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Sample records for plasma membrane prevents

  1. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  2. FAM21 directs SNX27–retromer cargoes to the plasma membrane by preventing transport to the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongju; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The endosomal network maintains cellular homeostasis by sorting, recycling and degrading endocytosed cargoes. Retromer organizes the endosomal sorting pathway in conjunction with various sorting nexin (SNX) proteins. The SNX27–retromer complex has recently been identified as a major endosomal hub that regulates endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling by preventing lysosomal entry of cargoes. Here, we show that SNX27 directly interacts with FAM21, which also binds retromer, within the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. This interaction is required for the precise localization of SNX27 at an endosomal subdomain as well as for recycling of SNX27-retromer cargoes. Furthermore, FAM21 prevents cargo transport to the Golgi apparatus by controlling levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which facilitates cargo dissociation at the Golgi. Together, our results demonstrate that the SNX27–retromer–WASH complex directs cargoes to the plasma membrane by blocking their transport to lysosomes and the Golgi. PMID:26956659

  3. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  4. Challenges in plasma membrane phosphoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Orsburn, Benjamin C; Stockwin, Luke H; Newton, Dianne L

    2011-01-01

    The response to extracellular stimuli often alters the phosphorylation state of plasma membrane-associated proteins. In this regard, generation of a comprehensive membrane phosphoproteome can significantly enhance signal transduction and drug mechanism studies. However, analysis of this subproteome is regarded as technically challenging, given the low abundance and insolubility of integral membrane proteins, combined with difficulties in isolating, ionizing and fragmenting phosphopeptides. In this article, we highlight recent advances in membrane and phosphoprotein enrichment techniques resulting in improved identification of these elusive peptides. We also describe the use of alternative fragmentation techniques, and assess their current and future value to the field of membrane phosphoproteomics. PMID:21819303

  5. Lysosomes and the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Norma W.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the cell invasion mechanism of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi led to a series of novel findings, which revealed a previously unsuspected ability of conventional lysosomes to fuse with the plasma membrane. This regulated exocytic process, previously regarded mostly as a specialization of certain cell types, was recently shown to play an important role in the mechanism by which cells reseal their plasma membrane after injury. PMID:12147679

  6. Ablation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 prevents development of hypertrophy in a model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Lasko, Valerie M; Nieman, Michelle L; Jiang, Min; Gao, Xu; Rubinstein, Jack; Wieczorek, David F; Shull, Gary E

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms linking the expression of sarcomeric mutant proteins to the development of pathological hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase PMCA4 in the HCM phenotype using a transgenic model that expresses mutant (Glu180Gly) α-tropomyosin (Tm180) in heart. Immunoblot analysis revealed that cardiac PMCA4 expression was upregulated early in Tm180 disease pathogenesis. This was accompanied by an increase in levels of the L-type Ca(2+)-channel, which is implicated in pathological hypertrophy. When Tm180 mice were crossed with a PMCA4-null line, loss of PMCA4 caused the abrogation of hypertrophy in Tm180/PMCA4-null double mutant mice. RT-PCR analysis of Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts revealed blunting of the fetal program and reversion of pro-fibrotic Col1a1 and Col3a1 gene expression to wild-type levels. This was accompanied by evidence of reduced L-type Ca(2+)-channel expression, and diminished calcineurin activity. Expression of the metabolic substrate transporters glucose transporter 4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b was preserved and Tm180-related changes in mRNA levels of various contractile stress-related proteins including the cardiac ankyrin protein CARP and the N2B isoform of titin were reversed in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts. cGMP levels were increased and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein was elevated in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts. These changes were associated with a sharp reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts, which occurred despite persistence of Tm180-related impairment of relaxation dynamics. These results reveal a novel and specific role for PMCA4 in the Tm180 hypertrophic phenotype, with the "protective" effects of PMCA4 deficiency encompassing multiple determinants of HCM-related hypertrophy. PMID:25280781

  7. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  8. Severe Hemolysis in a Patient With Erythrocytosis During Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption Therapy Was Prevented by Changing From Membrane-Based Technique to a Centrifuge-Based One.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Wu, Buyun; Kong, Ling; Gong, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) usually adopts membrane to separate plasma from blood. Here, we reported a case with erythrocytosis experienced severe hemolysis and membrane rupture during CPFA, which was avoided by changing from membrane-based technique to a centrifuge-based one. A 66-year-old man was to receive CPFA for severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 922 μmol/L, direct bilirubin 638 μmol/L) caused by obstruction of biliary tract. He had erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 230 g/L, hematocrit 0.634) for years because of untreated tetralogy of Fallot. Severe hemolysis and membrane rupture occurred immediately after blood entering into the plasma separator even at a low flow rate (50 mL/min) and persisted after changing a new separator. Finally, centrifugal plasma separation technique was used for CPFA in this patient, and no hemolysis occurred. After 3 sessions of CPFA, total bilirubin level decreased to 199 μmol/L with an average decline by 35% per session. Thereafter, the patient received endoscopic biliary stent implantation, and total bilirubin level returned to nearly normal. Therefore, centrifugal-based plasma separation can also be used in CPFA and may be superior to a membrane-based one in patients with hyperviscosity. PMID:25909925

  9. Synaptic silencing and plasma membrane dyshomeostasis induced by amyloid-β peptide are prevented by Aristotelia chilensis enriched extract.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Jorge; Dibarrart, Andrea; Saez-Orellana, Francisco; Fuentes-Fuentes, María Cecilia; Oyanedel, Carlos N; Guzmán, José; Perez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Aguayo, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of different types of extracellular and neurotoxic aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ). Recently, bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources showing neuroprotective properties have become of interest in brain neurodegeneration. We have purified, characterized, and evaluated the protective potential of one extract enriched in polyphenols obtained from Aristotelia chilensis (MQ), a Chilean berry fruit, in neuronal models of AD induced by soluble oligomers of Aβ1-40. For example, using primary hippocampal cultures from rats (E18), we observed neuroprotection when the neurons were co-incubated with Aβ (0.5 μM) plus MQ for 24 h (Aβ = 23 ± 2%; Aβ + MQ = 3 ± 1%; n = 3). In parallel, co-incubation of Aβ with MQ recovered the frequency of Ca2+ transient oscillations when compared to neurons treated with Aβ alone (Aβ = 72 ± 3%; Aβ + MQ = 86 ± 2%; n = 5), correlating with the changes observed in spontaneous synaptic activity. Additionally, MAP-2 immunostaining showed a preservation of the dendritic tree, suggesting that the toxic effect of Aβ is prevented in the presence of MQ. A new complex mechanism is proposed by which MQ induces neuroprotective effects including antioxidant properties, modulation of cell survival pathways, and/or direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates. Our results suggest that MQ induces changes in the aggregation kinetics of Aβ producing variations in the nucleation phase (Aβ: k1 = 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10-3 s-1 MQ: k1 = 8.3 ± 0.6 × 10-3 s-1) and altering Thioflavin T insertion in β-sheets. In conclusion, MQ induces a potent neuroprotection by direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates, generating far less toxic species and in this way protecting the neuronal network. PMID:22728896

  10. Membrane raft association is a determinant of plasma membrane localization

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Rohrer, Blanca B.; Levental, Kandice R.; Simons, Kai; Levental, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The lipid raft hypothesis proposes lateral domains driven by preferential interactions between sterols, sphingolipids, and specific proteins as a central mechanism for the regulation of membrane structure and function; however, experimental limitations in defining raft composition and properties have prevented unequivocal demonstration of their functional relevance. Here, we establish a quantitative, functional relationship between raft association and subcellular protein sorting. By systematic mutation of the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of a model transmembrane protein, linker for activation of T-cells (LAT), we generated a panel of variants possessing a range of raft affinities. These mutations revealed palmitoylation, transmembrane domain length, and transmembrane sequence to be critical determinants of membrane raft association. Moreover, plasma membrane (PM) localization was strictly dependent on raft partitioning across the entire panel of unrelated mutants, suggesting that raft association is necessary and sufficient for PM sorting of LAT. Abrogation of raft partitioning led to mistargeting to late endosomes/lysosomes because of a failure to recycle from early endosomes. These findings identify structural determinants of raft association and validate lipid-driven domain formation as a mechanism for endosomal protein sorting. PMID:24912166

  11. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  12. Transport proteins of the plant plasma membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assmann, S. M.; Haubrick, L. L.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed molecular and genetic approaches have enabled the identification and functional characterization of novel genes encoding ion channels, ion carriers, and water channels of the plant plasma membrane.

  13. Protein Homeostasis at the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane (PM) and endocytic protein quality control (QC) in conjunction with the endosomal sorting machinery either repairs or targets conformationally damaged membrane proteins for lysosomal/vacuolar degradation. Here, we provide an overview of emerging aspects of the underlying mechanisms of PM QC that fulfill a critical role in preserving cellular protein homeostasis in health and diseases. PMID:24985330

  14. Functional Implications of Plasma Membrane Condensation for T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Carmel M.; Engelhardt, Karin; Williamson, David; Grewal, Thomas; Jessup, Wendy; Harder, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2008-01-01

    The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process. PMID:18509459

  15. Radiofrequency plasma polymerized perfluoroionomer membrane materials

    SciTech Connect

    Danilich, M.J.; Gervasio, D.F.; Marchant, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    Ion exchange membranes have received considerable attention in recent years. Applications of ion exchange membranes have included such electrochemical systems as water and organic electrolyzers, redox-flow batteries, and sensors. This work is a study of radiofrequency plasma polymerization of perfluorinated acid-containing monomers and a perfluorinated {open_quotes}backbone{close_quotes} comonomer as a method for synthesizing novel polyionomer film coatings for use as membranes on electrodes and biomedical sensors. The results indicate that, by altering the deposition conditions, some control can be exercised over the retention of acid functional groups by plasma polymers. Using AC impedance measurements, the ionic conductivity of these films was found to be two to four orders of magnitude higher than their aqueous environments. In addition, several of the acid-containing plasma polymerized films were hydrophilic, having an advancing water contact angle of less than fifteen degrees. The initial results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of using acid-containing plasma polymers as crosslinked membrane materials suitable for use with electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  16. Cholesterol Asymmetry in Synaptic Plasma Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, W. Gibson; Igbavboa, Urule; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2010-01-01

    Lipids are essential for the structural and functional integrity of membranes. Membrane lipids are not randomly distributed but are localized in different domains. A common characteristic of these membrane domains is their association with cholesterol. Lipid rafts and caveolae are examples of cholesterol enriched domains, which have attracted keen interest. However, two other important cholesterol domains are the exofacial and cytofacial leaflets of the plasma membrane. The two leaflets that make up the bilayer differ in their fluidity, electrical charge, lipid distribution, and active sites of certain proteins. The synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cytofacial leaflet contains over 85% of the total SPM cholesterol as compared with the exofacial leaflet. This asymmetric distribution of cholesterol is not fixed or immobile but can be modified by different conditions in vivo: 1) chronic ethanol consumption; 2) statins; 3) aging; and 4) apoE isoform. Several potential candidates have been proposed as mechanisms involved in regulation of SPM cholesterol asymmetry: apoE, low-density-lipoprotein receptor, sterol carrier protein-2, fatty acid binding proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, p-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. This review examines cholesterol asymmetry in SPM, potential mechanisms of regulation and impact on membrane structure and function. PMID:21214553

  17. Plasma surface modification of nanofiltration (NF) thin-film composite (TFC) membranes to improve anti organic fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Sik; Yu, Qingsong; Deng, Baolin

    2011-09-01

    Commercial nanofiltration (NF) thin-film composite (TFC) membranes were treated by low-pressure NH3 plasma, and the effects of the plasma treatment were investigated in terms of the membrane hydrophilicity, pure water flux, salt rejection, protein adsorption, and humic acid fouling. Experimental results indicated that the membrane surface hydrophilicity was increased by the plasma treatment, and changes in the hydrophilicity as well as membrane performance including permeate flux and fouling varied with the original membrane characteristics (e.g., roughness and hydrophilicity). Water flux of plasma treated membranes was the highest with 10 min and 90 W of plasma treatment, and salt rejection was mainly affected by the intensity of the plasma power. Results of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption demonstrated that the protein adsorption decreased with increasing plasma treatment time. The plasma treatment that resulted in more negatively charged surfaces could also better prevent Aldrich humic acid (AHA) attachment on the membrane surface.

  18. Rupture of plasma membrane under tension.

    PubMed

    Tan, Samuel Chun Wei; Yang, Tianyi; Gong, Yingxue; Liao, Kin

    2011-04-29

    We present a study on the rupture behavior of single NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts under tension using micropipette aspiration. Membrane rupture was characterized by breaking and formation of an enclosed membrane linked to a tether at the cell apex. Three different rupture modes, namely: single break, initial multiple breaks, and continuous multiple breaks, were observed under similar loading condition. The measured mean tensile strengths of plasma membrane were 3.83 ± 1.94 and 3.98 ± 1.54mN/m for control cells and cells labeled with TubulinTracker, respectively. The tensile strength data was described by Weibull distribution. For the control cells, the Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were 1.86 and 4.40 mN/m, respectively; for cells labeled with TubulinTracker, the Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were 2.68 and 4.48 mN/m, respectively. Based on the experimental data, the estimated average transmembrane proteins-lipid cleavage strength was 2.64 ± 0.64 mN/m. From the random sampling of volume ratio of transmembrane proteins in cell membrane, we concluded that the Weibull characteristic of plasma membrane strength was likely to be originated from the variation in transmembrane proteins-lipid interactions. PMID:21288526

  19. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  20. Plasma Membrane Transporters in Modern Liver Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Jose J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The liver plays a crucial role in the detoxification of drugs used in the treatment of many diseases. The liver itself is the target for drugs aimed to modify its function or to treat infections and tumours affecting this organ. Both detoxification and pharmacological processes occurring in the liver require the uptake of the drug by hepatic cells and, in some cases, the elimination into bile. These steps have been classified as detoxification phase 0 and phase III, respectively. Since most drugs cannot cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion, the involvement of transporters is mandatory. Several members of the superfamilies of solute carriers (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, with a minor participation of other families of transporters, account for the uptake and efflux, respectively, of endobiotic and xenobiotic compounds across the basolateral and apical membranes of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. These transporters are also involved in the sensitivity and refractoriness to the pharmacological treatment of liver tumours. An additional interesting aspect of the role of plasma membrane transporters in liver pharmacology regards the promiscuity of many of these carriers, which accounts for a variety of drug-drug, endogenous substances-drug and food components-drug interactions with clinical relevance. PMID:24278693

  1. Reversal of carbon tetrachloride induced changes in microviscosity and lipid composition of liver plasma membrane by colchicine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Herruzo, J A; De Gando, M; Ferrer, M P; Hernandez Muñoz, I; Fernandez-Boya, B; De la Torre, M P; Muñoz-Yague, M T

    1993-01-01

    Colchicine is beneficial in the treatment of cirrhotic patients, it prevents changes in plasma membrane bound enzymes induced by CCl4 intoxication. In this study, lipid composition and microviscosity were measured in liver plasma membranes isolated from rats given CCl4. Microviscosity values increased in rats given CCl4 for six weeks but fell considerably in those given CCl4 for 10 weeks. Both these changes were absent when colchicine was given with CCl4. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratios and lipid peroxide values increased but plasma membrane phospholipids, the length of fatty acyl chains, and the unsaturation index fell significantly after CCl4 intoxication. Colchicine treatment also prevented these changes. Changes in the lipid composition of liver plasma membranes were significantly correlated with lipid peroxidation. Colchicine prevents changes in the physicochemical properties of liver plasma membranes induced by longterm CCl4 treatment, probably by blocking peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:8244117

  2. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    1992-04-01

    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  3. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  4. Two ABCB4 point mutations of strategic NBD-motifs do not prevent protein targeting to the plasma membrane but promote MDR3 dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Degiorgio, Dario; Corsetto, Paola A; Rizzo, Angela M; Colombo, Carla; Seia, Manuela; Costantino, Lucy; Montorfano, Gigliola; Tomaiuolo, Rossella; Bordo, Domenico; Sansanelli, Serena; Li, Min; Tavian, Daniela; Rastaldi, Maria P; Coviello, Domenico A

    2014-05-01

    The ABCB4 gene encodes for MDR3, a protein that translocates phosphatidylcholine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the hepatocanalicular membrane; its deficiency favors the formation of 'toxic bile'. Several forms of hepatobiliary diseases have been associated with ABCB4 mutations, but the detrimental effects of most mutations on the encoded protein needs to be clarified. Among subjects with cholangiopathies who were screened for mutations in ABCB4 by direct sequencing, we identified the new mutation p.(L481R) in three brothers. According to our model of tertiary structure, this mutation affects the Q-loop, whereas the p.(Y403H) mutation, that we already described in two other families, involves the A-loop. This study was aimed at analyzing the functional relevance of these two ABCB4 mutations: MDR3 expression and lipid content in the culture supernatant were evaluated in cell lines stably transfected with the ABCB4 wild-type clone and corresponding mutants. No differences of expression were observed between wild-type and mutant gene products. Instead, both mutations caused a reduction of phosphatidylcholine secretion compared with the wild-type transfected cell lines. On the contrary, cholesterol (Chol) release, after 1 and 3 mM sodium taurocholate stimulation, was higher in the mutant-transfected cell lines than that in the wild-type and was particularly enhanced in cells transfected with the p.Y403H-construct.In summary, our data show that both mutations do not seem to affect protein expression, but are able to reduce the efflux of phosphatidylcholine associated with increase of Chol, thereby promoting the formation of toxic bile. PMID:24045840

  5. Electron microscopy methods for studying plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Alison J; Prior, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy allows direct visualization of the underlying organization of cell surface components on a nano-scale. Immuno-gold labelling of isolated plasma membranes generates point patterns that enable mapping of protein and lipid distributions. 2D spatial statistics reveals the extent to which these distributions are clustered or dispersed and allows the extent of co-localization between different cell surface components to be precisely determined. This approach has been successfully applied to the study of signalling network organization and the consequences of physiological changes in modulating cell surface function. PMID:25331134

  6. Surface monofunctionalized polymethyl pentene hollow fiber membranes by plasma treatment and hemocompatibility modification for membrane oxygenators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Fan, Wenling; Mao, Chun; Shi, Jialiang; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of polymethyl pentene (PMP) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) was improved through surface modification for membrane oxygenator applications. The modification was performed stepwise with the following: (1) oxygen plasma treatment, (2) functionalization of monosort hydroxyl groups through NaBH4 reduction, and (3) grafting 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) or heparin. SEM, ATR-FTIR, and XPS analyses were conducted to confirm successful grafting during the modification. The hemocompatibility of PMP HFMs was analyzed and compared through protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests. Pure CO2 and O2 permeation rates, as well as in vitro gas exchange rates, were determined to evaluate the mass transfer properties of PMP HFMs. SEM results showed that different nanofibril topographies were introduced on the HFM surface. ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra indicated the presence of functionalization of monosort hydroxyl group and the grafting of MPC and heparin. Hemocompatibility evaluation results showed that the modified PMP HFMs presented optimal hemocompatibility compared with pristine HFMs. Gas permeation results revealed that gas permeation flux increased in the modified HFMs because of dense surface etching during the plasma treatment. The results of in vitro gas exchange rates showed that all modified PMP HFMs presented decreased gas exchange rates because of potential surface fluid wetting. The proposed strategy exhibits a potential for fabricating membrane oxygenators for biomedical applications to prevent coagulation formation and alter plasma-induced surface topology and composition.

  7. Binding contribution between synaptic vesicle membrane and plasma membrane proteins in neurons: an AFM study.

    PubMed

    Sritharan, K C; Quinn, A S; Taatjes, D J; Jena, B P

    1998-01-01

    The final step in the exocytotic process is the docking and fusion of membrane-bound secretory vesicles at the cell plasma membrane. This docking and fusion is brought about by several participating vesicle membrane, plasma membrane and soluble cytosolic proteins. A clear understanding of the interactions between these participating proteins giving rise to vesicle docking and fusion is essential. In this study, the binding force profiles between synaptic vesicle membrane and plasma membrane proteins have been examined for the first time using the atomic force microscope. Binding force contributions of a synaptic vesicle membrane protein VAMP1, and the plasma membrane proteins SNAP-25 and syntaxin, are also implicated from these studies. Our study suggests that these three proteins are the major, if not the only contributors to the interactive binding force that exist between the two membranes. PMID:10452835

  8. The adenovirus E3 10.4K and 14.5K proteins, which function to prevent cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor and to down-regulate the epidermal growth factor receptor, are localized in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A R; Tollefson, A E; Krajcsi, P; Yei, S P; Wold, W S

    1995-01-01

    The adenovirus type 2 and 5 E3 10,400- and 14,500-molecular-weight (10.4K and 14.5K) proteins are both required to protect some cell lines from lysis by tumor necrosis factor and to down-regulate the epidermal growth factor receptor. We have shown previously that both 10.4K and 14.5K are integral membrane proteins and that 14.5K is phosphorylated and O glycosylated. The 10.4K protein coimmunoprecipitates with 14.5K, indicating that the two proteins function as a complex. Here we show, using immunofluorescence and two different cell surface-labeling techniques, that both proteins are localized in the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that trafficking of each protein to the plasma membrane depends on concomitant expression of the other protein. Finally, neither protein could be immunoprecipitated from conditioned media, indicating that neither is secreted. Taken together, these results suggest that the plasma membrane is the site at which 10.4K and 14.5K function to inhibit cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor and to down-regulate the epidermal growth factor receptor. PMID:7983708

  9. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  10. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Fairn, Gregory D; Hancock, John F

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  11. Selective photosensitizer delivery into plasma membrane for effective photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Santos, Olavo Amorim; Park, Ji-Ho

    2014-10-10

    Subcellular localization of photosensitizers (PSs) determines the therapeutic efficacy in the photodynamic therapy. However, among the subcellular compartments, there has been little effort to deliver the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane and examine the phototherapeutic efficacy of membrane-localized PSs. Here, we developed a liposomal delivery system to localize the hydrophobic PSs selectively into the plasma membrane. The membrane fusogenic liposomes (MFLs), the membrane of which is engineered to fuse with the plasma membrane, was prepared for the membrane localization of PSs. The phototherapeutic efficacy of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was superior over that of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded non-fusogenic liposomes, which is the conventional liposomal formulation that delivers the PSs into the intracellular compartments via endocytosis. The membrane localization of ZnPc molecules led to rapid membrane disruption upon irradiation and subsequent necrosis-like cell death. The membrane-localized generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was likely to account for the effective disruption of plasma membrane. Thus, this work provides a novel delivery method to localize the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane with the enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy. PMID:24892975

  12. Order of lipid phases in model and plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Hermann-Josef; Lingwood, Daniel; Levental, Ilya; Sampaio, Julio L.; Kalvodova, Lucie; Rajendran, Lawrence; Simons, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are nanoscopic assemblies of sphingolipids, cholesterol, and specific membrane proteins that contribute to lateral heterogeneity in eukaryotic membranes. Separation of artificial membranes into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered phases is regarded as a common model for this compartmentalization. However, tight lipid packing in Lo phases seems to conflict with efficient partitioning of raft-associated transmembrane (TM) proteins. To assess membrane order as a component of raft organization, we performed fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy with the membrane probes Laurdan and C-laurdan. First, we assessed lipid packing in model membranes of various compositions and found cholesterol and acyl chain dependence of membrane order. Then we probed cell membranes by using two novel systems that exhibit inducible phase separation: giant plasma membrane vesicles [Baumgart et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:3165–3170] and plasma membrane spheres. Notably, only the latter support selective inclusion of raft TM proteins with the ganglioside GM1 into one phase. We measured comparable small differences in order between the separated phases of both biomembranes. Lateral packing in the ordered phase of giant plasma membrane vesicles resembled the Lo domain of model membranes, whereas the GM1 phase in plasma membrane spheres exhibited considerably lower order, consistent with different partitioning of lipid and TM protein markers. Thus, lipid-mediated coalescence of the GM1 raft domain seems to be distinct from the formation of a Lo phase, suggesting additional interactions between proteins and lipids to be effective. PMID:19805351

  13. Channelopathies linked to plasma membrane phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Petrou, Vasileios I.; Adney, Scott K.; Mahajan, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) controls the activity of most ion channels tested thus far through direct electrostatic interactions. Mutations in channel proteins that change their apparent affinity to PIP2 can lead to channelopathies. Given the fundamental role that membrane phosphoinositides play in regulating channel activity, it is surprising that only a small number of channelopathies have been linked to phosphoinositides. This review proposes that for channels whose activity is PIP2-dependent and for which mutations can lead to channelopathies, the possibility that the mutations alter channel-PIP2 interactions ought to be tested. Similarly, diseases that are linked to disorders of the phosphoinositide pathway result in altered PIP2 levels. In such cases, it is proposed that the possibility for a concomitant dysregulation of channel activity also ought to be tested. The ever-growing list of ion channels whose activity depends on interactions with PIP2 promises to provide a mechanism by which defects on either the channel protein or the phosphoinositide levels can lead to disease. PMID:20396900

