fields beam currents exist for which the total light output in the BPD state varies by a factor of 2 with a factor of 6 pressure variation. Above 0.0001 torr the BPD width is pressure independent but for lower pressures it expands by as much as a factor of 4 at 0.00002 torr.

  14. Real-time measurement of materials properties at high temperatures by laser produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yong W.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of elemental composition and thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures, as visualized in the context of containerless materials processing in a microgravity environment, presents a variety of unusual requirements owing to the thermal hazards and interferences from electromagnetic control fields. In addition, such information is intended for process control applications and thus the measurements must be real time in nature. A new technique is described which was developed for real time, in-situ determination of the elemental composition of molten metallic alloys such as specialty steel. The technique is based on time-resolved spectroscopy of a laser produced plasma (LPP) plume resulting from the interaction of a giant laser pulse with a material target. The sensitivity and precision were demonstrated to be comparable to, or better than, the conventional methods of analysis which are applicable only to post-mortem specimens sampled from a molten metal pool. The LPP technique can be applied widely to other materials composition analysis applications. The LPP technique is extremely information rich and therefore provides opportunities for extracting other physical properties in addition to the materials composition. The case in point is that it is possible to determine thermophysical properties of the target materials at high temperatures by monitoring generation and transport of acoustic pulses as well as a number of other fluid-dynamic processes triggered by the LPP event. By manipulation of the scaling properties of the laser-matter interaction, many different kinds of flow events, ranging from shock waves to surface waves to flow induced instabilities, can be generated in a controllable manner. Time-resolved detection of these events can lead to such thermophysical quantities as volume and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, specific heat, mass density, and others.

  15. Cold plasma technologies for the inactivation of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research in cold plasma processing at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center is focused on developing this technology into an effective tool to improve the safety of a variety of foods. Cold plasma applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the ...

  16. Cold Plasma Inactivates Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Fresh Produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize recent advances in cold plasma technology at the USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center. Cold plasma generated in a gliding arc was applied to outbreak strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley inoculated on the surfaces of golden delicious apples. ...

  17. Visualizing electromagnetic fields in laser-produced counter-streaming plasma experiments for collisionless shock laboratory astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kugland, N. L.; Ross, J. S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Huntington, C.; Martinez, D.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Park, H.-S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D. H.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M.; Kuranz, C.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Koenig, M.; Pelka, A.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Collisionless shocks are often observed in fast-moving astrophysical plasmas, formed by non-classical viscosity that is believed to originate from collective electromagnetic fields driven by kinetic plasma instabilities. However, the development of small-scale plasma processes into large-scale structures, such as a collisionless shock, is not well understood. It is also unknown to what extent collisionless shocks contain macroscopic fields with a long coherence length. For these reasons, it is valuable to explore collisionless shock formation, including the growth and self-organization of fields, in laboratory plasmas. The experimental results presented here show at a glance with proton imaging how macroscopic fields can emerge from a system of supersonic counter-streaming plasmas produced at the OMEGA EP laser. Interpretation of these results, plans for additional measurements, and the difficulty of achieving truly collisionless conditions are discussed. Future experiments at the National Ignition Facility are expected to create fully formed collisionless shocks in plasmas with no pre-imposed magnetic field.

  18. The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-06-28

    Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from {approx}0.1 mm to {approx}0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of {approx}80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

  19. Propagation of charge-exchange plasma produced by an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Brady, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Under the proper conditions there is an end-effect of a long, cylindrical Langmuir probe which allows a significant increase in collected ion current when the probe is aligned with a flowing plasma. This effect was used to determine the charge-exchange plasma flow direction at various locations relative to the ion thruster. The ion current collected by the probe as a function of its angle with respect to the plasma flow allows determination of the plasma density and plasma flow velocity at the probe's location upstream of the ion thruster optics. The density values obtained from the ion current agreed to within a factor of two of density values obtained by typical voltage-current Langmuir probe characteristics.

  20. Plasma channel produced by femtosecond laser pulses as a medium for amplifying electromagnetic radiation of the subterahertz frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatskaya, A V; Volkova, E A; Popov, A M

    2013-12-31

    The electron energy distribution function in the plasma channel produced by a femtosecond laser pulse with a wavelength of 248 nm in atmospheric-pressure gases was considered. Conditions were determined whereby this channel may be employed for amplifying electromagnetic waves up to the terahertz frequency range over the energy spectrum relaxation time ?10{sup -7} s. Gains were calculated as functions of time and radiation frequency. The effect of electron – electron collisions on the rate of relaxation processes in the plasma and on its ability to amplify the electromagnetic radiation was investigated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  1. Neutropenia-associated ELANE mutations disrupting translation initiation produce novel neutrophil elastase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Tidwell, Timothy; Wechsler, Jeremy; Nayak, Ramesh C.; Trump, Lisa; Salipante, Stephen J.; Cheng, Jerry C.; Donadieu, Jean; Glaubach, Taly; Corey, Seth J.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Lutzko, Carolyn; Cancelas, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neutropenia is usually caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the ELANE gene encoding neutrophil elastase (NE). How mutations cause disease remains uncertain, but two hypotheses have been proposed. In one, ELANE mutations lead to mislocalization of NE. In the other, ELANE mutations disturb protein folding, inducing an unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we describe new types of mutations that disrupt the translational start site. At first glance, they should block translation and are incompatible with either the mislocalization or misfolding hypotheses, which require mutant protein for pathogenicity. We find that start-site mutations, instead, force translation from downstream in-frame initiation codons, yielding amino-terminally truncated isoforms lacking ER-localizing (pre) and zymogen-maintaining (pro) sequences, yet retain essential catalytic residues. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulate hematopoietic and molecular phenotypes. Expression of the amino-terminally deleted isoforms in vitro reduces myeloid cell clonogenic capacity. We define an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within ELANE and demonstrate that adjacent mutations modulate IRES activity, independently of protein-coding sequence alterations. Some ELANE mutations, therefore, appear to cause neutropenia via the production of amino-terminally deleted NE isoforms rather than by altering the coding sequence of the full-length protein. PMID:24184683

  2. Neutropenia-associated ELANE mutations disrupting translation initiation produce novel neutrophil elastase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Timothy; Wechsler, Jeremy; Nayak, Ramesh C; Trump, Lisa; Salipante, Stephen J; Cheng, Jerry C; Donadieu, Jean; Glaubach, Taly; Corey, Seth J; Grimes, H Leighton; Lutzko, Carolyn; Cancelas, Jose A; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-23

    Hereditary neutropenia is usually caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the ELANE gene encoding neutrophil elastase (NE). How mutations cause disease remains uncertain, but two hypotheses have been proposed. In one, ELANE mutations lead to mislocalization of NE. In the other, ELANE mutations disturb protein folding, inducing an unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we describe new types of mutations that disrupt the translational start site. At first glance, they should block translation and are incompatible with either the mislocalization or misfolding hypotheses, which require mutant protein for pathogenicity. We find that start-site mutations, instead, force translation from downstream in-frame initiation codons, yielding amino-terminally truncated isoforms lacking ER-localizing (pre) and zymogen-maintaining (pro) sequences, yet retain essential catalytic residues. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulate hematopoietic and molecular phenotypes. Expression of the amino-terminally deleted isoforms in vitro reduces myeloid cell clonogenic capacity. We define an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within ELANE and demonstrate that adjacent mutations modulate IRES activity, independently of protein-coding sequence alterations. Some ELANE mutations, therefore, appear to cause neutropenia via the production of amino-terminally deleted NE isoforms rather than by altering the coding sequence of the full-length protein. PMID:24184683

  3. Quality of Thrombin Produced From the Patient’s Own Plasma Using the TPD™, a New Thrombin-Processing Device

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Elisabeth; Madsen, Trista; Semple, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Thrombin derived from bovine sources commonly is used to arrest bleeding during surgical procedures. However, complications such as postoperative hemorrhage can occur because of the development of cross-reactive anti-bovine antibodies that inhibit human coagulation factor V. It would thus be advantageous to develop techniques to generate human thrombin. This study evaluated thrombin produced from human plasma using a new Thrombin-Processing Device (TPD™). Plasma was introduced into the TPD, mixed with an ethanol/CaCl2 reagent, incubated for 1 h, and the harvested thrombin was assayed for activity and the ability to activate platelets by in vitro assays. TPD-produced thrombin activity was found to be 51.8 ± 12.4 IU/mL (n = 145). TPD-produced thrombin also stimulated P-selectin (CD62) expression (83 ± 13% of the platelet population) and Annexin V binding (10.3 ± 2% of the platelet population) on platelets in a similar fashion to commercial thrombin (P-selectin expression: 88 ± 3%; Annexin-V binding: 11.4 ± 3%). Compared with CaCl2 and batroxobin, TPDproduced thrombin had a significantly greater ability to activate platelets. TPD-produced thrombin from human plasma has consistent activity and significantly activates platelets and, thus, may have attractive applications such as the production of autologous thrombin for surgical patients. PMID:16117459

  4. Refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography for inertial confinement fusion and laser-produced plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Jeffrey A.; Landen, Otto L.; Kozioziemski, Bernard J.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Dewald, Eduard L.; Salmonson, Jay D.; Hammel, Bruce A.

    2009-06-01

    We explore various laser-produced plasma and inertial confinement fusion applications of phase-contrast x-ray radiography, and we show how the main features of these enhancements can be considered from a geometrical optics perspective as refraction enhancements. This perspective simplifies the analysis and often permits simple analytical formulas to be derived that predict the enhancements. We explore a raytrace approach to various material interface applications, and we explore a more general example of refractive bending of x rays by an implosion plasma. We find that refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography of implosions may provide a means to quantify density differences across shock fronts as well as density variations caused by local heating due to high-Z dopants. We also point out that refractive bending by implosions plasmas can blur fine radiograph features and can also provide misleading contrast information on area-backlit pinhole imaging experiments unless its effects are taken into consideration.

  5. Refraction-Enhanced X-ray Radiography for Inertial Confinement Fusion and Laser-Produced Plasma Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Kozioziemski, B J; Izumi, N; Dewald, E L; Salmonson, J D; Hammel, B A

    2008-08-26

    We explore various laser-produced plasma and inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) applications of phase-contrast x-ray radiography, and we show how the main features of these enhancements can be considered from a geometrical optics perspective as refraction enhancements. This perspective simplifies the analysis, and often permits simple analytical formulae to be derived that predict the enhancements. We explore a raytrace approach to various material interface applications, and we explore a more general example of refractive bending of x-rays by an implosion plasma. We find that refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography of implosions may provide a means to quantify density differences across shock fronts as well as density variations caused by local heating due to high-Z dopants. We also point out that refractive bending by implosions plasmas can blur fine radiograph features, and can also provide misleading contrast information in area-backlit pinhole imaging experiments unless its effects are taken into consideration.

  6. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Phukan, Ananya Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  7. Thermal inequilibrium of atmospheric helium microwave plasma produced by an axial injection torch

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.; Rodero, A.; Quintero, M.C.; Sola, A.; Gamero, A.; Ortega, D.

    2005-11-01

    The population density of several excited states has been obtained spectroscopically in a helium plasma sustained by a torch device at atmospheric pressure as a function of the radius in the plasma for different conditions of microwave power and plasma gas flow. The ground-state atom density is determined from the gas temperature, which is deduced from the rotational temperature of the molecular nitrogen ions. The population distribution is fitted to the theoretical results of a collisional-radiative model that includes particle transport. A large deviation of the measured populations is found from the theoretical populations for local thermodynamic equilibrium. The plasma at any radial position is far from local thermodynamic equilibrium; the equilibrium deviation parameter of the ground state is larger than 10 000. The equilibrium deviation parameters of the measured excited-state populations obey the theoretical p{sub k}{sup -6} exponential law.

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced electromagnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Manuel, Mario John-Errol

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous electromagnetic fields can be important to the dynamic evolution of a plasma by directing heat flow as well as providing additional pressures on the conducting fluids through the Lorentz force. Electromagnetic ...

  9. Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.

  10. Optimization of the neutron yield in fusion plasmas produced by Coulomb explosions of deuterium clusters irradiated by a petawatt laser.

    PubMed

    Bang, W; Dyer, G; Quevedo, H J; Bernstein, A C; Gaul, E; Donovan, M; Ditmire, T

    2013-02-01

    The kinetic energy of hot (multi-keV) ions from the laser-driven Coulomb explosion of deuterium clusters and the resulting fusion yield in plasmas formed from these exploding clusters has been investigated under a variety of conditions using the Texas Petawatt laser. An optimum laser intensity was found for producing neutrons in these cluster fusion plasmas with corresponding average ion energies of 14 keV. The substantial volume (1-10 mm(3)) of the laser-cluster interaction produced by the petawatt peak power laser pulse led to a fusion yield of 1.6×10(7) neutrons in a single shot with a 120 J, 170 fs laser pulse. Possible effects of prepulses are discussed. PMID:23496630

  11. Solution of the explosive percolation quest. II. Infinite-order transition produced by the initial distributions of clusters.

    PubMed

    da Costa, R A; Dorogovtsev, S N; Goltsev, A V; Mendes, J F F

    2015-03-01

    We describe the effect of power-law initial distributions of clusters on ordinary percolation and its generalizations, specifically, models of explosive percolation processes based on local optimization. These aggregation processes were shown to exhibit continuous phase transitions if the evolution starts from a set of disconnected nodes. Since the critical exponents of the order parameter in explosive percolation transitions turned out to be very small, these transitions were first believed to be discontinuous. In this article we analyze the evolution starting from clusters of nodes whose sizes are distributed according to a power law. We show that these initial distributions change dramatically the position and order of the phase transitions in these problems. We find a particular initial power-law distribution producing a peculiar effect on explosive percolation, namely, before the emergence of the percolation cluster, the system is in a "critical phase" with an infinite generalized susceptibility. This critical phase is absent in ordinary percolation models with any power-law initial conditions. The transition from the critical phase is an infinite-order phase transition, which resembles the scenario of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. We obtain the critical singularity of susceptibility at this peculiar infinite-order transition in explosive percolation. It turns out that susceptibility in this situation does not obey the Curie-Weiss law. PMID:25871087

  12. Solution of the explosive percolation quest. II. Infinite-order transition produced by the initial distributions of clusters

    E-print Network

    R. A. da Costa; S. N. Dorogovtsev; A. V. Goltsev; J. F. F. Mendes

    2015-03-31

    We describe the effect of power-law initial distributions of clusters on ordinary percolation and its generalizations, specifically, models of explosive percolation processes based on local optimization. These aggregation processes were shown to exhibit continuous phase transitions if the evolution starts from a set of disconnected nodes. Since the critical exponents of the order parameter in explosive percolation transitions turned out to be very small, these transitions were first believed to be discontinuous. In this article we analyze the evolution starting from clusters of nodes whose sizes are distributed according to a power law. We show that these initial distributions change dramatically the position and order of the phase transitions in these problems. We find a particular initial power-law distribution producing a peculiar effect on explosive percolation, namely before the emergence of the percolation cluster, the system is in a "critical phase" with an infinite generalized susceptibility. This critical phase is absent in ordinary percolation models with any power-law initial conditions. The transition from the critical phase is an infinite order phase transition, which resembles the scenario of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. We obtain the critical singularity of susceptibility at this peculiar infinite-order transition in explosive percolation. It turns out that the susceptibility in this situation does not obey the Curie-Weiss law.

  13. Solution of the explosive percolation quest. II. Infinite-order transition produced by the initial distributions of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the effect of power-law initial distributions of clusters on ordinary percolation and its generalizations, specifically, models of explosive percolation processes based on local optimization. These aggregation processes were shown to exhibit continuous phase transitions if the evolution starts from a set of disconnected nodes. Since the critical exponents of the order parameter in explosive percolation transitions turned out to be very small, these transitions were first believed to be discontinuous. In this article we analyze the evolution starting from clusters of nodes whose sizes are distributed according to a power law. We show that these initial distributions change dramatically the position and order of the phase transitions in these problems. We find a particular initial power-law distribution producing a peculiar effect on explosive percolation, namely, before the emergence of the percolation cluster, the system is in a "critical phase" with an infinite generalized susceptibility. This critical phase is absent in ordinary percolation models with any power-law initial conditions. The transition from the critical phase is an infinite-order phase transition, which resembles the scenario of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. We obtain the critical singularity of susceptibility at this peculiar infinite-order transition in explosive percolation. It turns out that susceptibility in this situation does not obey the Curie-Weiss law.

  14. Spatial and temporal measurements of electrostatic fields of a field-aligned, magnetized laser-produced plasma expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) in laboratory environments form supersonic and super-Alfénic flows that, when properly scaled, can model naturally occurring phenomena such as shock structures in supernovae and astrophysical jets. Our interest lies in understanding the evolution of these flows and how they interact with ambient, magnetized plasma. An LPP was generated using a 1011 W / cm2 laser pulse on a solid target. It expanded into a pre-formed, magnetized plasma and was directed along the background magnetic field (cs <Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  15. A hemispherical Langmuir probe array detector for angular resolved measurements on droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gambino, Nadia Brandstätter, Markus; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza

    2014-09-15

    In this work, a new diagnostic tool for laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) is presented. The detector is based on a multiple array of six motorized Langmuir probes. It allows to measure the dynamics of a LPP in terms of charged particles detection with particular attention to droplet-based LPP sources for EUV lithography. The system design permits to temporally resolve the angular and radial plasma charge distribution and to obtain a hemispherical mapping of the ions and electrons around the droplet plasma. The understanding of these dynamics is fundamental to improve the debris mitigation techniques for droplet-based LPP sources. The device has been developed, built, and employed at the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zürich. The experimental results have been obtained on the droplet-based LPP source ALPS II. For the first time, 2D mappings of the ion kinetic energy distribution around the droplet plasma have been obtained with an array of multiple Langmuir probes. These measurements show an anisotropic expansion of the ions in terms of kinetic energy and amount of ion charge around the droplet target. First estimations of the plasma density and electron temperature were also obtained from the analysis of the probe current signals.

  16. Measurement of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering from Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Serlin, V.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E. A.; Manka, C. K.

    2010-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜3 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique research opportunities and potential for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous Nike experiments observed two plasmon decay (TPD) driven signals from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2 with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 ps FWHM pulses. We have performed a further experiment with longer laser pulses (0.5˜4.0 ns FWHM) and will present combined results of the experiments focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. Time- or space-resolved spectral features of TPD were detected at different viewing angles and the absolute intensity calibrated spectra of thermal background were used to obtain blackbody temperatures in the plasma corona. The wave vector distribution in k-space of the participating TPD plasmons will be also discussed. These results show promise for the proposed direct-drive designs.

  17. Experimental study of the excitation of rhodium isomer in a plasma produced by a picosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, V. I.; Kakshin, A. G.; Mazunin, A. V.

    2010-03-15

    Estimates and first experimental results on the excitation of a long-lived isomer state (E{sub m} = 39.756 keV, J{sup p} = 9/2{sup -}, and T{sub 1/2} = 56.114 min) of Rh{sup 103} nuclei under the action of X radiation in a hot solid-state-density rhodium plasma produced by a picosecond laser pulse in the SOKOL-P laser facility are presented.

  18. Fundamental Emission of Type III Bursts Produced in Non-Maxwellian Coronal Plasmas with Kappa-Distributed Background Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2014-03-01

    Detailed simulations based on quasi-linear theory are presented for fundamental () emission of type III bursts produced in non-Maxwellian, suprathermal, background coronal plasma by injection of energetic electrons during flares with a power-law or Maxwellian velocity distribution, where is the electron plasma frequency. The background plasma is assumed to have a kappa ( ?) distribution, as inferred from solar wind data and proposed by theories for the corona and solar wind. The predicted type III beam speeds, Langmuir wave levels, and the drift rate and flux of emission are strongly sensitive to the presence of suprathermal background electrons in the corona. The simulations show the following results. i) Fast beams with speeds are produced for coronal background electrons with small ? ( ??5) by injected electrons with power-law spectra. ii) Moderately fast beams with are generated in coronal plasma with ??8 by injections of power-law or Maxwellian electrons. iii) Slow beams with are produced for coronal background electrons with large ? ( ?>8), including the asymptotic limit ??? where the electrons are Maxwellian, for both power-law and Maxwellian injections. The observation of fast type III beams (with ) thus suggests that these beams are produced in coronal regions where the background electron distribution has small ? by injected electrons with power-law spectra, at least when such beams are observed. The simulations, from the viewpoint of type III bursts, thus support: i) the presence, at least sometimes, of suprathermal background electrons in the corona and the associated mechanisms for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration; ii) power-law spectra for injected energetic electrons, consistent with observations of such electrons in situ and of X-ray emission.

  19. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J L; Karasik, M; Chan, L Y

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (? = 263 nm, ?t = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (?1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 10(15) W/cm(2). The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 10(21) cm(-3) with the density scale length of 120 ?m along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting n(e) and T(e) profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light. PMID:26329186

  20. Measurements of large scale-length plasmas produced from gas-filled targets

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C.A.; Berger, R.L.; Estabrook, K.

    1995-06-30

    Apart from their intrinsic interest, plasma physics processes are important because they affect the coupling of the laser energy into laser-irradiated targets. Recently, new gas-filled targets have been developed to create large mm-size plasmas for the study of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). We present x-ray images and x-ray spectra to characterize these targets, which show that the plasmas are homogeneous, have electron densities of {approximately}10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3}, and attain electron temperatures of {approximately}3 keV. We also present SBS measurements to demonstrate how systematic studies of physical phenomena can be performed using these targets.

  1. Injection and acceleration of electron bunch in a plasma wakefield produced by a chirped laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-06-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wakefield which can trap and accelerate charged particles up to GeV. One-dimensional analysis of electron injection, trapping, and acceleration by different chirped pulses propagating in plasma is investigated numerically. In this paper, we inject electron bunches in front of the chirped pulses. It is indicated that periodical chirped laser pulse can trap electrons earlier than other pulses. It is shown that periodical chirped laser pulses lead to decrease the minimum momentum necessary to trap the electrons. This is due to the fact that periodical chirped laser pulses are globally much efficient than nonchirped pulses in the wakefield generation. It is found that chirped laser pulses could lead to much larger electron energy than that of nonchirped pulses. Relative energy spread has a lower value in the case of periodical chirped laser pulses.

  2. A Black-box Modelling Engine for Discharge Produced Plasma Radiation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, S.V.; Choi, P.; Krukovskiy, A.Y.; Zhang, Q.; Novikov, V.G.; Zakharov, V.S.

    2006-01-05

    A Blackbox Modelling Engine (BME), is an instrument based on the adaptation of the RMHD code Z*, integrated into a specific computation environment to provide a turn key simulation instrument and to enable routine plasma modelling without specialist knowledge in numerical computation. Two different operating modes are provided: Detailed Physics mode and Fast Numerics mode. In the Detailed Physics mode, non-stationary, non-equilibrium radiation physics have been introduced to allow the modelling of transient plasmas in experimental geometry. In the Fast Numerics mode, the system architecture and the radiation transport is simplified to significantly accelerate the computation rate. The Fast Numerics mode allows the BME to be used realistically in parametric scanning to explore complex physical set up, before using the Detailed Physics mode. As an example of the results from the BME modelling, the EUV source plasma dynamics in the pulsed capillary discharge are presented.

  3. Influence of atomic modeling on integrated simulations of laser-produced Au plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Yechiel; Raicher, Erez; Ehrlich, Yosi; Hurvitz, Gilad; Shpilman, Zeev; Fraenkel, Moshe; Zigler, Arie; Henis, Zohar

    2015-11-01

    Time-integrated x-ray emission spectra of laser-irradiated Au disks were recorded using transmission grating spectrometry, at laser intensities of 1013 to 1014W/cm2 . Radiation-hydrodynamics and atomic physics calculations were used to simulate the emitted spectra. Three major plasma regions can be recognized: the heat wave, the corona, and an intermediate region connecting them. An analysis of the spectral contribution of these three plasma regions to the integrated recorded spectrum is presented. The importance of accurate atomic modeling of the intermediate plasma region, between the corona and the heat wave, is highlighted. The influence of several aspects of the atomic modeling is demonstrated, in particular multiply-excited atomic configurations and departure from local thermal equilibrium.