  14. Dynamics of photoinduced cell plasma membrane injury.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, W P; Toner, M; Ezzell, R M; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a video microscopy system designed for real-time measurement of single cell damage during photolysis under well defined physicochemical and photophysical conditions. Melanoma cells cultured in vitro were treated with the photosensitizer (PS), tin chlorin e6 (SnCe6) or immunoconjugate (SnCe6 conjugated to a anti-ICAM monoclonal antibody), and illuminated with a 10 mW He/Ne laser at a 630 nm wavelength. Cell membrane integrity was assessed using the vital dye calcein-AM. In experiments in which the laser power density and PS concentration were varied, it was determined that the time lag before cell rupture was inversely proportional to the estimated singlet oxygen flux to the cell surface. Microscopic examination of the lytic event indicated that photo-induced lysis was caused by a point rupture of the plasma membrane. The on-line nature of this microscopy system offers an opportunity to monitor the dynamics of the cell damage process and to gain insights into the mechanism governing photolytic cell injury processes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7612864

  15. Membrane Compartment Occupied by Can1 (MCC) and Eisosome Subdomains of the Fungal Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Lois M.; Wang, Hong X.; Li, Lifang; Konopka, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that fungal plasma membranes are organized into different subdomains. One new domain termed MCC/eisosomes consists of stable punctate patches that are distinct from lipid rafts. The MCC/eisosome domains correspond to furrows in the plasma membrane that are about 300 nm long and 50 nm deep. The MCC portion includes integral membrane proteins, such as the tetraspanners Sur7 and Nce102. The adjacent eisosome includes proteins that are peripherally associated with the membrane, including the BAR domains proteins Pil1 and Lsp1 that are thought to promote membrane curvature. Genetic analysis of the MCC/eisosome components indicates these domains broadly affect overall plasma membrane organization. The mechanisms regulating the formation of MCC/eisosomes in model organisms will be reviewed as well as the role of these plasma membrane domains in fungal pathogenesis and response to antifungal drugs. PMID:22368779

  16. Yeast cell wall integrity sensors form specific plasma membrane microdomains important for signalling.

    PubMed

    Kock, Christian; Arlt, Henning; Ungermann, Christian; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2016-09-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on the detection of cell surface stress by five sensors (Wsc1, Wsc2, Wsc3, Mid2, Mtl1). Each sensor contains a single transmembrane domain and a highly mannosylated extracellular region, and probably detects mechanical stress in the cell wall or the plasma membrane. We here studied the distribution of the five sensors at the cell surface by using fluorescently tagged variants in conjunction with marker proteins for established membrane compartments. We find that each of the sensors occupies a specific microdomain at the plasma membrane. The novel punctate 'membrane compartment occupied by Wsc1' (MCW) shows moderate overlap with other Wsc-type sensors, but not with those of the Mid-type sensors or other established plasma membrane domains. We further observed that sensor density and formation of the MCW compartment depends on the cysteine-rich head group near the N-terminus of Wsc1. Yet, signalling capacity depends more on the sensor density in the plasma membrane than on clustering within its microcompartment. We propose that the MCW microcompartment provides a quality control mechanism for retaining functional sensors at the plasma membrane to prevent them from endocytosis. PMID:27337501

  17. The plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: structure, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Rest, M E; Kamminga, A H; Nakano, A; Anraku, Y; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

    1995-06-01

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an extensive flux of lipids from these organelles to the plasma membrane is required. Although the pathway of protein traffic to the plasma membrane is similar to that of most of the lipids, the bulk flow of lipids is separate from vesicle-mediated protein transport. Recent advances in the analysis of membrane budding and membrane fusion indicate that the mechanisms of protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and from the Golgi to plasma membrane are similar. The majority of plasma membrane proteins transport solutes across the membrane. A number of ATP-dependent export systems have been detected that couple the hydrolysis of ATP to transport of molecules out of the cell. The hydrolysis of ATP by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase generates a proton motive force which is used to drive secondary transport processes. In S. cerevisiae, many substrates are transported by more than one system. Transport of monosaccharide is catalyzed by uniport systems, while transport of disaccharides, amino acids, and nucleosides is mediated by proton symport systems. Transport activity can be regulated at the level of transcription, e.g., induction and (catabolite) repression, but transport proteins can also be affected posttranslationally by a process termed catabolite inactivation. Catabolite inactivation is triggered by the addition of fermentable sugars, intracellular acidification, stress conditions, and/or nitrogen starvation. Phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of the transport proteins has been proposed as an initial step in the controlled inactivation and degradation of the target enzyme. The use of artificial membranes, like secretory vesicles and plasma membranes

  18. The plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: structure, function, and biogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    van der Rest, M E; Kamminga, A H; Nakano, A; Anraku, Y; Poolman, B; Konings, W N

    1995-01-01

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an extensive flux of lipids from these organelles to the plasma membrane is required. Although the pathway of protein traffic to the plasma membrane is similar to that of most of the lipids, the bulk flow of lipids is separate from vesicle-mediated protein transport. Recent advances in the analysis of membrane budding and membrane fusion indicate that the mechanisms of protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and from the Golgi to plasma membrane are similar. The majority of plasma membrane proteins transport solutes across the membrane. A number of ATP-dependent export systems have been detected that couple the hydrolysis of ATP to transport of molecules out of the cell. The hydrolysis of ATP by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase generates a proton motive force which is used to drive secondary transport processes. In S. cerevisiae, many substrates are transported by more than one system. Transport of monosaccharide is catalyzed by uniport systems, while transport of disaccharides, amino acids, and nucleosides is mediated by proton symport systems. Transport activity can be regulated at the level of transcription, e.g., induction and (catabolite) repression, but transport proteins can also be affected posttranslationally by a process termed catabolite inactivation. Catabolite inactivation is triggered by the addition of fermentable sugars, intracellular acidification, stress conditions, and/or nitrogen starvation. Phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of the transport proteins has been proposed as an initial step in the controlled inactivation and degradation of the target enzyme. The use of artificial membranes, like secretory vesicles and plasma membranes

  19. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  20. No primexine and plasma membrane undulation is essential for primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation during microsporogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hai-Shuang; Zhang, Cheng; Chang, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Shi, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Ling; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Sen; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation are the initial steps of pollen wall formation. However, little is known about the genes involved in this important biological process. Here, we report a novel gene, NO PRIMEXINE AND PLASMA MEMBRANE UNDULATION (NPU), which functions in the early stage of pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Loss of NPU function causes male sterility due to a defect in callose synthesis and sporopollenin deposition, resulting in disrupted pollen in npu mutants. Transmission electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation are completely absent in the npu mutants. NPU encodes a membrane protein with two transmembrane domains and one intracellular domain. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that NPU is strongly expressed in microspores and the tapetum during the tetrad stage. All these results together indicate that NPU plays a vital role in primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation during early pollen wall development. PMID:22100644

  1. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  2. Characterization of α-Crystallin-Plasma Membrane Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Brian A.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2010-01-01

    α-Crystallin, a large lenticular protein complex made up of two related subunits (αA- and αB-crystallin), is known to associate increasingly with fiber cell plasma membranes with age and/or the onset of cataract. To understand better the binding mechanism, we developed a sensitive membrane binding assay using lens plasma membranes and recombinant human αA- and αB-crystallins conjugated to a small fluorescent tag (Alexa350®). Both αA and αB homopolymer complexes, as well as a reconstituted 3:1 heteromeric complex, bind to lens membranes in a specific, saturable, and partially irreversible manner that is sensitive to both time and temperature. The amount of α-crystallin that binds to the membrane increases under acidic pH conditions and upon removal of exposed intrinsic membrane protein domains but is not affected at high ionic strength, suggesting that α-crystallin binds to the fiber cell plasma membranes mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The binding capacity and affinity for the reconstituted 3:1 heteromeric complex were measured to be 3.45 ± 0.11 ng/μg of membrane and 4.57 ± 0.50 × 10−4 μg−1 of membrane, respectively. The present membrane binding data support the hypothesis that the physical properties of a mixed α-crystallin complex may hold particular relevance for the function of α-crystallin within the lens. PMID:10692476

  3. Gravity Responsive NADH Oxidase of the Plasma Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing gravity using an NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane which has been found to respond to unit gravity and low centrifugal g forces. The oxidation rate of NADH supplied to the NADH oxidase is measured and translated to represent the relative gravitational force exerted on the protein. The NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane may be obtained from plant or animal sources or may be produced recombinantly.

  4. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit

    PubMed Central

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.—Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

  5. Paracrine signaling through plasma membrane hemichannels☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; De Bock, Marijke; Decrock, Elke; Bol, Mélissa; Gadicherla, Ashish; Vinken, Mathieu; Rogiers, Vera; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane hemichannels composed of connexin (Cx) proteins are essential components of gap junction channels but accumulating evidence suggests functions of hemichannels beyond the communication provided by junctional channels. Hemichannels not incorporated into gap junctions, called unapposed hemichannels, can open in response to a variety of signals, electrical and chemical, thereby forming a conduit between the cell’s interior and the extracellular milieu. Open hemichannels allow the bidirectional passage of ions and small metabolic or signaling molecules of below 1–2 kDa molecular weight. In addition to connexins, hemichannels can also be formed by pannexin (Panx) proteins and current evidence suggests that Cx26, Cx32, Cx36, Cx43 and Panx1, form hemichannels that allow the diffusive release of paracrine messengers. In particular, the case is strong for ATP but substantial evidence is also available for other messengers like glutamate and prostaglandins or metabolic substances like NAD+ or glutathione. While this field is clearly in expansion, evidence is still lacking at essential points of the paracrine signaling cascade that includes not only messenger release, but also downstream receptor signaling and consequent functional effects. The data available at this moment largely derives from in vitro experiments and still suffers from the difficulty of separating the functions of connexin-based hemichannels from gap junctions and from pannexin hemichannels. However, messengers like ATP or glutamate have universal roles in the body and further defining the contribution of hemichannels as a possible release pathway is expected to open novel avenues for better understanding their contribution to a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Communicating junctions, roles and dysfunctions. PMID:22796188

  6. Glycan Moieties as Bait to Fish Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Zhao, Qun; Sui, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-05-17

    Plasma membrane proteome analysis is of significance for screening candidate biomarkers and drug targets. However, due to their low abundance and lack of specific groups that can enable their capture, the plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) are under-represented. On the basis of the fact that PMPs are embedded in or anchored to the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and the glycan moieties of proteins and lipids located on the plasma membrane are exposed outside of the cell surface, we proposed a strategy to capture PMPs, termed as glycan moieties-directed PMPs enrichment (GMDPE). With the glycan moieties exposed outside of the cells as bait to ensure the selectivity and the phospholipid bilayer as raft to provide the sensitivity, we applied this strategy into the plasma membrane proteome analysis of HeLa cells, and in total, 772 PMPs were identified, increased by 4.5 times compared to those identified by the reported cell surface biotinylation method. Notably, among them, 86 CD antigens and 16 ion channel proteins were confidently identified. All these results demonstrated that our proposed approach has great potential in the large scale plasma membrane proteome profiling. PMID:27088673

  7. [Role of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Jia, Hang-Huan; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Calcium overload is one of the important mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. Endoplasmic reticulum is an important organelle which regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis by uptake, storage and mobilization of calcium. So it plays a critical role in regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum, which is widely distributed in cytoplasm, has a large number of membrane junction sites. Recent studies have reported that these junction sites are distributed on plasma membrane and organelle membranes (mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc.), separately. They could form complexes to regulate calcium transport. In this review, we briefly outlined the recent research progresses of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease, which may offer a new strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27546511

  8. S-Acylation of the cellulose synthase complex is essential for its plasma membrane localization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Wightman, Raymond; Atanassov, Ivan; Gupta, Anjali; Hurst, Charlotte H; Hemsley, Piers A; Turner, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Plant cellulose microfibrils are synthesized by a process that propels the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) through the plane of the plasma membrane. How interactions between membranes and the CSC are regulated is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that all catalytic subunits of the CSC, known as cellulose synthase A (CESA) proteins, are S-acylated. Analysis of Arabidopsis CESA7 reveals four cysteines in variable region 2 (VR2) and two cysteines at the carboxy terminus (CT) as S-acylation sites. Mutating both the VR2 and CT cysteines permits CSC assembly and trafficking to the Golgi but prevents localization to the plasma membrane. Estimates suggest that a single CSC contains more than 100 S-acyl groups, which greatly increase the hydrophobic nature of the CSC and likely influence its immediate membrane environment. PMID:27387950

  9. Homeostasis of plasma membrane viscosity in fluctuating temperatures.

    PubMed

    Martinière, Alexandre; Shvedunova, Maria; Thomson, Adrian J W; Evans, Nicola H; Penfield, Steven; Runions, John; McWatters, Harriet G

    2011-10-01

    Temperature has a direct effect at the cellular level on an organism. For instance, in the case of biomembranes, cooling causes lipids to lose entropy and pack closely together. Reducing temperature should, in the absence of other factors, increase the viscosity of a lipid membrane. We have investigated the effect of temperature variation on plasma membrane (PM) viscosity. We used dispersion tracking of photoactivated green fluorescent protein (GFP) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in wild-type and desaturase mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants along with membrane lipid saturation analysis to monitor the effect of temperature and membrane lipid composition on PM viscosity. Plasma membrane viscosity in A. thaliana is negatively correlated with ambient temperature only under constant-temperature conditions. In the more natural environment of temperature cycles, plants actively manage PM viscosity to counteract the direct effects of temperature. Plasma membrane viscosity is regulated by altering the proportion of desaturated fatty acids. In cold conditions, cell membranes accumulate desaturated fatty acids, which decreases membrane viscosity and vice versa. Moreover, we show that control of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2)-dependent lipid desaturation is essential for this homeostasis of membrane viscosity. Finally, a lack of FAD2 function results in aberrant temperature responses. PMID:21762166

  10. Deposition of polymeric perfluored thin films in proton ionic membranes by plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Peter Lubomir; Mousinho, Ana Paula; Ordonez, Nelson; da Silva Zambom, Luis; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues

    2007-10-01

    In this work the surfaces of polymeric membranes based on Nafion (proton conducting material), used in proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFC) had been modified by plasma deposition of perfluored polymers, in order to improve its functioning in systems of energy generation (fuel cells). The deposition increases the chemical resistance of the proton ionic polymers without losing the electrical properties. The processing of the membranes also reduces the permeability of the membranes to the alcohols (methanol and ethanol), thus preventing poisoning of the fuel cell. The processing of the membranes of Nafion was carried through in a system of plasma deposition using a mixture of CF 4 and H 2 gases. The plasma processing was made mainly to increase the chemical resistance and result in hydrophobic surfaces. The Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) technique supplies a spectrum with information about the CF n bond formation. Through the Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique it was possible to verify the deposition rate of the polymeric layer. The plasma process with composition of 60% of CF 4 and 40% of H 2 presented the best deposition rate. By the spectrum analysis for the optimized configuration, it was possible to verify that the film deposition occurred with a thickness of 90 nm, and fluorine concentration was nearly 30%. Voltammetry made possible to verify that the fluorination increases the membranes chemical resistance, improving the stability of Nafion, becoming an attractive process for construction of fuel cells.

  11. Limited and selective transfer of plasma membrane glycoproteins to membrane of secondary lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Haylett, T.; Thilo, L.

    1986-10-01

    Radioactive galactose, covalently bound to cell surface glycoconjugates on mouse macrophage cells, P388D/sub 1/, was used as a membrane marker to study the composition, and the kinetics of exchange, of plasma membrane-derived constituents in the membrane of secondary lysosomes. Secondary lysosomes were separated from endosomes and plasma membrane by self-forming Percoll density gradients. Horseradish peroxidase, taken up by fluid-phase pinocytosis, served as a vesicle contents marker to monitor transfer of endosomal contents into secondary lysosomes. Concurrently, the fraction of plasma membrane-derived label of secondary lysosomes increased by first order kinetics from <0.1% to a steady-state level of approx.2.5% of the total label. As analyzed by NaDodSO/sub 4/ PAGE, labeled molecules of M/sub r/ 160-190 kD were depleted and of the M/sub r/ 100-120 kD were enriched in lysosome membrane compared with the relative composition of label on the cell surface. No corresponding selectivity was observed for the degradation of label, with all M/sub r/ classes being affected to the same relative extent. The results indicate that endocytosis-derived transfer of plasma membrane constitutents to secondary lysosomes is a limited and selective process, and that only approx.1% of internalized membrane is recycled via a membrane pool of secondary lysosomes.

  12. Vitamins C and E: missing links in preventing preterm premature rupture of membranes?

    PubMed

    Woods, J R; Plessinger, M A; Miller, R K

    2001-07-01

    We propose that generation of reactive oxygen species may be a potentially reversible pathophysiologic pathway leading to preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Reactive oxygen species generated by the body's response to diverse insults such as infection, cigarette smoking, bleeding, or cocaine use can activate collagenolytic enzymes and impair fetal membrane integrity. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble antioxidant, inhibits membrane-damaging effects of reactive oxygen species-induced lipid peroxidation. Vitamin C, a water-soluble antioxidant in plasma, stimulates and protects collagen synthesis while recycling vitamin E. Prior evidence shows that (1) damage by reactive oxygen species can impair fetal membrane integrity, (2) reduced midgestation levels of vitamin C are associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes, and (3) these vitamins can be safely and effectively absorbed and delivered to gestational tissues. Current prenatal vitamin preparations contain vitamins C and E in concentrations that are less than 1/3 and 1/10, respectively; these levels have been suggested for effective antioxidant protection. We hypothesize that increased dietary consumption or supplementation of vitamins C and E during pregnancy may reduce physiologically the risks of that portion of preterm premature rupture of membranes that is mediated by excessive or undamped peroxidation of fetal membranes. This hypothesis, if confirmed, should stimulate initiation of therapeutic trials to test the efficacy of enhanced supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy to prevent preterm premature rupture of membranes. PMID:11483896

  13. Plasma jet accelerator optimization with supple membrane model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2006-10-01

    High density (>=3x10^17cm-3) and high Mach number (M>10) plasma jets have important applications such as plasma rotation, refueling and disruption mitigation in tokamaks. The most deleterious blow-by instability occurs in coaxial plasma accelerators; hence electrode shape optimization is required to accelerate plasmas to ˜200 km/s [1]. A full 3D particle simulation takes a huge computational time. We have developed a membrane model to provide a good starting point and further physical insight for a full 3D optimization. Our model approximates the axisymmetrical plasma by a thin supple conducting membrane with a distributed mass, located between the electrodes, and connects them to model dynamics of the blow-by instability and to conduct the optimization. The supple membrane is allowed to slip along the conductors freely or with some friction as affected by Lorenz force, generated by magnetic field inside the chamber and current on membrane. The total mass and the density distribution represent the initial plasma. The density is redistributed adiabatically during the acceleration. An external electrical circuit with capacitance, inductance and resistivity is a part of the model. The membrane model simulation results will be compared to the 2D fluid MACH2 results and then will be used to guide a full 3D optimization by the LSP code. 1. http://hyperv.com/projects/pic/

  14. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  15. Surface modification of nanoporous alumina membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losic, Dusan; Cole, Martin A.; Dollmann, Björn; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J.

    2008-06-01

    The deposition of plasma polymer coatings onto porous alumina (PA) membranes was investigated with the aim of adjusting the surface chemistry and the pore size of the membranes. PA membranes from commercial sources with a range of pore diameters (20, 100 and 200 nm) were used and modified by plasma polymerization using n-heptylamine (HA) monomer, which resulted in a chemically reactive polymer surface with amino groups. Heptylamine plasma polymer (HAPP) layers with a thickness less than the pore diameter do not span the pores but reduce their diameter. Accordingly, by adjusting the deposition time and thus the thickness of the plasma polymer coating, it is feasible to produce any desired pore diameter. The structural and chemical properties of modified membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). The resultant PA membranes with specific surface chemistry and controlled pore size are applicable for molecular separation, cell culture, bioreactors, biosensing, drug delivery, and engineering complex composite membranes.

  16. Adipocyte cell size enlargement involves plasma membrane area increase.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, H H; Zorec, R

    2012-07-01

    The adipocyte enlargement is associated with an increase in the cytoplasmic lipid content, but how the plasma membrane area follows this increase is poorly understood. We monitored single-cell membrane surface area fluctuations, which mirror the dynamics of exocytosis and endocytosis. We employed the patch-clamp technique to measure membrane capacitance (C(m)), a parameter linearly related to the plasma membrane area. Specifically, we studied whether insulin affects membrane area dynamics in adipocytes. A five-minute cell exposure to insulin increased resting C(m) by 12 ± 4%; in controls the change in C(m) was not different from zero. We measured cell diameter of isolated rat adipocytes microscopically. Twenty-four hour exposure of cells to insulin resulted in a significant increase in cell diameter by 5.1 ± 0.6%. We conclude that insulin induces membrane area increase, which may in chronic hyperinsulinemia promote the enlargement of plasma membrane area, acting in concert with other insulin-mediated metabolic effects on adipocytes. PMID:22540353

  17. Modification of polyethylene terephthalate track membrane properties by ammonia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Lyubov; Dmitriev, Serguei; Dinescu, George; Lazea, Andrada; Raiciu, Eric

    2004-09-01

    The properties of polyethylene terephthalate track membranes (PET TM) exposed to ammonia are investigated. The influence of the conditions of plasma treatment on the basic characteristics of the membranes, namely pore size and shape, wettability, water permeability, is studied. PET TM of the thickness of 10 μ m with the effective pore diameter of 0.215 μ m (pore density 2\\cdot 10^8 cm-2) were under study. The plasma treatment was performed on a plasma-chemical installation realizing a RF-discharge on the frequency 13.56 MHz. The process was conducted in a dynamic mode. Before delivering vapours of the plasma forming gas, the chamber was beforehand vacuumed down to residual pressure of 10-2 Torr. One side of the membranes was subjected to plasma. The discharge parameters (gas pressure in the vacuum chamber, discharge power) and the duration of plasma action were varied. It has been figured out that when treating the membranes in plasma of the explored gas there are two competing processes: etching of a polymeric matrix and deposition of a polymeric layer on their surface. It has been shown that at a short time of plasma action and low values of the discharge parameters, an etching process is mainly observed. Decrease in the thickness of the membranes and increase in the effective pore diameter testifies it. A result of the gas-discharge etching is also a hydrophilization of the TM surface stipulated by formation of polar function groups in the points of breaking chemical bonds. Here the value of the water contact angle of surface decreases down to 45-50 degrees in some cases. It has been shown that at a longer action of the plasma and increase of the discharge parameters, as accumulation in the chamber of etch products takes place, a process of deposition of a polymeric film becomes dominating, and it is proved by increasing the width of the membranes and changing their color. The value of the water contact angle of surface in this case is grown and, depending

  18. Detection of glycoproteins in the Acanthamoeba plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paatero, G.I.L. ); Gahmberg, C.G. )

    1988-11-01

    In the present study the authors have shown that glycoproteins are present in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii by utilizing different radioactive labeling techniques. Plasma membrane proteins in the amoeba were iodinated by {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase labeling and the solubilized radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The periodate/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} and galactose oxidase/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} labeling techniques were used for labeling of surface carbohydrates in the amoeba. Several surface-labeled glycoproteins were observed in addition to a diffusely labeled region with M{sub r} of 55,000-75,000 seen on electrophoresis, which could represent glycolipids. The presence of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii was confirmed by metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine followed by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  19. Fusicoccin Binding to Its Plasma Membrane Receptor and the Activation of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    De Michelis, Maria Ida; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; Rasi-Caldogno, Franca

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of fusicoccin binding were investigated in microsomes from 24-h-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings. The time course of fusicoccin binding depended on fusicoccin concentration: equilibrium was reached much faster at 10 nanomolar fusicoccin than at 0.3 nanomolar fusicoccin. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding as a function of fusicoccin concentration indicated a single class of receptor sites with a Kd of 1.8 nanomolar and a site density of 6.3 picomoles per milligram protein. Similar values (Kd 1.7 nanomolar and site density 7 picomoles per milligram protein) were obtained from the analysis of the dependence of equilibrium binding on membrane concentration at fixed fusicoccin concentrations. Fusicoccin binding comigrated with the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in an equilibrium sucrose density gradient: both activities formed a sharp peak (1.18 grams per milliliter) clearly distinct from that of markers of other membranes which all peaked at lower densities. The saturation profiles of fusicoccin binding and of fusicoccin-induced activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, measured under identical conditions, were similar, supporting the view that fusicoccin-induced activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase is mediated by fusicoccin binding to its plasma membrane receptor. PMID:16666723

  20. Palmitoylation of POTE family proteins for plasma membrane targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sudipto; Ise, Tomoko; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Bera, Tapan K.; Pastan, Ira

    2007-11-23

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 paralogs and likely evolved by duplications and remodeling of the human genome. One common property of POTE proteins is their localization on the inner aspect of the plasma membrane. To determine the structural elements required for membrane localization, we expressed mutants of different POTEs in 293T cells as EGFP fusion proteins. We also tested their palmitoylation by a biotin-switch assay. Our data indicate that the membrane localizations of different POTEs are mediated by similar 3-4 short cysteine rich repeats (CRRs) near the amino-terminuses and that palmitoylation on paired cysteine residues in each CRR motif is responsible for the localization. Multiple palmitoylation in the small CRRs can result in the strong association of whole POTEs with plasma membrane.

  1. Use of rhamnolipid biosurfactant for membrane biofouling prevention and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lan Hee; Jung, Yongmoon; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Chang-Min; Yu, Hye-Weon; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, In S

    2015-01-01

    Rhamnolipids were evaluated as biofouling reducing agents in this study. The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane was increased by rhamnolipids while the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not affected. The surface hydrophobicity was increased through the release of lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polymeric substances from the outer cell membrane. Rhamnolipids were evaluated as agents for the prevention and cleaning of biofilms. A high degree of biofilm detachment was observed when the rhamnolipids were used as a cleaning agent. In addition, effective biofilm reduction occurred when rhamnolipids were applied to various species of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater samples. Biofilm reduction using rhamnolipids was comparable to commercially available surfactants. In addition, 20% of the water flux was increased after rhamnolipid treatment (300 μg ml(-1), 6 h exposure time) in a dead-end filtration system. Rhamnolipids appear to have promise as biological agents for reducing membrane biofouling. PMID:25789851

  2. Crystal structure of the plasma membrane proton pump.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bjørn P; Buch-Pedersen, Morten J; Morth, J Preben; Palmgren, Michael G; Nissen, Poul

    2007-12-13

    A prerequisite for life is the ability to maintain electrochemical imbalances across biomembranes. In all eukaryotes the plasma membrane potential and secondary transport systems are energized by the activity of P-type ATPase membrane proteins: H+-ATPase (the proton pump) in plants and fungi, and Na+,K+-ATPase (the sodium-potassium pump) in animals. The name P-type derives from the fact that these proteins exploit a phosphorylated reaction cycle intermediate of ATP hydrolysis. The plasma membrane proton pumps belong to the type III P-type ATPase subfamily, whereas Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase are type II. Electron microscopy has revealed the overall shape of proton pumps, however, an atomic structure has been lacking. Here we present the first structure of a P-type proton pump determined by X-ray crystallography. Ten transmembrane helices and three cytoplasmic domains define the functional unit of ATP-coupled proton transport across the plasma membrane, and the structure is locked in a functional state not previously observed in P-type ATPases. The transmembrane domain reveals a large cavity, which is likely to be filled with water, located near the middle of the membrane plane where it is lined by conserved hydrophilic and charged residues. Proton transport against a high membrane potential is readily explained by this structural arrangement. PMID:18075595

  3. Magnetic apatite for structural insights on the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, Sarmiza E.; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Jan; Nietzsche, Sandor; Stöckel, Stephan; Biskup, Christoph; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The iron oxide-hydroxyapatite (FeOxHA) nanoparticles reported here differ from those reported before by their advantage of homogeneity and simple preparation; moreover, the presence of carboxymethyldextran (CMD), together with hydroxyapatite (HA), allows access to the cellular membrane, which makes our magnetic apatite unique. These nanoparticles combine magnetic behavior, Raman label ability and the property of interaction with the cellular membrane; they therefore represent an interesting material for structural differentiation of the cell membrane. It was observed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy that FeOxHA adheres to the plasma membrane and does not penetrate the membrane. These insights make the nanoparticles a promising material for magnetic cell sorting, e.g. in microfluidic device applications.

  4. Mechanical properties of the plasma membrane of isolated plant protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, J.; Steponkus, P.L.

    1983-01-01

    The volume of isolated protoplasts of rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) in a suspending solution at constant concentration is shown to be negligibly changed by tensions in the plasma membrane which approach that tension necessary to lyse them. This allows a detailed investigation of the plasma membrane stress-strain relation by micropipette aspiration. Over periods less than a second, the membrane behaves as an elastic two-dimensional fluid with an area modulus of elasticity of 230 millinewtons per meter. Over longer periods, the stress-strain relation approaches a surface energy law--the resting tension is independent of area and has a value of the order 100 micronewtons per meter. Over longer periods the untensioned area, which is defined as the area that would be occupied by the molecules in the membrane at any given time if the tension were zero, increases with time under large imposed tensions and decreases under sufficiently small tension. It is proposed that these long term responses are the result of exchange of material between the plane of the membrane and a reservoir of membrane material. The irreversibility of large contractions in area is demonstrated directly, and the behavior of protoplasts during osmotically induced cycles of contraction and expansion is explained in terms of the membrane stress-strain relation.

  5. Estradiol's interesting life at the cell's plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J D; Gebhart, V M; Jirikowski, G F

    2016-07-01

    Clearly, we have presented here evidence of a very complex set of mechanisms and proteins involved with various and intricate actions of steroids at the plasma membrane. Steroids do MUCH more at the plasma membrane than simply passing passively through it. They may sit in the membrane; they are bound by numerous proteins in the membrane, including ERs, SHBG, steroid-binding globulin receptors, and perhaps elements of cellular architecture such as tubulin. It also seems likely that the membrane itself responds graphically to the presence of steroids by actually changing its shape as well, perhaps, as accumulating steroids. Clara Szego suggested in the 1980s that actions of E2 at one level would act synergistically with its actions at another level (e.g. membrane actions would complement nuclear actions). Given the sheer number of proteins involved in steroid actions, just at the membrane level, it seems unlikely that every action of a steroid on every potential protein effector will act to the same end. It seems more likely that these multiple effects and sites of effect of steroids contribute to the confusion that exists as to what actions steroids always have. For example, there is confusion with regard to synthetic agents (SERMs etc.) that have different and often opposite actions depending on which organ they act upon. A better understanding of the basic actions of steroids should aid in understanding the variability of their clinical effects. PMID:27018128

  6. An Endosome-to-Plasma Membrane Pathway Involved in Trafficking of a Mutant Plasma Membrane ATPase in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wen-jie; Chang, Amy

    2000-01-01

    The plasma membrane ATPase, encoded by PMA1, is delivered to the cell surface via the secretory pathway. Previously, we characterized a temperature-sensitive pma1 mutant in which newly synthesized Pma1-7 is not delivered to the plasma membrane but is mislocalized instead to the vacuole at 37°C. Several vps mutants, which are defective in vacuolar protein sorting, suppress targeting-defective pma1 by allowing mutant Pma1 to move once again to the plasma membrane. In this study, we have analyzed trafficking in the endosomal system by monitoring the movement of Pma1-7 in vps36, vps1, and vps8 mutants. Upon induction of expression, mutant Pma1 accumulates in the prevacuolar compartment in vps36 cells. After chase, a fraction of newly synthesized Pma1-7 is delivered to the plasma membrane. In both vps1 and vps8 cells, newly synthesized mutant Pma1 appears in small punctate structures before arrival at the cell surface. Nevertheless, biosynthetic membrane traffic appears to follow different routes in vps8 and vps1: the vacuolar protein-sorting receptor Vps10p is stable in vps8 but not in vps1. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic delivery to the vacuole was revealed in vps8 (and vps36) but not vps1 by endocytosis of the bulk membrane marker FM 4-64. Moreover, in vps8 cells, there is defective down-regulation from the cell surface of the mating receptor Ste3, consistent with persistent receptor recycling from an endosomal compartment to the plasma membrane. These data support a model in which mutant Pma1 is diverted from the Golgi to the surface in vps1 cells. We hypothesize that in vps8 and vps36, in contrast to vps1, mutant Pma1 moves to the surface via endosomal intermediates, implicating an endosome-to-surface traffic pathway. PMID:10679016

  7. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-01

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification. PMID:24099566

  8. A synaptic vesicle antigen is restricted to the junctional region of the presynaptic plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, K M; Schweitzer, E S; Miljanich, G P; Clift-O'Grady, L; Kushner, P D; Reichardt, L F; Kelly, R B

    1983-01-01

    The plasma membrane of electric organ nerve terminals has two domains that can be distinguished by monoclonal antibodies. A library of 111 mouse monoclonal antibodies raised to nerve terminals from Torpedo californica contains 4 antibodies that bind specifically to the outside of intact synaptosomes. The distribution of the binding sites of these monoclonal antibodies on the outside of intact nerve terminals was examined by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. The binding sites of 3 (tor23, 25, and 132) are distributed uniformly over nerve trunks and fine terminal branches. The binding site of the fourth (tor70) is restricted to synaptic junctional regions. This antibody, but not the other 3, recognizes a major component of synaptic vesicles, a proteoglycan associated with the inner surface of the vesicle membrane. The difference in the pattern of binding of these monoclonal antibodies suggests that the region of the plasma membrane containing active zones is antigenically distinguishable from other nerve terminal plasma membrane. We suggest that the antigen recognized by tor70 is externalized by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles while other plasma antigens take a different route to the surface. The unexpected observation that the vesicle antigen remains on the surface after exocytosis and is prevented from diffusion from the synaptic junctional region would be consistent with an interaction between the vesicle proteoglycan and elements of the synaptic cleft. Images PMID:6359167

  9. Exclusive photorelease of signalling lipids at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, André; Yushchenko, Dmytro A.; Müller, Rainer; Stein, Frank; Feng, Suihan; Mulle, Christophe; Carta, Mario; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivation of caged biomolecules has become a powerful approach to study cellular signalling events. Here we report a method for anchoring and uncaging biomolecules exclusively at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by employing a photocleavable, sulfonated coumarin derivative. The novel caging group allows quantifying the reaction progress and efficiency of uncaging reactions in a live-cell microscopy setup, thereby greatly improving the control of uncaging experiments. We synthesized arachidonic acid derivatives bearing the new negatively charged or a neutral, membrane-permeant coumarin caging group to locally induce signalling either at the plasma membrane or on internal membranes in β-cells and brain slices derived from C57B1/6 mice. Uncaging at the plasma membrane triggers a strong enhancement of calcium oscillations in β-cells and a pronounced potentiation of synaptic transmission while uncaging inside cells blocks calcium oscillations in β-cells and causes a more transient effect on neuronal transmission, respectively. The precise subcellular site of arachidonic acid release is therefore crucial for signalling outcome in two independent systems. PMID:26686736

  10. Exclusive photorelease of signalling lipids at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Nadler, André; Yushchenko, Dmytro A; Müller, Rainer; Stein, Frank; Feng, Suihan; Mulle, Christophe; Carta, Mario; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivation of caged biomolecules has become a powerful approach to study cellular signalling events. Here we report a method for anchoring and uncaging biomolecules exclusively at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by employing a photocleavable, sulfonated coumarin derivative. The novel caging group allows quantifying the reaction progress and efficiency of uncaging reactions in a live-cell microscopy setup, thereby greatly improving the control of uncaging experiments. We synthesized arachidonic acid derivatives bearing the new negatively charged or a neutral, membrane-permeant coumarin caging group to locally induce signalling either at the plasma membrane or on internal membranes in β-cells and brain slices derived from C57B1/6 mice. Uncaging at the plasma membrane triggers a strong enhancement of calcium oscillations in β-cells and a pronounced potentiation of synaptic transmission while uncaging inside cells blocks calcium oscillations in β-cells and causes a more transient effect on neuronal transmission, respectively. The precise subcellular site of arachidonic acid release is therefore crucial for signalling outcome in two independent systems. PMID:26686736

  11. Mammalian gamete plasma membranes re-assessments and reproductive implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of the diploid status occurs with the fusion of female and male gametes. Both the mammalian oocyte and spermatozoa are haploid cells surrounded with plasma membranes that are rich in various proteins playing a crucial role during fertilization. Fertilization is a complex and ordered st...

  12. On the puzzling distribution of cholesterol in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Giang, H; Schick, M

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of cholesterol between the two leaves of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells presents a conundrum; given cholesterol's known affinity for sphingomyelin, which resides predominantly in the exoplasmic leaf, why is it that experiment finds a majority of the cholesterol in the cytoplasmic leaf? This article reviews a recently proposed solution to this puzzle. PMID:26724709

  13. Granuphilin exclusively mediates functional granule docking to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Fujita, Takuji; Gomi, Hiroshi; Izumi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    In regulated exocytosis, it is generally assumed that vesicles must stably “dock” at the plasma membrane before they are primed to become fusion-competent. However, recent biophysical analyses in living cells that visualize fluorescent secretory granules have revealed that exocytic behaviors are not necessarily uniform: some granules beneath the plasma membrane are resistant to Ca2+ -triggered release, while others are accelerated to fuse without a pause for stable docking. These findings suggest that stable docking is unnecessary, and can even be inhibitory or nonfunctional, for fusion. Consistently, pancreatic β cells deficient in the Rab27 effector, granuphilin, lack insulin granules directly attached to the plasma membrane in electron micrographs but nevertheless exhibit augmented exocytosis. Here we directly compare the exocytic behaviors between granuphilin-positive and -negative insulin granules. Although granuphilin makes granules immobile and fusion-reluctant beneath the plasma membrane, those granuphilin-positive, docked granules release a portion of granuphilin upon fusion, and fuse at a frequency and time course similar to those of granuphilin-negative undocked granules. Furthermore, granuphilin forms a 180-nm cluster at the site of each docked granule, along with granuphilin-interacting Rab27a and Munc18-1 clusters. These findings indicate that granuphilin is an exclusive component of the functional and fusion-inhibitory docking machinery of secretory granules. PMID:27032672

  14. A TRiP to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debapriya; Voets, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    TRP ion channels are ubiquitously present in the mammalian body and take part in numerous key physiological functions, including temperature sensing, taste perception, osmo-regulation, cardiac function, renal function, development, and glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms whereby TRP channels are transported to the plasma membrane, where most of them exert their physiological actions, remains a poorly understood aspect of TRP channel biology.

  15. Inhibition of microbial growth on chitosan membranes by plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Cardoso Macêdo, Marina; de Macêdo, Haroldo Reis Alves; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; de Freitas Daudt, Natália; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Alves, Clodomiro

    2013-11-01

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site, and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes efficient inactivation of the microorganisms, minimizes damage to the materials, and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. In this study we used plasma for microbial inhibition of chitosan membranes. The membranes were treated with oxygen, methane, or argon plasma for different time periods (15, 30, 45, or 60 min). For inhibition of microbial growth with oxygen plasma, the time needed was 60 min. For the methane plasma, samples were successfully treated after 30, 45, and 60 min. For argon plasma, all treatment periods were effective. PMID:24251774

  16. Yeast Ist2 Recruits the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Plasma Membrane and Creates a Ribosome-Free Membrane Microcompartment

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Holger; Schwappach, Blanche; Seedorf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms contacts with the plasma membrane. These contacts are known to function in non-vesicular lipid transport and signaling. Ist2 resides in specific domains of the ER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where it binds phosphoinositide lipids at the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. Here, we report that Ist2 recruits domains of the yeast ER to the plasma membrane. Ist2 determines the amount of cortical ER present and the distance between the ER and the plasma membrane. Deletion of IST2 resulted in an increased distance between ER and plasma membrane and allowed access of ribosomes to the space between the two membranes. Cells that overexpress Ist2 showed an association of the nucleus with the plasma membrane. The morphology of the ER and yeast growth were sensitive to the abundance of Ist2. Moreover, Ist2-dependent effects on cytosolic pH and genetic interactions link Ist2 to the activity of the H+ pump Pma1 in the plasma membrane during cellular adaptation to the growth phase of the culture. Consistently we found a partial colocalization of Ist2-containing cortical ER and Pma1-containing domains of the plasma membrane. Hence Ist2 may be critically positioned in domains that couple functions of the ER and the plasma membrane. PMID:22808051

  17. Control of Plasma Membrane Permeability by ABC Transporters.

    PubMed

    Khakhina, Svetlana; Johnson, Soraya S; Manoharlal, Raman; Russo, Sarah B; Blugeon, Corinne; Lemoine, Sophie; Sunshine, Anna B; Dunham, Maitreya J; Cowart, L Ashley; Devaux, Frédéric; Moye-Rowley, W Scott

    2015-05-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters Pdr5 and Yor1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae control the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the plasma membrane as well as serving as ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps. Mutant strains lacking these transporter proteins were found to exhibit very different resistance phenotypes to two inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis that act either late (aureobasidin A [AbA]) or early (myriocin [Myr]) in the pathway leading to production of these important plasma membrane lipids. These pdr5Δ yor1 strains were highly AbA resistant but extremely sensitive to Myr. We provide evidence that these phenotypic changes are likely due to modulation of the plasma membrane flippase complexes, Dnf1/Lem3 and Dnf2/Lem3. Flippases act to move phospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Genetic analyses indicate that lem3Δ mutant strains are highly AbA sensitive and Myr resistant. These phenotypes are fully epistatic to those seen in pdr5Δ yor1 strains. Direct analysis of AbA-induced signaling demonstrated that loss of Pdr5 and Yor1 inhibited the AbA-triggered phosphorylation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 and its substrate Orm1. Microarray experiments found that a pdr5Δ yor1 strain induced a Pdr1-dependent induction of the entire Pdr regulon. Our data support the view that Pdr5/Yor1 negatively regulate flippase function and activity of the nuclear Pdr1 transcription factor. Together, these data argue that the interaction of the ABC transporters Pdr5 and Yor1 with the Lem3-dependent flippases regulates permeability of AbA via control of plasma membrane protein function as seen for the high-affinity tryptophan permease Tat2. PMID:25724885

  18. Effect of clofibrate on the enzyme activity of rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Renaud, G; Foliot, A; Marais, J; Infante, R

    1980-03-15

    The activity of 3 plasma membranes marker enzymes (5'-nucleotidase, Mg++-ATPase and alkaline phosphodiesterase-I) was determined in plasma membranes isolated from liver of control and of clofibrate-treated rats. A complete indentity of plasma membranes enzyme activity in the 2 groups of experimental animals was observed for the 3 enzymes studied. PMID:6102923

  19. Imaging plasma membrane deformations with pTIRFM.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Daniel R; Rao, Tejeshwar C; Peleman, Andrew R; Anantharam, Arun

    2014-01-01

    To gain novel insights into the dynamics of exocytosis, our group focuses on the changes in lipid bilayer shape that must be precisely regulated during the fusion of vesicle and plasma membranes. These rapid and localized changes are achieved by dynamic interactions between lipids and specialized proteins that control membrane curvature. The absence of such interactions would not only have devastating consequences for vesicle fusion, but a host of other cellular functions that involve control of membrane shape. In recent years, the identity of a number of proteins with membrane-shaping properties has been determined. What remains missing is a roadmap of when, where, and how they act as fusion and content release progress. Our understanding of the molecular events that enable membrane remodeling has historically been limited by a lack of analytical methods that are sensitive to membrane curvature or have the temporal resolution to track rapid changes. PTIRFM satisfies both of these criteria. We discuss how pTIRFM is implemented to visualize and interpret rapid, submicron changes in the orientation of chromaffin cell membranes during dense core vesicle (DCV) fusion. The chromaffin cells we use are isolated from bovine adrenal glands. The membrane is stained with a lipophilic carbocyanine dye,1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate, or diD. DiD intercalates in the membrane plane with a "fixed" orientation and is therefore sensitive to the polarization of the evanescent field. The diD-stained cell membrane is sequentially excited with orthogonal polarizations of a 561 nm laser (p-pol, s-pol). A 488 nm laser is used to visualize vesicle constituents and time the moment of fusion. Exocytosis is triggered by locally perfusing cells with a depolarizing KCl solution. Analysis is performed offline using custom-written software to understand how diD emission intensity changes relate to fusion pore dilation. PMID:24747638

  20. Proteome Analysis of the Plasma Membrane of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shalini; Kosalai, K.; Namane, Abdelkader; Pym, Alex S.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2002-01-01

    The plasma membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is likely to contain proteins that could serve as novel drug targets, diagnostic probes or even components of a vaccine against tuberculosis. With this in mind, we have undertaken proteome analysis of the membrane of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Isolated membrane vesicles were extracted with either a detergent (Triton X114) or an alkaline buffer (carbonate) following two of the protocols recommended for membrane protein enrichment. Proteins were resolved by 2D-GE using immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips, and identified by peptide mass mapping utilizing the M. tuberculosis genome database. The two extraction procedures yielded patterns with minimal overlap. Only two proteins, both HSPs, showed a common presence. MALDI–MS analysis of 61 spots led to the identification of 32 proteins, 17 of which were new to the M. tuberculosis proteome database. We classified 19 of the identified proteins as ‘membrane-associated’; 14 of these were further classified as ‘membrane-bound’, three of which were lipoproteins. The remaining proteins included four heat-shock proteins and several enzymes involved in energy or lipid metabolism. Extraction with Triton X114 was found to be more effective than carbonate for detecting ‘putative’ M. tuberculosis membrane proteins. The protocol was also found to be suitable for comparing BCG and M. tuberculosis membranes, identifying ESAT-6 as being expressed selectively in M. tuberculosis. While this study demonstrates for the first time some of the membrane proteins of M. tuberculosis, it also underscores the problems associated with proteomic analysis of a complex membrane such as that of a mycobacterium. PMID:18629250

  1. Fractionation of liver plasma membranes prepared by zonal centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Evans, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Plasma membranes were isolated from crude nuclear sediments from mouse and rat liver by a rate-dependent centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient contained in the `A' type zonal rotor. 2. The membranes were further purified by isopycnic centrifugation, and characterized enzymically, chemically and morphologically. 3. When the plasma-membrane fraction of sucrose density 1.17g/cm3 was dispersed in a tight-fitting homogenizer, two subfractions of densities 1.12 and 1.18 were obtained by isopycnic centrifugation. 4. The light subfraction contained 5′-nucleotidase, nucleoside diphosphatase, leucine naphthylamidase and Mg2+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activities at higher specific activities than unfractionated membranes. The heavy subfraction was deficient in the above enzymes but contained higher Na++K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. 5. The light subfraction contained twice as much phospholipid and cholesterol, and three times as much N-acetylneuraminic acid relative to unit protein weight as the heavy subfraction. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated differences in protein composition. 6. Electron microscopy showed the light subfraction to be vesicular. The heavy subfraction contained membrane strips with junctional complexes in addition to vesicles. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 3PLATE 1 PMID:4315049

  2. Isolation of plasma membranes from cultured glioma cells and application to evaluation of membrane sphingomyelin turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, H.W.; Palmer, F.B.; Byers, D.M.; Spence, M.W.

    1988-11-01

    A rapid and reliable method for the isolation of plasma membranes and microsomes of high purity and yield from cultured glioma cells is described. The procedure involves disruption by N2 cavitation, preliminary separation by centrifugation in Tricine buffer, and final separation on a gradient formed from 40% Percoll at pH 9.3. Enzyme and chemical markers indicated greater than 60% yield with six- to eightfold enrichment for plasma membranes and greater than 25% yield with three- to fourfold enrichment for a microsomal fraction consisting mainly of endoplasmic reticulum. The final fractions were obtained with high reproducibility in less than 1 h from the time of cell harvesting. Application of this procedure to human fibroblasts in culture is assessed. The isolation procedure was applied to investigations of synthesis and turnover of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine in plasma membranes of glioma cells following incubation for 4-24 h with (methyl-/sup 3/H)choline. These studies indicated that radioactivity from phosphatidylcholine synthesized in microsomes from exogenous choline may serve as a precursor of the head-group of sphingomyelin accumulating in the plasma membrane.