  4. Plasma Spray-CVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Produce Thin Films from Liquid or Gaseous Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindrat, M.; Höhle, H.-M.; von Niessen, K.; Guittienne, Ph.; Grange, D.; Hollenstein, Ch.

    2011-06-01

    New dedicated coating processes which are based on the well-known LPPS™ technology but operating at lower work pressure (100 Pa) are being actively developed. These hybrid technologies contribute to improve the efficiencies in the turbine industry such as aero-engines and land-based gas turbines. They also have a great potential in the domain of new energy concepts in applications like Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, membranes, and photovoltaic with the adoption of new ways of producing coatings by thermal spray. Such processes include Plasma Spray-Thin Film (PS-TF) which gives the possibility to coat thin and dense layers from splats through a classical thermal spray approach but at high velocities (400-800 m/s) and enthalpy (8000-15000 kJ/kg). Plasma Spray-PVD (PS-PVD) which allows producing thick columnar-structured Thermal Barrier Coatings (100-300 ?m) from the vapor phase with the employment of the high enthalpy gun and specific powder feedstock material. On the other hand, the Plasma Spray-CVD (PS-CVD) process uses modified conventional thermal spray components operated below 100 Pa which allows producing CVD-like coatings (<1-10 ?m) at higher deposition rates using liquid or gaseous precursors as feedstock material. The advantages of such thermal spray-enhanced CVD processes are the high ionization degree and high throughput for the deposition of thin layers. In this article, we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations encountered while producing thin film coatings using liquid and gaseous precursors with this new type of low pressure plasma spray equipment and point out the challenges faced to obtain efficient injection and mixing of the precursors in the plasma jet. In particular, SiO x thin films from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO or C6H18OSi2) can be deposited on wafers at deposition rates of up to 35 nm/s at an efficiency of about 50%. The process was also used for producing metal oxide coatings (Al2O3, ZnO, and SnO2) by evaporating different metals in combination with an oxygen gas flow. The effect of process parameters on the deposition rate, coating build up, uniformity, and quality of the coatings are discussed. An overview of different potential applications of this new technology will be also presented.

  5. Multiple solutions in the theory of direct current glow discharges: Effect of plasma chemistry and nonlocality, different plasma-producing gases, and 3D modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S.

    2013-10-15

    The work is aimed at advancing the multiple steady-state solutions that have been found recently in the theory of direct current (DC) glow discharges. It is shown that an account of detailed plasma chemistry and non-locality of electron transport and kinetic coefficients results in an increase of the number of multiple solutions but does not change their pattern. Multiple solutions are shown to exist for discharges in argon and helium provided that discharge pressure is high enough. This result indicates that self-organization in DC glow microdischarges can be observed not only in xenon, which has been the case until recently, but also in other plasma-producing gases; a conclusion that has been confirmed by recent experiments. Existence of secondary bifurcations can explain why patterns of spots grouped in concentric rings, observed in the experiment, possess in many cases higher number of spots in outer rings than in inner ones.

  6. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E.; Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P.; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-15

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  7. Quasielectrostatic whistler wave radiation from the hot electron emission of a laser-produced plasma

    E-print Network

    Carter, Troy

    with the pro- duction of quasielectrostatic whistler waves also known as lower hybrid waves in both laboratory equivalent to one oscillation at the lower hybrid frequency within the background plasma. Additionally, time is a consequence of the wave propagation along ray paths from localized, broadband sources in the lower ionosphere

  8. INTEGRATED SIMULATION OF DISCHARGE AND LASER PRODUCED PLASMAS IN EUV LITHOGRAPHY DEVICES

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    transport, and physics of plasma/electrode interactions in DPP devices. Advanced numerical methods that occurs in DPP and LPP devices. 1. Mathematical model We consider the general set of three-dimensional (3D to support the throughput requirements of High-Volume Manufacturing lithography exposure tools. One method

  9. Currents and shear Alfven wave radiation generated by an exploding laser-produced plasma: Perpendicular incidence

    E-print Network

    Carter, Troy

    be limited by large ambipolar fields. This charge separation results in the creation of current structures the background plasma, radiates waves, and sometimes causes disruptions.3,4 In the Earth's ionosphere, the 1962 radiated Alfve´n waves which later turned into standing modes on the Earth's field lines.5 Also

  10. Gas dynamic effects on formation of carbon dimers in laser-produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    ; accepted 12 September 2011; published online 29 September 2011) We investigated the effect of helium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser. The emission from excited C2 and CN molecules was studied using space resolved ambient gases. While C2 can form, within the plasma, by recombination of carbon atoms and ions

  11. Identification and characterization of volatile species produced by plasma arc vitrification of mixed waste surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Monts, D.L.; Bauman, L.E.; Wang, W.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma arc vitrification testing was performed at Mississippi State University during Spring 1995 on mixed hazardous waste surrogates for the purpose of testing refractory materials. Because of the interest in partitioning of toxic and/or radioactive species between the melt and the gas phase, emission spectroscopy studies were performed to identify and characterize the volatile species present inside the primary thermal treatment chamber during plasma arc vitrification. The tests were conducted using a Plasma Energy Corporation PT-150 torch, operating in the transferred mode on air. The surrogate material was melted in a batch mode operation inside graphite crucibles. The torch was operated at an average power of 100 kW with an average air flow rate of 0.5 L/sec. The crucible was installed with four optical ports. One was used for a television camera to provide real-time images of the melt and two were used for emission spectroscopy as reported here and for two-color pyrometry. The last port was installed with a feed tube with a dual valve interlock system for dropping surrogate material into the crucible during testing. Results show that the plasma torch melted surrogate waste exhibits an emission spectra rich in gas phase atomic and diatomic species superimposed on a blackbody continuum. Rapid changes in intensities and spectral features alternated with relatively long periods of relatively stable spectra. Emission lines were positively identifies for Al, C, Ca, Ca+, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Li, N, Na, O, Rb, and Si. Tentatively identified were Ni, Mn, and Ti. Intermittent spectral features have been tentatively identifies as N{sub 2}, Cd, and Pb. From this study it appears that emission spectroscopy would be of use in monitoring the gas phase emissions above a plasma torch melt process.

  12. Propagation of guided modes in strongly non-uniform helicon-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Yu. M.; Krämer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical as well as numerical analysis of the full set of Maxwell's equations was carried out to study axisymmetric (m = 0) as well as non-axisymmetric (m ? 0) guided modes in a helicon discharge (radius R). In detail, the propagation of various guided modes for conditions of strong radial inhomogeneity was treated. The m = 1 helicon dispersion exhibits for kzR ?1 a quadratic frequency dependence on the axial wavenumber, ? ?kz2, if the radial density gradient is steep enough. These modes reveal non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal (?) direction, that is, only modes with positive azimuthal mode numbers, m > 0, can propagate. This is in contrast to the linear dispersion relation, ? ?kz (kzR ?1), for common helicon mode propagation in weakly non-uniform plasma. The results agree reasonably with those obtained from the 2nd-order helicon wave equation derived for Ez = 0. Furthermore, guided electrostatic (ES) modes were analyzed using the 2nd-order wave equation and their eigen mode spectrum was obtained. These modes reveal also non-reciprocal behavior with respect to ? and obey a quadratic dispersion law in strongly non-uniform plasma. A particular objective is mode coupling (MC) occurring when the helicon and the ES dispersion branches merge in a certain layer. For m = 1 modes, mode coupling may arise at rather low density when the radial density gradient is steep enough. In any case, new modes, denoted as localized-coupled (LC) modes, may occur in the presence of an MC layer within the plasma. As for helicon and ES modes, the m = 1 LC modes exhibit quadratic scaling in strongly non-uniform plasma. As a particular case, we examined the propagation of m = 1 modes in a plasma column with a peaked density distribution in the center. The field distribution was found to be drastically altered due to mode coupling, thus leading to strongly enhanced wave absorption near the axis.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of UV lead plasmas produced by single and double-pulse laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. A. I.

    2013-01-01

    A spectroscopic study to compare single- and double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers emitting at 532 nm is reported. The two laser beams were combined in the same direction (collinear beam geometry) to focus on the Pb targets in the open air. Various parameters, such as incident laser irradiance, placement of the laser beam focus position relative to the illuminated surface and gate delay times (delay between the incident laser pulse and the ICCD camera), were used as variables to enhance the sensitivity of LIBS signals. Several atomic and ionic emission lines of Pb were registered in the 200-290 nm UV spectral domains. In order to study the temporal evolution of plasma parameters for single- and double-pulse laser (SP and DP) configurations, the observed profiles of neutral lead lines were used to extract the plasma temperature (Te) using Boltzmann plots, whereas electron number density (ne) was determined from the profile of the Stark-broadened line. In the case of the DP configuration, the intensity of the atomic Pb I signal at 280.2 nm was enhanced eightfold. The intensity enhancement could help the analytical performance of the LIBS technique in terms of improvement of sensitivity and reduction of the self-absorption effect. This study contributes to a better understanding of the LIBS plasma dynamics by observing the temporal evolution of various emission lines of Pb. The results demonstrate a faster decay of the continuum relative to the spectral lines and a slightly longer plasma life-time for the DP configuration as compared with the SP configuration. In order to avoid inhomogeneous effects in the plasma, sufficiently high laser intensity and short delay time are required. Special attention was paid to possible self-absorption of different transitions. The micro-craters generated by SP and DP laser ablation were also compared using an optical microscope.

  14. Detailed Hydrodynamic and X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of a Laser-Produced Rapidly-Expanding Aluminum Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; Wolfrum, E; Gouveia, A; Lee, R W; Marjoribanks, R S; Renner, O; Sondhauss, P; Topping, S; Young, P E; Pinto, P A; Wark, J S

    2001-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of K-shell emission from laser-produced rapidly-expanding aluminum plasmas. This work forms part of a series of experiments performed at the Vulcan laser facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. 1-D planar expansion was obtained by over-illuminating Al-microdot targets supported on CH plastic foils. The small size of the Al-plasma ensured high spatial and frequency resolution of the spectra, obtained with a single crystal spectrometer, two vertical dispersion variant double crystal spectrometers, and a vertical dispersion variant Johann Spectrometer. The hydrodynamic properties of the plasma were measured independently by spatially and temporally resolved Thomson scattering, utilizing a 4{omega} probe beam. This enabled sub- and super- critical densities to be probed relative to the 1{omega} heater beams. The deduced plasma hydrodynamic conditions are compared with those generated from the 1-D hydro-code Medusa, and the significant differences found in the electron temperature discussed. Synthetic spectra generated from the detailed term collisional radiative non-LTE atomic physics code Fly are compared with the experimental spectra for the measured hydrodynamic parameters, and for those taken from Medusa. Excellent agreement is only found for both the H- and He-like Al series when careful account is taken of the temporal evolution of the electron temperature.

  15. Experimental observation of left polarized wave absorption near electron cyclotron resonance frequency in helicon antenna produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C.

    2013-01-15

    Asymmetry in density peaks on either side of an m = +1 half helical antenna is observed both in terms of peak position and its magnitude with respect to magnetic field variation in a linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. The plasma is produced by powering the m = +1 half helical antenna with a 2.5 kW, 13.56 MHz radio frequency source. During low magnetic field (B < 100 G) operation, plasma density peaks are observed at critical magnetic fields on either side of the antenna. However, the density peaks occurred at different critical magnetic fields on both sides of antenna. Depending upon the direction of the magnetic field, in the m = +1 propagation side, the main density peak has been observed around 30 G of magnetic field. On this side, the density peak around 5 G corresponding to electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) is not very pronounced, whereas in the m = -1 propagation side, very pronounced ECR peak has been observed around 5 G. Another prominent density peak around 12 G has also been observed in m = -1 side. However, no peak has been observed around 30 G on this m = -1 side. This asymmetry in the results on both sides is explained on the basis of polarization reversal of left hand polarized waves to right hand polarized waves and vice versa in a bounded plasma system. The density peaking phenomena are likely to be caused by obliquely propagating helicon waves at the resonance cone boundary.

  16. Influence of magnetic field on laser-produced barium plasmas: Spectral and dynamic behaviour of neutral and ionic species

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, Makaraju Srinivasa; Gopinath, Pramod; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2014-10-21

    The expansion dynamics and spectral behaviour of plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser (?=1.064 ?m, pulse width: 8 ns) from barium target and expanding in 0.45 T transverse magnetic field in vacuum (10??Torr pressure) are investigated using time-of-flight optical emission spectroscopy. The experiments are carried out at various laser fluences from 12 to 31 J/cm². The temporal profiles of neutral (Ba I 553.5 and 577.7 nm) lines are temporally broadened, while that of ionic (Ba II 413.0 and 455.4 nm) lines show strong confinement in the presence of a magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic field, the temporal profile of Ba I 553.5 nm is exactly reproduced by fitting with two Shifted Maxwell Boltzmann (SMB) Distribution components, while in the presence of a magnetic field the profile could only be fitted with three components. The field enhanced and field induced SMB components of neutral profile are correlated with populations of ground state, metastable states, and long-lived Rydberg states present in the barium plasma, while SMB components of ionic lines are explained on the basis of the presence of super-elastic collisions among the excited species in the plasma. The spatial variation of electron temperature and temporal variation of electron density are deduced and correlated to the different collisional processes in the barium plasma. The ionic profiles show efficient confinement in the presence of a magnetic field at higher fluences.

  17. Infrared nanosecond laser-metal ablation in atmosphere: Initial plasma during laser pulse and further expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Wei, Wenfu; Li, Xingwen; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-04-22

    We have investigated the dynamics of the nanosecond laser ablated plasma within and after the laser pulse irradiation using fast photography. A 1064 nm, 15 ns laser beam was focused onto a target made from various materials with an energy density in the order of J/mm{sup 2} in atmosphere. The plasma dynamics during the nanosecond laser pulse were observed, which could be divided into three stages: fast expansion, division into the primary plasma and the front plasma, and stagnation. After the laser terminated, a critical moment when the primary plasma expansion transited from the shock model to the drag model was resolved, and this phenomenon could be understood in terms of interactions between the primary and the front plasmas.

  18. Oxygen-related vibrational modes produced in Czochralski silicon by hydrogen plasma exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, H.J.; Medernach, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    Plasma hydrogenation of Czochralski Si has been performed to investigate the introduction of Si{endash}O stretch modes and their correlation with thermal donor formation. Plasma hydrogenation at 275{degree}C introduces a well-resolved vibrational absorption band at 1005 cm{sup {minus}1}, while absorption due to electronic excitations for thermal donors remains weak. We attribute this band to a Si{endash}O precursor center for thermal donor formation, and suggest it is the oxygen dimer center discussed in other studies of oxygen in Si. Vibrational modes introduced at 990 and 1000 cm{sup {minus}1} during post-hydrogenation furnace annealing at 400{degree}C correlate with thermal donors TD2 and TD3, respectively. Stretch frequencies for Si{endash}O in thermal donor centers are compared to those for oxygen aggregates in oxygen-implanted and electron-irradiated Si.

  19. Three-dimensional microscopy of laser-produced plasmas using third-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Naumov, A N; Konorov, Stanislav O; Fedotov, Andrei B; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2000-12-31

    A three-dimensional microscopy of an optical-breakdown plasma based on third-harmonic generation (THG) is experimentally implemented. THG is shown to offer a universal method for three-dimensional microscopy of inhomogeneities of linear and nonlinear optical parameters of various media. Due to the nonlinear-optical character of this process, THG microscopy allows the transverse spatial resolution to be considerably improved as compared with conventional methods of microscopy. A high spatial resolution along the direction of probing is achieved due to the fact that the prohibition on THG in the regime of tight focusing is removed whenever inhomogeneities of linear and/or nonlinear optical parameters are probed by THG. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Study of self-generated magnetic fields in laser produced plasmas using a three-channel polaro-interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Barnwal, S.; Naik, P. A.; Kamath, M. P.; Joshi, A. S.; Kumbhare, S. R.; Gupta, P. D.; Bolkhovitinov, E. A.; Rupasov, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    Self-generated magnetic fields produced in laser plasmas at moderate laser intensities have been measured using a three-channel polaro-interferometer. The main elements of this device are two birefringent calcite wedges placed between two crossed polarizers. Using this device, the spatial profiles of (a) the rotation angle (polarometry), (b) the electron density (interferometry), and (c) the transmitted probe beam intensity (shadowgraphy) are recorded simultaneously using a digital camera with a large format CCD in a single laser shot. Magnetic fields of 2-4 MG had been estimated in aluminum plasma at laser intensities {approx}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. It is also possible to use this device in other configurations to get time resolved information.

  1. Demonstration of an optical mixing technique to drive Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear waves in laser produced plasmas

    E-print Network

    Kline, J L; Bertsche, W A; Kurnit, N A; Montgomery, D S; Johnson, R P; Niemann, C

    2012-01-01

    A nitrogen gas Raman cell system has been constructed to shift a 70 J 527 nm laser beam to 600 nm with 20 J of energy. The 600 nm probe and a 200J, 527 nm pump beam were optically mixed in a laser produced (gas jet) plasma. The beating of the two laser beams formed a ponderomotive force that can drive Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) waves discovered in Vlasov-Poisson simulations by Afeyan et al [1,2]. KEEN waves were detected in these experiments where traditional plasma theory would declare there to be a spectral gap (ie no linear waves possible). The detection was done using Thomson scattering with probe wavelengths of both 351 nm and 263.5 nm.

  2. Properties of CO/sub 2/ laser produced long-life plasmas observed by x-ray spectroscopic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, H.; Nishihara, K.; Mima, K.; Kitagawa, Y.; Nakai, S.; Yamanaka, C.; Hasegawa, A.

    1988-03-01

    We present the properties of shell confinement long-life plasmas produced by a CO/sub 2/ laser. The temperature measurement for parylene shell targets based on the x-ray spectroscopic method gives the electron temperature of more than 500 eV at the center of a 1-mm-diam target. An enchanced confinement time is obtained in a thick gold shell (100 ..mu..m thick) target coated internally with parylene. The duration of the x ray emitted from the hot core in a 3-mm-diam target of this type is 34 ns, while the laser pulse duration is 1 ns. The long duration of the x-ray manifests the hot core plasma lifetime; the observed duration presents a strong evidence of thermal insulation by the self-generated magnetic field.

  3. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1994-07-08

    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity.

  4. K-shell emission from 140 femtosecond laser-produced plasmas created from porous aluminum targets

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.; Price, D.; White, B.; Osterheld, A.; Walling, R.; Slaughter, D.; Stewart, R.; Gordan, S.

    1992-06-05

    The K-shell emission from flat and porous aluminum targets is used to infer the efficiency of creating a high temperature (>100eV), thermal plasma with 800 nm, 140 fs laser light. The K-shell emission from flat aluminum targets is fond to be significantly less than that of the porous targets, implying a lower temperature and less efficient coupling between the target and ultra-short pulse laser light.

  5. Expansion Dynamics of Ultrafast Laser Produced Plasmas in the Presence of Ambient Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, A.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2014-10-07

    In this paper, we report the emission features of fs laser ablated brass plasma plumes at various Ar background pressure levels ranging from vacuum to atmospheric conditions. Spectrally integrated 2D-imaging of plasma self-emission showed several interesting features at various pressure levels which consists of plume morphological changes, increase in persistence, confinement, and internal structures. Spatially resolved wavelength dispersed images of the plume were recorded for characterizing the spectral features at various pressure levels and also used for obtaining spatial distribution of Cu I and Zn I species in the plume, signal to noise ratios and fundamental parameters of the plasma; viz. temperature and density. The spatial evolution of excitation temperature and density showed significant changes at various ambient pressure levels and these results were correlated to morphological changes seen in the plume images. Optimum signal to background ratios for emission lines were observed in the moderate pressure range (~ 1-10 Torr). Optical time-of-flight profiles were used to study time evolution of various species in the plume and noticed oscillations at intermediate pressure levels. Possible mechanisms for observed changes in plume shape, optical emission intensity, and dual peak structures in time-of-flight profiles were discussed.

  6. Astrophysical Weibel instability in counter-streaming laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.

    2014-10-01

    Astrophysical shock waves play diverse roles, including energizing cosmic rays in the blast waves of astrophysical explosions, and generating primordial magnetic fields during the formation of galaxies and clusters. These shocks are typically collisionless and require collective electromagnetic fields to couple the upstream and downstream plasmas. The Weibel instability has been proposed to provide the requisite interaction mechanism for shock formation in weakly-magnetized shocks by generating turbulent electric and magnetic fields in the shock front. This work presents the first laboratory identification of this Weibel instability between counterstreaming supersonic plasma flows and confirms its basic features, a significant step towards understanding these shocks. In the experiments, conducted on the OMEGA EP laser facility at the University of Rochester, a pair of plasmas plumes are generated by irradiating of a pair of opposing parallel plastic (CH) targets. The ion-ion interaction between the two plumes is collisionless, so as the plumes interpenetrate, supersonic, counterstreaming ion flow conditions are obtained. Electromagnetic fields formed in the interaction of the two plumes were probed with an ultrafast laser-driven proton beam, and we observed the growth of a highly striated, transverse instability with extended filaments parallel to the flows. The instability is identified as an ion-driven Weibel instability through agreement with analytic theory and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of colliding ablation flows, which include a collision operator. The experimental proton-radiography results are compared with synthetic ray-tracing through 3-D simulations.

  7. Measurement of Neutrons Produced by Beam-Target Interactions via a Coaxial Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauble, Scott; Poehlmann, Flavio; Rieker, Gregory; Cappelli, Mark

    2011-10-01

    This poster presents a method to measure neutron yield from a coaxial plasma accelerator. Stored electrical energies between 1 and 19 kJ are discharged within a few microseconds across the electrodes of the coaxial gun, accelerating deuterium gas samples to plasma beam energies well beyond the keV energy range. The focus of this study is to examine the interaction of the plasma beam with a deuterated target by designing and fabricating a detector to measure neutron yield. Given the strong electromagnetic pulse associated with our accelerator, indirect measurement of neutrons via threshold-dependent nuclear activation serves as both a reliable and definitive indicator of high-energy particles for our application. Upon bombardment with neutrons, discs or stacks of metal foils placed near the deuterated target undergo nuclear activation reactions, yielding gamma-emitting isotopes whose decay is measured by a scintillation detector system. By collecting gamma ray spectra over time and considering nuclear cross sections, the magnitude of the original neutron pulse is inferred.

  8. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  9. X-Ray Crystal Spectroscopy of Sub-picosecond Laser-Produced Plasmas beyond 50 keV.

    PubMed

    Hölzer, G; Förster, E; Grätz, M; Tillman, C; Svanberg, S

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of a sub-picosecond (sub-ps) laser with a high-Z target produces a hard x-ray continuum, but to our knowledge no high-resolution study of the line emission is known. We present here crystal spectroscopy as a tool for the observation of energetic line x-radiation from a sub-ps laser-produced plasma. Reflection properties of flat and bent crystals for x-ray spectroscopy are analyzed theoretically for both the Bragg and the Laue geometries and optimized for a crystal spectroscopy of hard (>50 keV) x-radiation. The crystal setup is optimized for spectroscopic applications with regard to high throughput and spectral resolution. The characteristic tantalum K?,?- and L?,?-line emissions from a sub-ps laser-produced plasma is observed for the first time. A resolving power of about 450 is achieved which is much higher than that for comparable absorption filter techniques (E/?E ? 15). PMID:21307539

  10. Evaluation of the time-resolved EHD force produced by a plasma actuator by particle image velocimetry - a parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, N.; Caron, M.; Moreau, E.