  3. S-adenosyl-L-methionine prevents and reverses erythrocyte membrane alterations in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Muriel, P

    1993-01-01

    Transmethylation is an important means of altering the biological activity of a wide variety of compounds. In human and experimental CCl4-liver cirrhosis the intrahepatic content of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), an active methyl donor, and the SAM-transmethylase activity are markedly reduced. Previously, it has been reported that SAM administration preserves hepatocyte plasma membrane Na+/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in cirrhotic rats. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of SAM administration on the membrane lipid composition and the ATPase activity on erythrocytes derived from CCl4-cirrhotic rats. Male Wistar rats were used in these experiments. In group 1, cirrhosis was induced by i.p. administration of CCl4. Animals of group 2 received, in addition to CCl4, three daily doses of SAM (20 mg kg-1, i.m.). Group 3 consisted of cirrhotic animals that, after 8 weeks of CCl4 treatment, received SAM (20 mg kg-1, i.m., three times daily) for 4 weeks without discontinuation of CCl4. Group 4 included animals treated with SAM alone. Seventy-two hours after the end of treatment the rats were anaesthetized, blood was collected by heart puncture and the erythrocyte plasma membranes were isolated. The Na+/K(+)- and (Ca2+ +Mg2+)-ATPase activities and the cholesterol (CH) and phospholipid (PL) contents were determined in the plasma membranes. The Na+/K(+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were both significantly decreased (twofold) in the CCl4-treated group as compared to controls. Administration of SAM completely prevented this fall in both ATPases. In group 4, the Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity was partially restored but the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was completely restored.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8392094

  4. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD). Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH) and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP). Results show that curcumin significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP) of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects. PMID:26904287

  5. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement. PMID:26248320

  6. In Situ Quantification of Protein Binding to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth M.; Hennen, Jared; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a fluorescence-based assay that allows for direct measurement of protein binding to the plasma membrane inside living cells. An axial scan through the cell generates a fluorescence intensity profile that is analyzed to determine the membrane-bound and cytoplasmic concentrations of a peripheral membrane protein labeled by the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The membrane binding curve is constructed by mapping those concentrations for a population of cells with a wide range of protein expression levels, and a fit of the binding curve determines the number of binding sites and the dissociation coefficient. We experimentally verified the technique, using myosin-1C-EGFP as a model system and fit its binding curve. Furthermore, we studied the protein-lipid interactions of the membrane binding domains from lactadherin and phospholipase C-δ1 to evaluate the feasibility of using competition binding experiments to identify specific lipid-protein interactions in living cells. Finally, we applied the technique to determine the lipid specificity, the number of binding sites, and the dissociation coefficient of membrane binding for the Gag matrix domain of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which provides insight into early assembly steps of the retrovirus. PMID:26039166

  7. Differences in Organizational Structure of Insulin Receptor on Rat Adipocyte and Liver Plasma Membranes: Role of Disulfide Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, John B.; Smith, Robert M.; Jarett, Leonard

    1980-08-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled insulin to rat liver and adipocyte plasma membranes has been investigated after treatment of the membranes with agents that modify disulfide bonds or sulfhydryl groups. Dithiothreitol, a disulfide-reducing agent, produced a bimodal response in adipocyte plasma membranes with dose-dependent increases in binding occurring over the range of 0-1 mM dithiothreitol; 5 mM dithiothreitol produced decreased binding. Insulin binding reached its maximal increase at 1 mM and was 3 times control values. Scatchard analysis of the 1 mM dithiothreitol effect revealed a straight line plot indicative of one class of sites with a Ka of 1.0× 108 M-1 which is intermediate between the two Kas obtained from the curvilinear Scatchard plot of control membranes. There was a 20-fold increase in the number of intermediate-affinity receptors compared to high-affinity receptors. The increased 125I-labeled insulin binding after dithiothreitol treatment was reversed by oxidized glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. Interposition of treatment with N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylating agent, prevented oxidized glutathione from reversing the dithiothreitol effect. Reduced glutathione produced the same effect as dithiothreitol. Liver plasma membranes treated with up to 1 mM dithiothreitol exhibited a maximum increase in insulin binding of 20% compared to control. Dithiothreitol at 5 mM decreased insulin binding below that of control membranes. The results indicate that the dithiothreitol effect on insulin binding to adipocyte plasma membranes is due to disruption of disulfide bonds, and that the structural organization of the insulin receptor on the plasma membranes is different for liver and for adipose tissue. The data imply that the insulin receptors on the plasma membrane of adipocytes possess at least two functionally distinct subclasses of disulfide bond but liver insulin receptors do not.

  8. b-Type Cytochromes in Higher Plant Plasma Membranes 1

    PubMed Central

    Asard, Han; Venken, Mireille; Caubergs, Roland; Reijnders, Willem; Oltmann, Fred L.; De Greef, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    The composition and characteristics of b-type cytochromes from higher plant plasma membranes, purified using aqueous two-phase partitioning, were investigated. At least three different cytochromes were identified by their wavelength maxima and redox midpoint potentials (E0′). Cytochrome b-560.7 (E0′ from + 110 to + 160 millivolts) was present in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) hypocotyls and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) hooks, although in different concentrations. The main component in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) inflorescences (cytochrome b-558.8) is probably functionally similar to this cytochrome. The plasma membrane generally contains two to three cytochrome species. However, the occurrence and concentrations were species dependent. The high potential cytochrome can be reduced by ascorbate but not NADH, and may be involved in blue light perception. PMID:16666854

  9. Neobiosynthesis of glycosphingolipids by plasma membrane-associated glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Pilar M; Demichelis, Vanina Torres; Daniotti, José L

    2010-09-17

    Gangliosides, complex glycosphingolipids containing sialic acids, are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the Golgi complex. These neobiosynthesized gangliosides move via vesicular transport to the plasma membrane, becoming components of the external leaflet. Gangliosides can undergo endocytosis followed by recycling to the cell surface or sorting to the Golgi complex or lysosomes for remodeling and catabolism. Recently, glycosphingolipid catabolic enzymes (glycohydrolases) have been found to be associated with the plasma membrane, where they display activity on the membrane components. In this work, we demonstrated that ecto-ganglioside glycosyltransferases may catalyze ganglioside synthesis outside the Golgi compartment, particularly at the cell surface. Specifically, we report the first direct evidence of expression and activity of CMP-NeuAc:GM3 sialyltransferase (Sial-T2) at the cell surface of epithelial and melanoma cells, with membrane-integrated ecto-Sial-T2 being able to sialylate endogenously synthesized GM3 ganglioside as well as exogenously incorporated substrate. Interestingly, we also showed that ecto-Sial-T2 was able to synthesize GD3 ganglioside at the cell surface using the endogenously synthesized cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) available at the extracellular milieu. In addition, the expression of UDP-GalNAc:LacCer/GM3/GD3 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T) was also detected at the cell surface of epithelial cells, whose catalytic activity was only observed after feeding the cells with exogenous GM3 substrate. Thus, the relative interplay between the plasma membrane-associated glycosyltransferase and glycohydrolase activities, even when acting on a common substrate, emerges as a potential level of regulation of the local glycosphingolipid composition in response to different external and internal stimuli. PMID:20639193

  10. Inside job: ligand-receptor pharmacology beneath the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Joseph J; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    Most drugs acting on the cell surface receptors are membrane permeable and thus able to engage their target proteins in different subcellular compartments. However, these drugs' effects on cell surface receptors have historically been studied on the plasma membrane alone. Increasing evidence suggests that small molecules may also modulate their targeted receptors through membrane trafficking or organelle-localized signaling inside the cell. These additional modes of interaction have been reported for functionally diverse ligands of GPCRs, ion channels, and transporters. Such intracellular drug-target engagements affect cell surface expression. Concurrent intracellular and cell surface signaling may also increase the complexity and therapeutic opportunities of small molecule modulation. Here we discuss examples of ligand-receptor interactions that are present in both intra- and extracellular sites, and the potential therapeutic opportunities presented by this phenomenon. PMID:23685953

  11. Transformable DNA nanocarriers for plasma membrane targeted delivery of cytokine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wujin; Ji, Wenyan; Hu, Quanyin; Yu, Jicheng; Wang, Chao; Qian, Chenggen; Hochu, Gabrielle; Gu, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Direct delivery of cytokines using nanocarriers holds great promise for cancer therapy. However, the nanometric scale of the vehicles made them susceptible to size-dependent endocytosis, reducing the plasma membrane-associated apoptosis signaling. Herein, we report a tumor microenvironment-responsive and transformable nanocarrier for cell membrane targeted delivery of cytokine. This formulation is comprised of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) degradable liposome as a shell, and complementary DNA nanostructures (designated as nanoclews) decorated with cytokines as the cores. Utilizing the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a model cytokine, we demonstrate that the TRAIL loaded DNA nanoclews are capable of transforming into nanofibers after PLA2 activation. The nanofibers with micro-scaled lengths efficiently present the loaded TRAIL to death receptors on the cancer cell membrane and amplified the apoptotic signaling with reduced TRAIL internalization. PMID:27131597

  12. Detecting protein association at the T cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Florian; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2015-04-01

    At the moment, many models on T cell signaling rely on results obtained via rather indirect methodologies, which makes direct comparison and conclusions to the in vivo situation difficult. Recently, a variety of new imaging methods were developed, which have the potential to directly shed light onto the mysteries of protein association at the T cell membrane. While the new modalities are extremely promising, for a broad readership it may be difficult to judge the results, since technological shortcomings are not always obvious. In this review article, we put key questions on the mechanism of protein interactions in the T cell plasma membrane into relation with techniques that allow to address such questions. We discuss applicability of the techniques, their strengths and weaknesses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nanoscale membrane organisation and signalling. PMID:25300585

  13. Role of plasma membrane transporters in muscle metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Zorzano, A; Fandos, C; Palacín, M

    2000-01-01

    Muscle plays a major role in metabolism. Thus it is a major glucose-utilizing tissue in the absorptive state, and changes in muscle insulin-stimulated glucose uptake alter whole-body glucose disposal. In some conditions, muscle preferentially uses lipid substrates, such as fatty acids or ketone bodies. Furthermore, muscle is the main reservoir of amino acids and protein. The activity of many different plasma membrane transporters, such as glucose carriers and transporters of carnitine, creatine and amino acids, play a crucial role in muscle metabolism by catalysing the influx or the efflux of substrates across the cell surface. In some cases, the membrane transport process is subjected to intense regulatory control and may become a potential pharmacological target, as is the case with the glucose transporter GLUT4. The goal of this review is the molecular characterization of muscle membrane transporter proteins, as well as the analysis of their possible regulatory role. PMID:10903126

  14. Analysis of plasma membrane phosphoinositides from fusogenic carrot cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J.J.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/) were found to be associated with the plasma membrane-rich fractions isolated by aqueous polymer two-phase partitioning from fusogenic cells. They represented at least 5% and 0.7% of the total inositol-labeled lipids in the plasma membrane-rich fractions, respectively, and were present in a ratio of about 7:1 (PIP:PIP/sub 2/). In addition, two unidentified inositol-labeled compounds, which together were approximately 3% of the inositol-labeled lipids, were found predominantly in the plasma membrane-rich fractions and migrated between PIP/sub 2/ and PIP. The R/sub f/s of these compounds were approximately 0.31 and 0.34 in the solvent system CHCl/sub 3/:MeOH:15N NH/sub 4/OH:H/sub 2/O (90:90:7:22) using LK5 plates presoaked in 1% potassium oxalate. These compounds incorporated /sup 32/P/sub i/, (/sup 3/H)inositol and were hydrolyzed in mild base. These data suggested that they were glycero-phospholipids. Although the compounds did not comigrate with lysoPIP obtained from bovine brain (R/sub f/ approx. 0.35), when endogenous PIP was hydrolyzed to lysoPIP, the breakdown product migrated in the region of the unidentified inositol lipids.

  15. A STIM1-dependent 'trafficking trap' mechanism regulates Orai1 plasma membrane residence and Ca²⁺ influx levels.

    PubMed

    Hodeify, Rawad; Selvaraj, Senthil; Wen, Jennifer; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Hubrack, Satanay; Dib, Maya; Al-Thani, Sara N; McGraw, Timothy; Machaca, Khaled

    2015-08-15

    The key proteins mediating store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 and the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-selective channel Orai1. Here, we quantitatively dissect Orai1 trafficking dynamics and show that Orai1 recycles rapidly at the plasma membrane (Kex≃0.1 min(-1)), with ∼40% of the total Orai1 pool localizing to the plasma membrane at steady state. A subset of intracellular Orai1 localizes to a sub-plasmalemal compartment. Store depletion is coupled to Orai1 plasma membrane enrichment in a STIM1-dependent fashion. This is due to trapping of Orai1 into cortical ER STIM1 clusters, leading to its removal from the recycling pool and enrichment at the plasma membrane. Interestingly, upon high STIM1 expression, Orai1 is trapped into STIM1 clusters intracellularly, thus preventing its plasma membrane enrichment following store depletion. Consistent with this, STIM1 knockdown prevents trapping of excess Orai1 into limiting STIM1 clusters in the cortical ER. SOCE-dependent Ca(2+) influx shows a similar biphasic dependence on the Orai1:STIM1 ratio. Therefore, a STIM1-dependent Orai1 'trafficking trap' mechanism controls Orai1 plasma membrane enrichment and SOCE levels, thus modulating the SOCE 'bandwidth' for downstream signaling. PMID:26116575

  16. Prevention of Dielectric Breakdown of Nanopore Membranes by Charge Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Kazuma; Yanagi, Itaru; Goto, Yusuke; Takeda, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To achieve DNA sequencing using a solid-state nanopore, it is necessary to reduce the electric noise current. The noise current can be decreased by reducing the capacitance (C) of the nanopore device. However, we found that an electric-charge difference (ΔQ) between the electrolyte in one chamber and the electrolyte in another chamber occurred. For low capacitance devices, this electric-charge imbalance can lead to unexpectedly high voltage (ΔV = ΔQ/C) which disrupted the membrane when the two electrolytes were independently poured into the chambers. We elucidated the mechanism for the generation of initial defects and established new procedures for preventing the generation of defects by connecting an electric bypass between the chambers. PMID:26634995

  17. Dysferlinopathy Fibroblasts Are Defective in Plasma Membrane Repair

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Chie; Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Nishino, Ichizo; Goto, Yuichi; Hayashi, Yukiko K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysferlin is a sarcolemmal protein that is defective in Miyoshi myopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, and is involved in sarcolemmal repair. Primary cultured myoblasts and myotubes established from patient muscle biopsies have been widely utilized to explore the molecular mechanism of dysferlinopathy. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the possible utility of dermal fibroblasts from dysferlin-deficient patients and SJL mice as a tool for studying dysferlinopathy. Methods: Dysferlin protein expression in fibroblasts from dysferlin-deficient patients and SJL mice was analyzed by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. The membrane wound-repair assay was performed on the fibroblasts using a confocal microscope equipped with a UV-laser. The membrane blebbing assay using hypotonic shock, in which normal membrane blebbing is detected only in the presence of dysferlin, was also performed using human and mouse fibroblasts. Results: Mis-sense mutated dysferlin was expressed at a very low level in fibroblasts from a dysferlinopathy patient, and lower expression level of truncated dysferlin was observed in SJL mouse fibroblast. Fibroblasts from patients with dysferlinopathy and SJL mice showed attenuated membrane repair and did not form membrane blebs in response to hypoosmotic shock. Proteosomal inhibitior increased mis-sense mutated or truncated dysferlin levels, and restored membrane blebbing, however, proteosomal inhibition failed to improve levels of dysferlin with non-sense or frame-shift mutation. Conclusion: Fibroblasts from dysferlinopathy patients and SJL mice showed attenuated plasma membrane repair, and could be a tool for studying dysferlinopathy. PMID:26579332

  18. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. PMID:27016447

  19. A Single Divergent Exon Inhibits Ankyrin-B Association with the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    He, Meng; Tseng, Wei-Chou; Bennett, Vann

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrate ankyrin-B and ankyrin-G exhibit divergent subcellular localization and function despite their high sequence and structural similarity and common origin from a single ancestral gene at the onset of chordate evolution. Previous studies of ankyrin family diversity have focused on the C-terminal regulatory domain. Here, we identify an ankyrin-B-specific linker peptide connecting the ankyrin repeat domain to the ZU52-UPA module that inhibits binding of ankyrin-B to membrane protein partners E-cadherin and neurofascin 186 and prevents association of ankyrin-B with epithelial lateral membranes as well as neuronal plasma membranes. The residues of the ankyrin-B linker required for autoinhibition are encoded by a small exon that is highly divergent between ankyrin family members but conserved in the ankyrin-B lineage. We show that the ankyrin-B linker suppresses activity of the ANK repeat domain through an intramolecular interaction, likely with a groove on the surface of the ANK repeat solenoid, thereby regulating the affinities between ankyrin-B and its binding partners. These results provide a simple evolutionary explanation for how ankyrin-B and ankyrin-G have acquired striking differences in their plasma membrane association while maintaining overall high levels of sequence similarity. PMID:23569209

  20. Transmembrane domain-dependent sorting of proteins to the ER and plasma membrane in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, J C; Pelham, H R

    1997-01-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins between compartments of the secretory pathway is mediated in part by their transmembrane domains (TMDs). In animal cells, TMD length is a major factor in Golgi retention. In yeast, the role of TMD signals is less clear; it has been proposed that membrane proteins travel by default to the vacuole, and are prevented from doing so by cytoplasmic signals. We have investigated the targeting of the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) t-SNARE Ufe1p. We show that the amino acid sequence of the Ufe1p TMD is important for both function and ER targeting, and that the requirements for each are distinct. Targeting is independent of Rer1p, the only candidate sorting receptor for TMD sequences currently known. Lengthening the Ufe1p TMD allows transport along the secretory pathway to the vacuole or plasma membrane. The choice between these destinations is determined by the length and composition of the TMD, but not by its precise sequence. A longer TMD is required to reach the plasma membrane in yeast than in animal cells, and shorter TMDs direct proteins to the vacuole. TMD-based sorting is therefore a general feature of the yeast secretory pathway, but occurs by different mechanisms at different points. PMID:9155009

  1. Lysosomal involvement in cellular turnover of plasma membrane sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Sutrina, S L; Chen, W W

    1984-04-18

    At least two isoenzymes of sphingomyelinase (sphingomyelin cholinephosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.12), including lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase and nonlysosomal magnesium-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase, catalyse the degradation of sphingomyelin in cultured human skin fibroblasts. A genetically determined disorder of sphingomyelin metabolism, type A Niemann-Pick disease, is characterized by a deficiency of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. To investigate the involvement of lysosomes in the degradation of cellular membrane sphingomyelin, we have undertaken studies to compare the turnover of plasma membrane sphingomyelin in fibroblasts from a patient with type A Niemann-Pick disease, which completely lack acid sphingomyelinase activity but retain nonlysosomal neutral sphingomyelinase activity, with turnover in fibroblasts from normal individuals. Plasma membrane sphingomyelin was labeled by incubating cells at low temperature with phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing radioactive sphingomyelin. A fluorescent analog of sphingomyelin, N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazoleaminocaproyl sphingosylphosphorylcholine (NBD-sphingomyelin) is seen to be readily transferred at low temperature from phosphatidylcholine liposomes to the plasma membranes of cultured human fibroblasts. Moreover, when kinetic studies were done in parallel, a constant ratio of [14C]oleoylsphingosylphosphorylcholine ( [14C]sphingomyelin) to NBD-sphingomyelin was taken up at low temperature by the fibroblast cells, suggesting that [14C]sphingomyelin undergoes a similar transfer. The comparison of sphingomyelin turnover at 37 degrees C in normal fibroblasts compared to Niemann-Pick diseased fibroblasts shows that a rapid turnover of plasma membrane-associated sphingomyelin within the first 30 min appears to be similar in both normal and Niemann-Pick diseased cells. This rapid turnover appears to be primarily due to rapid removal of the [14C]sphingomyelin from the cell surface into the incubation medium. During

  2. Approaches for plasma membrane wounding and assessment of lysosome-mediated repair responses

    PubMed Central

    Corrotte, M.; Castro-Gomes, T.; Koushik, A.B.; Andrews, N.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid plasma membrane repair is essential to restore cellular homeostasis and improve cell survival after injury. Several mechanisms for plasma membrane repair have been proposed, including formation of an intracellular vesicle patch, reduction of plasma membrane tension, lesion removal by endocytosis, and/or shedding of the wounded membrane. Under all conditions studied to date, plasma membrane repair is strictly dependent on the entry of calcium into cells, from the extracellular medium. Calcium-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes is an important early step in the plasma membrane repair process, and defects in plasma membrane repair have been observed in cells carrying mutations responsible for serious lysosomal diseases, such as Chediak–Higashi (Huynh, Roth, Ward, Kaplan, & Andrews, 2004) and Niemann–Pick Disease type A (Tam et al., 2010). A functional role for release of the lysosomal enzyme acid sphingomyelinase, which generates ceramide on the cell surface and triggers endocytosis, has been described (Corrotte et al., 2013; Tam et al., 2010). Therefore, procedures for measuring the extent of lysosomal fusion with the plasma membrane of wounded cells are important indicators of the cellular repair response. The importance of carefully selecting the methodology for experimental plasma membrane injury, in order not to adversely impact the membrane repair machinery, is becoming increasingly apparent. Here, we describe physiologically relevant methods to induce different types of cellular wounds, and sensitive assays to measure the ability of cells to secrete lysosomes and reseal their plasma membrane. PMID:25665445

  3. A specific gastrin receptor on plasma membranes of antral smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Baur, S; Bacon, V C

    1976-12-20

    Plasma membranes with a 17 fold enrichment in 5'-nucleotidase over homogenate were prepared from antral smooth muscle. A specific gastrin receptor on the plasma membranes has been demonstrated. By Scatchard analysis receptor has a Kaff of 2x10(9)M(-1) and a binding capacity of 5x10(-14) moles/mg of membrane protein. PMID:15625862

  4. Lateral transport of Smoothened from the plasma membrane to the membrane of the cilium

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    The function of primary cilia depends critically on the localization of specific proteins in the ciliary membrane. A major challenge in the field is to understand protein trafficking to cilia. The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway protein Smoothened (Smo), a 7-pass transmembrane protein, moves to cilia when a ligand is received. Using microscopy-based pulse-chase analysis, we find that Smo moves through a lateral transport pathway from the plasma membrane to the ciliary membrane. Lateral movement, either via diffusion or active transport, is quite distinct from currently studied pathways of ciliary protein transport in mammals, which emphasize directed trafficking of Golgi-derived vesicles to the base of the cilium. We anticipate that this alternative route will be used by other signaling proteins that function at cilia. The path taken by Smo may allow novel strategies for modulation of Hh signaling in cancer and regeneration. PMID:19948480

  5. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts, progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Steponkus, P L

    1993-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of freezing injury and cold acclimation from a perspective of the structural and functional integrity of the plasma membrane -- the primary site of freezing injury in winter cereals. We have utilized protoplasts isolated from leaves of winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) to study the cryobehavior of the plasma membrane during a freeze/thaw cycle. The focus of our current studies is on lesions in the plasma membrane that result from severe freeze-induced dehydration and result in the alteration of the semipermeable characteristics of the plasma membrane so that the protoplasts are osmotically unresponsive. In protoplasts isolated from non-acclimated rye leaves (NA protoplasts), injury is associated with the formation of aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions in the plasma membrane and the subtending lamellae. However, lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions are not observed following severe dehydration of protoplasts isolated from cold-acclimated rye leaves (ACC protoplasts). Rather, injury is associated with the fracture-jump lesion,'' which, in freeze-fracture electron microscopy studies, is manifested as localized deviations in the fracture face of the plasma membrane. The fracture plane jumps'' from the plasma membrane to either subtending aparticulate lamellae or aparticulate regions of various endomembranes (predominantly chloroplast envelopes) that are in close apposition with the plasma membrane.