    2015-10-01

    Surface plasma discharges, and more specifically dielectric barrier discharge, find several applications in aerodynamic due to their capability to produce a local flow at the dielectric wall. The present study proposes a numerical method to estimate the EHD force by using experimental velocity information. Here, this method is used in a parametric study and the obtained results are compared with force balance measurements. It is shown that the EHD volume force increases in space and in amplitude for increasing voltage and increasing AC frequency. Furthermore the force distribution expands in an homothetic manner.

  11. Dynamics and control of the expansion of finite-size plasmas produced in ultraintense laser-matter interactions

    E-print Network

    Peano, F; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Coppa, G; Peinetti, F; Mulas, R; 10.1063/1.2436855

    2009-01-01

    The strong influence of the electron dynamics provides the possibility of controlling the expansion of laser-produced plasmas by appropriately shaping the laser pulse. A simple irradiation scheme is proposed to tailor the explosion of large deuterium clusters, inducing the formation of shock structures, capable of driving nuclear fusion reactions. Such a scenario has been thoroughly investigated, resorting to two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, the intricate dynamics of ions and electrons during the collisionless expansion of spherical nanoplasmas has been analyzed in detail using a self-consistent ergodic-kinetic model. This study clarifies the transition from hydrodynamic-like to Coulomb-explosion regimes.

  12. Dynamics and control of the expansion of finite-size plasmas produced in ultraintense laser-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peano, F.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Coppa, G.; Peinetti, F.; Mulas, R.

    2007-05-15

    The strong influence of the electron dynamics provides the possibility of controlling the expansion of laser-produced plasmas by appropriately shaping the laser pulse. A simple irradiation scheme is proposed to tailor the explosion of large deuterium clusters, inducing the formation of shock structures, capable of driving nuclear fusion reactions. Such a scenario has been thoroughly investigated, resorting to two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, the intricate dynamics of ions and electrons during the collisionless expansion of spherical nanoplasmas has been analyzed in detail using a self-consistent ergodic-kinetic model. This study clarifies the transition from hydrodynamic-like to Coulomb-explosion regimes.

  13. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya

    2015-03-23

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 10{sup 19?}cm{sup –3} and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  14. Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Gawelda, W.; Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ruiz de la Cruz, A.; Fernandez, H.; Solis, J.

    2008-09-22

    Femtosecond laser-induced plasmas in bulk dielectrics are imaged under waveguide writing conditions, for different polarizations, pulse durations, and processing depths, and their temporal evolution is measured using ultrafast pump-probe microscopy. The irradiation beam profile is elliptically shaped yielding a disklike focal volume. We demonstrate for doped phosphate glass that increasing the pulse duration improves the spatial distribution of deposited energy by minimizing beam filamentation and prefocal depletion effects. As a consequence, energy deposition in the desired volume is greatly enhanced. Our results identify key parameters for optimizing femtosecond laser processing of dielectrics and different strategies to minimize energy loss channels.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak power densities as high as 520 mW/cm2 at 800 °C for YSZ and 350 mW/cm 2 at 800 °C for YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolytes.

  16. Photoconductive detectors with fast temporal response for laser produced plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J.; Halvorson, C.; Perry, T.; Weber, F.; Young, P.; Silbernagel, C.

    2008-10-15

    Processes during laser plasma experiments typically have time scales that are less than 100 ps. The measurement of these processes requires x-ray detectors with fast temporal resolution. We have measured the temporal responses and linearity of several different x-ray sensitive photoconductive detectors (PCDs). The active elements of the detectors investigated include both diamond (natural and synthetic) and GaAs crystals. The typical time responses of the GaAs PCDs are approximately 60 ps, respectively. Some characterizations using x-ray radiation from a synchrotron radiation source are presented.

  17. Photoconductive Detectors with Fast Temporal Response for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. May, C. Halvorson, T. Perry, F. Weber, P. Young, C. Silbernagel

    2008-06-01

    Processes during laser plasma experiments typically have time scales that are less than 100 ps. The measurement of these processes requires X-ray detectors with fast temporal resolution. We have measured the temporal responses and linearity of several different Xray sensitive Photoconductive Detectors (PCDs). The active elements of the detectors investigated include both diamond (natural and synthetic) and GaAs crystals. The typical time responses of the GaAs PCDs are approximately 60 ps, respectively. Some characterizations using X-ray light from a synchrotron light source are presented.

  18. Photoconductive Detectors with Fast Temporal Response for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    May, M; Halvorson, C; Perry, T; Weber, F; Young, P; Silbernagel, C

    2008-05-06

    Processes during laser plasma experiments typically have time scales that are less than 100 ps. The measurement of these processes requires X-ray detectors with fast temporal resolution. We have measured the temporal responses and linearity of several different X-ray sensitive Photoconductive Detectors (PCDs). The active elements of the detectors investigated include both diamond (natural and synthetic) and GaAs crystals. The typical time responses of the GaAs PCDs are approximately 60 ps, respectively. Some characterizations using X-ray light from a synchrotron light source are presented.

  19. Biostability of Batracylin: Incubation of batracylin in mouse and human plasma for as long as 48 h did not produce significant degradation

    Cancer.gov

    Batracyclin Pharmacology Abstract Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis National Cancer Institute Biostability of Batracylin: Incubation of batracylin in mouse and human plasma for as long as 48 h did not produce significant degradation.

  20. Studies of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF and magnetic reconnection using laser-produced plasmas at OMEGA

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Michael Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ion kinetic effects during the shock-convergence phase of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and magnetic reconnection in strongly-driven, laser-produced plasmas have been facilitated by the use of ...

  1. Measurement of transient force produced by a propagating arc magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator in quiescent atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Joon; Sirohi, Jayant; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted on a magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator consisting of two parallel, six inch long, copper electrodes flush mounted on an insulating ceramic plate. An electrical arc is generated by a???1 kA current pulse at???100?V across the electrodes. A self-induced Lorentz force drives the arc along the electrodes. The motion of the arc induces flow in the surrounding air through compression as well as entrainment, and generates a transient force, about???4?ms in duration. Experiments were performed on a prototype actuator in quiescent atmospheric air to characterize the motion of the arc and the momentum transferred to the surrounding air. Measurements included transient force and total impulse generated by the actuator as well as the armature voltage and current. The arc shape and transit velocity were determined by high-speed imaging. A peak force of 0.4 N imparting an impulse of 0.68 mN-s was measured for a peak current of 1.2 kA. The force scaled with the square of the armature current and the impulse scaled linearly with the spent capacitor energy. The results provide insight into the mechanisms of body force generation and momentum transfer of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma actuator.

  2. Imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Montgomery, D. S.; Hall, I. M.; Drake, R. P.

    2011-04-01

    X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is a powerful technique for measuring state variables in dense plasmas. In this paper, we report on the development of a one-dimensional imaging spectrometer for use in characterizing spatially nonuniform, dense plasmas using XRTS. Diffraction of scattered x-rays from a toroidally curved crystal images along a one-dimensional spatial profile while simultaneously spectrally resolving along the other. An imaging spectrometer was fielded at the Trident laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, yielding a FWHM spatial resolution of < 25 ?m, spectral resolution of 4 eV, spectral range of 350 eV, and spatial range of > 3 mm. A geometrical analysis is performed yielding a simple analytical expression for the throughput of the imaging spectrometer scheme. The SHADOW code is used to perform a ray tracing analysis on the spectrometer fielded at the Trident Laser Facility understand the alignment tolerances on the spatial and spectral resolutions. The analytical expression for the throughput was found to agree well with the results from the ray tracing.

  3. Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sudipta; Narayanan, V.; Ding, Wen Jun; Lad, Amit D.; Hao, Biao; Ahmad, Saima; Wang, Wei Min; Sheng, Zheng Ming; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, Amita; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence in fluids is a ubiquitous, fascinating, and complex natural phenomenon that is not yet fully understood. Unraveling turbulence in high density, high temperature plasmas is an even bigger challenge because of the importance of electromagnetic forces and the typically violent environments. Fascinating and novel behavior of hot dense matter has so far been only indirectly inferred because of the enormous difficulties of making observations on such matter. Here, we present direct evidence of turbulence in giant magnetic fields created in an overdense, hot plasma by relativistic intensity (1018W/cm2) femtosecond laser pulses. We have obtained magneto-optic polarigrams at femtosecond time intervals, simultaneously with micrometer spatial resolution. The spatial profiles of the magnetic field show randomness and their k spectra exhibit a power law along with certain well defined peaks at scales shorter than skin depth. Detailed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations delineate the underlying interaction between forward currents of relativistic energy “hot” electrons created by the laser pulse and “cold” return currents of thermal electrons induced in the target. Our results are not only fundamentally interesting but should also arouse interest on the role of magnetic turbulence induced resistivity in the context of fast ignition of laser fusion, and the possibility of experimentally simulating such structures with respect to the sun and other stellar environments. PMID:22566660

  4. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qijin; Yan, Wei; Randeniya, Lakshman; Zhang, Fengyan; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-03-01

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu2O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 1011-1013 cm-3) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu2O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (˜140 °C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu2O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu2O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147 s, respectively. The Cu2O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  5. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Qijin Zhang, Fengyan; Yan, Wei; Randeniya, Lakshman; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2014-03-28

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3}) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu{sub 2}O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (?140?°C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147?s, respectively. The Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  6. Polyurethane coating with thin polymer films produced by plasma polymerization of diglyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Ramos, A. S.; Manfredini, M. I.; Alves, H. A.; Y Honda, R.; Kostov, K. G.; Lucena, E. F.; Ramos, E. C. T.; Mota, R. P.; Algatti, M. A.; Kayama, M. E.

    2009-05-01

    Aqueous-based polyurethane dispersions have been widely utilized as lubricants in textile, shoes, automotive, biomaterial and many other industries because they are less aggressive to surrounding environment. In this work thin films with different thickness were deposited on biocompatible polyurethane by plasma polymerization process using diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (Diglyme) as monomer. Molecular structure of the films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The spectra exhibited absorption bands of O-H (3500-3200cm-1), C-H (3000-2900cm-1), C=O (1730-1650cm-1), C-O and C-O-C bonds at 1200-1600cm-1. The samples wettability was evaluated by measurements of contact angle using different liquids such as water, glycerol, poly-ethane and CMC. The polyurethane surface showed hydrophilic behavior after diglyme plasma-deposition with contact angle dropping from 85° to 22°. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that diglyme films covered uniformly the polyurethane surfaces ensuring to it a biocompatible characteristic.

  7. Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudipta; Narayanan, V; Ding, Wen Jun; Lad, Amit D; Hao, Biao; Ahmad, Saima; Wang, Wei Min; Sheng, Zheng Ming; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, Amita; Kumar, G Ravindra

    2012-05-22

    Turbulence in fluids is a ubiquitous, fascinating, and complex natural phenomenon that is not yet fully understood. Unraveling turbulence in high density, high temperature plasmas is an even bigger challenge because of the importance of electromagnetic forces and the typically violent environments. Fascinating and novel behavior of hot dense matter has so far been only indirectly inferred because of the enormous difficulties of making observations on such matter. Here, we present direct evidence of turbulence in giant magnetic fields created in an overdense, hot plasma by relativistic intensity (10(18) W/cm(2)) femtosecond laser pulses. We have obtained magneto-optic polarigrams at femtosecond time intervals, simultaneously with micrometer spatial resolution. The spatial profiles of the magnetic field show randomness and their k spectra exhibit a power law along with certain well defined peaks at scales shorter than skin depth. Detailed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations delineate the underlying interaction between forward currents of relativistic energy "hot" electrons created by the laser pulse and "cold" return currents of thermal electrons induced in the target. Our results are not only fundamentally interesting but should also arouse interest on the role of magnetic turbulence induced resistivity in the context of fast ignition of laser fusion, and the possibility of experimentally simulating such structures with respect to the sun and other stellar environments. PMID:22566660

  8. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  9. Natural IgM is Produced by CD5? Plasma Cells that Occupy a Distinct Survival Niche in Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Alexander E.; Kuraoka, Masayuki; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2014-01-01

    Natural IgM is constitutively present in the serum, where it aids in the early control of viral and bacterial expansion. Natural IgM also plays a significant role in the prevention of autoimmune disease by promoting the clearance of cellular debris. Nevertheless, the origins of natural IgM have not been precisely defined. Previous studies have focused on the role of CD5+ B1 cells in the production of natural IgM, but we show here that a discrete population of CD5? IgM plasmablasts and plasma cells in the BM produces the majority of serum IgM in resting mice. These ASC originate from peritoneal cavity-resident cells, as transfer of peritoneal cells completely restores serum IgM and the specific compartment of BM ASC in Rag1-deficient mice. We show that BM natural IgM ASC arise from a fetal-lineage progenitor that is neither B1a nor B1b, and that this IgM ASC compartment contains a substantial fraction of long-lived plasma cells that do not occupy the IgG plasma cell survival niche in the BM, but are instead supported by IL-5. In summary, we have identified the primary source of natural IgM, and shown that these ASC are maintained long-term in a unique survival niche within the BM. PMID:25429072

  10. Formation of hot spots in the plasma of a Z-pinch produced from low-density deuterated polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Akunets, A. A.; Anan'ev, S. S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Bryzgunov, V. A.; Vikhrev, V. V.; Volobuev, I. V.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Zelenin, A. A.; Kazakov, E. D.; Korolev, V. D.; Meshcherov, B. R.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Shchagin, V. A.

    2010-08-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the plasma formation dynamics in a Z-pinch produced from a cylindrical microporous agar-agar load. The experiments were performed on the S-300 facility at a current of 2 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. To enhance the energy concentration, a deuterated polyethylene neck with a mass density of 50-75 {mu}g/cm{sup 3} and diameter of 1-2 mm was made in the central part of the load. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the Z-pinch were studied using an optical streak camera and fast frame photography in the optical and soft X-ray spectral ranges. X-ray emission was detected using semiconductor and vacuum diodes, and neutron emission was studied by means of the time-of-flight method. It is found that, in the course of continuous plasma production, hot spots with a diameter of 100 {mu}m form in the pinch plasma. The hot spots emit short soft X-ray pulses with a duration of 2-4 ns, as well as neutron pulses with an average neutron energy of about 2.45 MeV. The maximum neutron yield was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup 9} neutrons per shot. The scenario of hot spot formation is adequately described by two-dimensional MHD simulations.

  11. Magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-Ti-C-B nanocomposite magnets produced by spark plasma sintering method

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tetsuji

    2006-04-15

    Amorphous melt-spun ribbons of a Nd{sub 9}Fe{sub 73}Ti{sub 4}C{sub 1}B{sub 13} alloy were consolidated into bulk materials by the spark plasma sintering method. The resultant bulk material was amorphous when the ribbons were consolidated at 773 K. The amorphous bulk material showed a low coercivity, as would be expected for amorphous Nd-Fe-B materials. On the other hand, the bulk materials produced at 873 K and above consisted of {alpha}-Fe and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases. The resultant nanocomposite magnets showed high coercivity values exceeding 10 kOe. The bulk material produced at 973 K showed a high remanence of 8.4 kG with a maximum energy product of 13.8 MG Oe.

  12. Initial observations of the Pioneer Venus orbiter solar wind plasma experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J.; Mihalov, J.; Collard, H.; Mckibbin, D.; Whitten, R.; Barnes, A.; Intriligator, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The ionosphere, ionosheath, ionopause, and bow shock wave of Venus are characterized. Venus is found to have a well-defined strong standing bow shock wave. In the ionosheath, downstream from the shock, compressed and heated postshock plasma apparently interacts directly with the ionosphere. Plasma ion velocity deflections suggest that the ionopause has a blunt shape. The positions of the bow shock and ionopause are variable and appear to respond to changes in the external solar wind pressure.

  13. Initial measurement of the kinetic dust temperature of a weakly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jeremiah D.; Thomas, Edward Jr.

    2006-06-15

    Measurements of the velocity space distribution function of 2.9 {mu}m diameter silica particles in an argon dc glow discharge dusty plasma are made through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). These distribution functions are then used to determine the kinetic temperature of the dust component. These measurements show that the kinetic temperature of the dust component is significantly larger than the other plasma components (electrons, ions, and background neutrals)

  14. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from a discharge-produced potassium plasma for surface morphology application

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Sasaki, Wataru; D'Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2010-03-29

    We have demonstrated a discharge-produced microplasma extreme ultraviolet source based on a pure potassium vapor. Potassium ions produced strong broadband emission around 40 nm with a bandwidth of 8 nm (full width at half-maximum). The current-voltage characteristics of microdischarge suggest that the source operates in a hollow cathode mode. By comparison with atomic structure calculations, the broadband emission is found to be primarily due to 3d-3p transitions in potassium ions ranging from K{sup 2+} to K{sup 4+}.

  15. Initial Operation of the Miniaturized Inductively Heated Plasma Generator IPG6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Koch, Helmut; Gomringer, Chris; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2012-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma wind tunnel facilities of similar type have been established using the inductively heated plasma source IPG6 which is based on proven IRS designs. The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160m^3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control in a wide range. First experiments have been conducted with Air, O2 and N2 as working gases and volumetric flow rates of up to 14 L/min at pressures of a few 100 Pa, although pressures below 1 Pa are achievable at lower flow rates. The maximum tested electric power so far was 8 kW. Plasma powers and total pressures in the plasma jet have been obtained. In the near future the set up of additional diagnostics, the use of other gases (i.e. H2, He), and the integration of a dust particle accelerator are planned. The intended fields of research are basic investigation in thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. in fusion devices or during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  16. Diffusion research between Ni 3Al coating and titanium alloy produced by plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenming; Yang, Bin; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2010-03-01

    A Ni 3Al coating was prepared by plasma spraying technique on the surface of titanium alloy. Ni-Al mixed powders, coatings and reaction products were investigated by scanning electron microscope, EDS, DSC and XRD. A tight bonding between the coating and the substrate was formed. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the patterns showed that the coating not only had Ni 3Al phase, but also had NiO and Al 2O 3 phase microcontent. Comparing Ni coated Al to Ni 3Al at 900 °C, the diffusion was stronger and the diffusion layer was thicker. A minute pore structure was formed at 1200 °C in the front edge of solid-state reaction layer. So Ni 3Al restrained the solid-state reaction of the coating with the substrate, and as a whole weakened the entry of oxygen atoms into the substrate and quenched the out-diffusion of titanium.

  17. Efficient multi-keV underdense laser-produced plasma radiators.

    PubMed

    Back, C A; Grun, J; Decker, C; Suter, L J; Davis, J; Landen, O L; Wallace, R; Hsing, W W; Laming, J M; Feldman, U; Miller, M C; Wuest, C

    2001-12-31

    Novel, efficient x-ray sources have been created by supersonically heating a large volume of Xe gas. A laser-induced bleaching wave quickly ionizes the high- Z gas, and the resulting plasma emits x rays. This method significantly improves the production of hard x rays because less energy is lost to kinetic energy and sub-keV x rays. The conversion efficiency of laser energy into L-shell radiation between 4-7 keV is measured at approximately 10%, an order of magnitude higher than efficiencies measured from solid disk targets. This higher flux enables material testing and backlighting in new regimes and scales well to future high-powered lasers. PMID:11800887

  18. F.T. spectroscopy of OH produced in a microwave surface plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benidar, A.; Farrenq, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Chapey, M. Morillon; Chackerian, C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Emission spectra of the hydroxyl radical have been recorded between 450 and 4200/cm at 0.0027/cm unapodized resolution from an air+oxygen+water vapor plasma, using a surface microwave discharge. The characteristics of the source are described. The emission spectra were recorded with the F.T. spectrometer using a GeCu detector and KCl beams plitter. High J values were observed both for the pure rotational transition in v=0 and v=1 vibrational levels, and for the rovibrational transition in the 0-1 and 1-2 bands. The set of line intensity data will be used to compute the electric dipole moment function of OH.

  19. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  20. Novel analysis system using surface desorption stimulated by VUV photons from laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katto, Masahito; Kaku, Masanori; Kubodera, Shoichi; Yokotani, Atushi; Miyabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Sasaki, Wataru

    2010-09-01

    We proposed and developed a novel surface analysis system using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons. When the VUV photons were irradiated on the material surface, surface desorption was stimulated. The desorbed species were analyzed by the mass spectrometer. First, we studied the decomposition process induced by VUV photons from excimer lamps. We found that the different photon energy resulted in the different time dependence of the fragments signals even if the materials had similar chemical construction. It suggested that the identification of the materials should be possible by tracing the decomposition process. We developed an analyzing system, called "Photo-Stimulated Desorption (PSD) mass spectrometer" using a broadband VUV radiation from the Ar plasma excited by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The desorbed species were analyzed by the quadrupole mass spectrometer. This PSD system was useful surface analysis tool not only for the semiconductor but also plastics, which is easily affected by heat.

  1. Three-dimensional extreme ultraviolet emission from a droplet-based laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, A. Z.; Abhari, Reza S.

    2013-07-21

    The emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation in a 2% bandwidth centered at 13.5 nm (in-band) is measured in one hemisphere. The targets of the laser are tin droplets. In-band emission is measured at angles from the laser axis larger than 120 Degree-Sign . Analytical models representing the physical processes are developed and calibrated with the experimental data. In the models two assumptions are investigated, isentropic and isothermal 2D-axisymmetric expansion. The parameters of the models are the density distribution of the plasma and the location where the EUV emission is centered. The parameters are inferred by the calibration of the models with the experimental data. The predictions of the models are validated with experiments where slab targets were used.

  2. Nanohole-array size dependence of soft x-ray generation enhancement from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Oguri, Katsuya; Uesugi, Naoshi; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2004-12-15

    Nanostructured targets are very attractive for enhancing the intensity of x-ray pulses generated from laser-produced-plasma. In order to clarify the enhancement mechanism, the nanohole-array size dependence of the characteristics of soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond-laser-produced plasma was investigated in detail. We found that the highest x-ray intensity can be obtained and the x-ray pulse duration kept relatively short with a nanohole-array alumina target with a 500 nm hole interval and a 450 nm hole diameter. A 40-fold soft x-ray fluence enhancement and a nine-fold soft x-ray pulse peak intensity enhancement can be obtained. The relatively short x-ray pulse duration of 19 ps can be maintained because the target structure has high local density and nanometer-sized spaces. Similar enhancement effects can be expected by using a nanostructured target with wall thickness of less than 100 nm, space size of around a few 100 nm, and nanostructure depth larger than 20 {mu}m.

  3. Filamentary structure of plasma produced by compression of puffing deuterium by deuterium or neon plasma sheath on plasma-focus discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Kubes, P.; Cikhardt, J.; Kortanek, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Rezac, K.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2014-12-15

    The present experiments were performed on the PF-1000 plasma focus device at a current of 2 MA with the deuterium injected from the gas-puff placed in the axis of the anode face. The XUV frames showed, in contrast with the interferograms, the fine structure: filaments and spots up to 1?mm diameter. In the deuterium filling, the short filaments are registered mainly in the region of the internal plasmoidal structures and their number correlates with the intensity of neutron production. The longer filamentary structure was recorded close to the anode after the constriction decay. The long curve-like filaments with spots were registered in the big bubble formed after the pinch phase in the head of the umbrella shape of the plasma sheath. Filaments can indicate the filamentary structure of the current in the pinch. Together with the filaments, small compact balls a few mm in diameter were registered by both interferometry and XUV frame pictures. They emerge out of the dense column and their life-time can be greater than hundreds of ns.

  4. Numerical simulation of microwave amplification in a plasma channel produced in a gas via multiphoton ionisation by a femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatskaya, A V; Popov, A M; Volkova, E A

    2014-12-31

    This paper examines the evolution of a nonequilibrium plasma channel produced in xenon by a femtosecond KrF laser pulse. We demonstrate that such a channel can be used to amplify microwave pulses over times of the order of the relaxation time of the photoelectron energy spectrum in xenon. Using the slowly varying amplitude approximation, we analyse the propagation and amplification of an rf pulse in a plasma channel, in particular when the rf field influences the electron energy distribution function in the plasma. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of a plasma produced by an intense picosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryunetkin, B. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Kalashnikov, M. P.; Nickles, P. V.; Schnürer, M.; Pikuz, S. A.

    1993-04-01

    It has been shown experimentally that a source based on a plasma produced by a picosecond laser is extremely promising for systematic research on the satellite structures of multiply charged ions which have electrons in L or M shells. The combination of the unique characteristics of this source and the particular measurement apparatus used (with a spectral resolution ??/?~10-4) has made it possible to refine the wavelengths of several transitions of Mg IX and X ions which had been identified previously, to identify for the first time ten spectral lines due to 1s2p4l ? 1s24l and 1s2p3l ? 1s23l transitions of the Mg X ion, and to measure the wavelengths of 47 spectral lines which have tentatively been attributed to the Be-like ion Mg IX.

  6. Measurements of the optical emission produced during the laboratory beam plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallinan, T. J.; Leinbach, H.; Mantjoukis, G.; Bernstein, W.

    1984-01-01

    Optical observations of a beam-plasma discharge (BPD) in the laboratory showed that the discharge remained confined to a diameter little more than double that of the beam for injection parallel to the magnetic field and approximately equal to that of the beam for injection at large pitch angles. The diameter was independent of beam current but varied linearly with beam velocity and inversely with magnetic field strength. The ionization rate inferred from the total emission of 3914 A, integrated over the radial extent of the beam, was proportional to the excess beam current above that requied for BPD ignition. The proportionality constant ( 12 + or - 2) x 10 to the 14th ions/cm s A was valid over a wide range of pressure and of magnetic field strength. Power loss to ionization in a 20 m path was estimated at up to 4 percent of the beam power. Evidence is presented for effective confinement of suprathermal electrons (parallel to B) by some unidentified process other than electrostatic confinement.

  7. Characterization of sp 3 carbon produced by plasma deposition on gamma-TiAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narksitipan, Suparut; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2008-09-01

    Surfaces of two gamma-TiAl alloys, Ti-47%Al-2%Nb-2%Cr (MJ12) and Ti-47%Al-2%Nb-2%Mn + 0.8%TiB 2 (MJ47), were modified by acetylene plasma deposition at -3 kV bias voltage for 0.5-4 h. By using GIXRD and SAED, C ( n-diamond), TiC, Al, AlTi, AlTi 2, AlTi 3, Al 0.64Ti 0.36 and Al 2Ti were detected on both alloys. Additional TiB 2 was detected on MJ47. XPS and Raman analyses revealed the presence of sp 3 and sp 2 carbon deposited on the alloy surfaces with their binding energies of 283.9-284.8 eV for MJ12 and 283.9-285.0 eV for MJ47. Both sp 3 and sp 2 contents were increased with the increase in the exposure times. The increasing rate of the first was less than that of the second, due to the stress developed in the films. Moiré fringe and crystallographic planes were detected using TEM. Knoop hardness of the deposited alloys, influenced by sp 3 carbon, was increased with the increase in the exposure time. Those of MJ12 and MJ47 with 4 h deposition are 1.88 and 1.57 times of the corresponding untreated alloys, respectively.

  8. Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets (thick films) produced by a vacuum-plasma-spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, G.; Wecker, J.; Rodewald, W.; Sattler, W.; Bach, Fr.-W.; Duda, T.; Unterberg, W.

    2000-05-01

    Thick, hard-magnetic Nd-Fe-B films (˜1 mm) were deposited on different substrates (Cu, steel) by a low-pressure plasma-spraying process. The properties of the applied Nd-Fe-B powders (e.g., grain size, composition) and the conditions of the spraying process were optimized with respect to the mechanical and magnetic properties of the films. Film thicknesses up to 1.2 mm were achieved with good adhesive properties (bond strength>40 MPa). Cracks at the interface or within the films during the deposition process could be suppressed by adjusting the temperature profile of the substrate and controlling the deposition rate. Depending on the maximum temperature of the substrate and the thickness of the Nd-Fe-B films, either amorphous or microcrystalline structures were obtained. In general, the magnetic properties were improved by a postdeposition annealing treatment. Coercivities HcJ up to 16 kA/cm and isotropic remanences of about 0.6 T were achieved.

  9. Modeling Double Hole Dynamics in Intense Laser Produced Xenon Cluster Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Tzvetelina; Whitney, Kenneth; Davis, Jack; Petrov, George

    2010-11-01

    When femtosecond laser pulses with intensities greater than ˜10^19W/cm^2 interact with a cluster of xenon atoms, the atoms are stripped of their N-shell electrons in less than a femtosecond and a Coulomb explosion ensues with ions initially in the ground state of Ni-like xenon. X-ray lasing at ˜2.86 å has been observed in such cluster explosions [1] and gain coefficients were measured. Gains comparable to those measured have been obtained in the single hole states of Co-like xenon in an initial non-equilibrium theoretical analysis of these experiments [2]. Alternatively, x-ray amplification has also been attributed to the generation of population inversions between double and single hole states in the M-shell ions of xenon [3]. In order to investigate the viability of this possibility, we have added double hole states to the Fe-like ionization stage of our detailed ionization dynamic model of Ni-, Co-, and Fe-like xenon [2]. Results from our model calculations will be presented in this talk. [0pt] [1] A. B. Borisov, et. al., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 (2007) F307. [2] Tz. B. Petrova, et. al., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 (2010) 025601. [3] W. Andreas Schroeder, et. al., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34 (2001) 297.

  10. Strongly-coupled plasmas formed from laser-heated solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, M.; Bergeson, S. D.; Hart, G.; Murillo, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    We present an analysis of ion temperatures in laser-produced plasmas formed from solids with different initial lattice structures. We show that the equilibrium ion temperature is limited by a mismatch between the initial crystallographic configuration and the close-packed configuration of a strongly-coupled plasma, similar to experiments in ultracold neutral plasmas. We propose experiments to demonstrate and exploit this crystallographic heating in order to produce a strongly coupled plasma with a coupling parameter of several hundred.

  11. Strongly-coupled plasmas formed from laser-heated solids

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, M.; Bergeson, S. D.; Hart, G.; Murillo, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of ion temperatures in laser-produced plasmas formed from solids with different initial lattice structures. We show that the equilibrium ion temperature is limited by a mismatch between the initial crystallographic configuration and the close-packed configuration of a strongly-coupled plasma, similar to experiments in ultracold neutral plasmas. We propose experiments to demonstrate and exploit this crystallographic heating in order to produce a strongly coupled plasma with a coupling parameter of several hundred. PMID:26503293

  12. Generation mechanism of hydroxyl radical species and its lifetime prediction during the plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Pankaj; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Park, Ji Hoon; Hong, Young J.; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    Through this work, we have elucidated the mechanism of hydroxyl radicals (OH•) generation and its life time measurements in biosolution. We observed that plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were responsible for the continues generation of OH• species, that resulted in OH• to be major reactive species (RS) in the solution. The density and lifetime of OH• species acted inversely proportional to each other with increasing depth inside the solution. The cause of increased lifetime of OH• inside the solution is predicted using theoretical and semiempirical calculations. Further, to predict the mechanism of conversion of hydroxide ion (OH?) to OH• or H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and electron, we determined the current inside the solution of different pH. Additionally, we have investigated the critical criterion for OH• interaction on cancer cell inducing apoptosis under effective OH• exposure time. These studies are innovative in the field of plasma chemistry and medicine. PMID:25790968

  13. Generation mechanism of hydroxyl radical species and its lifetime prediction during the plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attri, Pankaj; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Park, Ji Hoon; Hong, Young J.; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    Through this work, we have elucidated the mechanism of hydroxyl radicals (OH•) generation and its life time measurements in biosolution. We observed that plasma-initiated ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were responsible for the continues generation of OH• species, that resulted in OH• to be major reactive species (RS) in the solution. The density and lifetime of OH• species acted inversely proportional to each other with increasing depth inside the solution. The cause of increased lifetime of OH• inside the solution is predicted using theoretical and semiempirical calculations. Further, to predict the mechanism of conversion of hydroxide ion (OH-) to OH• or H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and electron, we determined the current inside the solution of different pH. Additionally, we have investigated the critical criterion for OH• interaction on cancer cell inducing apoptosis under effective OH• exposure time. These studies are innovative in the field of plasma chemistry and medicine.

  14. Initial design of a 1 megawatt average, 150 kilovolt pulse modulator for an industrial plasma source ion implantation processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reass, W. A.; Deb, D.

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) is a materials surface modification process which can be used to improve performance characteristics of manufacturing tooling and products. Since improvements can be realized in surface hardness, reduced friction, wear, galling, and increased resistance to corrosion, PSII is applicable to a broad spectrum of manufactured items. In PSII, the object to be implanted is placed in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsed to a high negative voltage. The plasma ions are accelerated into the object's surface, thereby changing its' chemical and physical composition. The plasma dynamic load impedance is highly variable, dependent on implant object area, plasma density, and material composition. The modulator load impedance may be a few tens of ohms and a few thousand picofarads early in time. Late in time, the load may appear as 20,000 Ohms and 100 picofarads. The modulator system must accommodate any process changes, in addition to (frequent) initial 'start-up' object arcs (from impurities). To implant the required ion densities in a minimum of time, multi-kilohertz rep-rates are often required. An evolutionary design approach was utilized to design a cost-effective and reliable modulator system with components of established performance, suitable for a manufacturing environment. This paper, in addition to presenting the anticipated modulator design required for the PSII application, will review similar modulator topologies and determine operational lifetime characteristics. Further improvements in system electrical efficiency can also be realized with incremental design modifications to the high voltage switch tubes. Development options for upgraded switch tubes of higher efficiency will also be presented.

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Al-SiC Nanocomposites Produced by Ball Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grácio, José J.; Picu, Catalin R.; Vincze, Gabriela; Mathew, Nithin; Schubert, Thomas; Lopes, Augusto; Buchheim, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    Al-SiC nanocomposites were prepared by high energy ball milling of mixtures of pure Al and 50-nm-diameter SiC nanoparticles, followed by spark plasma sintering. The final composites had grains of approximately 100 nm dimensions, with SiC particles located mostly at grain boundaries. The samples were tested in uniaxial compression by nano- and microindentation in order to establish the effect of the SiC volume fraction, stearic acid addition to the powder, and the milling time on the mechanical properties. The results are compared with those obtained for pure Al processed under similar conditions and for AA1050 aluminum. The yield stress of the nanocomposite with 1 vol pct SiC is more than ten times larger than that of AA1050. The largest increase is due to grain size reduction; nanocrystalline Al without SiC and processed by the same method has a yield stress seven times larger than AA1050. Adding 0.5 vol pct SiC increases the yield stress by an additional 47 pct, while the addition of 1 vol pct SiC leads to 50 pct increase relative to the nanocrystalline Al without SiC. Increasing the milling time and adding stearic acid to the powder during milling lead to relatively small increases of the flow stress. The hardness measured in nano- and microindentation experiments confirms these trends, although the numerical values of the gains are different. The stability of the microstructure was tested by annealing samples to 423 K and 523 K (150 °C and 250 °C) for 2 hours, in separate experiments. The heat treatment had no effect on the mechanical properties, except when treating the material with 1 vol pct SiC at 523 K (250 °C), which led to a reduction of the yield stress by 13 pct. The data suggest that the main strengthening mechanism is associated with grain size reduction, while the role of the SiC particles is mostly that of stabilizing the nanograins.

  16. A comparative spectroscopic study of single and dual pulse laser produced UV tin plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Ahmed A. I.

    2013-02-01

    A comparative study of single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) using two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers emitting at 532 nm is presented. Both lasers were combined in the same direction (collinear beam scheme) to focus on planar Sn targets at ambient pressure. The effect of the delay times between the incident laser pulse and the ICCD gate, placement of the laser beam focal position with respect to the illuminated surface, incident laser irradiance, and ambient argon pressure on the signal intensity enhancement for the dual pulse scheme have been studied. Atomic and ionic emission lines of Sn were recorded in the 272-296 nm UV spectral region. By using the DP-LIBS excitation technique, the intensity of Sn lines was enhanced by nearly seven times as compared to the single pulse signal that could help the analytical performance of the LIBS technique in terms of increasing sensitivity and reducing self-absorption effects for Sn targets. In the case of the DP-LIBS scheme, the intensities of the atomic Sn I at 283.9 nm were recorded at different optimal angles of 45° and 90° and were compared. This comparison was done at different positions of the laser beam focus with respect to the illuminated surface (at 2.45 mm in front of the surface, on the surface, at 1.7 mm and 4.7 mm behind the surface). Furthermore, in the DP-LIBS scheme, an intensity enhancement of the atomic Sn I line at 283.9 nm occurs when the signal was recorded at an angle of 90° to the plasma expansion along the direction of the incident laser beam and the detector set at short delay times. The investigation proved that an optimized value of short delay times between the incident laser pulse and the ICCD gate is required. Variations in the electron temperature (Te) and electron number density (Ne) as a function of gate delay time and laser irradiance have been studied by using the emission lines of neutral tin. Special attention was paid to possible self-absorption of the different transitions. The micro-craters created by SP and DP laser ablation were compared using a reflection optical microscopy (ROM).

  17. The interaction of polarized microwaves with planar arrays of femtosecond laser-produced plasma filaments in air

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, Anca; El Morsli, Mbark; Vidal, Francois; Payeur, Stephane; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Chateauneuf, Marc; Theberge, Francis; Dubois, Jacques

    2013-02-15

    The interaction of polarized microwaves with subwavelength arrays of parallel plasma filaments, such as those produced by the propagation of high-power femtosecond laser pulses in ambient air, was investigated by calculating the reflection and transmission coefficients as a function of the incidence angles using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The time evolution of these coefficients was calculated and compared with experiments. It is found that the plasma filaments array becomes transparent when the polarization of the microwave radiation is perpendicular to the filaments axis, regardless the incidence angle of the microwave with respect to the filaments, except near grazing incidence. Increasing the filaments electron density or diameter, or decreasing the electron collision frequency or filaments spacing, decreases the transmission and increases the reflection. Transmission decreases when increasing the number of filament layers while reflection remains unchanged as the number of filament layers exceeds a given number ({approx}3 in our case). Transmission slightly increases when disorder is introduced in the filament arrays. The detailed calculation results are compared with those obtained from the simple birefringent slab model, which provides a convenient framework to calculate approximately the properties of filament arrays.

  18. Antibody-integrated and functionalized graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, produced using ammonia gas plasma technology, for capturing Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Chou, Han; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella spp. is the single and most important causative agent of foodborne infections, especially involving foods such as eggs, milk and meat. To prevent infection, a reliable surveillance system is required that can quickly and sensitively detect Salmonella. Here, we describe the development of antibody-integrated magnetic beads that are functionalized by a novel strategy using ammonia gas plasma. Ammonia plasma, produced by a radio frequency (RF) power supply, was allowed to react with the surface of graphite-encapsulated magnetic beads, resulting in the introduction of amino groups. An anti-Salmonella antibody was then anchored by sulfide groups present on the protein surface to the amino groups of the magnetic beads via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The potential usefulness of these magnetic beads for capturing Salmonella was examined as follows. The beads were incubated with Salmonella in liquid medium and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, adsorption of Salmonella to the beads was confirmed by immunochromatography, polymerase chain reaction and a direct culture assay. Our findings indicate that the capture and concentration of Salmonella using the antibody-integrated magnetic beads was more efficient than commercial Dynabeads® anti-Salmonella, which are conventionally used for concentrating Salmonella from liquid cultures. We believe this novel bead technology will contribute to the enhanced detection of Salmonella. PMID:25660257

  19. Interpenetration, stagnation and deflection of supersonic tungsten plasma flows produced by wire-array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swadling, George; Lebedev, Sergey; Burdiak, Guy; Suttle, Lee; Patankar, Siddharth; Smith, Roland; Bennett, Matthew; Hall, Garteth; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Yuan, Jianqiang; Harvey-Thompson, Adam; Rozmus, Woichech

    2014-10-01

    We present Thomson Scattering measurements [G. F. Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (Accepted 17 June 2014)] of the interpenetration, stagnation and deflection of supersonic tungsten plasma flows, produced in wire array z-pinch experiments on the MAGPIE (1.4 MA, 240 ns) pulsed power generator at Imperial College London. These measurements were made at early times in the evolution of the arrays, prior to the formation of the dense precursor column (120 ns), when the collisional scale length between the streams was still significant compared to the scale length of the array. The scattering geometry used in these experiments allowed independent measurements of the radial and axial velocity distributions of the interacting flows; temporally and spatially resolved measurements were made over seven points across the array diameter. Analysis of the Thomson spectra provides evidence of flow interpenetration; the flows decelerate and are heated over an extended distance (1.5 mm) before they fully stagnate. A previously unobserved axial deflection of the plasma flow towards the anode as it approaches the array axis provides evidence of the presence of a significant (20 T) toroidal magnetic field embedded within the precursor column at early times.

  20. XPS study of surface chemistry of tungsten carbides nanopowders produced through DC thermal plasma/hydrogen annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovskii, Pavel V.; Malinovskaya, Olga S.; Samokhin, Andrey V.; Blagoveshchenskiy, Yury V.; Kazakov, Valery ?.; Ashmarin, Artem ?.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been employed to characterize the surface composition and bonding of the tungsten carbides nanopowders produced through a DC thermal plasma/hydrogen annealing process. The XPS results were complemented with those from Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and evolved gas analysis. The products of the DC plasma synthesis are the high-surface-area multicarbide mixtures composed mainly of crystalline WC1-x and W2C. The materials are contaminated with a pyrolitic carbonaceous deposit which forms ?1 nm thick graphitic overlayers on the nanoparticles' surface. The underlying carbides are not oxidized in ambient air, and show no interfacial compounds underneath the graphitic overlayers. When annealed in hydrogen, the multicarbide mixtures undergo transformation into the single-phase WC nanopowders with an average particle size of 50-60 nm. The surface of the passivated and air-exposed WC nanopowders is stabilized by an ultrathin, no more than 0.5 nm in thickness, chemically heterogeneous overlayer, involving graphitic, carbon-to-oxygen, and WO3 bonding. Oxygen presents at coverages above a monolayer preferentially in the bonding configurations with carbon. The surface segregations of carbon are normally observed, even when the bulk content of carbon is below the stoichiometric level.

  1. Effects of the dynamics of droplet-based laser-produced plasma on angular extreme ultraviolet emission profile

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Andrea Z.; Abhari, Reza S.

    2014-05-12

    The emission distribution of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from droplet targets is dependent on the dynamics of the laser-produced plasma. The EUV emission is measured on a 2% bandwidth centered at 13.5?nm (in-band). The targets of the laser are small (sub-50 ?m) tin droplets, and the in-band emission distribution is measured for different laser irradiances and droplet sizes at various angular positions. Larger droplets lead to a faster decay of EUV emission at larger angles with respect to the laser axis. A decrease in laser irradiance has the opposite effect. The measurements are used together with an analytical model to estimate plume dynamics. Additionally, the model is used to estimate EUV emission distribution for a desired droplet diameter and laser irradiance.

  2. Note: study of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray emission of metal targets produced by laser-plasma-interaction.

    PubMed

    Mantouvalou, I; Jung, R; Tuemmler, J; Legall, H; Bidu, T; Stiel, H; Malzer, W; Kanngiesser, B; Sandner, W

    2011-06-01

    Different metal targets were investigated as possible source material for tailored laser-produced plasma-sources. In the wavelength range from 1 to 20 nm, x-ray spectra were collected with a calibrated spectrometer with a resolution of ?/?? = 150 at 1 nm up to ?/?? = 1100 at 15 nm. Intense line emission features of highly ionized species as well as continuum-like spectra from unresolved transitions are presented. With this knowledge, the optimal target material can be identified for the envisioned application of the source in x-ray spectrometry on the high energy side of the spectra at about 1 keV. This energy is aimed for because 1 keV-radiation is ideally suited for L-shell x-ray spectroscopy with nm-depth resolution. PMID:21721738

  3. Note: Study of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray emission of metal targets produced by laser-plasma-interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, I.; Bidu, T.; Malzer, W.; Kanngiesser, B.; Jung, R.; Tuemmler, J.; Legall, H.; Stiel, H.; Sandner, W.

    2011-06-15

    Different metal targets were investigated as possible source material for tailored laser-produced plasma-sources. In the wavelength range from 1 to 20 nm, x-ray spectra were collected with a calibrated spectrometer with a resolution of {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}= 150 at 1 nm up to {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}= 1100 at 15 nm. Intense line emission features of highly ionized species as well as continuum-like spectra from unresolved transitions are presented. With this knowledge, the optimal target material can be identified for the envisioned application of the source in x-ray spectrometry on the high energy side of the spectra at about 1 keV. This energy is aimed for because 1 keV-radiation is ideally suited for L-shell x-ray spectroscopy with nm-depth resolution.

  4. Directed transfer of microwave radiation in sliding-mode plasma waveguides produced by ultraviolet laser in atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Zvorykin, Vladimir D; Ionin, Andrei A; Levchenko, Alexei O; Seleznev, Leonid V; Sinitsyn, Dmitrii V; Smetanin, Igor' V; Ustinovskii, Nikolai N; Shutov, Alexei V

    2014-11-01

    Experiments have been performed at hybrid Ti:sapphire/KrF laser facility GARPUN-MTW to develop a novel technique to create a hollow-core sliding-mode plasma-filament waveguide for directed transfer of microwave radiation. Efficient multiphoton air ionization was produced by a train of picosecond 1-TW UV pulses at 248 nm wavelength, or by amplitude-modulated 100 ns pulse combining a short-pulse train with a free-running 1-GW pulse, which detached electrons off O2- ions. Multiple filamentation of UV laser radiation in air was observed, and filamentation theory based on resonance-enhanced ionization was developed to explain the experimental results. PMID:25402935

  5. Characterization of short pulse laser-produced plasmas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.; Price, D.; White, W.; Osterheld, A.; Walling, R.; Goldstein, W.; Stewart, R.; Gordan, S.

    1993-07-14

    The K-shell emission from porous aluminum targets is used to infer the density and temperature of plasmas created with 800 nm and 400 nm, 140 fs laser light. The laser beam is focused to a minimum spot size of 5 {mu}m with 800 nm light and 3 {mu}m with 400 nm light, producing a normal incidence peak intensity of 10{sup 18} Watts/cm{sup 2}. A new 800 fs x-ray streak camera is used to study the broadband x-ray emission. The time resolved and time integrated x-ray emission implies substantial differences between the porous target and the flat target temperature.

  6. Molecular Classification and Pharmacogenetics of Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: An Initial Approach toward Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974

  7. Initial bone marrow findings in multiple myeloma. Significance of plasma cell nodules.

    PubMed

    Buss, D H; Prichard, R W; Hartz, J W; Cooper, M R; Feigin, G A

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective review of bone marrow specimens from 235 patients with multiple myeloma and 148 patients with reactive plasmacytosis was performed in an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of bone marrow sections in distinguishing between these conditions. Although the presence of large homogeneous nodules and/or infiltrates of plasma cells in bone marrow sections remains the best criterion for the diagnosis of myeloma, a few specimens (2%) from patients with reactive plasmacytosis also showed this feature. In addition, 26% of the patients with myeloma had bone marrow sections that were considered nondiagnostic in that they lacked recognizable homogeneous nodules and/or infiltrates of plasma cells. Finally, distinguishing multiple myeloma from bone marrow involvement by lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas can be very difficult, if not impossible, based on findings in the sections alone. PMID:3753566

  8. Development and initial operating characteristics of the 20 megawatt linear plasma accelerator facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, A. F.; Weaver, W. R.; Mcfarland, D. R.; Wood, G. P.