  6. Reducing Plasma Membrane Sphingomyelin Increases Insulin Sensitivity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hongqi; Liu, Jing; Liang, Chien-Ping; Li, Yan; Li, Yue; Teitelman, Gladys; Beyer, Thomas; Bui, Hai H.; Peake, David A.; Zhang, Youyan; Sanders, Phillip E.; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Park, Tae-Sik; Cao, Guoqing; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis increases insulin sensitivity. For further exploration of the mechanism involved, we utilized two models: heterozygous serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) subunit 2 (Sptlc2) gene knockout mice and sphingomyelin synthase 2 (Sms2) gene knockout mice. SPT is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis, and Sptlc2 is one of its subunits. Homozygous Sptlc2-deficient mice are embryonic lethal. However, heterozygous Sptlc2-deficient mice that were viable and without major developmental defects demonstrated decreased ceramide and sphingomyelin levels in the cell plasma membranes, as well as heightened sensitivity to insulin. Moreover, these mutant mice were protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. SMS is the last enzyme for sphingomyelin biosynthesis, and SMS2 is one of its isoforms. Sms2 deficiency increased cell membrane ceramide but decreased SM levels. Sms2 deficiency also increased insulin sensitivity and ameliorated high-fat diet-induced obesity. We have concluded that Sptlc2 heterozygous deficiency- or Sms2 deficiency-mediated reduction of SM in the plasma membranes leads to an improvement in tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity. PMID:21844222

  7. Plasma membrane domains participate in pH banding of Chara internodal cells.

    PubMed

    Schmölzer, Patric M; Höftberger, Margit; Foissner, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the identity and distribution of cortical domains, stained by the endocytic marker FM 1-43, in branchlet internodal cells of the characean green algae Chara corallina and Chara braunii. Co-labeling with NBD C(6)-sphingomyelin, a plasma membrane dye, which is not internalized, confirmed their location in the plasma membrane, and co-labelling with the fluorescent pH indicator Lysotracker red indicated an acidic environment. The plasma membrane domains co-localized with the distribution of an antibody against a proton-translocating ATPase, and electron microscopic data confirmed their identity with elaborate plasma membrane invaginations known as charasomes. The average size and the distribution pattern of charasomes correlated with the pH banding pattern of the cell. Charasomes were larger and more frequent at the acidic regions than at the alkaline bands, indicating that they are involved in outward-directed proton transport. Inhibition of photosynthesis by DCMU prevented charasome formation, and incubation in pH buffers resulted in smaller, homogenously distributed charasomes irrespective of whether the pH was clamped at 5.5 or 8.5. These data indicate that the differential size and distribution of charasomes is not due to differences in external pH but reflects active, photosynthesis-dependent pH banding. The fact that pH banding recovered within several minutes in unbuffered medium, however, confirms that pH banding is also possible in cells with evenly distributed charasomes or without charasomes. Cortical mitochondria were also larger and more abundant at the acid bands, and their intimate association with charasomes and chloroplasts suggests an involvement in carbon uptake and photorespiration. PMID:21659328

  8. Silymarin protects plasma membrane and acrosome integrity in sperm treated with sodium arsenite

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Farzaneh; Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to arsenic is associated with impairment of male reproductive function by inducing oxidative stress. Silymarin with an antioxidant property scavenges free radicals. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if silymarin can prevent the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on ram sperm plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. Materials and Methods: Ram epidydimal spermatozoa were divided into five groups: spermatozoa at 0 hr, spermatozoa at 180 min (control), spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) + sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min, spermatozoa treated with sodium arsenite (10 μM) for 180 min and spermatozoa treated with silymarin (20 μM) for 180 min. Double staining of Hoechst and propidium iodide was performed to evaluate sperm plasma membrane integrity, whereas comassie brilliant blue staining was used to assess acrosome integrity. Results: Plasma membrane (p< 0.001) and acrosome integrity (p< 0.05) of the spermatozoa were significantly reduced in sodium arsenite group compared to the control. In silymarin + sodium arsenite group, silymarin was able to significantly (p< 0.001) ameliorate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on these sperm parameters compared to sodium arsenite group. The incubation of sperm for 180 min (control group) showed a significant (p< 0.001) decrease in acrosome integrity compared to the spermatozoa at 0 hour. The application of silymarin alone for 180 min could also significantly (p< 0.05) increase sperm acrosome integrity compared to the control. Conclusion: Silymarin as a potent antioxidant could compensate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the ram sperm plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. PMID:27141548

  9. Reconstitution of a plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase into bilayer lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, W; Slayman, C L; Cartwright, C P

    1993-10-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of Neurospora has been reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes by means of the vesicle-fusion technique described by Finkelstein and his collaborators (Zimmerberg et al., 1980; Cohen et al., 1980, 1984; Akabas et al., 1984). Enzyme was first transferred from isolated plasma membrane fragments into asolectin vesicles by a detergent-dialysis procedure (Perlin et al., 1984). After H(+)-pumping activity had been checked by quenching of acridine orange fluorescence, the vesicles were fused into performed bilayers. Critical features of the fusion process include (i) attachment of the vesicles to the bilayer in the presence of divalent cations (Mg++), and (ii) rapid osmotic swelling, which was enhanced by prior sonication or freeze-thawing of the vesicles, and/or by inclusions of physiologic channels. Enough proton pumps could be thus incorporated into bilayers to achieve ATP-driven, vanadate-sensitive currents of 0.04-0.4 pA. Aqueous solutions of low ionic strength were used to suppress conductance fluctuations due to the channels, and when that precaution was taken, we could demonstrate the proton pump the work against membrane potentials of at least 50 mV. PMID:8181690

  10. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. PMID:24107276

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  12. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  13. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  14. Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

  15. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This project focuses on lesions in the plasma membrane of protoplasts that occur during freezing to temperatures below {minus}5{degrees} which result in changes in the semipermeablity of the plasma membrane. This injury, referred to as loss of osmotic responsiveness, is associated with the formation of large, aparticulate domains in the plasma membrane, aparticulate lamellae subtending the plasma membrane, and lamellar-to-hexagonal{sub II} phase transitions in the plasma membrane and subtending lamellar. The goals of this project are to provide a mechanistic understanding of the mechanism by which freeze-induced dehydration effects the formation of aparticulate domains and lamellar-to-hexagonal{sub II} phase transitions and to determine the mechanisms by which cold acclimation and cryoprotectants preclude or diminish these ultrastructural changes. Our working hypothesis is the formation of aparticulate domains and lamellar-to-hexagon{sub II} phase transitions in the plasma membrane and subtending lamellae are manifestations of hydration-dependent bilayer-bilayer interactions.

  16. Accumulation of an acidic dehydrin in the vicinity of the plasma membrane during cold acclimation of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Danyluk, J; Perron, A; Houde, M; Limin, A; Fowler, B; Benhamou, N; Sarhan, F

    1998-01-01

    Expression of the acidic dehydrin gene wcor410 was found to be associated with the development of freezing tolerance in several Gramineae species. This gene is part of a family of three homologous members, wcor410, wcor410b, and wcor410c, that have been mapped to the long arms of the homologous group 6 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. To gain insight into the function of this gene family, antibodies were raised against the WCOR410 protein and affinity purified to eliminate cross-reactivity with the WCS120 dehydrin-like protein of wheat. Protein gel blot analyses showed that the accumulation of WCOR410 proteins correlates well with the capacity of each cultivar to cold acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. Immunoelectron microscope analyses revealed that these proteins accumulate in the vicinity of the plasma membrane of cells in the sensitive vascular transition area where freeze-induced dehydration is likely to be more severe. Biochemical fractionation experiments indicated that WCOR410 is a peripheral protein and not an integral membrane protein. These results provide direct evidence that a subtype of the dehydrin family accumulates near the plasma membrane. The properties, abundance, and localization of these proteins suggest that they are involved in the cryoprotection of the plasma membrane against freezing or dehydration stress. We propose that WCOR410 plays a role in preventing the destabilization of the plasma membrane that occurs during dehydrative conditions. PMID:9548987

  17. Subproteomics: identification of plasma membrane proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Navarre, Catherine; Degand, Hervé; Bennett, Keiryn L; Crawford, Janne S; Mørtz, Ejvind; Boutry, Marc

    2002-12-01

    As a consequence of their poor solubility during isoelectric focusing, integral membrane proteins are generally absent from two-dimensional gel proteome maps. In order to analyze the yeast plasma membrane proteome, a plasma membrane purification protocol was optimized in order to reduce contaminating membranes and cytosolic proteins. Specifically, the new fractionation scheme largely depleted the plasma membrane fraction of cytosolic proteins by deoxycholate stripping and ribosomal proteins by sucrose gradient flotation. The plasma membrane complement was resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis using the cationic detergent cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide in the first, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the second dimension, and fifty spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectometry. In spite of the presence of still contaminating ribosomal proteins, major proteins corresponded to known plasma membrane residents, the ABC transporters Pdr5p and Snq2p, the P-type H(+)-ATPase Pma1p, the glucose transporter Hxt7p, the seven transmembrane-span Mrh1p, the low affinity Fe(++) transporter Fet4p, the twelve-span Ptr2p, and the plasma membrane anchored casein kinase Yck2p. The four transmembrane-span proteins Sur7p and Nce102p were also present in the isolated plasma membranes, as well as the unknown protein Ygr266wp that probably contains a single transmembrane span. Thus, combining subcellular fractionation with adapted two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in the identification of intrinsic plasma membrane proteins. PMID:12469340

  18. Induction of stable ER–plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Philip D.; Haberkorn, Christopher J.; Akin, Elizabeth J.; Seel, Peter J.; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER–plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K+ channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER–plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER–plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER–plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:25908859

  19. Induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Akin, Elizabeth J; Seel, Peter J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K(+) channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER-plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25908859

  20. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  1. Influence of decavanadate on rat synaptic plasma membrane ATPases activity.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Danijela; Colović, Mirjana; Bosnjaković-Pavlović, Nada; Spasojević-De Bire, Anne; Vasić, Vesna

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro influence of decameric vanadate species on Na+/K+-ATPase, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA)-calcium pump and ecto-ATPase activity, using rat synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) as model system was investigated, whereas the commercial porcine cerebral cortex Na+/K+-ATPase served as a reference. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized decavanadate (V10) has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, while the type of polyvanadate anion was identified using the IR spectroscopy. The concentration-dependent responses to V10 of all enzymes were obtained. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the enzyme activity was achieved at (4.74 +/- 1.15) x 10(-7) mol/l for SPM Na+/K+-ATPase, (1.30 +/- 0.10) x 10(-6) mol/l for commercial Na+/K+-ATPase and (3.13 +/- 1.70) x 10(-8) mol/l for Ca2+-ATPase, while ecto-ATPase is significantly less sensitive toward V10 (IC50 = (1.05 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) mol/l) than investigated P-type ATPases. Kinetic analysis showed that V10 inhibited Na+/K+-ATPase by reducing the maximum enzymatic velocity and apparent affinity for ATP (increasing K(m) value), implying a mixed mode of interaction between V10 and P-type ATPases. PMID:20037196

  2. Polyamine Binding to Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Zucchini Hypocotyls.

    PubMed Central

    Tassoni, A.; Antognoni, F.; Bagni, N.

    1996-01-01

    The general features of [14C]spermidine binding to plasmalemma vesicles isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) etiolated hypocotyls are reported in the present paper. The specific interaction of the polyamine with the plasma membranes was reversible and thermolabile, since it decreased by about 50% in the assay performed at 40[deg]C compared to that carried out on ice. On the contrary, nonspecific binding was unaffected by temperature. Specific spermidine binding showed a pH dependence with a maximum at pH 8.0 and it reached saturation between 0.75 and 1 mM external spermidine concentration. The value of the dissociation constant calculated from Scatchard analysis was 4.4 x 10-5 M. Specific spermidine interaction appeared to be sensitive to detergents and was markedly reduced by the presence of divalent cations, such as Mg2+ and Ca2+, whereas it was stimulated by monovalent cations. Polyamine binding sites were highly sensitive to pronase treatment. Competition experiments, performed using a series of compounds structurally related to spermidine, may provide some indication of the characteristics of spermidine binding sites. The results presented here suggest that specific spermidine binding occurs mainly with the protein component of the plasma membrane. PMID:12226221

  3. A Plasma Membrane Association Module in Yeast Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-07-29

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in silico analyses and mutational studies we found that the C-terminal sequences of Gap1, Bap2, Hip1, Tat1, Tat2, Mmp1, Sam3, Agp1, and Gnp1 are about 50 residues long, associate with the PM, and have features that discriminate them from the termini of organellar amino acid transporters. We show that this sequence (named PMasseq) contains an amphipathic α-helix and the FWC signature, which is palmitoylated by palmitoyltransferase Pfa4. Variations of PMasseq, found in different AAPs, lead to different mobilities and localization patterns, whereas the disruption of the sequence has an adverse effect on cell viability. We propose that PMasseq modulates the function and localization of AAPs along the PM. PMasseq is one of the most complex protein signals for plasma membrane association across species and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the PM. PMID:27226538

  4. Structure and Function of Thyroid Hormone Plasma Membrane Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Ulrich; Johannes, Jörg; Bayer, Dorothea; Braun, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) cross the plasma membrane with the help of transporter proteins. As charged amino acid derivatives, TH cannot simply diffuse across a lipid bilayer membrane, despite their notorious hydrophobicity. The identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, SLC16A2) as a specific and very active TH transporter paved the way to the finding that mutations in the MCT8 gene cause a syndrome of psychomotor retardation in humans. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current model of transmembrane transport and highlight the diversity of TH transmembrane transporters. The interactions of TH with plasma transfer proteins, T3 receptors, and deiodinase are summarized. It is shown that proteins may bind TH owing to their hydrophobic character in hydrophobic cavities and/or by specific polar interaction with the phenolic hydroxyl, the aminopropionic acid moiety, and by weak polar interactions with the iodine atoms. These findings are compared with our understanding of how TH transporters interact with substrate. The presumed effects of mutations in MCT8 on protein folding and transport function are explained in light of the available homology model. PMID:25538896

  5. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions. PMID:26721276

  6. Supramolecular architecture of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Busnadiego, Rubén

    2016-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms membrane contact sites (MCS) with most other cellular organelles and the plasma membrane (PM). These ER-PM MCS, where the membranes of the ER and PM are closely apposed, were discovered in the early days of electron microscopy (EM), but only recently are we starting to understand their functional and structural diversity. ER-PM MCS are nowadays known to mediate excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in striated muscle cells and to play crucial roles in Ca(2+)and lipid homoeostasis in all metazoan cells. A common feature across ER-PM MCS specialized in different functions is the preponderance of cooperative phenomena that result in the formation of large supramolecular assemblies. Therefore, characterizing the supramolecular architecture of ER-PM MCS is critical to understand their mechanisms of function. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful EM technique uniquely positioned to address this issue, as it allows 3D imaging of fully hydrated, unstained cellular structures at molecular resolution. In this review I summarize our current structural knowledge on the molecular organization of ER-PM MCS and its functional implications, with special emphasis on the emerging contributions of cryo-ET. PMID:27068966

  7. Fluconazole treatment hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane of Candida cells.

    PubMed

    Elicharova, Hana; Sychrova, Hana

    2013-11-01

    Five pathogenic Candida species were compared in terms of their osmotolerance, tolerance to toxic sodium and lithium cations, and resistance to fluconazole. The species not only differed, in general, in their tolerance to high osmotic pressure (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis being the most osmotolerant) but exhibited distinct sensitivities to toxic sodium and lithium cations, with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis being very tolerant but C. krusei and C. dubliniensis sensitive to LiCl. The treatment of both fluconazole-susceptible (C. albicans and C. parapsilosis) and fluconazole-resistant (C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. tropicalis) growing cells with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole resulted in substantially elevated intracellular Na(+) levels. Using a diS-C3(3) assay, for the first time, to monitor the relative membrane potential (ΔΨ) of Candida cells, we show that the fluconazole treatment of growing cells of all five species results in a substantial hyperpolarization of their plasma membranes, which is responsible for an increased non-specific transport of toxic alkali metal cations and other cationic drugs (e.g., hygromycin B). Thus, the combination of relatively low doses of fluconazole and drugs, whose import into the tested Candida strains is driven by the cell membrane potential, might be especially potent in terms of its ability to inhibit the growth of or even kill various Candida species. PMID:23547882

  8. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral

    PubMed Central

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment. PMID:24381579

  9. Assembly and Comparison of Plasma Membrane SNARE Acceptor Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kreutzberger, Alex J B; Liang, Binyong; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K

    2016-05-24

    Neuronal exocytotic membrane fusion occurs on a fast timescale and is dependent on interactions between the vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin-2 and the plasma membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1a and SNAP-25 with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. Reproducing fast fusion rates as observed in cells by reconstitution in vitro has been hindered by the spontaneous assembly of a 2:1 syntaxin-1a:SNAP-25 complex on target membranes that kinetically alters the binding of synaptobrevin-2. Previously, an artificial SNARE acceptor complex consisting of 1:1:1 syntaxin-1a(residues 183-288):SNAP-25:syb(residues 49-96) was found to greatly accelerate the rates of lipid mixing of reconstituted target and vesicle SNARE proteoliposomes. Here we present two (to our knowledge) new procedures to assemble membrane-bound 1:1 SNARE acceptor complexes that produce fast and efficient fusion without the need of the syb(49-96) peptide. In the first procedure, syntaxin-1a is purified in a strictly monomeric form and subsequently assembled with SNAP-25 in detergent with the correct 1:1 stoichiometry. In the second procedure, monomeric syntaxin-1a and dodecylated (d-)SNAP-25 are separately reconstituted into proteoliposomes and subsequently assembled in the plane of merged target lipid bilayers. Examining single particle fusion between synaptobrevin-2 proteoliposomes and planar-supported bilayers containing the two different SNARE acceptor complexes revealed similar fast rates of fusion. Changing the stoichiometry of syntaxin-1a and d-SNAP-25 in the target bilayer had significant effects on docking, but little effect on the rates of synaptobrevin-2 proteoliposome fusion. PMID:27178662

  10. The initial steps of biogenesis of cyanobacterial photosystems occur in plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Elena; Norling, Birgitta; Maitra, Radhashree; Huang, Fang; Andersson, Bertil; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2001-01-01

    During oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of plants and eukaryotic algae, conversion of light energy to biologically useful chemical energy occurs in the specialized thylakoid membranes. Light-induced charge separation at the reaction centers of photosystems I and II, two multisubunit pigment-protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes, energetically drive sequential photosynthetic electron transfer reactions in this membrane system. In general, in the prokaryotic cyanobacterial cells, the thylakoid membrane is distinctly different from the plasma membrane. We have recently developed a two-dimensional separation procedure to purify thylakoid and plasma membranes from the genetically widely studied cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the purified plasma membrane contained a number of protein components closely associated with the reaction centers of both photosystems. Moreover, these proteins were assembled in the plasma membrane as chlorophyll-containing multiprotein complexes, as evidenced from nondenaturing green gel and low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy data. Furthermore, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis showed that in the partially assembled photosystem I core complex in the plasma membrane, the P700 reaction center was capable of undergoing light-induced charge separation. Based on these data, we propose that the plasma membrane, and not the thylakoid membrane, is the site for a number of the early steps of biogenesis of the photosynthetic reaction center complexes in these cyanobacterial cells. PMID:11687660

  11. Depletion of phytosterols from the plant plasma membrane provides evidence for disruption of lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Roche, Yann; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Buhot, Blandine; Thomas, Dominique; Bonneau, Laurent; Gresti, Joseph; Mongrand, Sébastien; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Simon-Plas, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    Involvement of sterols in membrane structural properties has been extensively studied in model systems but rarely assessed in natural membranes and never investigated for the plant plasma membrane (PM). Here, we address the question of the role of phytosterols in the organization of the plant PM. The sterol composition of tobacco BY-2 cell PM was determined by gas chromatography. The cyclic oligosaccharide methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, commonly used in animal cells to decrease cholesterol levels, caused a drastic reduction (50%) in the PM total free sterol content of the plant material, without modification in amounts of steryl-conjugates. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments using DPH, TMA-DPH, Laurdan, and di-4-ANEPPDHQ indicated that such a depletion in sterol content increased lipid acyl chain disorder and reduced the overall liquid-phase heterogeneity in correlation with the disruption of phytosterol-rich domains. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin also prevented isolation of a PM fraction resistant to solubilization by nonionic detergents, previously characterized in tobacco, and induced redistribution of the proteic marker of this fraction, NtrbohD, within the membrane. Altogether, our results support the role of phytosterols in the lateral structuring of the PM of higher plant cells and suggest that they are key compounds for the formation of plant PM microdomains. PMID:18676403

  12. The Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ATPase and the Plasma Membrane Sodium Calcium Exchanger Cooperate in the Regulation of Cell Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Brini, Marisa; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Calcium is an ambivalent signal: it is essential for the correct functioning of cell life, but may also become dangerous to it. The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) and the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are the two mechanisms responsible for Ca2+ extrusion. The NCX has low Ca2+ affinity but high capacity for Ca2+ transport, whereas the PMCA has a high Ca2+ affinity but low transport capacity for it. Thus, traditionally, the PMCA pump has been attributed a housekeeping role in maintaining cytosolic Ca2+, and the NCX the dynamic role of counteracting large cytosolic Ca2+ variations (especially in excitable cells). This view of the roles of the two Ca2+ extrusion systems has been recently revised, as the specific functional properties of the numerous PMCA isoforms and splicing variants suggests that they may have evolved to cover both the basal Ca2+ regulation (in the 100 nM range) and the Ca2+ transients generated by cell stimulation (in the μM range). PMID:21421919

  13. Simultaneous evaluation of plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential in bovine spermatozoa by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Chihiro; Kang, Sung-Sik; Kitade, Yasuyuki; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop an objective evaluation procedure to estimate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bull spermatozoa simultaneously by flow cytometry. Firstly, we used frozen-thawed semen mixed with 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% dead spermatozoa. Semen was stained using three staining solutions: SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), and phycoerythrin-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PE-PNA), for the evaluation of plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Then, characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were compared. Characteristics of spermatozoa (viability and acrosomal integrity) evaluated by flow cytometry and by fluorescence microscopy were found to be similar. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and also mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa by flow cytometry using conventional staining with three dyes (SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA) combined with MitoTracker Deep Red (MTDR) staining (quadruple staining). The spermatozoon characteristics evaluated by flow cytometry using quadruple staining were then compared with those of staining using SYBR-14, PI, and PE-PNA and staining using SYBR-14 and MTDR. There were no significant differences in all characteristics (viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential) evaluated by quadruple staining and the other procedures. In conclusion, quadruple staining using SYBR-14, PI, PE-PNA, and MTDR for flow cytometry can be used to evaluate the plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential of bovine spermatozoa simultaneously. PMID:26369275

  14. Gastric explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Freiman, John Saul; Hampe, Toni

    2014-12-01

    We describe the occurrence of an iatrogenic explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation in a 70-year-old man undergoing gastroscopy. Combustible gases in the stomach may have been released by bacterial overgrowth as a result of partial gastric outlet obstruction (caused by a gastric tumor) and reduced acidity (from proton pump inhibitor therapy). We propose a stepwise process during upper endoscopy to prevent this devastating complication, comprising aspiration, preinsufflation with CO2, and then coagulation. PMID:25041867

  15. Actin dynamics provides membrane tension to merge fusing vesicles into the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Wen, Peter J; Grenklo, Staffan; Arpino, Gianvito; Tan, Xinyu; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Heureaux, Johanna; Peng, Shi-Yong; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Hamid, Edaeni; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Shin, Wonchul; Näreoja, Tuomas; Evergren, Emma; Jin, Yinghui; Karlsson, Roger; Ebert, Steven N; Jin, Albert; Liu, Allen P; Shupliakov, Oleg; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Vesicle fusion is executed via formation of an Ω-shaped structure (Ω-profile), followed by closure (kiss-and-run) or merging of the Ω-profile into the plasma membrane (full fusion). Although Ω-profile closure limits release but recycles vesicles economically, Ω-profile merging facilitates release but couples to classical endocytosis for recycling. Despite its crucial role in determining exocytosis/endocytosis modes, how Ω-profile merging is mediated is poorly understood in endocrine cells and neurons containing small ∼30-300 nm vesicles. Here, using confocal and super-resolution STED imaging, force measurements, pharmacology and gene knockout, we show that dynamic assembly of filamentous actin, involving ATP hydrolysis, N-WASP and formin, mediates Ω-profile merging by providing sufficient plasma membrane tension to shrink the Ω-profile in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing ∼300 nm vesicles. Actin-directed compounds also induce Ω-profile accumulation at lamprey synaptic active zones, suggesting that actin may mediate Ω-profile merging at synapses. These results uncover molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying Ω-profile merging. PMID:27576662

  16. Complement-mediated production of plasma-membrane vesicles from rat fat-cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, P J; Luzio, J P

    1980-03-15

    1. Rat isolated fat-cells were coated with rabbit anti-(rat erythrocyte) antibody and incubated with fresh guinea-pig serum for 25 min at 37 degrees C, which resulted in a more than 95% release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. 2. Under these conditions fragmentation of the plasma membrane was examined by following the plasma-membrane markers 5'-nucleotidase, adrenaline-sensitive adenylate cyclase and membrane-bound rabbit immunoglobulin G through a differential-centrifugation fractionation procedure. 3. Approx. 50% of the plasma-membrane markers remained associated with triacylglycerol. Of the remainder more than half was pelleted by centrifugation at 10 000 g for 30 min. 4. The 10 000 g supernatant was fractionated by centrifugation on a sucrose density gradient (15-50%, w/w). This procedure resulted in the production of two visible white bands on the density gradient. The bands consisted of vesicles derived from the plasma membrane, since they coincided with peaks of 5'-nucleotidase activity, contained membrane-bound immunoglobulin G and the denser one had adenylate cyclase activity. The phospholipid and protein contents of the vesicles were determined and compared with those in purified plasma membrane. 5. It is suggested that complement-mediated lysis of rat fat-cells caused the production of plasma-membrane vesicles that differ in composition from the whole plasma membrane. PMID:6249263

  17. The isolation and partial characterization of the plasma membrane from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Voorheis, H P; Gale, J S; Owen, M J; Edwards, W

    1979-04-15

    Whole sheets of plasma membrane, each with their attached flagellum, were purified from Trypanosoma brucei. The method devised for their isolation included a new technique of cell breakage that used a combination of osmotic stress followed by mechanical sheer and avoided the problem of extreme vesiculation as well as the trapping of organelles in cell 'ghosts'. The purified membranes all contained the pellicular microtubular array. The antigenic surface coat was completely released from the plasma membrane during the isolation procedure. The membranes had a very high cholesterol/phospholipid ratio (1.54). A large proportion (42%) of the cellular DNA was recovered in the plasma-membrane fraction unless a step involving deoxyribonuclease treatment, which decreased the DNA content to less than 13%, was included before secrose-density gradient centrifugation. This step also aided the separation of plasma membranes from other cellular components. The ouabain-sensitive Na+ + K+-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase and adenylate cyclase co-purified with the plasma membranes. Although 5'-nucleotidase was thought to be a plasma-membrane component, it was easily detached from the membrane. The purified membranes were essentially free of L-alanine-alpha-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, L-asparte-alpha-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, malate dehydrogenase, oligomycin-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase, glucose 6-phosphatase, Mg2+-stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase and catalase. PMID:486094

  18. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings. PMID:25087500

  19. Detection of boar sperm plasma membrane protein using Rhodamine 640; implications for cryobiology and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhodamine 640 (R640) was used to detect changes in boar sperm plasma membrane protein (PMP) during cryopreservation; a poorly understood phenomenon. The protocol was adapted for boar sperm so that semen samples (n = 17) could be analyzed for PMP (R640 positive) and plasma membrane integrity (PMI; Y...