    1971-01-01

    A 20-megawatt linear plasma accelerator facility, a steady flow, Faraday-type plasma accelerator facility for high velocity aerodynamic testing, was constructed, developed, and brought to an operational status. The accelerator has a 63.5-mm-square and 0.5-meter-long channel and utilizes nitrogen-seeded with 2 % mole fraction of cesium vapor. Modification of the original accelerator design characteristics and the improvements necessary to make the arc heater a suitable plasma source are described. The measured accelerator electrode current distribution and the electrode-wall potential distributions are given. The computed and the measured values are in good agreement. Measured pitot pressure indicates that an accelerator exit velocity of 9.2 km/sec, is obtained with 30 of the 36 electrode pairs powered and corresponds to a velocity increase to about 2 1/4 times the computed entrance velocity. The computed stagnation enthalpy at the accelerator exit is 92 MJ/kg, and the mass density corresponds to an altitude of about 58 km. The 92 MJ/kg stagnation enthalpy corresponds to a kinetic energy content at low temperature equivalent to a velocity of 13.6 km/sec.

  9. Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.

  10. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bui, Hao Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  11. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-15

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO{sub 2} concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  12. Mutation Breeding of Extracellular Polysaccharide-Producing Microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii by a Novel Mutagenesis with Atmospheric and Room Temperature Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Sun, Zheng; Ma, Xiaonian; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Yue; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by marine microalgae have the potential to be used as antioxidants, antiviral agents, immunomodulators, and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the marine microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii releases EPS during the process of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production, the yield of EPS remains relatively low. To improve the EPS production, a novel mutagenesis of C. cohnii was conducted by atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). Of the 12 mutants obtained, 10 mutants exhibited significantly enhanced EPS yield on biomass as compared with the wild type strain. Among them, mutant M7 was the best as it could produce an EPS volumetric yield of 1.02 g/L, EPS yield on biomass of 0.39 g/g and EPS yield on glucose of 94 mg/g, which were 33.85%, 85.35% and 57.17% higher than that of the wild type strain, respectively. Results of the present study indicated that mutagenesis of the marine microalga C. cohnii by ARTP was highly effective leading to the high-yield production of EPS. PMID:25872142

  13. Low-level plasma HIVs in patients on prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy are produced mostly by cells other than CD4 T-cells.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gautam K; Paar, David; Frost, Simon D W; Smith, Melissa M; Weaver, Scott; Cloyd, Miles W

    2009-01-01

    The cellular source(s) and the clinical significance of persistent low-level viremia, below 50 HIV RNA copies per ml of plasma, achieved in many patients with high adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain unclear. Also, it is not clear if residual plasma HIVs during HAART can become predominant populations in the rebounding plasma viral loads after therapy interruption. Since, different HIV quasispecies tend to compartmentalize in various cell types and tissue locations in patients during chronic infection, the phylogenetic relationships between HIV sequences amplified from residual plasma viruses and CD4 T cells of five patients on long-term suppressive therapy were examined. Three of these patients stopped therapy voluntarily for 3 weeks, but only one of them demonstrated viral load rebound in plasma. In phylogenetic analyses, the residual plasma viruses were found to be distinct genetically from the majority of CD4 T cell-associated virus populations in four of five patients. The compartmental analyses revealed that in all patients, plasma- and CD4 T cell-derived viral sequences were compartmentalized separately. Interestingly, the plasma sequences obtained before and after HAART-off in two patients were produced apparently from the same compartment, which was different from the circulating CD4 T cell-compartment. These results suggest the possibility that residual plasma viruses in patients on long-term suppressive HAART may be produced persistently from a cellular source yet to be identified, and are capable of spreading quickly in vivo, accounting for the rapid rebound of viral loads in plasma after therapy interruption. PMID:19031450

  14. Properties of Cu-based nanocomposites produced by mechanically-activated self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and spark-plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Soon; Dudina, Dina V; Kim, Jin Chun; Kwon, Young Soon; Park, Jin Ju; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible reasons for low conductivity of in-situ produced dispersion strengthened copper matrix composites may be the incompleteness of the reaction between the initial reactants that remain in a state of solid solutions in the copper matrix. We report in-situ synthesis of TiB2-Cu composites starting from the powder mixtures with the limited content of copper ensuring a high probability of contact between the particles of titanium and boron and, as a result, their full conversion into the TiB2 phase. The nanoparticles were formed in a self-propagating mode in the ball milled Ti-B-Cu powder mixture corresponding to 57 vol.% TiB2-Cu composition. Afterwards, the system was "diluted" with the required amount of the copper matrix using subsequent ball milling. Highly conductive 4.5 vol.% TiB2-Cu composites showing 82-87% IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard) conductivity were obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of the powders. PMID:20352842

  15. Protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and aspartate aminotransaminase in the seminal plasma of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) producing normal white or abnormal yellow semen.

    PubMed

    Hess, R A; Thurston, R J

    1984-09-01

    Turkeys which produce yellow semen have abnormal ductuli efferentes' epithelial morphology, with blebbing of cytoplasmic material into the ductal lumen. This could possibly increase the activity or concentration of seminal plasma components. In the present study, seminal plasma from 270 Large White breeder turkeys was evaluated for protein and cholesterol concentrations and the activities of acid phosphatase and asparate aminotransaminase. In a separate experiment, protein concentrations of turkey seminal plasma were estimated by biuret or Bradford methods. Bradford estimates were 46.6% less than those obtained with the biuret assay, using bovine serum albumin as the standard. Estimates of seminal plasma protein concentration in the main study were obtained using the Bradford method, and should be adjusted accordingly when compared with other studies using the biuret technique. Abnormal yellow seminal plasma, compared to normal white seminal plasma, had elevated levels of total protein and cholesterol and increased activities of acid phosphatase and aspartate aminotransaminase. Overall means were: 14.3 mg/ml, 38.9 mg/dl, 232.6 IU/ml, 81.0 IU/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients for cholesterol concentration, acid phosphatase and aminotransaminase activity with protein concentration were +0.65, 0.70 and 0.50 (P less than 0.0001), respectively. Specific activities of both enzymes showed a significant reduction as seminal plasma protein increased, indicating a disproportionate increase in proteins other than these enzymes in yellow seminal plasma. PMID:6478012

  16. IR-Assisted Discharge Initiation in Pulsed Plasma Thrusters James E. Cooley

    E-print Network

    through the photoelectric effect. That electron pulse would alter the space charge characteristics the backplate as the likely explanation for the observed effects. It is then shown that while thermionic emis in the same manner as the photoelectric pulse initially considered. We also considered the possibility

  17. Multistage plasma initiation process by pulsed CO2 laser irradiation of a Ti sample in an ambient gas (He, Ar, or N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, J.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Dubreuil, B.

    1993-02-01

    New experimental results are reported on plasma initiation in front of a titanium sample irradiated by ir (?=10.6 ?m) laser pulses in an ambient gas (He, Ar, and N2) at pressures ranging from several Torr up to the atmosphere. The plasma is studied by space- and time-resolved emission spectroscopy, while sample vaporization is probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Threshold laser intensities leading to the formation of a plasma in the vapor and in the ambient gases are determined. Experimental results support the model of a vaporization mechanism for the plasma initiation (vaporization-initiated plasma breakdown). The plasma initiation is described by simple numerical criteria based on a two-stage process. Theoretical predictions are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experiment. This study provides also a clear explanation of the influence of the ambient gas on the laser beam-metal surface energy transfer. Laser irradiation always causes an important vaporization when performed in He, while in the case of Ar or N2, the interaction is reduced in heating and vaporization of some surface defects and impurities.

  18. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 3nd QUARTER 2009 MILESTONE REPORT: Upgrade plasma source configuration and carry out initial experiments. Characterize improvements in focal spot beam intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dorf, M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.; Jung, J.Y.; Katayanagi, T.; Logan, B.G.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Pekedis, A.; Regis, M. J.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W.

    2009-06-30

    Simulations suggest that the plasma density must exceed the beam density throughout the drift compression and focusing section in order to inhibit the space charge forces that would limit the spot size and beam intensity on the target. WDM experiments will therefore require plasma densities up to 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 3}, with the highest density in the last few centimeters before the target. This work was guided by the simulations performed for the FY09 Q1 milestone. This milestone has been met and we report results of modifications made to the NDCX beamline to improve the longitudinal and radial distribution of the neutralizing plasma in the region near the target plane. In Section 2, we review pertinent simulation results from the FY09 Q1 milestone. Section 3 describes the design, and beam measurements following installation, of a biased, self-supporting metal grid that produces neutralizing electrons from glancing interception of beam ions. Section 4 describes the design and initial testing of a compact Ferro-Electric Plasma Source (FEPS) that will remove the remaining 'exclusion zone' in the neutralizing plasma close to the target plane. Section 5 describes the modification of the beamline to decrease the gap between the FEPS section exit and the final focus solenoid (FFS). Section 6 presents a summary and conclusions.

  19. Thermal Shock and Ablation Behavior of Tungsten Nozzle Produced by Plasma Spray Forming and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xiong, X.; Zhao, Z. W.; Xie, L.; Min, X. B.; Yan, J. H.; Xia, G. M.; Zheng, F.

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten nozzle was produced by plasma spray forming (PSF, relative density of 86 ± 2%) followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing, 97 ± 2%) at 2000 °C and 180 MPa for 180 min. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, Archimedes method, Vickers hardness, and tensile tests have been employed to study microstructure, phase composition, density, micro-hardness, and mechanical properties of the parts. Resistance of thermal shock and ablation behavior of W nozzle were investigated by hot-firing test on solid rocket motor (SRM). Comparing with PSF nozzle, less damage was observed for HIPed sample after SRM test. Linear ablation rate of nozzle made by PSF was (0.120 ± 0.048) mm/s, while that after HIPing reduced to (0.0075 ± 0.0025) mm/s. Three types of ablation mechanisms including mechanical erosion, thermophysical erosion, and thermochemical ablation took place during hot-firing test. The order of degree of ablation was nozzle throat > convergence > dilation inside W nozzle.

  20. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J. )

    1988-02-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M{sub r} 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic {sup 32}P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses.

  1. Application of an enzyme-labeled antigen method for visualizing plasma cells producing antibodies against Strep A, a carbohydrate antigen of Streptococcus pyogenes, in recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Onouchi, Takanori; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Inada, Ken-ichi; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Naito, Kensei; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the main causative pathogen of recurrent tonsillitis. Histologically, lesions of recurrent tonsillitis contain numerous plasma cells. Strep A is an antigenic carbohydrate molecule on the cell wall of S. pyogenes. As expected, plasma cells in subjects with recurrent tonsillitis secrete antibodies against Strep A. The enzyme-labeled antigen method is a novel histochemical technique that visualizes specific antibody-producing cells in tissue sections by employing a biotin-labeled antigen as a probe. The purpose of the present study was to visualize plasma cells producing antibodies reactive with Strep A in recurrent tonsillitis. Firstly, the lymph nodes of rats immunized with boiled S. pyogenes were paraformaldehyde-fixed and specific plasma cells localized in frozen sections with biotinylated Strep A. Secondly, an enzyme-labeled antigen method was used on human tonsil surgically removed from 12 patients with recurrent tonsillitis. S. pyogenes genomes were PCR-detected in all 12 specimens. The emm genotypes belonged to emm12 in nine specimens and emm1 in three. Plasma cells producing anti-Strep A antibodies were demonstrated in prefixed frozen sections of rat lymph nodes, 8/12 human specimens from patients with recurrent tonsillitis but not in two control tonsils. In human tonsils, Strep A-reactive plasma cells were observed within the reticular squamous mucosa and just below the mucosa, and the specific antibodies belonged to either IgA or IgG classes. Our technique is effective in visualizing immunocytes producing specific antibodies against the bacterial carbohydrate antigen, and is thus a novel histochemical tool for analyzing immune reactions in infectious disorders. PMID:25403787

  2. Comparative study of atmospheric pressure low and radio frequency microjet plasmas produced in a single electrode configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dan Bee; Rhee, J. K.; Gweon, B.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.

    2007-10-08

    Microsize jet-type plasmas were generated in a single pin electrode structure source for two separate input frequencies of 50 kHz and 13.56 MHz in the ambient air. The copper pin electrode radius was 360 {mu}m, and it was placed in a Pyrex tube with a radius of 3 mm for helium gas supply. Due to the input frequency difference, the generated plasmas showed distinct discharge characteristics for their plasma physical appearances, electrical properties, gas temperatures, and optical properties. Strengths and weaknesses of both plasmas were discussed for further applications.

  3. Evidence for the involvement of a plasma kallikrein-kinin system in the immediate hypotension produced by endotoxin in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Katori, M.; Majima, M.; Odoi-Adome, R.; Sunahara, N.; Uchida, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. In vitro incubation of normal rat plasma with endotoxin from E. coli (3-10 mg ml-1) in the incubation mixture) caused a dose-dependent increase in levels of free kinin and plasma kallikrein in the presence of o-phenanthroline, together with a mirror-image, dose-dependent decrease in the residual levels of the precursors, plasma prekallikrein and high-molecular-weight kininogen. Low-molecular-weight kininogen levels were not modified. 2. Intravenous injection of endotoxin (3-30 mg kg-1) into the femoral vein of anaesthetized rats resulted in dose-dependent hypotension. In blood collected up to 15 min after injection, the levels of prekallikrein and high-molecular-weight kininogen in plasma were decreased while levels of the active forms, plasma kallikrein and free kinin, showed a transient increase in the blood 1 min after administration of endotoxin. 3. A degradation product of bradykinin, des-Phe8-Arg9-bradykinin, as measured by a newly developed enzyme immunoassay, was detectable up to 5 min after administration of endotoxin. 4. Intravenous infusion of soybean trypsin inhibitor inhibited both the formation of bradykinin and des-Phe8-Arg9-bradykinin and the initial hypotension. 5. It can be concluded from our results that plasma prekallikrein is activated in the blood immediately after administration of endotoxin to rats and that bradykinin is a major cause of the immediate hypotension. PMID:2692754

  4. Laser-produced plasma sensor-probe system for in situ molten metal analysis. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.W.

    1997-01-28

    The radically new methodology of in-situ laser-produced plasma (LPP) analysis of molten metals, as developed at Lehigh University, has been implemented into an LPP sensor-probe system, ready for deployment at steelmaking facilities. The system consists of an LPP sensor-probe head, which is immersed into the molten metal bath for the short duration of measurement, a control console, an umbilical cord connecting the above two units, and a support console providing coolants and pneumatic supports to the control console. The Department of Energy funding has supported Phase III-A and -B of the project in a joint sponsorship with AISI, CTU 5-2 Consortium, and Lehigh University. The objectives have been to: (1) implement the molten metal calibration protocol for the LPP analysis methodology; (2) implement the methodology in the form of a second-generation LPP sensor-probe system, which facilitates real-time process control by in-situ determination of elemental composition of molten steel alloys; (3) deploy such developmental systems in steelmaking facilities; (4) upgrade the systems to a third-generation design; and (5) effect technology transfer by selecting a manufacturer of commercial LPP sensor-probe systems. Four of the five objectives have been fully met. The deployment objective has been partially realized at present. The full LPP sensor-probe system has been put through trial immersion runs at a foundry, but its deployment at steelmaking facilities has progressed to a stage where various issues of financial and legal nature are being codified into a formal agreement between a host site and Lehigh University.

  5. Studies of resonantly produced plasmas in the H-1NF heliac using a far-infrared scanning interferometer

    E-print Network

    Howard, John

    with an electric motor to provide a stable computer controlled rotational speed and to make the system acoustically-dimensional structure of the magnetic flux surfaces, these plasmas require sophisticated diagnostic systems, with good of the dependence of the plasma density profile on resonant heating conditions and magnetic configuration, using

  6. Magnetic enhancement of thermal conductivity in coppercarbon nanotube composites produced by electroless plating, freeze drying, and spark plasma sintering

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    by electroless plating, freeze drying, and spark plasma sintering Evan Khaleghi a, , Milton Torikachvili b , Marc and freeze-drying for green processing, and spark plasma sintering for densification. A magnetic field of 1 T was applied during the freeze-drying process to align the carbon nanotubes along the main axis. Results show

  7. Low- and high-order harmonic generation in the extended plasmas produced by laser ablation of zinc and manganese targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Baba, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.

    2014-12-28

    The systematic studies of the harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in the 5-mm-long Zn and Mn plasmas (i.e., application of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond pulses for ablation, comparison of harmonic generation from atomic, ionic, and cluster-contained species of plasma, variation of plasma length, two-color pump of plasmas, etc.) are presented. The conversion efficiency of the 11th–19th harmonics generated in the Zn plasma was ?5?×?10{sup ?5}. The role of the ionic resonances of Zn near the 9th and 10th harmonics on the enhancement of harmonics is discussed. The enhancement of harmonics was also analyzed using the two-color pump of extended plasmas, which showed similar intensities of the odd and even harmonics along the whole range of generation. The harmonics up to the 107th order were demonstrated in the case of manganese plasma. The comparison of harmonic generation in the 5-mm-long and commonly used short (?0.5?mm) plasma plumes showed the advanced properties of extended media.

  8. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (? = 248 nm , ?? ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (? = 266 nm , ?t = 8 psec) beamlets (50 ?m spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  9. Experimental Characterization Of The Asymmetry And The Dip Form Of The H{sub {beta}}-Line Profiles In Microwave-Produced Plasmas At Atmospheric Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares, J. M.; Torres, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Gigosos, M. A.; Mullen, J. J. A. M. van der

    2008-10-22

    An experimental study on the asymmetry of the Balmer H{sub {beta}} profile in plasmas produced by microwaves at atmospheric pressure is presented. The asymmetry of the whole profile is studied with the help of one function that quantified this characteristic. The asymmetry and shape of the central valley is also studied with the definition of several parameters. The study shows the presence of the Stark asymmetry in plasmas with electron density of the order of 10{sup 21}m{sup -3}.

  10. Quenching of the nonlocal electron heat transport by large external magnetic fields in a laser-produced plasma measured with imaging thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Ross, J S; Pollock, B B; Davis, P; James, A N; Divol, L; Edwards, M J; Offenberger, A A; Price, D; Town, R P J; Tynan, G R; Glenzer, S H

    2007-03-30

    We present a direct measurement of the quenching of nonlocal heat transport in a laser-produced plasma by applying large external magnetic fields (>10 T). The temporally resolved Thomson-scattering measurements of the electron temperature profile show that the heat front propagation transverse to a high-power laser beam is slowed resulting in extremely strong local heating. We find agreement with hydrodynamic modeling when including a magnetic field model that self-consistently evolves the fields in the plasma. PMID:17501207

  11. Modulation of plasma complement by the initial dose of epirubicin/docetaxel therapy in breast cancer and its predictive value

    PubMed Central

    Michlmayr, A; Bachleitner-Hofmann, T; Baumann, S; Marchetti-Deschmann, M; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Burghuber, C; Pluschnig, U; Bartsch, R; Graf, A; Greil, R; Allmaier, G; Steger, G; Gnant, M; Bergmann, M; Oehler, R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, prediction of individual response to treatment remains an unsolved clinical problem. Particularly, administration of an inefficient chemotherapeutic regimen should be avoided. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is of particular clinical interest. Aim of the present study was to test whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin/docetaxel induces early changes in the plasma proteome of breast cancer patients and whether such changes correlate with response to therapy. Methods: Plasma samples of 25 breast cancer patients obtained before and 24?h after initiation of epirubicin/docetaxel-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analysed using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Protein spots found to be differentially expressed were identified using mass spectrometry and then correlated with the pathological response after six cycles of therapy. Markers identified in a discovery set of patients (n=12) were confirmed in an independent validation set (n=13). Results: 2D-DIGE revealed 33 protein spots to be differentially expressed in response to chemotherapy, including the complement factors C1, C3 and C4, inter-?-trypsin inhibitor, ?-1-antichymotrypsin and ?-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG). With respect to cytokines, only interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and soluble intracellular adgesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) were minimally modulated. Moreover, two protein spots within the complement component C3 significantly correlated with response to therapy. Conclusion: We have identified acute phase proteins and the complement system as part of the early host response to epirubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy. As complement C3 cleavage correlates with the efficacy of docetaxel/epirubicin-based chemotherapy, it has the potential as an easily accessible predictive biomarker. PMID:20877360

  12. Unified theory of parametric excitations in magnetized plasma produced by the action of nonmonochromatic driver pump. I Modulated driver pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V.

    1983-07-01

    A theory is developed for parametric excitations in a magnetized plasma by the action of a driver pump with time-varying amplitude and phase, using the assumption of amplitude modulation in the form of rectangular pulse train and phase modulation in a sinusoidal form as an example. Both nonresonant interaction and resonant interaction are investigated, and the excitations of upper-hybrid, lower-hybrid, and oblique Langmuir waves coupled to ion-acoustic waves are examined. The threshold values and parametric growth rates obtained in these cases are compared with the case of a monochromatic driver pump. In addition, a theory of parametric interaction of n driver pumps with magnetized plasmas is derived using the Vlasov-Poisson formalism. The interaction when the plasma appears to be transparent to all driver pumps is investigated. It is determined that in this case a variety of parametric instabilities exist which are absent in a single driver pump-plasma interaction. The nonresonant and resonant interactions in the case of excitation of electron and ion-Bernstein modes are studied. The relevance of these results are considered for laser and microwave-plasma interactions, as well as for electromagnetic wave-ionospheric plasma interaction and laboratory plasma experiments.

  13. Spectral diagnostics of a vapor-plasma plume produced during welding titanium with a high-power ytterbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskiy, S. A.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Mironov, V. D.; Prokopova, N. M.; Tret'yakov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    This work is devoted to the research of welding plume during high power ytterbium fiber laser welding of a titanium alloy in the Ar shielding gas environment. High speed video observation of a vapor-plasma plume for visualization of processes occurring at laser welding was carried out. The coefficient of the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of laser radiation is calculated for a plasma welding plume by results of spectrometer researches. The conclusion deals with the impact of plasma on a high-power fiber laser radiation.

  14. Mini-F plasmid mutants able to replicate in the absence of sigma 32: mutations in the repE coding region producing hyperactive initiator protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Y; Wada, C; Yura, T

    1991-01-01

    Mini-F plasmids cannot replicate in Escherichia coli strains (delta rpoH) lacking sigma 32, presumably because transcription of the repE gene encoding the replication initiator protein (RepE protein) depends mostly on RNA polymerase containing sigma 32. We have isolated and characterized mini-F mutants able to replicate in delta rpoH cells. Contrary to the initial expectation, five mutants with mutations in the repE coding region that produce altered RepE proteins were obtained. The mutations caused replacement of a single amino acid: the 92nd glutamic acid was replaced by lysine (repE10, repE16, and repE25) or glycine (repE22) or the 109th glutamic acid was replaced by lysine (repE26). These plasmids overproduced RepE protein and exhibited very high copy numbers. Two major activities of mutated RepE proteins have been determined in vivo; the autogenous repressor activity was significantly reduced, whereas the initiator activity was much enhanced in all mutants. These results indicate the importance of a small central region of RepE protein for both initiator and repressor activities. Thus the decreased repE transcription in delta rpoH cells can be compensated for by an increased initiator activity and a decreased repressor activity of RepE, resulting in the increased synthesis of hyperactive RepE protein. Images PMID:1991708

  15. Tunable bandgap energy of fluorinated nanocrystals for flash memory applications produced by low-damage plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Chih-Ting; Wang, Jer-Chyi; Chou, Chien; Ye, Yu-Ren; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2012-11-30

    A plasma system with a complementary filter to shield samples from damage during tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)) plasma treatment was proposed in order to incorporate fluorine atoms into gadolinium oxide nanocrystals (Gd(2)O(3)-NCs) for flash memory applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that fluorine atoms were successfully introduced into the Gd(2)O(3)-NCs despite the use of a filter in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system to shield against several potentially damaging species. The number of incorporated fluorine atoms can be controlled by varying the treatment time. The optimized memory window of the resulting flash memory devices was twice that of devices treated by a filterless system because more fluorine atoms were incorporated into the Gd(2)O(3)-NCs film with very little damage. This enlarged the bandgap energy from 5.48 to 6.83 eV, as observed by ultraviolet absorption measurements. This bandgap expansion can provide a large built-in electric field that allows more charges to be stored in the Gd(2)O(3)-NCs. The maximum improvement in the retention characteristic was >60%. Because plasma damage during treatment is minimal, maximum fluorination can be achieved. The concept of simply adding a filter to a plasma system to prevent plasma damage exhibits great promise for functionalization or modification of nanomaterials for advanced nanoelectronics while introducing minimal defects. PMID:23103683

  16. In situ visualization of plasma cells producing antibodies reactive to Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis: the application of the enzyme-labeled antigen method

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Y; Tsuge, S; Takeda, H; Hasegawa, Y; Shiogama, K; Onouchi, T; Inada, K; Sawasaki, T; Tsutsumi, Y

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontal pathogen. Histologocally, the gingival tissue in periodontitis shows dense infiltration of plasma cells. However, antigens recognized by antibodies secreted from the immunocytes remain unknown. The enzyme-labeled antigen method was applied to detecting plasma cells producing P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in biopsied gingival tissue of periodontitis. N-terminally biotinylated P. gingivalis antigens, Ag53 and four gingipain domains (Arg-pro, Arg-hgp, Lys-pro and Lys-hgp) were prepared by the cell-free protein synthesis system using wheatgerm extract. With these five labeled proteins as probes, 20 lesions of periodontitis were evaluated. With the AlphaScreen method, antibodies against any one of the five P. gingivalis antigens were detected in 11 (55%) serum samples and 17 (85%) tissue extracts. Using the enzyme-labeled antigen method on paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen sections of gingival tissue, plasma cells were labeled with any one of the five antigens in 17 (94%) of 18 specimens, in which evaluable plasma cells were detected. The positivity rates in periodontitis were significantly higher than those found previously in radicular cysts (20% in sera and 33% in tissue extracts with the AlphaScreen method, and 25% with the enzyme-labeled antigen method). Our findings directly indicate that antibodies reactive to P. gingivalis are locally produced in the gingival lesions, and that inflammatory reactions against P. gingivalis are involved in periodontitis. PMID:24698402

  17. Initial results from the canistered waste forms produced during the first campaign of the DWPF Startup Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Startup Test Program, approximately 90 canisters will be filled with glass containing simulated radioactive waste during five separate campaigns. The first campaign is a facility acceptance test to demonstrate the operability of the facility and to collect initial data on the glass and the canistered waste forms. During the next four campaigns (the waste qualification campaigns) data will be obtained which will be used to demonstrate that the DWPF product meets DOE`s Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). Currently 12 of the 16 canisters have been filled with glass during the first campaign (FA-13). This paper describes the tests that have been carried out on these 12 glass-filled canisters and presents the data with reference to the acceptance criteria of the WAPS. These tests include measurement of canister dimensions prior to and after glass filling. dew point, composition, and pressure of the gas within the free volume of the canister, fill height, free volume, weight, leak rates of welds and temporary seals, and weld parameters.

  18. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra.

  19. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorti, A.; Raghuramaiah, M.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2004-11-01

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation. Approximately 10^{10} photons/pulse were generated in x-ray pulses of sim18 to sim28 ns duration from a source of sim300 mum diameter, at hnu = 4.51 keV (K_{al} emission of titanium), with a brightness of sim10^{20} photons/cm^2/s/sr. This was sufficient to record single-shot x-ray radiographs of physical objects on a DEF-5 x-ray film kept at a distance of up to sim10 cm.

  20. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 ?F) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ? = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  1. Influence of Non-MHD Flutes on the Efficiency of Energy Transfer from the Laser-Produced, ICF and Space Exploding Plasmas to Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, Yuri P.; Antonov, Vladimir M.; Boyarintsev, Eduard L.; Melekhov, Alexandr V.; Posukh, Vitaliy G.; Shaikhislamov, Ildar F.; Nakashima, Hideki; Vchivkov, Konstantin V

    2005-01-15

    The results of <> experiment with quasispherical Laser-produced Plasma Clouds (LPC) expanding into strong (B{sub 0} {approx}10 kG) and uniform magnetic field at KI-1 facility of ILP are presented. Main characteristics and the influence of non-MHD flute instability onto effectiveness of plasma-field interaction were studied especially for the purpose of plasma confinement and the direct conversion of its kinetic energy into magnetic and electric ones (of pick-up coils). A new model of enhanced field penetration into plasma due to Hall-effect in its flutes and under conditions of finite ion Larmor radius is discussed. The data obtained on the current generation by LPC in short-circuited surrounding coils (with total conversion efficiency up to {approx}10%) are compared with the models of ILP and last results of relevant 3D/PIC calculations done at KU. All these results show the opportunities of LPC-experiments to simulate both space exploding plasmas (AMPTE) and MHD-effects of ICF micro-explosions in planned NIF experiments for study Laser Fusion Rocket like a VISTA.

  2. Use of free radicals on the surface of plasma polymer for the initiation of a polymerization reaction.

    PubMed

    Khelifa, Farid; Ershov, Sergey; Habibi, Youssef; Snyders, Rony; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-11-27

    A novel approach to functionalize plasma polymer films (PPFs) through the grafting polymerization initiated from free radicals trapped in the film was developed in this work. 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) was chosen as radically polymerizable monomer given the wide use of its corresponding polymer in coating and adhesive applications. The occurrence of the grafting was first confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then grafted chains were studied in more detail. The thickness of grafted chains was quantitatively estimated by angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS), while their morphology and interfacial behavior were qualitatively investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The latter technique provided additional insights regarding the swelling behavior of the grafted layer and its stability upon exposure to challenging environments. Reported scientific findings suggest to use this approach for the covalent binding of a very thin layer on the top surface of a PPF without affecting its bulk properties. PMID:24143897

  3. Subpicosecond 41.8-nm X-ray laser in the plasma produced by femtosecond laser irradiation of a xenon cluster jet

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E P

    2012-12-31

    Model calculations are performed of the radiation gain for the 4d5d (J = 0) - 4d5p (J = 1) transition with a wavelength of 41.8 nm in Pd-like xenon ions in the plasma produced by femtosecond laser irradiation of a xenon cluster jet. Conditions for the excitation of an ultrashort-pulse ({approx}1 ps) X-ray laser are discussed. (lasers)

  4. Deposited debris characteristics and its reduction of a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source using a colloidal tin dioxide jet target

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, Masanori; Suetake, Sumihiro; Senba, Yusuke; Kubodera, Shoichi; Katto, Masahito; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2008-05-05

    Debris characteristics and their reduction have been investigated for a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by using a colloidal jet target containing tin dioxide nanoparticles. The amounts of deposited debris on a witness plate were determined by total laser energy irradiated onto a target. In situ low-temperature (100 deg. C) heating of a plate was effective to reduce the amounts of deposited debris, since colloidal debris was easily vaporized by the heat.

  5. Measurement of O and OH radical produced by an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet nearby rat skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is getting much attention because it enables many kinds of plasma applications including biomedical application such as sterilization and cancer treatment. In biomedical plasma applications, it is though that active species like ions and radicals play important role. Especially, OH radical and O atom is very chemically reactive that they are deemed as major factors in cancer treatment. In this study, O and OH density distribution and its temporal behavior nearby rat skin were measured to demonstrate actual application. Plasma discharge was under AC10 kVp-p, 10 kHz with 1.5 slm (standard litter per minute) of helium gas flow. OH density was around 1 ppm and O atom density was around 10 ppm at maximum. We also measured time-evolution of OH and O atom density. Both OH and O density was almost constant between discharge pulses because lifetime of active species could be prolonged in helium. And density distribution of both species varied depending on helium flow rate and water concentration on the surface; on rat skin or on the grass surface. Those results suggest the production mechanisms and provision mechanisms of O atom and OH radical by an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet. This work is partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Science Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  6. Guiding of high intensity ultrashort laser pulses in plasma channels produced with the dual laser pulse ignitor-heater technique

    SciTech Connect

    Volfbeyn, P.; Leemans, W.P.

    1998-07-01

    The authors present results of experimental investigations of laser guiding in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor-Heater scheme is proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen. It makes use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort (< 100 fs) laser pulse, is brought to a line focus using a cylindrical lens to ionize the gas. The Heater pulse (160 ps long) is used subsequently to heat the existing spark via inverse Bremsstrahlung. The hydrodynamic shock expansion creates a partially evacuated plasma channel with a density minimum on axis. Such a channel has properties of an optical waveguide. This technique allows creation of plasma channels in low atomic number gases, such as hydrogen, which is of importance for guiding of highly intense laser pulses. The channel density was diagnosed with time resolved longitudinal interferometry. From these measurements the plasma temperature was inferred. The guiding properties of the channels were tested by injecting a > 5 {times} 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, 75 fs laser pulse.

  7. Production of large volume, strongly magnetized laser-produced plasmas by use of pulsed external magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Albertazzi, B.; Beard, J.; Billette, J.; Portugall, O.; Ciardi, A.; Vinci, T.; Albrecht, J.; Chen, S. N.; Da Silva, D.; Hirardin, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L.; Simond, S.; Veuillot, E.; Fuchs, J.; Burris-Mog, T.; Dittrich, S.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kroll, F.; Nitsche, S.; and others

    2013-04-15

    The production of strongly magnetized laser plasmas, of interest for laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion studies, is presented. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system, which generates a magnetic field by means of a split coil, with the ELFIE laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique. In order to influence the plasma dynamics in a significant manner, the system can generate, repetitively and without debris, high amplitude magnetic fields (40 T) in a manner compatible with a high-energy laser environment. A description of the system and preliminary results demonstrating the possibility to magnetically collimate plasma jets are given.

  8. EBT2 dosimetry of x-rays produced by the electron beam from a Plasma Focus for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.; Tartari, A.; Mariotti, F.

    2012-09-01

    The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for intraoperative radiation therapy applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an x-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {mu}m brass foil, where conversion x-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the x-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

  9. Boron Profile Sharpening in Ultra-Shallow p{sup +}-n Junction Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation from BF{sub 3} Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lukichev, V.; Rudenko, K.; Orlikovsky, A.; Pustovit, A.; Vyatkin, A.

    2008-11-03

    We have investigated plasma immersion ion implantation (PI{sup 3}) of boron with energies of 500 eV (doses up to 2x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) from BF{sub 3} plasma with He pre-amorphizing implantation (PAI)(energy 3 keV, dose 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}). Implanted samples were subjected to RTA (T = 900 to 1050 deg. C, t = 2 to 24 sec and spike anneal). SIMS analysis of boron profiles revealed its anomalous behavior. For short RTA times the profile tail (below 5x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) moves toward the surface and then, as in the usual diffusion, toward the bulk at longer annealing times.

  10. Initiation of ballooning instability in the near-Earth plasma sheet prior to the 23 March 2007 THEMIS substorm expansion onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; Raeder, J.; Germaschewski, K.; Hegna, C. C.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we analyze the ballooning stability of the near-Earth plasma sheet prior to the initial expansion onset of the 23 March 2007 THEMIS substorm event. Using solar wind data from WIND satellite observation for the substorm event as an input at dayside, we reconstructed a sequence of global magnetospheric configurations around the expansion onset by means of OpenGGCM simulation. These simulations have reproduced most of the salient features, including the onset timing, observed in the THEMIS substorm event (Raeder et al., 2008). The ballooning instability criterion is evaluated using eigenvalue analyses for the near-Earth plasma sheet region when the configuration attains a quasi-static equilibrium condition prior to the onset. Our analysis of the evolution of the near-Earth magnetotail region during the substorm growth phase (10:10 UT to 10:43 UT) reveals a correlation between the breaching of the ballooning stability condition and the initial expansion onset in the temporal domain. The analysis indicates that the ballooning instability is at first initiated by the stretching of closed field lines near the region with a local nonzero minimum in normal component of magnetic field (Bz>0) associated with the formation of a bipolar-flow pattern in the near-Earth plasma sheet around 10 RE. The subsequent initiation of ballooning instability with enhanced growth rate occurs (about 28 min later) on those most stretched closed field lines Earthward of the neutral line following the formation and the tailward recession of a plasmoid.

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 32, NO. 2, APRIL 2004 813 Characterization of Laser Produced Tetrakis

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    jamming and electronic countermea- sures and modify the radar cross section and signature of aircraft [4IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 32, NO. 2, APRIL 2004 813 Characterization of Laser Abstract--We present an interferometric and spectroscopic characterization of ultraviolet (UV) laser

  12. Study of the luminous plasma and plume produced on interaction of a XeCl laser and biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrea K.; Dickinson, Mark R.

    2001-07-01

    Above the ablation threshold the removal of tissue is characterized by a luminous plasma, followed by a plume of non-luminous debris. Both the plasma and the plume are capable of shielding the ablation site, attenuating the beam and decreasing the ablation rate significantly at high numbers of pulses (n) and high fluence. The ablation of several biological tissues by a XeCl excimer laser at 308 nm has been studied. The laser pulse length is 200 ns, around a factor of 10 longer than previously reported studies. In order to study the plume's effect on the ablation rate is has been captured using an Imacon 468 camera capable of 1x108 frames per second. We have calculated the evolutionary speed and the extent of the plasma and ensuing debris with respect to pulse repetition rate (PRR), n and energy for a range of tissues. Probe beam experiments have also been carried out to confirm these results. With this data we can determine the amount of time that the tissue is shielded on the time scale of the incoming pulses and use the results to help explain the ablation rate measurements. A maximum velocity of 2.58x104 ms/s was found for dentine and the tissue was found to be shielded for a maximum of 120 microsecond(s) by the luminous plasma and 10 ms by the non-luminous plume.

  13. The use of ultraviolet Thomson scattering as a versatile diagnostic for detailed measurements of a collisional laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, M.D.

    1993-01-08

    Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach n{sub c}/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 {le} k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ii} {le} {infinity}) and ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}, where k{sub ia} is the ion- acoustic wave number, {lambda}{sub ii} is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and T{sub e}, T{sub i} are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ei}, k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ee} {ge} 1), and quasineutrality holds, ({alpha} {much_gt}1), where {alpha} = 1/k{lambda}{sub DE} and {lambda}{sub DE} is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.

  14. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, K.S.

    1993-02-11

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory`s assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made.

  15. Study of plasma start-up initiated by second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating on WEGA experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Stange, T.; Aßmus, D.; Wauters, T.

    2014-02-12

    Although both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2) have been successfully used to initiate pre-ionization and breakdown in many devices, a complete theoretical model is still missing to explain the success of this method. Moreover, some experimental observations are not completely understood, such as what occurs during the delay time between the turn-on of ECRH power and first signals of density or light measurements. Since during this free period the ECRH power has to be absorbed by in-vessel components, it is of prime importance to know what governs this delay time. Recently, dedicated start-up experiments have been performed on WEGA, using a 28 GHz ECRH system in X2-mode. This machine has the interesting capability to be run also as a tokamak allowing comparative experiments between stellarator (?/2? > 0) and tokamak (?/2? = 0) configurations. Different scans in heating power, neutral gas pressure, and rotational transform (?) show clearly that the start-up is a two step process. A first step following the turn-on of the ECRH power during which no measurable electron density (or just above the noise level in some cases), ECE and radiated power is detected. Its duration depends strongly on the level of injected power. The second step corresponds to the gas ionization and plasma expansion phase, with a velocity of density build-up and filling-up of the vessel volume depending mainly on pressure, gas and rotational transform. Moreover, an interesting scenario of ECRH pre-ionization without loop voltage in tokamak configuration by applying a small optimal vertical field is relevant for start-up assistance on future experiments like ITER. The results from this experimental parametric study are useful for the modeling of the start-up assisted by the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating. The aim of this work is to establish predictive scenarios for both ITER and W7-X operation.

  16. Study of plasma start-up initiated by second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating on WEGA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Stange, T.; Wauters, T.; Aßmus, D.

    2014-02-01

    Although both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2) have been successfully used to initiate pre-ionization and breakdown in many devices, a complete theoretical model is still missing to explain the success of this method. Moreover, some experimental observations are not completely understood, such as what occurs during the delay time between the turn-on of ECRH power and first signals of density or light measurements. Since during this free period the ECRH power has to be absorbed by in-vessel components, it is of prime importance to know what governs this delay time. Recently, dedicated start-up experiments have been performed on WEGA, using a 28 GHz ECRH system in X2-mode. This machine has the interesting capability to be run also as a tokamak allowing comparative experiments between stellarator (?/2? > 0) and tokamak (?/2? = 0) configurations. Different scans in heating power, neutral gas pressure, and rotational transform (?) show clearly that the start-up is a two step process. A first step following the turn-on of the ECRH power during which no measurable electron density (or just above the noise level in some cases), ECE and radiated power is detected. Its duration depends strongly on the level of injected power. The second step corresponds to the gas ionization and plasma expansion phase, with a velocity of density build-up and filling-up of the vessel volume depending mainly on pressure, gas and rotational transform. Moreover, an interesting scenario of ECRH pre-ionization without loop voltage in tokamak configuration by applying a small optimal vertical field is relevant for start-up assistance on future experiments like ITER. The results from this experimental parametric study are useful for the modeling of the start-up assisted by the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating. The aim of this work is to establish predictive scenarios for both ITER and W7-X operation.

  17. Fluorescent lamp recycling initiatives in the United States and a recycling proposal based on extended producer responsibility and product stewardship concepts.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo Tr; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of mercury-containing lamp (MCL) recycling initiatives currently available in the world, especially in the United States. The majority of MCLs contain mercury which is a neurotoxin, a persistent pollutant in the environment, and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. Although there are some recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still at 23% of all potential used MCLs. This shows that citizens are either indifferent to or unaware of the recycling alternatives. On the other hand, MCL recycling seems not to be a cost-effective process and, for this reason, in the United States, take-back programmes are still sponsored only by consumers or municipalities. A few retailers have recently initiated limited take-back alternatives and manufacturers have not yet supported financially any consistent recycling alternative in the country. Considering successful experiences, this paper makes a suggestion for an MCL recycling system based on the concepts of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship. A manufacturer-importer advance recycling fee is proposed to finance the collection and recycling system while a MCL-energy recycling fee supported by the energy sector creates a lamp refund process. 'PRO Lamp', a producer responsibility organization, will manage the entire system through a widespread public-private agreement. PMID:20837557

  18. Development of a centrifugal downhold separator with in-situ recycle of produced water (initial tests with 34.1 API gravity crude)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F.; Jubin, R.T.; Robinson, S.M.

    1998-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently developing a Centrifugal Downhole Separator (CDHS) which will extend the application of remotely operated separations equipment developed for the nuclear industry to in-well recovery of oil with in-situ recycle of the produced water. These units have been successfully used for surface treatment of produced water and wastewater generated during environmental clean-up operations. Performance data has shown that centrifugal units are capable of separating stable emulsions into ``single-phase`` streams with generally less than 1% cross-phase contamination. Initial testing will be conducted with a bench-scale separator to determine the separation efficiency of various crude oils and to provide information necessary to scale up the separator. Information from the bench-scale unit will be used in the design of a larger prototype, which will have a much larger height/diameter ratio and will incorporate some of the components necessary for down-hole operations. The prototype separator will be operated in the lab to verify scale-up parameters and separation efficiencies, as well as to provide information necessary to design a full-scale system. The full-scale system will be fabricated, installed in the field, and operated to demonstrate the technology. This paper discusses the initial testing of the bench-scale separator with a crude oil having an API gravity of 34.06{degrees}.

  19. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  20. White Paper: Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) (July 26, 2012) W. M. Tang (Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory)

    E-print Network

    the core plasma to the associated engineering systems. The FSP will initially focus on producing: (i, Plasma Physics Laboratory) In view of the current ITER fiscal issues, it is particularly important, projections for plasma performance in the international burning plasma ITER experiment have been based

  1. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Three-dimensional microscopy of laser-produced plasmas using third-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Naumov, A. N.; Konorov, Stanislav O.; Fedotov, Andrei B.; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.

    2000-12-01

    A three-dimensional microscopy of an optical-breakdown plasma based on third-harmonic generation (THG) is experimentally implemented. THG is shown to offer a universal method for three-dimensional microscopy of inhomogeneities of linear and nonlinear optical parameters of various media. Due to the nonlinear-optical character of this process, THG microscopy allows the transverse spatial resolution to be considerably improved as compared with conventional methods of microscopy. A high spatial resolution along the direction of probing is achieved due to the fact that the prohibition on THG in the regime of tight focusing is removed whenever inhomogeneities of linear and/or nonlinear optical parameters are probed by THG.

  2. Soft x-ray contact imaging of biological specimens using a laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source provides significant advantages over other types of sources for x-ray microradiography of, particularly, living biological specimens. The pulsed nature of the x-rays enables imaging of the specimen in a living state, and the small source size minimizes penumbral blurring. This makes it possible to make an exposure close to the source, thereby increasing the x-ray intensity. In this article, we will demonstrate the applications of x-ray contact microradiography in structural and developmental botany such as the localization of silica deposition and the floral morphologenesis of maize.

  3. High-Temperature Tensile Properties of Nano-Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steels Produced by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulnat, Xavier; Fabregue, Damien; Perez, Michel; Mathon, Marie-Hélène; de Carlan, Yann

    2013-06-01

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels were produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent spark plasma sintering. Very fast heating rates were used to minimize porosity when controlling grain size and precipitation of dispersoids within a compacted material. Sintering cycles performed at 1373 K (1100 °C) induced heterogeneous, but fine grain size distribution and high density of nano-oxides. Yield strengths at room temperature and at 923 K (650 °C) are 975 MPa and 298 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, high-temperature ductility is much increased: total strain of 28 pct at 923 K (650 °C).