  20. Thymocyte plasma membrane: the location of specific glucocorticoid binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeev, P.V.; Kalinin, G.V.; Dukhanin, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    In modern molecular endocrinology it is now possible to determine the localization of receptors for biologically active substances with the aid of ligands, with high affinity for the receptor, immobilized on polymers. The purpose of this paper is to study the ability of hydrocortisone (HC), immobilized on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-HC), to reduce binding of tritium-HC by thymocytes of adrenalectomized rats. It is determined that specific binding sites for HC on rat thymocytes are also accessible for PVP-HC, which, due to the fact that this immobilized version of HC does not penetrate into the cell, leads to the conclusion that the binding sites for HC itself are located in the plasma membrane.

  1. Lipid diffusion in sperm plasma membranes exposed to peroxidative injury from oxygen free radicals.

    PubMed

    Christova, Yonka; James, Peter S; Jones, Roy

    2004-07-01

    Unsaturated lipids in sperm plasma membranes are very susceptible to peroxidation when exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this investigation we have incubated ram spermatozoa in the presence of two ROS generating systems, ascorbate/FeSO4 and potassium peroxychromate (K3CrO8), and examined their effects on membrane fluidity by measuring fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of a lipid reporter probe 5-(N-octadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein (ODAF). Peroxidation was monitored by malonaldehyde formation and changes in fluorescence emission of 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid (C11-BODIPY(581/591)). Ascorbate/FeSO4-induced peroxidation was inhibited by Vitamin E, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), 1,4-diazobicyclo(2,2,2)octane (DABCO), and to a lesser extent by ethanol. Added superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase were ineffective scavengers. K3CrO8 induced very rapid peroxidation that could be delayed, but not prevented, by Vitamin E, BHT, DABCO, ethanol, and mannitol; once again SOD, GPX, and catalase were ineffective scavengers. Neither peroxidation with ascorbate/FeSO4 nor K3CrO8, or added H2O2 or malonaldehyde perturbed ODAF diffusion in any region of the sperm plasma membrane. Vitamin E tended to enhance diffusion rates. Exogenous cumene hydroperoxide, however, reduced ODAF diffusion to low levels on the sperm head. These results suggest that the adverse effects of ROS on spermatozoa are more likely to be caused by direct oxidation of proteins and membrane permeabilisation than disturbance of lipid fluidity. PMID:15112331

  2. STIM Proteins and the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Silvia; Meyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic organelles can interact with each other through stable junctions where the two membranes are kept in close apposition. The junction that connects the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (ER-PM junction) is unique in providing a direct communication link between the ER and the PM. In a recently discovered signaling process, STIM (stromal-interacting molecule) proteins sense a drop in ER Ca2+ levels and directly activate Orai PM Ca2+ channels across the junction space. In an inverse process, a voltage-gated PM Ca2+ channel can directly open ER ryanodine-receptor Ca2+ channels in striated-muscle cells. Although ER-PM junctions were first described 50 years ago, their broad importance in Ca2+ signaling, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol lipid transfer, has only recently been realized. Here, we discuss research from different fields to provide a broad perspective on the structures and unique roles of ER-PM junctions in controlling signaling and metabolic processes. PMID:21548779

  3. Comparative Analysis of Techniques to Purify Plasma Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Michael P.; Antrobus, Robin; Lill, Jennie R.; Duncan, Lidia M.; Hör, Simon; Lehner, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was to identify the best method for the enrichment of plasma membrane (PM) proteins for proteomics experiments. Following tryptic digestion and extended liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry acquisitions, data were processed using MaxQuant and Gene Ontology (GO) terms used to determine protein subcellular localization. The following techniques were examined for the total number and percentage purity of PM proteins identified: (a) whole cell lysate (total number, 84–112; percentage purity, 9–13%); (b) crude membrane preparation (104–111; 17–20%); (c) biotinylation of surface proteins with N-hydroxysulfosuccinimydyl-S,S-biotin and streptavidin pulldown (78–115; 27–31%); (d) biotinylation of surface glycoproteins with biocytin hydrazide and streptavidin pulldown (41–54; 59–85%); or (e) biotinylation of surface glycoproteins with amino-oxy-biotin (which labels the sialylated fraction of PM glycoproteins) and streptavidin pulldown (120; 65%). A two- to threefold increase in the overall number of proteins identified was achieved by using stop and go extraction tip (StageTip)-based anion exchange (SAX) fractionation. Combining technique (e) with SAX fractionation increased the number of proteins identified to 281 (54%). Analysis of GO terms describing these proteins identified a large subset of proteins integral to the membrane with no subcellular assignment. These are likely to be of PM location and bring the total PM protein identifications to 364 (68%). This study suggests that selective biotinylation of the cell surface using amino-oxy-biotin in combination with SAX fractionation is a useful method for identification of sialylated PM proteins. PMID:20808639

  4. Modulation of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase by Neutral Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Pignataro, María Florencia; Dodes-Traian, Martín M.; González-Flecha, F. Luis; Sica, Mauricio; Mangialavori, Irene C.; Rossi, Juan Pablo F. C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipids on membrane proteins are likely to be complex and unique for each membrane protein. Here we studied different detergent/phosphatidylcholine reconstitution media and tested their effects on plasma membrane Ca2+ pump (PMCA). We found that Ca2+-ATPase activity shows a biphasic behavior with respect to the detergent/phosphatidylcholine ratio. Moreover, the maximal Ca2+-ATPase activity largely depends on the length and the unsaturation degree of the hydrocarbon chain. Using static light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we monitored the changes in hydrodynamic radius of detergent/phosphatidylcholine particles during the micelle-vesicle transition. We found that, when PMCA is reconstituted in mixed micelles, neutral phospholipids increase the enzyme turnover. The biophysical changes associated with the transition from mixed micelles to bicelles increase the time of residence of the phosphorylated intermediate (EP), decreasing the enzyme turnover. Molecular dynamics simulations analysis of the interactions between PMCA and the phospholipid bilayer in which it is embedded show that in the 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer, charged residues of the protein are trapped in the hydrophobic core. Conversely, in the 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer, the overall hydrophobic-hydrophilic requirements of the protein surface are fulfilled the best, reducing the thermodynamic cost of exposing charged residues to the hydrophobic core. The apparent mismatch produced by a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine thicker bilayer could be a structural foundation to explain its functional effect on PMCA. PMID:25605721

  5. A membrane-separator interface for mass-spectrometric analysis of blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Gerasimov, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of rapid mass-spectrometric determination of the content of anesthetic agents in blood plasma with the aid of a membrane-separator interface. The interface employs a hydrophobic selective membrane that is capable of separating various anesthetic drugs (including inhalation anesthetic sevofluran, noninhalation anesthetic thiopental, hypnotic propofol, and opioid analgesic fentanyl) from the blood plasma and introducing samples into a mass spectrometer. Analysis of the blood plasma was not accompanied by the memory effect and did not lead to membrane degradation. Results of clinical investigation of the concentration of anesthetics in the blood plasma of patients are presented.

  6. VAMP (synaptobrevin) is present in the plasma membrane of nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Taubenblatt, P; Dedieu, J C; Gulik-Krzywicki, T; Morel, N

    1999-10-01

    Synaptic vesicle docking and exocytosis require the specific interaction of synaptic vesicle proteins (such as VAMP/synaptobrevin) with presynaptic plasma membrane proteins (such as syntaxin and SNAP 25). These proteins form a stable, SDS-resistant, multimolecular complex, the SNARE complex. The subcellular distribution of VAMP and syntaxin within Torpedo electric organ nerve endings was studied by immunogoldlabeling of SDS-digested freeze-fracture replicas (Fujimoto, 1995). This technique allowed us to visualize large surface areas of the presynaptic plasma membrane and numerous synaptic vesicles from rapidly frozen nerve endings and synaptosomes. VAMP was found associated with synaptic vesicles, as also shown by conventional electron microscopy immunolabeling, and to the presynaptic plasma membrane (P leaflet). Syntaxin was also detected in the nerve ending plasma membrane, without gold labeling of synaptic vesicles. Comparison of gold particle densities suggests that the presynaptic plasma membrane contains 3 VAMP molecules per molecule of syntaxin. After biotinylation of intact synaptosomes, the synaptosomal plasma membrane was isolated on Streptavidin coated magnetic beads. Its antigenic content was compared to that of purified synaptic vesicles. VAMP was present in both membranes whereas syntaxin and SNAP 25 were highly enriched in the synaptosomal plasma membrane. This membrane has a low content of classical synaptic vesicle proteins (synaptophysin, SV2 and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter). The VAMP to syntaxin stoichiometry in the isolated synaptosomal membrane was estimated by comparison with purified antigens and close to 2, in accordance with morphological data. SDS-resistant SNARE complexes were detected in the isolated presynaptic membrane but absent in purified synaptic vesicles. Taken together, these results show that the presence of VAMP in the plasma membrane of nerve endings cannot result from exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, a process

  7. Prevention of hyperphagia prevents ovariectomy-induced triacylglycerol accumulation in liver, but not plasma.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Alex P; Marks, Kristin A; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Tupling, A Russell; Stark, Ken D

    2015-12-01

    Menopause is associated with higher plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Lowering TAG in menopause may be beneficial; however, the mechanism underlying menopause-induced TAG accumulation is not clear. Ovariectomy is a model for menopause and is associated with metabolic alterations and hyperphagia. This study investigated the role of hyperphagia in ovariectomy-induced increases in blood and tissue TAG, as well as differences in lipid metabolism enzymes and resting metabolic measures. It was hypothesized that prevention of hyperphagia would restore blood and tissue TAG, enzyme expression, and metabolic measures to eugonadal levels. Ovariectomized rats were fed ad libitum (OVX + AL) or pair-fed (OVX + PF) relative to sham-operated rats (SHAM) to prevent hyperphagia. OVX + AL had higher TAG concentrations in liver and plasma than SHAM (60% and 50%, respectively), and prevention of hyperphagia in OVX + PF normalized TAG concentrations to SHAM levels in liver, but not plasma. OVX + AL also had 141% higher hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 which was almost completely normalized to SHAM levels by pair-feeding, suggesting normalization of hepatic lipid storage. In contrast, skeletal muscle carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 was 40% lower in OVX + AL than SHAM and was intermediate in OVX + PF, suggesting lower muscle fatty acid oxidation that may underlie the higher plasma TAG in OVX. No differences were seen in energy expenditure, VO2, or VCO2. Overall, this study indicates that prevention of hyperphagia resulting from ovarian hormone withdrawal normalizes hepatic TAG to eugonadal levels but has no effect on ovariectomy-induced increases in plasma TAG. PMID:26475180

  8. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity. PMID:26866566

  9. Removal of toxic substances by a selective membrane plasma separator.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Hajime; Hattori, Tomoko; Igarashi, Toshiko; Okuyama, Manabu; Tajimi, Kimitaka

    2014-06-01

    We devised a method of plasma exchange with dialysis (PED), in which selective plasma exchange (sPE) is performed using a selective membrane plasma separator (EC-2A) with an albumin-sieving coefficient of 0.3 while the dialysate flows outside the hollow fibers, and reported the usefulness of the system for treating acute liver failure. Thereafter, EC-4A with an albumin-sieving coefficient of 0.6 was developed, which was expected to be even more effective for removing protein-bound substances. In order to examine whether or not EC-4A might be applicable to blood purification therapy against drug poisoning, we compared the efficacies of sPE, PED, and direct hemoperfusion (DHP) using an activated carbon column for the removal of phenobarbital and lithium. Subjects undergoing the extracorporeal circulation study were assigned to the sPE group, PED group, or DHP group, and the changes in the blood concentrations of phenobarbital and lithium were measured over 180 min. A significant decrease of the phenobarbital concentration over time was seen in the PED group, as compared to that in the sPE group (P < 0.0001), while no significant difference in the concentration was observed between the PED and DHP groups. The PED group showed a significant decrease of the lithium concentration over time, as compared to the DHP group (P < 0.0001), while no significant difference in the concentration was observed between the PED and sPE groups. Thus, PED was as effective as DHP for removing phenobarbital and was as effective as sPE for removing lithium. These results suggest that PED therapy using EC-4A may be a feasible modality for the treatment of drug poisoning. PMID:24965293

  10. Tetracyclines increase lipid phosphate phosphatase expression on plasma membranes and turnover of plasma lysophosphatidate.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yuan Y; Dewald, Jay; Curtis, Jonathan M; Brindley, David N

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are important bioactive lipids, which signal through G-protein-coupled receptors to stimulate cell growth and survival. The lysophosphatidate and S1P signals are terminated partly by degradation through three broad-specificity lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) on the cell surface. Significantly, the expression of LPP1 and LPP3 is decreased in many cancers, and this increases the impact of lysophosphatidate and S1P signaling. However, relatively little is known about the physiological or pharmacological regulation of the expression of the different LPPs. We now show that treating several malignant and nonmalignant cell lines with 1 μg/ml tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline significantly increased the extracellular degradation of lysophosphatidate. S1P degradation was also increased in cells that expressed high LPP3 activity. These results depended on an increase in the stabilities of the three LPPs and increased expression on the plasma membrane. We tested the physiological significance of these results and showed that treating rats with doxycycline accelerated the clearance of lysophosphatidate, but not S1P, from the circulation. However, administering 100 mg/kg/day doxycycline to mice decreased plasma concentrations of lysophosphatidate and S1P. This study demonstrates a completely new property of tetracyclines in increasing the plasma membrane expression of the LPPs. PMID:26884614

  11. Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 is required for the maintenance of plasma membrane integrity and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Schapire, Arnaldo L; Voigt, Boris; Jasik, Jan; Rosado, Abel; Lopez-Cobollo, Rosa; Menzel, Diedrik; Salinas, Julio; Mancuso, Stefano; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Baluska, Frantisek; Botella, Miguel A

    2008-12-01

    Plasma membrane repair in animal cells uses synaptotagmin 7, a Ca(2+)-activated membrane fusion protein that mediates delivery of intracellular membranes to wound sites by a mechanism resembling neuronal Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis. Here, we show that loss of function of the homologous Arabidopsis thaliana Synaptotagmin 1 protein (SYT1) reduces the viability of cells as a consequence of a decrease in the integrity of the plasma membrane. This reduced integrity is enhanced in the syt1-2 null mutant in conditions of osmotic stress likely caused by a defective plasma membrane repair. Consistent with a role in plasma membrane repair, SYT1 is ubiquitously expressed, is located at the plasma membrane, and shares all domains characteristic of animal synaptotagmins (i.e., an N terminus-transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic region containing two C2 domains with phospholipid binding activities). Our analyses support that membrane trafficking mediated by SYT1 is important for plasma membrane integrity and plant fitness. PMID:19088329

  12. Fluorescence interference contrast based approach to study real time interaction of melittin with plasma membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sharad; Gui, Dong; Zandi, Roya; Gill, Sarjeet; Mohideen, Umar

    2014-03-01

    Melittin is an anti-bacterial and hemolytic toxic peptide found in bee venom. Cell lysis behavior of peptides has been widely investigated, but the exact interaction mechanism of lytic peptides with lipid membranes and its constituents has not been understood completely. In this paper we study the melittin interaction with lipid plasma membranes in real time using non-invasive and non-contact fluorescence interference contrast microscopy (FLIC). Particularly the interaction of melittin with plasma membranes was studied in a controlled molecular environment, where these plasma membrane were composed of saturated lipid, 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) and unsaturated lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(DOPC) with and without cholesterol. We found out that melittin starts to form nanometer size pores in the plasma membranes shortly after interacting with membranes. But the addition of cholesterol in plasma membrane slows down the pore formation process. Our results show that inclusion of cholesterol to the plasma membranes make them more resilient towards pore formation and lysis of membrane.

  13. The Liver Connexin32 Interactome Is a Novel Plasma Membrane-Mitochondrial Signaling Nexus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Connexins are the structural subunits of gap junctions and act as protein platforms for signaling complexes. Little is known about tissue-specific connexin signaling nexuses, given significant challenges associated with affinity-purifying endogenous channel complexes to the level required for interaction analyses. Here, we used multiple subcellular fractionation techniques to isolate connexin32-enriched membrane microdomains from murine liver. We show, for the first time, that connexin32 localizes to both the plasma membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane of hepatocytes. Using a combination of immunoprecipitation-high throughput mass spectrometry, reciprocal co-IP, and subcellular fractionation methodologies, we report a novel interactome validated using null mutant controls. Eighteen connexin32 interacting proteins were identified. The majority represent resident mitochondrial proteins, a minority represent plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, or cytoplasmic partners. In particular, connexin32 interacts with connexin26 and the mitochondrial protein, sideroflexin-1, at the plasma membrane. Connexin32 interaction enhances connexin26 stability. Converging bioinformatic, biochemical, and confocal analyses support a role for connexin32 in transiently tethering mitochondria to connexin32-enriched plasma membrane microdomains through interaction with proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane, including sideroflexin-1. Complex formation increases the pool of sideroflexin-1 that is present at the plasma membrane. Together, these data identify a novel plasma membrane/mitochondrial signaling nexus in the connexin32 interactome. PMID:23590695

  14. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  15. Surface Modification of Polypropylene Membrane by RF Methane/Oxygen Mixture Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ching-Yuan; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Huang, Chun

    2011-08-01

    The hydrophilic surface modification of micro-porous polypropylene (PP) membranes is achieved by low-pressure 13.56 MHz RF methane (CH4)/oxygen (O2) gas mixture plasma treatment. The changes in surface wettability and surface free energy were examined by static contact angle analysis. The static water contact angle of the plasma modified membrane notably decreased with increases in treatment time and plasma power. The obvious increase in the surface energy of polypropylene membranes due to CH4/O2 mixture gas plasma treatments was also observed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to analyze the chemical species of CH4/O2 mixture gas plasma treatment. The variations in the surface morphology and chemical structure of the micro-porous PP membranes were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. XPS analysis showed significantly higher surface concentrations of oxygen functional groups for CH4/O2 mixture gas plasma-modified polypropylene membrane surfaces than for the originally unmodified polypropylene membrane surface. The experimental results show the important role of chemical species in the interaction between a CH4/O2 mixture gas plasma and a membrane surface, which can be controlled by surface modification to tailor the hydrophilicity of the membrane to the requirements of various applications.

  16. Effects of Vanadate on the Plasma Membrane ATPase of Red Beet and Corn 1

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sharman D.; Spanswick, Roger M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vanadate on the plant plasma membrane ATPase were investigated in plasma membrane fractions derived from corn roots (Zea mays L.) and red beets (Beta vulgaris L.). The Ki for vanadate inhibition of the plasma membrane ATPase from corn roots and red beets was between 6 and 15 micromolar vanadate. In both membrane fractions, 80% to 90% of the total ATPase was inhibited at vanadate concentrations below 100 micromolar. Vanadate inhibition was optimal at pH 6.5, enhanced by the presence of K+, and was partially reversed by 1 millimolar EDTA. The Mg:ATP kinetics for the plasma membrane ATPase were hyperbolic in both the absence and presence of vanadate. Vanadate decreased both the Km and Vmax of the red beet plasma membrane ATPase, indicating that vanadate inhibits the ATPase uncompetitively. These results indicate many similarities with respect to vanadate inhibition between the plant plasma membrane ATPase and other major iontranslocating ATPases from fungal and animal cells. The high sensitivity to vanadate reported here, however, differs from other reports of vanadate inhibition of the plant plasma membrane ATPase from corn, beets, and in some instances oats. PMID:16663670

  17. Prevention of peritendinous adhesions with electrospun chitosan-grafted polycaprolactone nanofibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Hao; Fong, Yi Teng; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2014-12-01

    As one of the common complications after tendon injury and subsequent surgery, peritendinous adhesions could be minimized by directly placing a physical barrier between the injured site and the surrounding tissue. With the aim of solving the shortcomings of current biodegradable anti-adhesion barrier membranes, we propose the use of an electrospun chitosan-grafted polycaprolactone (PCL-g-CS) nanofibrous membrane (NFM) to prevent peritendinous adhesions. After introducing carboxyl groups on the surface by oxygen plasma treatment, the polycaprolactone (PCL) NFM was covalently grafted with chitosan (CS) molecules, with carbodiimide as the coupling agent. Compared with PCL NFM, PCL-g-CS NFM showed a similar fiber diameter, permeation coefficient for bovine serum albumin, ultimate tensile strain, reduced pore diameter, lower water contact angle, increased water sorption and tensile strength. With its submicrometer pore diameter (0.6-0.9μm), both NFMs could allow the diffusion of nutrients and waste while blocking fibroblast penetration to prevent adhesion formation after tendon surgery. Cell culture experiments verified that PCL-g-CS NFM can reduce fibroblast attachment while maintaining the biocompatibility of PCL NFM, implicating a synergistic anti-adhesion effect to raise the anti-adhesion efficacy. In vivo studies with a rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon surgery model confirmed that PCL-g-CS NFM effectively reduced peritendinous adhesion from gross observation, histology, joint flexion angle, gliding excursion and biomechanical evaluation. An injured tendon wrapped with PCL-g-CS NFM showed the same tensile strength as the naturally healed tendon, indicating that the anti-adhesion NFM will not compromise tendon healing. PMID:25192729

  18. Binding and Fusion of Extracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane of Their Cell Targets

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Ilaria; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes and ectosomes, extracellular vesicles of two types generated by all cells at multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane, respectively, play critical roles in physiology and pathology. A key mechanism of their function, analogous for both types of vesicles, is the fusion of their membrane to the plasma membrane of specific target cells, followed by discharge to the cytoplasm of their luminal cargo containing proteins, RNAs, and DNA. Here we summarize the present knowledge about the interactions, binding and fusions of vesicles with the cell plasma membrane. The sequence initiates with dynamic interactions, during which vesicles roll over the plasma membrane, followed by the binding of specific membrane proteins to their cell receptors. Membrane binding is then converted rapidly into fusion by mechanisms analogous to those of retroviruses. Specifically, proteins of the extracellular vesicle membranes are structurally rearranged, and their hydrophobic sequences insert into the target cell plasma membrane which undergoes lipid reorganization, protein restructuring and membrane dimpling. Single fusions are not the only process of vesicle/cell interactions. Upon intracellular reassembly of their luminal cargoes, vesicles can be regenerated, released and fused horizontally to other target cells. Fusions of extracellular vesicles are relevant also for specific therapy processes, now intensely investigated. PMID:27517914

  19. Binding and Fusion of Extracellular Vesicles to the Plasma Membrane of Their Cell Targets.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ilaria; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes and ectosomes, extracellular vesicles of two types generated by all cells at multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane, respectively, play critical roles in physiology and pathology. A key mechanism of their function, analogous for both types of vesicles, is the fusion of their membrane to the plasma membrane of specific target cells, followed by discharge to the cytoplasm of their luminal cargo containing proteins, RNAs, and DNA. Here we summarize the present knowledge about the interactions, binding and fusions of vesicles with the cell plasma membrane. The sequence initiates with dynamic interactions, during which vesicles roll over the plasma membrane, followed by the binding of specific membrane proteins to their cell receptors. Membrane binding is then converted rapidly into fusion by mechanisms analogous to those of retroviruses. Specifically, proteins of the extracellular vesicle membranes are structurally rearranged, and their hydrophobic sequences insert into the target cell plasma membrane which undergoes lipid reorganization, protein restructuring and membrane dimpling. Single fusions are not the only process of vesicle/cell interactions. Upon intracellular reassembly of their luminal cargoes, vesicles can be regenerated, released and fused horizontally to other target cells. Fusions of extracellular vesicles are relevant also for specific therapy processes, now intensely investigated. PMID:27517914

  20. KIF13B regulates angiogenesis through Golgi to plasma membrane trafficking of VEGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kaori H.; Nakajima, Yuki; Geyer, Melissa; Wary, Kishore K.; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Komarova, Yulia; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the trafficking of newly synthesized VEGFR2 to the plasma membrane is a key determinant of angiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms of Golgi to plasma membrane trafficking are unknown. Here, we have identified a key role of the kinesin family plus-end molecular motor KIF13B in delivering VEGFR2 cargo from the Golgi to the endothelial cell surface. KIF13B is shown to interact directly with VEGFR2 on microtubules. We also observed that overexpression of truncated versions of KIF13B containing the binding domains that interact with VEGFR2 inhibited VEGF-induced capillary tube formation. KIF13B depletion prevented VEGF-mediated endothelial migration, capillary tube formation and neo-vascularization in mice. Impairment in trafficking induced by knockdown of KIF13B shunted VEGFR2 towards the lysosomal degradation pathway. Thus, KIF13B is an essential molecular motor required for the trafficking of VEGFR2 from the Golgi, and its delivery to the endothelial cell surface mediates angiogenesis. PMID:25128562

  1. Iron Reduction and Trans Plasma Membrane Electron Transfer in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae1

    PubMed Central

    Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Labbe, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The ferri-reductase activity of whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (washed free from the growth medium) was markedly increased 3 to 6 h after transferring the cells from a complete growth medium (preculture) to an iron-deficient growth medium (culture). This increase was prevented by the presence of iron, copper, excess oxygen, or other oxidative agents in the culture medium. The cells with increased ferri-reductase activity had a higher reduced glutathione content and a higher capacity to expose exofacial sulfhydryl groups. Plasma membranes purified from those cells exhibited a higher reduced nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ferri-reductase specific activity. However, the intracellular levels of NADPH, NADH, and certain organic acids of the tricarboxylic acids cycle were unchanged, and the activity of NADPH-generating enzymes was not increased. Addition of Fe(III)-EDTA to iron-deprived and iron-rich cells in resting suspension resulted in a decrease in intracellular reduced glutathione in the case of iron-deprived cells and in an increase in organic acids and a sudden oxidation of NADH in both types of cells. The depolarizing effect of Fe3+ was more pronounced in iron-rich cells. The metabolic pathways that may be involved in regulating the trans-plasma membrane electron transfer in yeast are discussed. PMID:16653057

  2. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  3. Alterations in the activities of hepatic plasma-membrane and microsomal enzymes during liver regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Deliconstantinos, G; Ramantanis, G

    1983-01-01

    A marked increase in the activities of rat liver plasma-membrane (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase and microsomal Ca2+-stimulated ATPase was observed 18h after partial hepatectomy. Lipid analyses for both membrane preparations reveal that in partially hepatectomized rats the cholesterol and sphingomyelin content are decreased with a subsequent decrease in the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio compared with those of sham-operated animals. Changes in the allosteric properties of plasma-membrane (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase by F- (as reflected by changes in the Hill coefficient) indicated a fluidization of the lipid bilayer of both membrane preparations in 18 h-regenerating liver. The amphipathic dodecyl glucoside incorporated into the hepatic plasma membranes evoked a marked increase in the (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities. The lack of effect of the glucoside on the Lubrol-PX-solubilized 5'-nucleotidase indicates that changes in the activities of the membrane-bound enzymes caused by the glucoside are due to modulation of the membrane fluidity. Dodecyl glucoside appears to increase the membrane fluidity, evaluated through changes in the Hill coefficient for plasma-membrane (Na+ + K+)-stimulated ATPase. The biological significance of these data is discussed in terms of the differences and changes in the interaction of membrane-bound enzymes with membrane lipids during liver regeneration. PMID:6309144

  4. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  5. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  6. Controlled change of transport properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes by plasma method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, L. I.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Drachev, A. I.; Gilman, A. B.; Lazea, A.; Dinescu, G.

    2007-04-01

    A process of plasma polymerization of dimethylaniline and acrylic acid vapours on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes has been investigated. The surface and hydrodynamic properties of the composite membranes produced in this case have been studied. It is shown that the water permeability of the obtained polymeric membranes can be controlled by changing the filtrate pH. Membranes with such properties can be used for controllable drug delivery and in sensor control.

  7. Perspective on plasma membrane cholesterol efflux and spermatozoal function.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Dhastagir Sultan; Ali, Elshaari Farag

    2010-05-01

    enhancing fertility, identifying and treating certain forms of male infertility, and preventing conception. One remarkable insight is the importance of membrane cholesterol efflux in initiating transmembrane signaling events that confer fertilization competence. The identity of the physiologically relevant cholesterol acceptors and modulators of cholesterol efflux is therefore of great interest. Still, it is clear that cholesterol efflux represents only a part of this story. The involvement of phospholipid translocation in mediating dynamic changes in the membrane, rendering it conducive to transmembrane signaling, and the modulation of membrane components of signal transduction cascades by cholesterol or phospholipids will yield important insights into the links between environmental sensing and transmembrane signaling in the sperm. Understanding the membrane molecular events will ultimately provide new and exciting areas of investigation for the future. PMID:21209749

  8. Detergent-free domain isolated from Xenopus egg plasma membrane with properties similar to those of detergent-resistant membranes.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Vegelyte-Avery, Vaida; Stith, Brad; Tsvetkova, Nelly M; Wolkers, Willem F; Crowe, John H; Tablin, Fern; Nuccitelli, Richard

    2002-11-01

    Microdomains known as "rafts" have been isolated from many cell types as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and are enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, there has been considerable controversy over whether such domains are found in native membranes or are artificially generated by the purification procedure. This controversy is based at least in part on the fact that raft membranes were first detected following detergent extraction in the cold. We isolated two plasma membrane fractions, without detergent treatment, using a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. One fraction was designated "light" and the other "heavy." These fractions were compared with DRMs, which were isolated in the presence of 1% Triton X-100. We found that Xenopus DRMs are enriched with sphingomyelin and cholesterol and exhibit a phase state similar to the liquid-ordered phase. Comparison of DRM complexes with the light and heavy plasma membrane fractions revealed some physical and biochemical similarities between the light fraction of the plasma membrane and the DRM complexes, based on (1) the phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio and (2) the protein composition visualized on a two-dimensional gel. These two fractions are also quite similar in their thermotropic phase behavior, and their high levels of ganglioside GM1. We conclude that the light membrane fraction isolated in a detergent-free environment has many of the characteristics normally associated with DRMs. PMID:12403620

  9. Plasma membrane growth during the cell cycle: unsolved mysteries and recent progress

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, Derek; Kellogg, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Growth of the plasma membrane is as fundamental to cell reproduction as DNA replication, chromosome segregation and ribosome biogenesis, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Membrane growth during the cell cycle requires mechanisms that control the initiation, location, and extent of membrane growth, as well as mechanisms that coordinate membrane growth with cell cycle progression. Recent experiments have established links between membrane growth and core cell cycle regulators. Further analysis of these links will yield insights into conserved and fundamental mechanisms of cell growth. A better understanding of the post-Golgi pathways by which membrane growth occurs will be essential for future progress. PMID:23141634

  10. LIPID RAFTS, FLUID/FLUID PHASE SEPARATION, AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO PLASMA MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David

    2007-01-01

    Novel biophysical approaches combined with modeling and new biochemical data have helped to recharge the lipid raft field and have contributed to the generation of a refined model of plasma membrane organization. In this review, we summarize new information in the context of previous literature to provide new insights into the spatial organization and dynamics of lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells. Recent findings of large-scale separation of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases in plasma membrane vesicles demonstrate this capacity within the complex milieu of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. Roles for membrane heterogeneity and reorganization in immune cell activation are discussed in light of this new information. PMID:17764993

  11. Effect of plasma membrane fluidity on serotonin transport by endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Block, E.R.; Edwards, D. )

    1987-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of plasma membrane fluidity of lung endothelial cells on serotonin transport, porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were incubated for 3 h with either 0.1 mM cholesterol hemisuccinate, 0.1 mM cis-vaccenic acid, or vehicle (control), after which plasma membrane fluidity and serotinin transport were measured. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure fluidity in the plasma membrane. Serotonin uptake was calculated from the disappearance of ({sup 14}C)-serotonin from the culture medium. Cholesterol decreased fluidity in the subpolar head group and central and midacyl side-chain regions of the plasma membrane and decreased serotonin transport, whereas cis-vaccenic acid increased fluidity in the central and midacyl side-chain regions of the plasma membrane and also increased serotonin transport. Cis-vaccenic acid had no effect of fluidity in the subpolar head group region of the plasma membrane. These results provide evidence that the physical state of the central and midacyl chains within the pulmonary artery endothelial cell plasma membrane lipid bilayer modulates transmembrane transport of serotonin by these cells.

  12. Microtubule Motors Power Plasma Membrane Tubulation in Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Day, Charles A; Baetz, Nicholas W; Copeland, Courtney A; Kraft, Lewis J; Han, Bing; Tiwari, Ajit; Drake, Kimberly R; De Luca, Heidi; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Davidson, Michael W; Holmes, Randall K; Jobling, Michael G; Schroer, Trina A; Lencer, Wayne I; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    How the plasma membrane is bent to accommodate clathrin-independent endocytosis remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest Shiga and cholera toxin induce membrane curvature required for their uptake into clathrin-independent carriers by binding and cross-linking multiple copies of their glycosphingolipid receptors on the plasma membrane. But it remains unclear if toxin-induced sphingolipid crosslinking provides sufficient mechanical force for deforming the plasma membrane, or if host cell factors also contribute to this process. To test this, we imaged the uptake of cholera toxin B-subunit into surface-derived tubular invaginations. We found that cholera toxin mutants that bind to only one glycosphingolipid receptor accumulated in tubules, and that toxin binding was entirely dispensable for membrane tubulations to form. Unexpectedly, the driving force for tubule extension was supplied by the combination of microtubules, dynein and dynactin, thus defining a novel mechanism for generating membrane curvature during clathrin-independent endocytosis. PMID:25690058

  13. Detection of cholesterol-rich microdomains in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masami; Shimada, Yukiko; Inomata, Mitsushi; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko . E-mail: iwashita@tmig.or.jp

    2006-12-22

    The C-terminal domain (D4) of perfringolysin O binds selectively to cholesterol in cholesterol-rich microdomains. To address the issue of whether cholesterol-rich microdomains exist in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, we expressed D4 as a fusion protein with EGFP in MEF cells. More than half of the EGFP-D4 expressed in stable cell clones was bound to membranes in raft fractions. Depletion of membrane cholesterol with {beta}-cyclodextrin reduced the amount of EGFP-D4 localized in raft fractions, confirming EGFP-D4 binding to cholesterol-rich microdomains. Subfractionation of the raft fractions showed most of the EGFP-D4 bound to the plasma membrane rather than to intracellular membranes. Taken together, these results strongly suggest the existence of cholesterol-rich microdomains in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane.

  14. Organization of cGMP sensing structures on the rod photoreceptor outer segment plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Nemet, Ina; Tian, Guilian; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    A diffusion barrier segregates the plasma membrane of the rod photoreceptor outer segment into 2 domains; one which is optimized for the conductance of ions in the phototransduction cascade and another for disk membrane synthesis. We propose the former to be named “phototransductive plasma membrane domain," and the latter to be named “disk morphogenic plasma membrane domain." Within the phototransductive plasma membrane, cGMP-gated channels are concentrated in striated membrane features, which are proximally located to the sites of active cGMP production within the disk membranes. For proper localization of cGMP-gated channel to the phototransductive plasma membrane, the glutamic acid-rich protein domain encoded in the β subunit plays a critical role. Quantitative study suggests that the disk morphogenic domain likely plays an important role in enriching rhodopsin prior to its sequestration into closed disk membranes. Thus, this and our previous studies provide new insight into the mechanism that spatially organizes the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. PMID:25616687

  15. Plasma membrane overgrowth causes fibrotic collagen accumulation and immune activation in Drosophila adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yiran; Wan, Ming; Liu, Min; Ke, Hongmei; Ma, Shuangchun; Liu, Lu-Ping; Ni, Jian-Quan; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Many chronic diseases are associated with fibrotic deposition of Collagen and other matrix proteins. Little is known about the factors that determine preferential onset of fibrosis in particular tissues. Here we show that plasma membrane (PM) overgrowth causes pericellular Collagen accumulation in Drosophila adipocytes. We found that loss of Dynamin and other endocytic components causes pericellular trapping of outgoing Collagen IV due to dramatic cortex expansion when endocytic removal of PM is prevented. Deposits also form in the absence of negative Toll immune regulator Cactus, excess PM being caused in this case by increased secretion. Finally, we show that trimeric Collagen accumulation, downstream of Toll or endocytic defects, activates a tissue damage response. Our work indicates that traffic imbalances and PM topology may contribute to fibrosis. It also places fibrotic deposits both downstream and upstream of immune signaling, consistent with the chronic character of fibrotic diseases. PMID:26090908

  16. Role of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate in Regulating EHD2 Plasma Membrane Localization

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Laura C.; Caplan, Steve; Naslavsky, Naava

    2013-01-01

    The four mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHD1-EHD4) play pivotal roles in endocytic membrane trafficking. While EHD1, EHD3 and EHD4 associate with intracellular tubular/vesicular membranes, EHD2 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Currently, little is known about the regulation of EHD2. Thus, we sought to define the factors responsible for EHD2’s association with the plasma membrane. The subcellular localization of endogenous EHD2 was examined in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy. Although EHD partner proteins typically mediate EHD membrane recruitment, EHD2 was targeted to the plasma membrane independent of two well-characterized binding proteins, syndapin2 and EHBP1. Additionally, the EH domain of EHD2, which facilitates canonical EHD protein interactions, was not required to direct overexpressed EHD2 to the cell surface. On the other hand, several lines of evidence indicate that the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) plays a crucial role in regulating EHD2 subcellular localization. Pharmacologic perturbation of PIP2 metabolism altered PIP2 plasma membrane distribution (as assessed by confocal microscopy), and caused EHD2 to redistribute away from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressed EHD2 localized to PIP2-enriched vacuoles generated by active Arf6. Finally, we show that although cytochalasin D caused actin microfilaments to collapse, EHD2 was nevertheless maintained at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, cytochalasin D induced relocalization of both PIP2 and EHD2 to actin aggregates, supporting a role of PIP2 in controlling EHD2 subcellular localization. Altogether, these studies emphasize the significance of membrane lipid composition for EHD2 subcellular distribution and offer new insights into the regulation of this important endocytic protein. PMID:24040268

  17. Autocrine Signaling Underlies Fast Repetitive Plasma Membrane Translocation of Conventional and Novel Protein Kinase C Isoforms in β Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wuttke, Anne; Yu, Qian; Tengholm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PKC signaling has been implicated in the regulation of many cell functions, including metabolism, cell death, proliferation, and secretion. Activation of conventional and novel PKC isoforms is associated with their Ca2+- and/or diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent translocation to the plasma membrane. In β cells, exocytosis of insulin granules evokes brief (<10 s) local DAG elevations (“spiking”) at the plasma membrane because of autocrine activation of P2Y1 purinoceptors by ATP co-released with insulin. Using total internal reflection microscopy, fluorescent protein-tagged PKCs, and signaling biosensors, we investigated whether DAG spiking causes membrane recruitment of PKCs and whether different classes of PKCs show characteristic responses. Glucose stimulation of MIN6 cells triggered DAG spiking with concomitant repetitive translocation of the novel isoforms PKCδ, PKCϵ, and PKCη. The conventional PKCα, PKCβI, and PKCβII isoforms showed a more complex pattern with both rapid and slow translocation. K+ depolarization-induced PKCϵ translocation entirely mirrored DAG spiking, whereas PKCβI translocation showed a sustained component, reflecting the subplasma membrane Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]pm), with additional effect during DAG spikes. Interference with DAG spiking by purinoceptor inhibition prevented intermittent translocation of PKCs and reduced insulin secretion but did not affect [Ca2+]pm elevation or sustained PKCβI translocation. The muscarinic agonist carbachol induced pronounced transient PKCβI translocation and sustained recruitment of PKCϵ. When rise of [Ca2+]pm was prevented, the carbachol-induced DAG and PKCϵ responses were somewhat reduced, but PKCβI translocation was completely abolished. We conclude that exocytosis-induced DAG spikes efficiently recruit both conventional and novel PKCs to the β cell plasma membrane. PKC signaling is thus implicated in autocrine regulation of β cell function. PMID:27226533

  18. Autocrine Signaling Underlies Fast Repetitive Plasma Membrane Translocation of Conventional and Novel Protein Kinase C Isoforms in β Cells.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Anne; Yu, Qian; Tengholm, Anders

    2016-07-15

    PKC signaling has been implicated in the regulation of many cell functions, including metabolism, cell death, proliferation, and secretion. Activation of conventional and novel PKC isoforms is associated with their Ca(2+)- and/or diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent translocation to the plasma membrane. In β cells, exocytosis of insulin granules evokes brief (<10 s) local DAG elevations ("spiking") at the plasma membrane because of autocrine activation of P2Y1 purinoceptors by ATP co-released with insulin. Using total internal reflection microscopy, fluorescent protein-tagged PKCs, and signaling biosensors, we investigated whether DAG spiking causes membrane recruitment of PKCs and whether different classes of PKCs show characteristic responses. Glucose stimulation of MIN6 cells triggered DAG spiking with concomitant repetitive translocation of the novel isoforms PKCδ, PKCϵ, and PKCη. The conventional PKCα, PKCβI, and PKCβII isoforms showed a more complex pattern with both rapid and slow translocation. K(+) depolarization-induced PKCϵ translocation entirely mirrored DAG spiking, whereas PKCβI translocation showed a sustained component, reflecting the subplasma membrane Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]pm), with additional effect during DAG spikes. Interference with DAG spiking by purinoceptor inhibition prevented intermittent translocation of PKCs and reduced insulin secretion but did not affect [Ca(2+)]pm elevation or sustained PKCβI translocation. The muscarinic agonist carbachol induced pronounced transient PKCβI translocation and sustained recruitment of PKCϵ. When rise of [Ca(2+)]pm was prevented, the carbachol-induced DAG and PKCϵ responses were somewhat reduced, but PKCβI translocation was completely abolished. We conclude that exocytosis-induced DAG spikes efficiently recruit both conventional and novel PKCs to the β cell plasma membrane. PKC signaling is thus implicated in autocrine regulation of β cell function. PMID:27226533

  19. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  20. Multi-protein assemblies underlie the mesoscale organization of the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Sinem K.; Honigmann, Alf; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; Lang, Thorsten; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins have uneven distributions in the plasma membrane. Broadly speaking, this may be caused by mechanisms specific to each protein, or may be a consequence of a general pattern that affects the distribution of all membrane proteins. The latter hypothesis has been difficult to test in the past. Here, we introduce several approaches based on click chemistry, through which we study the distribution of membrane proteins in living cells, as well as in membrane sheets. We found that the plasma membrane proteins form multi-protein assemblies that are long lived (minutes), and in which protein diffusion is restricted. The formation of the assemblies is dependent on cholesterol. They are separated and anchored by the actin cytoskeleton. Specific proteins are preferentially located in different regions of the assemblies, from their cores to their edges. We conclude that the assemblies constitute a basic mesoscale feature of the membrane, which affects the patterning of most membrane proteins, and possibly also their activity. PMID:25060237

  1. Multi-protein assemblies underlie the mesoscale organization of the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Sinem K.; Honigmann, Alf; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; Lang, Thorsten; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-07-01

    Most proteins have uneven distributions in the plasma membrane. Broadly speaking, this may be caused by mechanisms specific to each protein, or may be a consequence of a general pattern that affects the distribution of all membrane proteins. The latter hypothesis has been difficult to test in the past. Here, we introduce several approaches based on click chemistry, through which we study the distribution of membrane proteins in living cells, as well as in membrane sheets. We found that the plasma membrane proteins form multi-protein assemblies that are long lived (minutes), and in which protein diffusion is restricted. The formation of the assemblies is dependent on cholesterol. They are separated and anchored by the actin cytoskeleton. Specific proteins are preferentially located in different regions of the assemblies, from their cores to their edges. We conclude that the assemblies constitute a basic mesoscale feature of the membrane, which affects the patterning of most membrane proteins, and possibly also their activity.

  2. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  3. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Paparelli, Laura; Corthout, Nikky; Pavie, Benjamin; Wakefield, Devin L; Sannerud, Ragna; Jovanovic-Talisman, Tijana; Annaert, Wim; Munck, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH). We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided. PMID:27603951

  4. Using plasma membrane nanoclusters to build better signaling circuits.

    PubMed

    Harding, Angus S; Hancock, John F

    2008-08-01

    Cellular signaling pathways do not simply transmit data; they integrate and process signals to operate as switches, oscillators, logic gates, memory modules and many other types of control system. These complex processing capabilities enable cells to respond appropriately to the myriad of external cues that direct growth and development. The idea that crosstalk and feedback loops are used as control systems in biological signaling networks is well established. Signaling networks are also subject to exquisite spatial regulation, yet how spatial control modulates signal outputs is less well understood. Here, we explore the spatial organization of two different signal transduction circuits: receptor tyrosine kinase activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase module; and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor activation of phospholipase C. With regards to these pathways, recent results have refocused attention on the crucial role of lipid rafts and plasma membrane nanodomains in signal transmission. We identify common design principals that highlight how the spatial organization of signal transduction circuits can be used as a fundamental control mechanism to modulate system outputs in vivo. PMID:18620858

  5. Cocaine induction of dopamine transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Little, Karley Y; Elmer, Lawrence W; Zhong, Huailing; Scheys, Joshua O; Zhang, Lian

    2002-02-01

    Several previous human postmortem experiments have detected an increase in striatal [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in chronic cocaine users. However, animal experiments have found considerable variability in DAT radioligand binding levels in brain after cocaine administration, perhaps caused by length and dose of treatment and type of radioligand used. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake would be increased by exposure to cocaine through alterations in DAT cellular trafficking, rather than increased protein synthesis. Experiments were conducted in stably hDAT-transfected N2A cells and assessed the dose response and time course of cocaine effects on [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding to the DAT, [(3)H]dopamine uptake, measures of DAT protein and mRNA, as well as DAT subcellular location. Cocaine doses of 10(-6) M caused statistically significant increases in [(3)H]WIN 35428 binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake after 12 and 3 h, respectively. Despite these increases in DAT function, there was no change in DAT total protein or mRNA. Immunofluorescence and biotinylation experiments indicated that cocaine treatment induced increases in plasma membrane DAT immunoreactivity and intracellular decreases. The present model system may further our understanding of regulatory alterations in DAT radioligand binding and function caused by cocaine exposure. PMID:11809869

  6. Plant cell plasma membrane structure and properties under clinostatting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polulakh, Yu. A.; Zhadko, S. I.; Klimchuk, D. A.; Baraboy, V. A.; Alpatov, A. N.; Sytnik, K. M.

    Structural-functional organization of plasma membrane of pea roots seedling was investigated by methods of chemiluminescence, fluorescence probes, chromatography and freeze-fracture studies under normal conditions and clinostatting. Phase character of lipid peroxidation intensity was fixed. The initial phase of this process is characterized by lipid peroxidation decreasing with its next induction. The primary changes depending on free-radical mechanisms of lipid peroxidation were excellently revealed by chemiluminescence. Plasmalemma microviscosity increased on the average of 15-20 % under microgravity at the initial stages of its phenomenon. There were major changes of phosphatidilcholine and phosphatidilethanolamine contents. The total quantity of phospholipids remained rather stable. Changes of phosphatide acid concentration point to degradation and phospholipids biosynthesis. There were increases of unsaturated fatty acids mainly at the expense of linoleic and linolenic acids and also a decrease of saturated fatty acid content at the expense of palmitic and stearic acids. Unsaturation index of fatty acids increased as well. On the whole fatty acid composition was variable in comparison with phospholipids. Probably it is one of mechanisms of maintaining of microviscosity within definite limits. Considerable structural changes in organization of plasmalemma protein-lipid complex were not revealed by the freeze-fracture studies.