  4. Singled-walled carbon nanotubes produced by induction thermal plasma: Cytotoxicity evaluation of the feedstock materials and the final product for a potential bone application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinejad, Yasaman

    One of the most challenging issues that the technologies related to nanomaterials face is the impact they have on human health and environment. It is therefore of great importance to investigate the toxicological impacts of these technologies prior to their widespread utilization in different fields of application. Therefore, in this study, the cytotoxicity of the materials present throughout the process of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) synthesis by induction thermal plasma (from the feedstock materials to the final product) was evaluated. First of all, the influence of the induction thermal plasma process on the physico-chemical and cytotoxic properties of feedstock materials (i.e. commercial Co, Ni, Y2O3, Mo catalysts and carbon black) was investigated. The strongest cytotoxicity was observed for commercial Co compared to other catalysts. Although the thermal plasma process affected the properties of all catalysts, only the cytotoxicity of Ni was increased. Comparing the properties and cytotoxicity of the plasma treated Ni particles with commercial Ni nanoparticles revealed that the particles with similar surface area had different cytotoxicities. Plus, the observed cytotoxicity of the catalysts was not mainly due to the release of ions. In order to evaluate the capacity of the RF induction thermal plasma process to produce high quality SWCNTs using non-toxic catalysts, the effects of the type and quantity of three catalyst mixtures (Ni-Y2O 3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3 ) on SWCNTs synthesis were examined. Thermodynamic calculations, in gas and particularly in liquid solution phases, were also performed. The results showed that catalyst type affected the quality of the SWCNT final product and similar quality SWCNTs was produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Then, to investigate the cytotoxicity of the SWCNTs produced with the three catalyst mixtures, their effect was evaluated on the behavior of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Either SWCNTs were added on the attached cells or cells were seeded on the SWCNT-covered culture plates. SWCNTs which were added on the attached cells reduced cell viability drastically in a dose-dependent manner. However, the viability of the cells seeded on SWCNTs was only slightly decreased at 24 h, even on those produced with Ni-Co-Y2O3 . Moreover, cells could proliferate within 48 h. Thus, except mechanical membrane disturbance, thermal plasma grown SWCNTs seemed to induce no severe cytotoxicity on MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Consequently, SWCNTs were purified and their influence on the viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts was determined. The impact of SWCNTs on Smad activation and cell differentiation induced by BMP-2 and BMP-9 was also studied. SWCNTs pre-treatment accelerated the Smad1/5/8 activation induced by both BMP-2 and BMP-9. It did not reduce the viability of preosteoblasts but slightly affected their proliferation at 48 h. Furthermore, after 72 h incubation with BMP-2 or BMP-9, preosteoblasts pre-treated with SWCNTs for 24 h could express genes encoding osteogenic markers such as osterix and osteocalcin and showed high alkaline phosphatase activity. Interestingly, BMP-9 favored the differentiation of preosteoblasts pre-treated with SWCNTs more remarkably than BMP-2. Therefore, combination of BMP-9 with SWCNTs seems to be a promising avenue for bone regeneration. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, metallic nanoparticles, induction thermal plasma, cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzymatic activity, lactate dehydrogenase, osteogenesis.

  5. In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of lithiation of spherical silicon nanopowder produced by induced plasma atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Dominic; Wang, Chongmin; He, Yang; Bélanger, Daniel; Zaghib, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Composite Li-ion anode can be fabricated using silicon nanopowders synthesized by induced plasma atomization. Properties of such nanopowder were characterized by physical and electrochemical methods. Primary particles were crystalline with spherical shape and the typical diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The Si nanopowder showed a high gravimetric capacity (4900 mAh/g) at first discharge and around 12% irreversible loss of lithium. In addition, observations of a single silicon particle made by in situ TEM permitted to compare the volume change during lithiation with other silicon anode nanomaterials.

  6. First Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas M. J.-E. Manuel, C. K. Li, F. H. Seguin, J. Frenje, D. T. Casey, and R. D. Petrasso

    E-print Network

    First Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in Laser-Produced Plasmas M. J.-E. Manuel, C. K. Li, F. H. Se´guin, J. Frenje, D. T. Casey, and R. D. Petrasso Plasma Science and Fusion experimental demonstration of Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields due to the Biermann battery effect has

  7. Clinical Performance of Aspergillus PCR for Testing Serum and Plasma: a Study by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Rosemary A.; Springer, Jan; Klingspor, Lena; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Morton, C. Oliver; Lagrou, Katrien; Bretagne, Stéphane; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Mengoli, Carlo; Donnelly, J. Peter; Heinz, Werner J.; Loeffler, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus PCR testing of serum provides technical simplicity but with potentially reduced sensitivity compared to whole-blood testing. With diseases for which screening to exclude disease represents an optimal strategy, sensitivity is paramount. The associated analytical study confirmed that DNA concentrations were greater in plasma than those in serum. The aim of the current investigation was to confirm analytical findings by comparing the performance of Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma and serum in the clinical setting. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on plasma and serum samples concurrently obtained from hematology patients in a multicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with cases diagnosed according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (19 proven/probable cases and 42 controls). Clinical performance and clinical utility (time to positivity) were calculated for both kinds of samples. The sensitivity and specificity for Aspergillus PCR when testing serum were 68.4% and 76.2%, respectively, and for plasma, they were 94.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of serum and plasma PCR results were concordant. On average, plasma PCR was positive 16.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in 13 cases, combined with other biomarkers in five cases. On average, serum PCR was positive 10.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in six cases, combined with other biomarkers in three cases. These results confirm the analytical finding that the sensitivity of Aspergillus PCR using plasma is superior to that using serum. PCR positivity occurs earlier when testing plasma and provides sufficient sensitivity for the screening of invasive aspergillosis while maintaining methodological simplicity. PMID:26085618

  8. Incorporation of Ca, P, and Si on bioactive coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation: The role of electrolyte concentration and treatment duration.

    PubMed

    Marques, Isabella da Silva Vieira; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Landers, Richard; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to produce bioactive coatings in solutions containing Ca, P, and Si by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on commercially pure titanium, to investigate the influence of different electrolytes concentration and treatment duration on the produced anodic films and to evaluate biocompatibility properties. The anodic films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The surface energy and roughness were also evaluated. PEO process parameters influenced the crystalline structure formation and surface topography of the anodic films. Higher Ca content produced larger porous (volcanolike appearance) and thicker oxide layers when compared to the lower content. Treatment duration did not produce any topography difference. The treatment modified the surface chemistry, producing an enriched oxide layer with bioactive elements in the form of phosphate compounds, which may be responsible for mimicking bone surface. In addition, a rough surface with increased surface energy was generated. Optimal spreading and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells was achieved by PEO treatment, demonstrating excellent biocompatibility of the surface. The main finding is that the biofunctionalization with higher Ca/P on Ti-surface can improve surface features, potentially considered as a candidate for dental implants. PMID:26446191

  9. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    E-print Network

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

    2012-01-01

    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  10. Radiofrequency plasma antenna generated by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    SciTech Connect

    Brelet, Y.; Houard, A.; Point, G.; Prade, B.; Carbonnel, J.; Andre, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Arantchouk, L.; Pellet, M.

    2012-12-24

    We demonstrate tunable radiofrequency emission from a meter-long linear plasma column produced in air at atmospheric pressure. A short-lived plasma column is initially produced by femtosecond filamentation and subsequently converted into a long-lived discharge column by application of an external high voltage field. Radiofrequency excitation is fed to the plasma by induction and detected remotely as electromagnetic radiation by a classical antenna.

  11. Spectroscopic study of carbon plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Arif, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this research work, spectroscopic studies of carbon (C) plasma by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are presented. The plasma was produced by the first (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG (Quantel Brilliant) pulsed laser having a pulse duration of 5 ns and 10-Hz repetition rate, which is capable of delivering 400 mJ at 1064 nm and 200 mJ at 532 nm. The laser beam was focused on the target material (100% carbon) by placing it in air at atmospheric pressure. The experimentally observed line profiles of five neutral carbon (C I) lines at 247.85, 394.22, 396.14, 588.95, and 591.25 nm were used to extract the electron temperature T e by using the Boltzmann plot method and determine its value, 9880 and 9400 K, respectively, for the fundamental and second harmonics of the laser, whereas the electron density N e was determined from the Stark broadening profile of neutral carbon line at 247.85 nm. The values of N e at a distance of 0.05 mm from the target surface for the fundamental-harmonic laser with a pulse energy of 130 mJ and the second-harmonic laser with a pulse energy of 72 mJ are 4.68 × 1017 and 5.98 × 1017 cm-3, respectively. This extracted information on T e and N e is useful for the deposition of carbon thin films by using the pulsed laser deposition technique. Moreover, both plasma parameters ( T e and N e ) were also calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of the plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance.

  12. Subsurface Drip Irrigation As a Methold to Beneficiallly Use Coalbed Methane Produced Water: Initial Impacts to Groundwater, Soil Water, and Surface Water

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.A.: Bern, C: Healy, R: Sams, J: Zupancic, J.: Schroeder, K.

    2009-10-18

    Coalbed methane (CBM) currently accounts for >8% of US natural gas production. Compared to traditional sources, CBM co-produces large volumes of water. Of particular interest is CBM development in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, the 2nd largest CBM production field in the US, where CBM produced waters exhibit low to moderate TDS and relatively high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) that could potentially impact the surface environment. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is an emerging technology for beneficial use of pre-treated CBM waters (injectate) which are emitted into the root zone of an agricultural field to aid in irrigation. The method is designed to minimize environmental impacts by storing potentially detrimental salts in the vadose zone. Research objectives include tracking the transport and fate of the water and salts from the injected CBM produced waters at an SDI site on an alluvial terrace, adjacent to the Powder River, Johnson County, Wyoming. This research utilizes soil science, geochemical, and geophysical methods. Initial results from pre-SDI data collection and the first 6-months of post-SDI operation will be presented. Substantial ranges in conductivity (2732-9830 {micro}S/cm) and dominant cation chemistry (Ca-SO{sub 4} to Na-SO{sub 4}) have been identified in pre-SDI analyses of groundwater samples from the site. Ratios of average composition of local ground water to injectate demonstrate that the injectate contains lower concentrations of most constituents except for Cr, Zn, and Tl (all below national water quality standards) but exhibits a higher SAR. Composition of soil water varies markedly with depth and between sites, suggesting large impacts from local controls, including ion exchange and equilibrium with gypsum and carbonates. Changes in chemical composition and specific conductivity along surface water transects adjacent to the site are minimal, suggesting that discharge to the Powder River from groundwater underlying the SDI fields is negligible. Findings from this project provide a critical understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM produced water. The information obtained can be used to improve SDI and other CBM produced water use/disposal technologies in order to minimize adverse impacts.

  13. Stochastic heating of a single Brownian particle by charge fluctuations in a radio-frequency produced plasma sheath.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    The Brownian motion of a single particle in the plasma sheath is studied to separate the effect of stochastic heating by charge fluctuations from heating by collective effects. By measuring the particle velocities in the ballistic regime and by carefully determining the particle mass from the Epstein drag it is shown that for a pressure of 10 Pa, which is typical of many experiments, the proper kinetic temperature of the Brownian particle remains close to the gas temperature and rises only slightly with particle size. This weak effect is confirmed by a detailed model for charging and charge fluctuations in the sheath. A substantial temperature rise is found for decreasing pressure, which approximately shows the expected scaling with p^{-2}. The system under study is an example for non-equilibrium Brownian motion under the influence of white noise without corresponding dissipation. PMID:26565355

  14. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in "sandwiches" of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The "sandwiches" were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  15. Effect of Nano-crystalline Ceramic Coats Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Corrosion Behavior of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Thayananth, T.; Muthupandi, V.; Rao, S. R. Koteswara

    2010-10-04

    High specific strength offered by aluminum and magnesium alloys makes them desirable in modern transportation industries. Often the restrictions imposed on the usage of these alloys are due to their poor tribological and corrosion properties. However, their corrosion properties can be further enhanced by synthesizing ceramic coating on the substrate through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. In this study, nano-crystalline alumina coatings were formed on the surface of AA5083 aluminum alloy test coupons using PEO process in aqueous alkali-silicate electrolyte with and without addition of sodium aluminate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied between 38 and 46 nm and {alpha}- and {gamma}- alumina were the dominant phases present in the coatings. Corrosion studies by potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl revealed that the electrolyte composition has an influence on the corrosion resistance of nano-crystalline oxide layer formed.

  16. Stochastic heating of a single Brownian particle by charge fluctuations in a radio-frequency produced plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    The Brownian motion of a single particle in the plasma sheath is studied to separate the effect of stochastic heating by charge fluctuations from heating by collective effects. By measuring the particle velocities in the ballistic regime and by carefully determining the particle mass from the Epstein drag it is shown that for a pressure of 10 Pa, which is typical of many experiments, the proper kinetic temperature of the Brownian particle remains close to the gas temperature and rises only slightly with particle size. This weak effect is confirmed by a detailed model for charging and charge fluctuations in the sheath. A substantial temperature rise is found for decreasing pressure, which approximately shows the expected scaling with p-2. The system under study is an example for non-equilibrium Brownian motion under the influence of white noise without corresponding dissipation.

  17. Increasing the output power of single 808-nm laser diodes using diamond submounts produced by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ashkinazi, E E; Bezotosnyi, V V; Bondarev, Vadim Yu; Kovalenko, V I; Konov, Vitalii I; Krokhin, Oleg N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, Valerii F; Popov, Yurii M; Popovich, A F; Ral'chenko, Viktor G; Cheshev, E A

    2012-11-30

    We have designed and fabricated submounts from synthetic diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition and developed an economical process for metallising such submounts. Laser diode chips having an 808-nm emission wavelength, 3-mm-long cavity and 130-mm-wide stripe contact were mounted on copper heat sinks with the use of diamond submounts differing in quality. The devices were tested for more than 150 h in continuous mode at an output power of 8 W on diamond with a thermal conductivity of 700 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, and no changes in their output power were detected. On diamond with a thermal conductivity of 1600 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, stable cw operation for 24 h at an output power of 12 W was demonstrated. (letters)

  18. Ferromagnetic resonance behavior of spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles produced by a chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, R.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Ammar, S.

    2011-04-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of composition Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were prepared by forced hydrolysis in a polyol (polyol process) from the corresponding iron, nickel, and zinc acetates. Synthesis conditions allowed for obtaining polycrystalline epitaxial clusters of about 22 nm in size with an average crystal size of about 5 nm. These powders were subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique under a pressure of 80 MPa and temperatures in the 350 to 500 °C range for short periods (5 to 10 min). Densities reached 92% to 94% of the theoretical density. Particle size remained smaller than 61 nm, even for the highest temperature. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments at 77 K showed broadened resonance lines. In contrast with powdered nanoparticles, these high-density bodies can be used in many high-frequency applications.

  19. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, K. Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  20. Characteristics of a cylindrical collector mirror for laser-produced xenon plasma soft X-rays and improvement of mirror lifetime by buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Miyamoto, Shuji; Masuda, Kazuya; Amano, Sho; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-12-15

    The focusing characteristics of a ruthenium-coated cylindrical mirror were investigated on the basis of its ability to collect and focus broadband 5-17-nm soft X-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma. Based on the plasmas spectral intensity distribution and the reflectivity function of the mirror, we defined the optimum position of the integrated cylindrical mirror at which the X-ray energy flux transported and focused through the mirror was maximum. A minimum spot diameter of 22 mm at a distance of approximately 200 mm from a soft X-ray source was confirmed. The maximum intensity of the collected soft X-rays was 1.3 mJ/cm{sup 2} at the center of the irradiation zone. Thus, the irradiation intensity was improved by approximately 27 times when compared to that of 47 {mu}J/cm{sup 2} without the mirror. The debris sputtering rate on the reflection surface of the mirror can be reduced to 1/110 by argon gas at 11 Pa, while the attenuation rate of the soft X-rays due to absorption by the buffer gas can be suppressed to less than 10% at the focal point. The focusing property of the mirror is expected to be maintained for 3000 h or longer without significant degradation for a 100 W/320 pps laser shot if the ruthenium layer is thicker than 10 {mu}m. These results suggest that a stand-alone broadband soft X-ray processing system can be realized by using laser-produced plasma soft X-rays.

  1. Open field equilibrium current and cross-field passing electrons as an initiator of a closed flux surface in EC-heated toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, T.; Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Watanabe, F.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-08-01

    A model for the non-inductive initiation of a closed flux surface observed in electron cyclotron (EC) heated toroidal plasmas is presented. First, a pressure-driven equilibrium toroidal current develops under a weak external vertical field so as to counter balance the pressure-ballooning and current-hoop forces. When the self-field from the current almost cancels out the external vertical field, a forward energetic part of electrons in the velocity space begins to make cross-field passing (CFP) orbits. The CFP electrons are generated by the EC heating of bulk electrons and subsequent pitch-angle scattering, which is analyzed using the Fokker-Planck equation. They provide an additional current that closes the field lines. The model is examined for experiments in the small low aspect ratio device of LATE and in the large conventional device of JT-60U with a search for appropriate modes of EC heating. Simultaneous coincidence of the model with these two experiments is obtained in terms of microwave power and driven current. The results predict that initiation of a closed flux surface requires more and more EC power as the plasma major radius increases. In particular, careful injection of high N? EC waves is needed for large devices, both for initiation of a closed flux surface and for subsequent enlargement of the flux surface by the usual EC current drive onto the closed flux area.

  2. Double core-hole spectroscopy of transient plasmas produced in the interaction of ultraintense x-ray pulses with neon

    E-print Network

    Gao, Cheng; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Double core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy is investigated systematically for neon atomic system in the interaction with ultraintense x-ray pulses with photon energy from 937 eV to 2000 eV. A time-dependent rate equation, implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation, is utilized to study the dynamical evolution of the level population and emission properties of the highly transient plasmas. For x-ray pulses with photon energy in the range of 937-1030 eV, where $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonance absorption from single core-hole (SCH) states of neon charge states exist, inner-shell resonant absorption (IRA) effects play important roles in the time evolution of population and DCH spectroscopy. Such IRA physical effects are illustrated in detail by investigating the interaction of x-ray pulses at a photon energy of 944 eV, which corresponds to the $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonant absorption from the SCH states ($1s2s^22p^4$, $1s2s2p^5$ and $1s2p^6$) of Ne$^{3+}$. After averaging over the space and time distribution o...

  3. The kinetics of grain growth in near-micrometre grain size copper produced by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, K. N.; Ruan, Q.; Godfrey, A.

    2015-08-01

    Samples of copper with a grain size in the near-micrometre regime and in a nearly fully recrystallized condition have been prepared by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. The thermal stability of these samples in the temperature range from 950 to 1050 °C has been investigated by an analysis of the kinetics of grain growth, based on microstructural measurements using electron backscatter diffraction. In the temperature range from 950 to 1000 °C the activation energy for grain growth is approx. 300 kJ mol-1, corresponding to a value one and a half times the activation energy for self-diffusion in pure copper. In the temperature range from 1000 to 1050 °C the activation energy for grain growth is found to decrease, although annealing in this temperature range additionally results in non-uniform grain growth. For preparation of samples with a desired uniform grain size at present the best method appears to be via control of the temperature during the SPS process.

  4. The Verwey transition in nanostructured magnetite produced by a combination of chimie douce and spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudisson, T.; Nowak, S.; Ammar, S.; Vázquez-Victorio, G.; Valenzuela, R.; Bañobre-López, M.; Rivas, J.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetite nanoparticles about 10?nm sized were synthesized by the polyol method. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC)-FC measurements showed a blocking temperature ?170?K and the absence of the Verwey transition. They were subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering at 750?°C for 15?min, leading to a high density (92% of the theoretical density), solid body, with grains in the 150?nm range. X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a spinel single phase with cell parameters corresponding to the magnetite structure. Magnetic measurements showed a decrease of coercivity from 685?Oe (54.5?kA/m) at 118?K to 90?Oe (7.2?kA/m) at 139?K. ZFC measurements at 25?Oe presented a three-fold magnetization increase as temperature increased; a small transition between 116 and 117.5?K, followed by a larger one from 117.6 to 124?K. The first transition can be associated with a complex crystallographic transition and delocalization of Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+}, while the second one can be attributed to spin reorientation due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (K{sub 1}) change of sign as previously observed only in magnetite single crystals.

  5. Traces of isotopic reactive species produced from a non-thermal plasma jet in bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. B.; Kwak, H. S.; Choi, E. H.; Hong, T. E.; Yoon, H.; Lee, Y.; Baik, K. Y.; Uhm, H. S.

    2015-11-01

    Heavy water (D2O) is introduced into a non-thermal plasma jet (NTPJ) device to generate deuterium monoxide (OD) radicals instead of hydroxyl (OH) radicals. An NTPJ generated from a vapor mixture of N2/H2O and N2/D2O is applied to a cell membrane component and its effects are analyzed by means of 1H NMR, GC-FID and TOF-SIMS spectroscopies. The results show that OH and OD radical species induce similar levels of oxidative breakage of lipid molecules. In addition, the 2H NMR spectra show that deuteriums are incorporated into the lipid oxidative products. In order to trace these effects in vivo, E. coli bacteria are treated with an NTPJ and analyzed using NanoSIMS. Deuterium is observed in both the cytoplasm and membrane, which are colocalized well with nitrogen and phosphorus atoms. The high colocalization of D atoms inside E. coli provides the first direct and visual evidence of the role of OD radicals, which may be utilized to visualize OH radical interactions inside cells.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 2637 Experimental Study of Laser-Initiated

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    of supersonic drag, and modification of the radar cross section and signature of an aircraft [5]. An up-to- dateIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 2637 Experimental Study of Laser--Experiments are performed using 193-nm ultraviolet laser preionization of a seed gas in atmospheric pressure range argon

  7. Combat: Initial Experience with a Randomized Clinical Trial of Plasma-Based Resuscitation in the Field for Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Michael P; Moore, Ernest E; Chin, Theresa L; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Chandler, James; Stringham, John; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Moore, Hunter B; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-08-01

    The existing evidence shows great promise for plasma as the first resuscitation fluid in both civilian and military trauma. We embarked on the Control of Major Bleeding After Trauma (COMBAT) trial with the support of the Department of Defense to determine if plasma-first resuscitation yields hemostatic and survival benefits. The methodology of the COMBAT study represents not only 3 years of development work but also the integration of nearly two decades of technical experience with the design and implementation of other clinical trials and studies. Herein, we describe the key features of the study design, critical personnel and infrastructural elements, and key innovations. We will also briefly outline the systems engineering challenges entailed by this study. The COMBAT trial is a randomized, placebo-controlled, semiblinded, prospective, phase IIB clinical trial conducted in a ground ambulance fleet based at a level I trauma center and part of a multicenter collaboration. The primary objective of the COMBAT trial is to determine the efficacy of field resuscitation with plasma first compared with standard of care (normal saline). To date, we have enrolled 30 subjects in the COMBAT study. The ability to achieve intervention with a hemostatic resuscitation agent in the closest possible temporal proximity to injury is critical and represents an opportunity to forestall the evolution of the "bloody vicious cycle." Thus, the COMBAT model for deploying plasma in first-response units should serve as a model for randomized clinical trials of other hemostatic resuscitative agents. PMID:25784527

  8. Electrical properties of a-C:Mo films produced by dual-cathode filtered cathodic arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sansongsiri, Sakon; Anders, Andre; Yodsombat, Banchob

    2008-01-20

    Molybdenum-containing amorphous carbon (a-C:Mo) thin films were prepared using a dual-cathode filtered cathodic arc plasma source with a molybdenum and a carbon (graphite) cathode. The Mo content in the films was controlled by varying the deposition pulse ratio of Mo and C. Film sheet resistance was measured in situ at process temperature, which was close to room temperature, as well as ex situ as a function of temperature (300-515 K) in ambient air. Film resistivity and electrical activation energy were derived for different Mo and C ratios and substrate bias. Film thickness was in the range 8-28 nm. Film resistivity varied from 3.55x10-4 Omega m to 2.27x10-6 Omega m when the Mo/C pulse ratio was increased from 0.05 to 0.4, with no substrate bias applied. With carbon-selective bias, the film resistivity was in the range of 4.59x10-2 and 4.05 Omega m at a Mo/C pulse ratio of 0.05. The electrical activation energy decreased from 3.80x10-2 to 3.36x10-4 eV when the Mo/C pulse ratio was increased in the absence of bias, and from 0.19 to 0.14 eV for carbon-selective bias conditions. The resistivity of the film shifts systematically with the amounts of Mo and upon application of substrate bias voltage. The intensity ratio of the Raman D-peak and G-peak (ID/IG) correlated with the pre-exponential factor (sigma 0) which included charge carrier density and density of states.

  9. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ˜6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 107 per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  10. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level Dense Plasma Focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, J L; Falabella, S; Tang, V; Schmidt, A; Guethlein, G; Hawkins, S; Rusnak, B

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ?6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10(7) per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results. PMID:24517762

  11. Initial and long-term frequency degradation of ring oscillators caused by plasma-induced damage in 65 nm bulk and fully depleted silicon-on-insulator processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Ryo; Oshima, Azusa; Yabuuchi, Michitarou; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of reliability caused by plasma-induced damage (PID) has become a significant concern with the miniaturization of device size. In particular, it is difficult to relieve PID in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) because it contains buried oxide (BOX) layers. In this work, we compare PID between a bulk and a silicon on thin BOX (SOTB), which has BOX layers of less than 10 nm. We measure frequencies of ring oscillators with an antenna structure on a single stage. In the bulk, PID is relieved by first connecting an antenna to a drain because electric charge flows to a substrate. The difference in initial frequency is 0.79% between structures, which cause and relieve PID. SOTB also relieves the same amount of PID. Initial frequencies are affected by PID, but there is no effect of PID on the long-term degradation mainly caused by bias temperature instability (BTI).

  12. Evaluation of particle size distributions produced during ultra-violet nanosecond laser ablation and their relative contributions to ion densities in the inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Lance M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2015-11-01

    Relative contributions to ion densities in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) of particles of various sizes produced by laser ablation (LA) were investigated. Particles generated by 266 nm, ns LA of BaF2, CaF2, and a scandium aluminum alloy, characterized using SEM, consisted of hard and soft agglomerates, spherical particles, and irregularly-shaped particles. Although soft agglomerates and spherical particles were common to aerosols generated by LA in all cases, hard agglomerates appeared to be unique to the scandium aluminum alloy, while irregularly-shaped exfoliated particles were unique to the calcium and barium fluoride windows. The spatial distributions of Ca, Ba, and Sc ions in the ICP were determined from laser-induced fluorescence images taken with filters of pore sizes from 1-8 ?m added in-line to the transport tube upstream from the ICP. In all cases, a significant fraction of the ions formed in the ICP originated from micron-sized particles. Differences in the penetration depths of nanometer-sized agglomerates and micron-sized particles were about 2 mm for Ca and 1 mm for Ba. Differences in the penetration depths of nanometer and micron-sized agglomerates observed in the case of aluminum scandium were much less significant. This suggests that micron-sized hard-agglomerates and nanometer-sized soft-agglomerates experience very similar vaporization patterns. Additionally, there was evidence that flow patterns in the transport tube affect the trajectories of particles entering the plasma.

  13. Fabrication of nanoscale patterns in lithium fluoride crystal using a 13.5 nm Schwarzschild objective and a laser produced plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xin; Mu Baozhong; Jiang Li; Zhu Jingtao; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Zhanshan; He Pengfei

    2011-12-15

    Lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal is a radiation sensitive material widely used as EUV and soft x-ray detector. The LiF-based detector has high resolution, in principle limited by the point defect size, large field of view, and wide dynamic range. Using LiF crystal as an imaging detector, a resolution of 900 nm was achieved by a projection imaging of test meshes with a Schwarzschild objective operating at 13.5 nm. In addition, by imaging of a pinhole illuminated by the plasma, an EUV spot of 1.5 {mu}m diameter in the image plane of the objective was generated, which accomplished direct writing of color centers with resolution of 800 nm. In order to avoid sample damage and contamination due to the influence of huge debris flux produced by the plasma source, a spherical normal-incidence condenser was used to collect EUV radiation. Together with a description of experimental results, the development of the Schwarzschild objective, the influence of condenser on energy density and the alignment of the imaging system are also reported.

  14. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  15. A Comprehensive New Detector for Detailed Study of the Quark Gluon Plasma, Initial Conditions and Spin Physics at RHIC II

    E-print Network

    J. W. Harris; R. Bellwied; N. Smirnov; P. Steinberg; B. Surrow; T. Ullrich

    2004-07-23

    A case is presented for compelling physics at a high luminosity RHIC II collider and a comprehensive new detector system to address this physics. The experimental focus is on detailed jet tomography of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), measuring gluon saturation in the nucleus, investigating the color glass condensate, measuring effects of the QCD vacuum on particle masses, determining the structure and dynamics within the proton, and possible new phenomena. The physics and detector capabilities are introduced.

  16. Metal-Intermetallic Laminate Ti-Al3Ti Composites Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering of Titanium and Aluminum Foils Enclosed in Titanium Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazurenko, Daria V.; Mali, Vyacheslav I.; Bataev, Ivan A.; Thoemmes, Alexander; Bataev, Anatoly A.; Popelukh, Albert I.; Anisimov, Alexander G.; Belousova, Natalia S.

    2015-09-01

    Metal-intermetallic laminate composites are considered as promising materials for application in the aerospace industry. In this study, Ti-Al3Ti composites enclosed in titanium cases were produced by reactive spark plasma sintering. Sintering was carried out at 1103 K and 1323 K (830 °C and 1050 °C) for 10 minutes. In both cases, high-quality Ti-Al3Ti composites containing thin transition layers at the interfaces were obtained. Al2Ti, AlTi, and AlTi3 intermetallic phases and a solid solution of aluminum in titanium were observed in the transition layers by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The material sintered at 1323 K (1050 °C) had higher strength in comparison with the composite obtained at 1103 K (830 °C). However, the hardness of the intermetallic component in the sample sintered at higher temperature decreased due to the grain growth. The impact toughness values of both materials were approximately identical.

  17. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Nanostructured and Ultrafine Grained FeMoB Alloys Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering of Mechanically Alloyed Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menapace, Cinzia; Libardi, Stefano; D'Incau, Mirco; Molinari, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Boron alloyed Fe-1.5%Mo alloys (B from 0.42 to 1.66%) were produced starting from a prealloyed ferrous powder and an elemental boron powder, by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. Near full density samples were obtained (density >99%) with a nano- and ultrafine grained structure, consisting in a ferritic matrix with a fine dispersion of Fe and Mo borides. High boron content and a low sintering temperature are favorable to minimize grain growth on sintering. On increasing the boron content from 0.42% up to 1.66%, yield strength increases and ductility decreases; this effect is enhanced by the sintering temperature because of the structural coarsening. Both ultrafine grained and nanostructured materials have a dimpled ductile fracture. On increasing the crystallite size, a mixed dimpled-cleavage fracture is observed.

  18. Antibodies produced by clonally expanded plasma cells in multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid cause demyelination of spinal cord explants.

    PubMed

    Blauth, Kevin; Soltys, John; Matschulat, Adeline; Reiter, Cory R; Ritchie, Alanna; Baird, Nicholas L; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Owens, Gregory P

    2015-12-01

    B cells are implicated in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgG synthesis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal bands and lesional IgG deposition suggest a role for antibody-mediated pathology. We examined the binding of IgG1 monoclonal recombinant antibodies (rAbs) derived from MS patient CSF expanded B cell clones to central nervous system (CNS) tissue. MS rAbs displaying CNS binding to mouse and human CNS tissue were further tested for their ability to induce complement-mediated tissue injury in ex vivo spinal cord explant cultures. The staining of CNS tissue, primary human astrocytes and human neurons revealed a measurable bias in MS rAb binding to antigens preferentially expressed on astrocytes and neurons. MS rAbs that recognize myelin-enriched antigens were rarely detected. Both myelin-specific and some astrocyte/neuronal-specific MS rAbs caused significant myelin loss and astrocyte activation when applied to spinal cord explant cultures in the presence of complement. Overall, the intrathecal B cell response in multiple sclerosis binds to both glial and neuronal targets and produces demyelination in spinal cord explant cultures implicating intrathecal IgG in MS pathogenesis. PMID:26511623

  19. Fast combustion waves and chemi-ionization processes in a flame initiated by a powerful local plasma source in a closed reactor.

    PubMed

    Artem'ev, K V; Berezhetskaya, N K; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, N G; Kossyi, I A; Popov, N A; Tarasova, N M; Filimonova, E A; Firsov, K N

    2015-08-13

    Results are presented from experimental studies of the initiation of combustion in a stoichiometric methane-oxygen mixture by a freely localized laser spark and by a high-current multispark discharge in a closed chamber. It is shown that, preceding the stage of 'explosive' inflammation of a gas mixture, there appear two luminous objects moving away from the initiator along an axis: a relatively fast and uniform wave of 'incomplete combustion' under laser spark ignition and a wave with a brightly glowing plasmoid behind under ignition from high-current slipping surface discharge. The gas mixtures in both the 'preflame' and developed-flame states are characterized by a high degree of ionization as the result of chemical ionization (plasma density ne?10(12)?cm(-3)) and a high frequency of electron-neutral collisions (?en?10(12)?s(-1)). The role of chemical ionization in constructing an adequate theory for the ignition of a gas mixture is discussed. The feasibility of the microwave heating of both the preflame and developed-flame plasma, supplementary to a chemical energy source, is also discussed. PMID:26170426

  20. Red blood cell folate and plasma folate are not associated with risk of incident colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative observational study.

    PubMed

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Beresford, Shirley A A; Brown, Elissa; Song, Xiaoling; Miller, Joshua W; Zheng, Yingye; Thomson, Cynthia A; Shikany, James M; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rohan, Thomas; Green, Ralph; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2015-08-15

    The relationship between folate and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is unclear. We investigated the association of two biomarkers of folate status, plasma folate and red blood cell (RBC) folate, with CRC risk using a nested case-control design in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Postmenopausal women (n = 93,676) aged 50-79 years were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1993-1998). A fasting blood draw and extensive health, dietary and lifestyle data were collected upon enrollment. Through 2008, 988 incident CRC cases were reported and confirmed with medical records adjudication. Cases and controls were matched on age (± 3 years), enrollment date (± 1 year), race/ethnicity, blood draw date (± 6 months) and hysterectomy status. Plasma and RBC folate were determined by radio assay. Folate biomarker values were divided into quartiles, and conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations of folate with total CRC, by tumor site and by stage at diagnosis. Additional analyses examined whether risks varied across time periods corresponding to the United States folic acid fortification policy: prefortification (1994-1995), perifortification (1996-1997) and postfortification (1998). ORs for overall CRC risk comparing Q4 vs. Q1 were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67-1.24) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.67-1.23) for RBC and plasma folate, respectively. There were no changes in risk attributable to food supply fortification. These results do not support an overall association of folate with CRC risk and suggest that folic acid fortification of the US food supply did not alter the associations in these postmenopausal women. PMID:25643945

  1. Initial indications for the production of a strongly coupled plasma in Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Roy A.; Taranenko, A.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alexander, J. M.

    2011-03-15

    Results from first measurements of charged-particle differential elliptic flow, obtained in Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are compared to those obtained for Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=0.2 TeV with the PHENIX detector at BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The comparisons, made as a function of centrality (cent) or the number of participant pairs (N{sub part}) and particle transverse momentum p{sub T}, indicate an excellent agreement between the magnitude and trends for the flow coefficients v{sub 2}(p{sub T},cent). Analysis indicates that the averaged specific viscosity of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) produced in LHC collisions is similar to that for the strongly coupled QGP produced in RHIC collisions.

  2. Initial exposure to 30 kV/m or 60 kV/m 60 Hz electric fields produces temporary cessation of operant behavior of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    In two separate experiments, the authors examined the effects of a 60 Hz electric field (EF) on performance of an operant schedule consisting of two signaled components: fixed-ratio (FR30) and differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL20). In each experiment, 12 naive baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were assigned randomly to either an EF-exposed experimental group or a sham-exposed control group. A homogeneous vertical EF of 30 kV/m was used in one experiment; 60 kV/m was used in the other. The experimental design for both experiments included 6 week preexposure, exposure, and postexposure periods. The planned analyses indicated no evidence of statistically significant (P < .05) effects of EF exposure. However, exploratory analyses comparing performance during the last week of preexposure and the first week of exposure revealed statistically significant acute effects (work stoppage): The mean response rates of the EF-exposed groups were greatly reduced on day 1 of exposure but were normal by the end of day 2 of EF exposure. The authors hypothesize that introduction of a highly unusual stimulus, the EF, temporarily interfered with normal operant behavior to produce a primary work stoppage. Supplementary cross-over experiments added at the end of each main experiment indicated that work stoppage occurred again when formerly EF-exposed subjects served as sham-exposed controls, while other subjects received their first EF exposure. Presumably, reoccurrence of other stimuli correlated with initial exposure to the EF became sufficient to subsequently cause secondary work stoppage in the absence of direct EF exposure. The primary and secondary work-stoppage effects were reproducible.

  3. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part II: analysing the chemical structure of the films

    E-print Network

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.043209jes

    2012-01-01

    The chemical structure of cobalt--polypyrrole -- produced by a dual plasma process -- is analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS).It is shown that only nanoparticles of a size of 3\\,nm with the low temperature crystal structure of cobalt are present within the compound. Besides that, cobalt--nitrogen and carbon--oxygen structures are observed. Furthermore, more and more cobalt--nitrogen structures are produced when increasing the magnetron power. Linking the information on the chemical structure to the results about the catalytic activity of the films -- which are presented in part I of this contribution -- it is concluded that the cobalt--nitrogen structures are the probable catalytically active sites. The cobalt--nitrogen bond length is calculated as 2.09\\,\\AA\\ and the carbon--nitrogen bond length as 1.38\\,\\AA.

  4. Mutation breeding of high 4-androstene-3,17-dione-producing Mycobacterium neoaurum ZADF-4 by atmospheric and room temperature plasma treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhi-Ming; Shao, Ming-Long; Zhang, Le-Le; Wu, Dan; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Steroid medication is used extensively in clinical applications and comprises a large and vital part of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the difficulty of separating 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) from 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) restricts the application of the microbial transformation of phytosterols in the industry. A novel atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) treatment, which employs helium as the working gas, was used to generate Mycobacterium neoaurum mutants producing large amounts of AD. After treatment of cultures with ARTP, four mutants were selected using a novel screening method with a color assay. Among the mutants, M. neoaurum ZADF-4 was considered the best candidate for industrial application. When the fermentation medium contained 15 g/L phytosterols and was cultivated on a rotary shaker at 160 r/min at 30 °C for 7 d, (6.28±0.11) g/L of AD and (0.82±0.05) g/L of ADD were produced by the ZADF-4 mutant, compared with (4.83±0.13) g/L of AD and (2.34±0.06) g/L of ADD by the original strain, M. neoaurum ZAD. Compared with ZAD, the molar yield of AD increased from 48.3% to 60.3% in the ZADF-4 mutant. This result indicates that ZADF-4 may have potential for industrial production of AD. PMID:25845362

  5. Investigation Of Plasma Produced By High-Energy Low-Intensity Laser Pulses For Implantation Of Ge Ions Into Si And Sio2 Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mezzasalma, A.; Torrisi, L.

    2006-01-15

    The development of implantation techniques requires investigation of laser plasma as a potential source of multiply charged ions. The laser ion source delivers ions with kinetic energy and a charge state dependent on the irradiated target material and the parameters of the laser radiation used. By the focusing the laser beam on the solid target the higher current densities of ions than by using other currently available ion sources can be produced. The crucial issue for efficiency of the ion implantation technology is selection of proper laser beam characteristics. Implantation of different kinds of laser-produced ions into metals and organic materials were performed recently at the PALS Research Center in Prague, in cooperative experiments using 0.4-ns iodine laser pulses having energies up to 750 J at wavelength of 1315 nm or up to 250 J at wavelength of 438 nm. In this contribution we describe the characterization and optimization of laser-produced Ge ion streams as well as analysis of the direct implantation of these ions into Si and SiO2 substrates. The Ge target was irradiated with the use of laser pulses of energy up to 50 J at radiation intensities of {approx}1011 W/cm2 and {approx}2'1013 W/cm2. The implanted samples were placed along the target normal at distances of 17, 31 and 83 cm from the target surface. The ion stream parameters were measured using the time-of-fight method. The depth of ion implantation was determined by the Rutherford backscattering method (RBS). The maximum depth of implantation of Ge ions was {approx}450 nm. These investigations were carried out for optimization of low and medium energy laser-generated Ge ion streams, suitable for specific implantation technique, namely for fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures within the SRAP 'SEMINANO' project.

  6. Glow discharge electrolysis plasma initiated preparation of temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Zhu, Sha; Bai, Yunping; Xi, Ning; Wang, Shaoyang; Bian, Yang; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yucang

    2015-05-20

    The temperature/pH dual sensitivity reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels have been prepared through glow discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP). The effect of different discharge voltages on the temperature and pH response performance of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels was inspected, and the formation mechanism, deswelling behaviors of reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels were also discussed. At the same time, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning differential thermal analysis (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were adopted to characterize the structure, phase transformation behaviors and microstructure of hydrogels. It turned out to be that all reed hemicellulose-based hydrogels had a double sensitivity to temperature and pH, and their phase transition temperatures were all approximately 33 °C, as well as the deswelling dynamics met the first model. In addition, the hydrogel (TPRH-3), under discharge voltage 600 V, was more sensitive to temperature and pH and had higher deswelling ratio. PMID:25817637

  7. In-flight Performance and Initial Results of Plasma Energy Angle and Composition Experiment (PACE) on SELENE (Kaguya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Asamura, Kazushi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nishino, Masaki N.; Yamamoto, Tadateru; Terakawa, Yuta; Fujimoto, Masaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Hajime; Hirahara, Masafumi; Hoshino, Masahiro; Machida, Shinobu; Mukai, Toshifumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Masato; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Sagawa, Eiichi; Sasaki, Susumu; Seki, Kanako; Shinohara, Iku; Terasawa, Toshio; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Takahashi, Futoshi

    2010-07-01

    MAP-PACE (MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment—Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment) on SELENE (Kaguya) has completed its ˜1.5-year observation of low-energy charged particles around the Moon. MAP-PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). ESA-S1 and S2 measured the distribution function of low-energy electrons in the energy range 6 eV-9 keV and 9 eV-16 keV, respectively. IMA and IEA measured the distribution function of low-energy ions in the energy ranges 7 eV/q-28 keV/q and 7 eV/q-29 keV/q. All the sensors performed quite well as expected from the laboratory experiment carried out before launch. Since each sensor has a hemispherical field of view, two electron sensors and two ion sensors installed on the spacecraft panels opposite each other could cover the full 3-dimensional phase space of low-energy electrons and ions. One of the ion sensors IMA is an energy mass spectrometer. IMA measured mass-specific ion energy spectra that have never before been obtained at a 100 km altitude polar orbit around the Moon. The newly observed data show characteristic ion populations around the Moon. Besides the solar wind, MAP-PACE-IMA found four clearly distinguishable ion populations on the dayside of the Moon: (1) Solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) Solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) Reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) Ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere.

  8. Initiation of rubber biosynthesis: in vitro comparisons of benzophenone-modified diphosphate analogue structure in three natural rubber-producing species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural rubber is synthesized by initiation with one allylic pyrophosphate (APPs) molecule followed by elongation with thousands of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) molecules by the enzyme rubber transferase (a cis-prenyl transferase). To better understand how rubber transferase initiates and binds A...

  9. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Brambrink, E.; Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  10. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    PubMed

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. PMID:26081643

  11. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M. Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?{sub 1}- and L?{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  12. A novel nuclear pyrometry for the characterization of high-energy bremsstrahlung and electrons produced in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.; Brambrink, E.; Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V.

    2011-08-15

    We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.

  13. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolutiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?1- and L?2-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  14. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary and can be chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L ?1- and L ?2-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature R of 500 mm. These experimental results will be presented. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Space and time resolved spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: A study of density-sensitive x-ray transitions in helium-like and neon-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Bruce Kai Fong

    1988-09-01

    The determination of level populations and detailed population mechanisms in dense plasmas has become an increasingly important problem in atomic physics. In this work, the density variation of line intensities and level populations in aluminum K-shell and molybdenum and silver L-shell emission spectra have been measured from high-powered, laser-produced plasmas. For each case, the density dependence of the observed line emission is due to the effect of high frequency electron-ion collisions on metastable levels. The density dependent line intensities vary greatly in laser-produced plasmas and can be used to extract detailed information concerning the population kinetics and level populations of the ions. The laser-plasmas had to be fully characterized in order to clearly compare the observed density dependence with atomic theory predictions. This has been achieved through the combined use of new diagnostic instruments and microdot targets which provided simultaneously space, time, and spectrally resolved data. The plasma temperatures were determined from the slope of the hydrogen-like recombination continuum. The time resolved electron density profiles were measured using multiple frame holographic interferometry. Thus, the density dependence of K-shell spectral lines could be clearly examined, independent of assumptions concerning the dynamics of the plasma. In aluminum, the electron density dependence of various helium-like line intensity ratios were measured. Standard collisional radiative equilibrium models fail to account for the observed density dependence measured for the ''He/sub ..cap alpha..//IC'' ratio. Instead, a quasi-steady state atomic model based on a purely recombining plasma is shown to accurately predict the measured density dependence. This same recombining plasma calculation successfully models the density dependence of the high-n ''He/sub ..gamma..//He/sub ..beta../'' and ''He/sub delta//He/sub ..beta../'' helium-like resonance line intensity ratios.

  16. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 20 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 MAY 1998 Pressure Ionization and Line Merging in Strongly Coupled Plasmas Produced

    E-print Network

    Umstadter, Donald

    and Line Merging in Strongly Coupled Plasmas Produced by 100-fs Laser Pulses M. Nantel, G. Ma, S. Gu, C. Y pressure ionization and line merging. Comparisons of the experimental spectra with numerical simulations validate the use of the Inglis-Teller limit for line merg- ing, and confirm that pressure ionization models

  17. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  18. Cover image: Research within Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Chemical Imaging Initiative is characterizing chemical and physical interactions of biofilms produced by microbes. This information is used to provide insight on

    E-print Network

    Initiative is characterizing chemical and physical interactions of biofilms produced by microbes that influence the sequestration of carbon. To study biofilms, researchers must first obtain detailed microscopic, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, shows a biofilm grown on a flat plastic substrate in a constant

  19. PEGylation does not significantly change the initial intravenous or subcutaneous pharmacokinetics or lymphatic exposure of trastuzumab in rats but increases plasma clearance after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Chan, Linda J; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Ascher, David B; Haynes, John M; McLeod, Victoria M; Porter, Christopher J H; Williams, Charlotte C; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    The lymphatic system plays a major role in the metastatic dissemination of cancer and has an integral role in immunity. PEGylation enhances drainage and lymphatic uptake following subcutaneous (sc) administration of proteins and protein-like polymers, but the impact of PEGylation of very large proteins (such as antibodies) on subcutaneous and lymphatic pharmacokinetics is unknown. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of PEGylation on the sc absorption and lymphatic disposition of the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab in rats. PEG-trastuzumab was generated via the conjugation of a single 40 kDa PEG-NHS ester to trastuzumab. PEG-trastuzumab showed a 5-fold reduction in HER2 binding affinity, however the in vitro growth inhibitory effects were preserved as a result of changes in cellular trafficking when compared to native trastuzumab. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics of PEG-trastuzumab was evaluated in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats after iv and sc administration and compared to the pharmacokinetics of native trastuzumab. The iv pharmacokinetics and lymphatic exposure of PEG-trastuzumab was similar when compared to trastuzumab. After sc administration, initial plasma pharmacokinetics and lymphatic exposure were also similar between PEG-trastuzumab and trastuzumab, but the absolute bioavailability of PEG-trastuzumab was 100% when compared to 86.1% bioavailability for trastuzumab. In contrast to trastuzumab, PEG-trastuzumab showed accelerated plasma clearance beginning approximately 7 days after sc, but not iv, administration, presumably as a result of the generation of anti-PEG IgM. This work suggests that PEGylation does not significantly alter the lymphatic disposition of very large proteins, and further suggests that it is unlikely to benefit therapy with monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25644368

  20. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2012-09-01

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 109 (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 106 (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (<50 ppm) and higher concentration ranges (>50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 1012 (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min-1; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements has been found to increase the detection limit to 131 ppb. These elements in lower concentrations can also be measured in the CRDS mode when a compact laser source is available to be integrated into the spectrometer in the future. This exploratory study demonstrates a new instrument platform using an OES-CRDS dual-mode technique for potential field applications.