  7. Molecular characterisation of plasma membrane-derived vesicles.

    PubMed

    Antwi-Baffour, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane-derived vesicles (PMVs) are released into circulation in response to normal and stress/pathogenic conditions. They are of tremendous significance for the prediction, diagnosis, and observation of the therapeutic success of many diseases. Knowledge of their molecular characteristics and therefore functional properties would contribute to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms leading to various diseases in which their levels are raised. The review aims at outlining and discussing the molecular characteristics of PMVs in order to bring to the fore some aspects/characteristics of PMVs that will assist the scientific community to properly understand the role of PMVs in various physiological and pathological processes. The review covers PMVs characterisation and discusses how distinct they are from exosomes and endosomes. Also, methods of PMVs analysis, importance of proper PMV level estimation/characterisation, PMVs and their constituents as well as their therapeutic significance are discussed. The review concludes by drawing attention to the importance of further study into the functions of the characteristics discussed which will lead to understanding the general role of PMVs both in health and in disease states. PMID:26259622

  8. Plasma membrane coenzyme Q: evidence for a role in autism

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Frederick L; Löw, Hans; Sun, Iris; Navas, Placido; Gvozdjáková, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background The Voltage Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) is involved in control of autism. Treatments, including coenzyme Q, have had some success on autism control. Data sources Correlation of porin redox activity and expression of autism is based on extensive literature, especially studies of antibodies, identification of cytosolic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) dehydrogenase activity in the VDAC, and evidence for extreme sensitivity of the dehydrogenase to a mercurial. Evidence for a coenzyme Q requirement came from extraction and analog inhibition of NADH ferricyanide reductase in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, done in 1994, and reinterpreted when it was identified in VDAC in 2004. The effects of ubiquinol (the QH2 – reduced form of coenzyme Q) in children with autism were studied. Results A new role for coenzyme Q in the porin channels has implications on autism. Ubiquinol, the more active form of coenzyme Q, produces favorable response in children with autism. Agents which affected electron transport in porin show parallel effects in autism. Conclusion We propose a hypothesis that autism is controlled by a coenzyme Q-dependent redox system in the porin channels; this conclusion is based on the effects of agents that positively or negatively affect electron transport and the symptoms of autism. The full understanding of the mechanism of their control needs to be established. PMID:24920882

  9. Atomic force microscopy on plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes containing human aquaporin 4.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Francesco; Santacroce, Massimo; Cremona, Andrea; Gosvami, Nitya N; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2014-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a unique tool for imaging membrane proteins in near-native environment (embedded in a membrane and in buffer solution) at ~1 nm spatial resolution. It has been most successful on membrane proteins reconstituted in 2D crystals and on some specialized and densely packed native membranes. Here, we report on AFM imaging of purified plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes, a commonly used system for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins. Isoform M23 of human aquaporin 4 (AQP4-M23) was expressed in the X. laevis oocytes following their injection with AQP4-M23 cRNA. AQP4-M23 expression and incorporation in the plasma membrane were confirmed by the changes in oocyte volume in response to applied osmotic gradients. Oocyte plasma membranes were then purified by ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and the presence of AQP4-M23 proteins in the purified membranes was established by Western blotting analysis. Compared with membranes without over-expressed AQP4-M23, the membranes from AQP4-M23 cRNA injected oocytes showed clusters of structures with lateral size of about 10 nm in the AFM topography images, with a tendency to a fourfold symmetry as may be expected for higher-order arrays of AQP4-M23. In addition, but only infrequently, AQP4-M23 tetramers could be resolved in 2D arrays on top of the plasma membrane, in good quantitative agreement with transmission electron microscopy analysis and the current model of AQP4. Our results show the potential and the difficulties of AFM studies on cloned membrane proteins in native eukaryotic membranes. PMID:25277091

  10. Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas for bacterial biofilm prevention and eradication.

    PubMed

    Ermolaeva, Svetlana A; Sysolyatina, Elena V; Gintsburg, Alexander L

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are three-dimensional structures formed by surface-attached microorganisms and their extracellular products. Biofilms formed by pathogenic microorganisms play an important role in human diseases. Higher resistance to antimicrobial agents and changes in microbial physiology make treating biofilm infections very complex. Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas (NTPs) are a novel and powerful tool for antimicrobial treatment. The microbicidal activity of NTPs has an unspecific character due to the synergetic actions of bioactive components of the plasma torch, including charged particles, reactive species, and UV radiation. This review focuses on specific traits of biofilms, their role in human diseases, and those effects of NTP that are helpful for treating biofilm infections. The authors discuss NTP-based strategies for biofilm control, such as surface modifications to prevent bacterial adhesion, killing bacteria in biofilms, and biofilm destruction with NTPs. The unspecific character of microbicidal activity, proven polymer modification and destruction abilities, low toxicity for human tissues and absence of long-living toxic compounds make NTPs a very promising tool for biofilm prevention and control. PMID:25869456

  11. Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity following Reversible and Irreversible Freezing Injury 1

    PubMed Central

    Iswari, S.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed as a site of functional alteration during early stages of freezing injury. To test this, plasma membrane was purified from Solanum leaflets by a single step partitioning of microsomes in a dextran-polyethylene glycol two phase system. Addition of lysolecithin in the ATPase assay produced up to 10-fold increase in ATPase activity. ATPase activity was specific for ATP with a Km around 0.4 millimolar. Presence of the ATPase enzyme was identified by immunoblotting with oat ATPase antibodies. Using the phase partitioning method, plasma membrane was isolated from Solanum commersonii leaflets which had four different degrees of freezing damage, namely, slight (reversible), partial (partially reversible), substantial and total (irreversible). With slight (reversible) damage the plasma membrane ATPase specific activity increased 1.5- to 2-fold and its Km was decreased by about 3-fold, whereas the specific activity of cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase in the microsomes were not different from the control. However, with substantial (lethal, irreversible) damage, there was a loss of membrane protein, decrease in plasma membrane ATPase specific activity and decrease in Km, while cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c reductase were unaffected. These results support the hypothesis that plasma membrane ATPase is altered by slight freeze-thaw stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666856

  12. Structural Rearrangements in CHO Cells After Disruption of Individual Cytoskeletal Elements and Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Jokhadar, Špela Zemljič; Derganc, Jure

    2015-04-01

    Cellular structural integrity is provided primarily by the cytoskeleton, which comprises microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments. The plasma membrane has been also recognized as a mediator of physical forces, yet its contribution to the structural integrity of the cell as a whole is less clear. In order to investigate the relationship between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton, we selectively disrupted the plasma membrane and each of the cytoskeletal elements in Chinese hamster ovary cells and assessed subsequent changes in cellular structural integrity. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize cytoskeletal rearrangements, and optical tweezers were utilized to quantify membrane tether extraction. We found that cholesterol depletion from the plasma membrane resulted in rearrangements of all cytoskeletal elements. Conversely, the state of the plasma membrane, as assessed by tether extraction, was affected by disruption of any of the cytoskeletal elements, including microtubules and intermediate filaments, which are located mainly in the cell interior. The results demonstrate that, besides the cytoskeleton, the plasma membrane is an important contributor to cellular integrity, possibly by acting as an essential framework for cytoskeletal anchoring. In agreement with the tensegrity model of cell mechanics, our results support the notion of the cell as a prestressed structure. PMID:25395197

  13. Plasma Membrane Lesions In Anthracycline-Resistant Tumor Cells Probed Using A Fluorescent Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Thomas G.; Doroshow, James H.

    1989-06-01

    Human cancer cells selected for resistance to several structurally unrelated cytotoxic drugs are known to display plasma membrane alterations such as amplified levels of a variety of glycoproteins, modifications in lipid composition, alterations in membrane fluidity and increased cellular fragility to osmotic shock. We have studied the plasma membrane fluidity of HL60 human leukemia cells and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have been selected for acquired resistance against the cytocidal effects of the anthracycline anticancer drug Adriamycin. Fluidity measurements were accomplished by evaluating the fluorescence anisotropy of the plasma membrane specific probe trimethylamino-1,6-dipihenylhexatriene (TMA.DPH) bound to whole, living cells. TMA.DPH anisotropy values for MCF-7 sensitive and 12-fold resistant cells were 0.306 and 0.285, respectively, while anisotropy values for HL-60 sensitive and 80-fold resistant cells lines were 0.310 and 0.295, respectively. In all cases, cell viability exceeded 97% and anisotropy values were subject to a day-to-day uncertainty of +/-2%. Our results demonstrate that increased plasma membrane fluidity apparently accompanies the development of resistance in both cell lines. Because it is known that increased membrane fluidity results in significantly decreased Adriamycin binding in artificial membrane systems, we propose here that decreased drug associations with fluidized, plasma membrane lipid bilayer regions may be a mechanism which contributes, in part, to the reduced rates of drug accumulation observed in HL60 and MCF-7 cells resistant to Adriamycin.

  14. Plasma membrane microorganization of LR73 multidrug-resistant cells revealed by FCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Pascale; Jaffiol, Rodolphe; Cailler, Aurélie; Morjani, Hamid; Jeannesson, Pierre; Deturche, Régis

    2011-03-01

    Tumoral cells could present a multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic treatments. This drug resistance would be associated to biomechanisms occurring at the plasma membrane level, involving modification of membrane fluidity, drug permeability, presence of microdomains (rafts, caveolae...), and membrane proteins overexpression such as Pglycoprotein. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is the relevant method to investigate locally the fluidity of biological membranes through the lateral diffusion of a fluorescent membrane probe. Thus, we use FCS to monitor the plasma membrane local organization of LR73 carcinoma cells and three derived multidrug-resistant cancer cells lines. Measurements were conducted at the single cell level, which enabled us to get a detailed overview of the plasma membrane microviscosity distribution of each cell line studied. Moreover, we propose 2D diffusion simulation based on a Monte Carlo model to investigate the membrane organisation in terms of microdomains. This simulation allows us to relate the differences in the fluidity distributions with microorganization changes in plasma membrane of MDR cells.

  15. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and -negative (Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation. PMID:26166926

  16. Purification of rat liver plasma membranes by wheat-germ-agglutinin affinity partitioning.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, A; Johansson, B; Olsson, H; Jergil, B

    1991-01-01

    Rat liver plasma membranes were separated from other cellular membranes by affinity partitioning in an aqueous polymer two-phase system by using the lectin wheat-germ agglutinin covalently bound to dextran as the affinity ligand. In borate buffer the bulk of membranes partitioned in the poly(ethylene glycol)-rich top phase, whereas plasma membranes were pulled selectively into the dextran-rich bottom phase in the presence of ligand. The purity and yield of plasma membranes prepared by lectin affinity partitioning and by conventional sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation was similar, as judged from marker-enzyme activities. The affinity procedure, not dependent on lengthy centrifugations, is fast and gentle and will be advantageous when studying labile components. PMID:1703408

  17. NPA binding activity is peripheral to the plasma membrane and is associated with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D N; Muday, G K

    1994-01-01

    N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) binding activity is released into the supernatant when plasma membranes are subjected to high-salt treatment, indicating that this activity is peripherally associated with the membrane. Extraction of plasma membrane vesicles with Triton X-100 resulted in retention of NPA binding activity in the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal pellet. Treatment of this pellet with KI released NPA binding activity, actin, and alpha-tubulin. Dialysis to remove KI led to the repolymerization of cytoskeletal elements and movement of NPA binding activity into an insoluble cytoskeletal pellet. NPA binding activity partitioned into the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal pellet obtained from both zucchini and maize membranes and was released from these pellets by KI treatment. Treatment of a cytoskeletal pellet with cytochalasin B doubled NPA binding activity in the resulting supernatant. Together, these experiments indicate that NPA binding activity is peripherally associated with the plasma membrane and interacts with the cytoskeleton in vitro. PMID:11536654

  18. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber. PMID:26351149

  19. Modification of pro-inflammatory signaling by dietary components: The plasma membrane as a target.

    PubMed

    Ciesielska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-07-01

    You are what you eat - this well-known phrase properly describes the phenomenon of the effects of diet on acute and chronic inflammation. Several lipids and lipophilic compounds that are delivered with food or are produced in situ in pathological conditions exert immunomodulatory activity due to their interactions with the plasma membrane. This group of compounds includes cholesterol and its oxidized derivatives, fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and polyphenols. Despite their structural heterogeneity, all these compounds ultimately induce changes in plasma membrane architecture and fluidity. By doing this, they modulate the dynamics of plasma membrane receptors, such as TLR4. This receptor is activated by lipopolysaccharide, triggering acute inflammation during bacterial infection, which often leads to sepsis and is linked with diverse chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss how the impact on plasma membrane properties contributes to the immunomodulatory activity of dietary compounds, pointing to the therapeutic potential of some of them. Also watch the Video Abstract. PMID:25966354

  20. Plasma membrane organization promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Lois M; Konopka, James B

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen capable of causing lethal systemic infections. The plasma membrane plays key roles in virulence because it not only functions as a protective barrier, it also mediates dynamic functions including secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, endocytosis, and nutrient uptake. Consistent with this functional complexity, the plasma membrane is composed of a wide array of lipids and proteins. These components are organized into distinct domains that will be the topic of this review. Some of the plasma membrane domains that will be described are known to act as scaffolds or barriers to diffusion, such as MCC/eisosomes, septins, and sites of contact with the endoplasmic reticulum. Other zones mediate dynamic processes, including secretion, endocytosis, and a special region at hyphal tips that facilitates rapid growth. The highly organized architecture of the plasma membrane facilitates the coordination of diverse functions and promotes the pathogenesis of C. albicans. PMID:26920878

  1. Rapid preparation of plasma membranes from avian lymphoid cells and fibroblasts for virus binding studies.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1998-06-01

    A simple and rapid protocol for the preparation of plasma membranes from chicken embryo fibroblasts and chicken lymphoid cells was developed. Characterization of the preparations by morphological, biochemical and serological methods indicated the specific enrichment of the plasma membranes as well as cell surface proteins. Binding of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) particles was demonstrated after immobilization of the plasma membranes, and cell type-specific differences were observed. Although the results of these studies reflect the interaction between IBDV and isolated cells only partially, the advantages of these plasma membrane preparations, the specific enrichment of cell surface proteins, their constant quality and the possibility to store aliquots over several months, make them a useful tool for virus binding studies with avian cells. PMID:9694323

  2. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize themore » cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.« less

  3. Hemagglutinin clusters in the plasma membrane are not enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert L; Frisz, Jessica F; Klitzing, Haley A; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Weber, Peter K; Kraft, Mary L

    2015-04-01

    The clusters of the influenza envelope protein, hemagglutinin, within the plasma membrane are hypothesized to be enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to image the distributions of antibody-labeled hemagglutinin and isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of fibroblast cells that stably express hemagglutinin. We found that the hemagglutinin clusters were neither enriched with cholesterol nor colocalized with sphingolipid domains. Thus, hemagglutinin clustering and localization in the plasma membrane is not controlled by cohesive interactions between hemagglutinin and liquid-ordered domains enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, or from specific binding interactions between hemagglutinin, cholesterol, and/or the majority of sphingolipid species in the plasma membrane. PMID:25863057

  4. Sphingolipid Domains in the Plasma Membranes of Fibroblasts Are Not Enriched with Cholesterol*

    PubMed Central

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. Thus, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize the cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton. PMID:23609440

  5. Hemagglutinin Clusters in the Plasma Membrane Are Not Enriched with Cholesterol and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert L.; Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Weber, Peter K.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    The clusters of the influenza envelope protein, hemagglutinin, within the plasma membrane are hypothesized to be enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to image the distributions of antibody-labeled hemagglutinin and isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of fibroblast cells that stably express hemagglutinin. We found that the hemagglutinin clusters were neither enriched with cholesterol nor colocalized with sphingolipid domains. Thus, hemagglutinin clustering and localization in the plasma membrane is not controlled by cohesive interactions between hemagglutinin and liquid-ordered domains enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, or from specific binding interactions between hemagglutinin, cholesterol, and/or the majority of sphingolipid species in the plasma membrane. PMID:25863057

  6. Membrane-based Therapeutic Plasma Exchange: A New Frontier for Nephrologists.

    PubMed

    Gashti, Casey N

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange has long been utilized to manage a variety of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying principle is the removal of a circulating pathogenic substance from the plasma and substitution with a replacement fluid. Different methodologies of plasma separation include the use of centrifuge, which relies on the variation in the specific gravity of blood components, and membrane-based separation, which relies on particle size. With advancements in technology and clinical insight into disease pathophysiology, membrane technology has become more biocompatible, safer, and more adaptable to conventional hemodialysis and hemofiltration machines. As such, nephrologists, who are familiar with management of extracorporeal blood purification systems, are increasingly involved with membrane-based plasma separation. This review aims to highlight the technical aspects of membrane-based separation, review the prescription for therapy, and draw comparisons with the centrifuge-based technique when applicable. PMID:27062015

  7. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize the cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.

  8. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion.

    PubMed

    Marlar, Saw; Arnspang, Eva C; Koffman, Jennifer S; Løcke, Else-Merete; Christensen, Birgitte M; Nejsum, Lene N

    2014-03-15

    Regulated urine concentration takes place in the renal collecting duct upon arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulation, where subapical vesicles containing aquaporin-2 (AQP2) are inserted into the apical membrane instantly increasing water reabsorption and urine concentration. The reabsorped water exits via basolateral AQP3 and AQP4. Upon long-term stimulation with AVP or during thirst, expression levels of both AQP2 and AQP3 are increased; however, there is so far no evidence for short-term AVP regulation of AQP3 or AQP4. To facilitate the increase in transepithelial water transport, AQP3 may be short-term regulated via changes in protein-protein interactions, incorporation into lipid rafts, and/or changes in steady-state turnover, which could result in changes in the diffusion behavior of AQP3. Thus we measured AQP3 diffusion coefficients upon stimulation with the AVP mimic forskolin to reveal if AQP3 could be short-term regulated by AVP. k-Space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS) analysis of time-lapse image sequences of basolateral enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged AQP3 (AQP3-EGFP) revealed that the forskolin-mediated elevation of cAMP increased the diffusion coefficient by 58% from 0.0147 ± 0.0082 μm(2)/s (control) to 0.0232 ± 0.0085 μm(2)/s (forskolin, P < 0.05). Quantum dot-conjugated antibody labeling also revealed a significant increase in AQP3 diffusion upon forskolin treatment by 44% [0.0104 ± 0.0040 μm(2)/s (control) vs. 0.0150 ± 0.0016 μm(2)/s (forskolin, P < 0.05)]. Immunoelectron microscopy showed no obvious difference in AQP3-EGFP expression levels or localization in the plasma membrane upon forskolin stimulation. Thus AQP3-EGFP diffusion is altered upon increased cAMP, which may correspond to basolateral adaptations in response to the increased apical water readsorption. PMID:24452376

  9. Immunoprecipitation of Plasma Membrane Receptor-Like Kinases for Identification of Phosphorylation Sites and Associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Macho, Alberto P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are difficult to study for numerous reasons. The surface of membrane proteins is relatively hydrophobic and sometimes very unstable, additionally requiring detergents for their extraction from the membrane. This leads to challenges at all levels, including expression, solubilization, purification, identification of associated proteins, and the identification of post-translational modifications. However, recent advances in immunoprecipitation technology allow to isolate membrane proteins efficiently, facilitating the study of protein-protein interactions, the identification of novel associated proteins, and to identify post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation. Here, we describe an optimized immunoprecipitation protocol for plant plasma membrane receptor-like kinases. PMID:26577786

  10. Hypoxia directly increases serotonin transport by porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, G.B.; Block, E.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Alterations in the physical state and composition of membrane lipids have been shown to interfere with a number of critical cellular and membrane functions including transmembrane transport. The authors have reported that hypoxia has profound effects upon the physical state and lipid composition of the PAEC plasma membrane bilayer and have suggested that this is responsible for increased serotonin uptake by these cells. In order to determine whether hypoxia has a direct effect on the plasma membrane transport of serotonin, they measured serotonin transport activity (1) in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from normoxic (20% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2}) and hypoxic (0% O{sub 2}-5% CO{sub 2}) PAEC and (2) in PAEC plasma membrane vesicles that were exposed directly to normoxia or hypoxia. A 24-h exposure of PAEC to hypoxia resulted in a 40% increase in specific serotonin transport by plasma membrane vesicles derived from these cells. When plasma membrane vesicles were isolated and then directly exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for 1 h at 37C, a 31% increase in specific 5-HT transport was observed in hypoxic vesicles. Hypoxia did not alter the Km of serotonin transport (normoxia = 3.47 {mu}M versus hypoxia = 3.76 {mu}M) but markedly increased the maximal rate of transport (V{sup max}) (normoxia = 202.4 pmol/min/mg protein versus hypoxia = 317.9 pmol/min/mg protein). These results indicate that hypoxia increases serotonin transport in PAEC by a direct effect on the plasma membrane leading to an increase in the effective number of transporter molecules without alteration in transporter affinity for serotonin.

  11. Localized Patch Clamping of Plasma Membrane of a Polarized Plant Cell 1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alison R.; Brownlee, Colin

    1992-01-01

    We used an ultraviolet laser to rupture a small region of cell wall of a polarized Fucus spiralis rhizoid cell and gained localized access to the plasma membrane at the growing apex. Careful control of cell turgor enabled a small portion of plasma membrane-bound cytoplasm to be exposed. Gigaohm seals allowing single-channel recordings were obtained with a high success rate using this method with conventional patch clamp techniques. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16669092

  12. Laser Microsurgery Permits Fungal Plasma Membrane Single-Ion-Channel Resolution at the Hyphal Tip

    PubMed Central

    Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Davies, Julia M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for formation of high-electrical-resistance seals on the Neurospora crassa plasma membrane, allowing resolution of single-ion-channel activity by patch clamp electrophysiology, is reported. Laser microsurgery permits access to the hyphal apex without enzymatic cell wall digestion and loss of morphological polarity. Cell wall reformation is delayed by brefeldin. This method can allow full characterization of apical plasma membrane channels, which are implicated in tip growth. PMID:16349556

  13. Barriers to diffusion of plasma membrane proteins form early during guinea pig spermiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, A E; Nakhimovsky, L; Myles, D G; Koppel, D E

    1997-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the mature guinea pig sperm is segregated into at least four domains of different composition. Previous studies have shown that some proteins localized within these domains are free to diffuse laterally, suggesting that barriers to protein diffusion are responsible for maintaining the nonuniform distribution of at least some surface proteins in mature sperm. The different membrane domains appear sequentially during sperm morphogenesis in the testis and during later passage through the epididymis. To determine when diffusion barriers become functional during sperm development, we examined the diffusion of two proteins that are expressed on the cell surface of developing spermatids and become segregated to different plasma membrane domains during the course of spermiogenesis. Both proteins exhibited rapid lateral diffusion throughout spermiogenesis, even after they become localized to specific regions of the surface membrane. These results suggest that barriers to membrane diffusion form concomitantly with membrane domains during spermiogenesis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:9199813

  14. Chronic and acute ethanol treatment modifies fluidity and composition in plasma membranes of a human hepatic cell line (WRL-68).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M C; Gómez, J L; Souza, V; Bucio, L

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of chronic (0.1 mol/L ethanol exposure during 30 days) and acute (0.5 mol/L ethanol exposure during 24 h) ethanol treatment on the physical properties and the lipid composition of plasma membranes of the WRL-68 cells (fetal human hepatic cell line). Using fluorescence polarization we found that ethanol treatment reduced membrane anisotropy due to disorganization of acyl chains in plasma membranes and consequently increased fluidity, as measured with the diphenylhexatriene probe. Addition of ethanol in vitro reduced anisotropy in control plasma membranes, whereas chronically ethanol-treated plasma membranes were relatively tolerant to the in vitro addition of ethanol. Acutely ethanol-treated plasma membranes exhibited a smaller anisotropy parameter value than control plasma membranes. We found a decrease in total phospholipid content in acute ethanol WRL-68 plasma membranes. Cholesterol content was increased in both ethanol treatments, and we also found a significant decrease in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine and an increase in phosphatidylethanolamine content in ethanol-treated plasma membranes. Our data showed that ethanol treatment decreased the anisotropy parameter consistently with increased fluidity, while increasing the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of plasma membranes of WRL-68 cells, but only chronically ethanol-treated plasma membranes exhibited tolerance to the in vitro addition of ethanol. It is important to note that some changes that were interpreted as a result of chronic ethanol treatment were also present in short-period ethanol treatments. PMID:7583873

  15. Directing membrane chromatography to manufacture α1-antitrypsin from human plasma fraction IV.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Song, Weijie; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2015-12-01

    The surging demand for plasma proteins, mainly driven by the growing market and the development of new therapeutic indications, is promoting manufacturers to improve the throughput of plasma proteins. Due to the inherent convective mass transfer, membrane chromatography has been proved to be an efficient approach for extracting a small amount of target proteins from large-volume feed. In this study, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) was extracted from human plasma fraction IV by a two-step membrane chromatography. An anion-exchange membrane chromatography (AEMC) was used to capture the plasma proteins in bind/elute mode, and the obtained effluent was further polished by a hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) in flow-through mode. Under optimal conditions, the recovery and purity of AAT achieved 87.0% and 0.58 AAT/protein (g/g) by AEMC, respectively. After the precise polishing by HIMC, the purity of AAT was 1.22 AAT/protein (g/g). The comparison results showed that membrane chromatography outperformed column chromatography in both steps because of its high throughput. This two-step membrane chromatography could obtain an AAT recovery of 83.3% and an activity recovery of 91.4%. The outcome of this work not only offers an alternative process for protein purification from plasma, but also provides guidelines for manufacturing product from a large-volume feed with multi-components by membrane chromatography. PMID:26518493

  16. Oxytocin regulates the plasma membrane Ca2+ transport in rat myometrium.

    PubMed Central

    Enyedi, A; Brandt, J; Minami, J; Penniston, J T

    1989-01-01

    Development of myometrium in young female rats was stimulated by administration of diethylstilboestrol. Plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum from rat myometrium were separated by a new and rapid method using a Percoll gradient. Calcium uptake was inhibited in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from oxytocin-treated myometrium, while no consistent effect of oxytocin was found on the Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Oxytocin regulated the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by decreasing its apparent affinity for Ca2+ without affecting its maximal velocity. The K1/2 for Ca2+ in the absence of calmodulin was 0.41 +/- 0.04 microM in normal membranes; this was increased to 0.93 +/- 0.12 microM in oxytocin-treated membranes. Calmodulin decreased the K1/2 for Ca2+ to 0.27 +/- 0.027 microM and oxytocin also increased this, to 0.46 +/- 0.061 microM. The effect of oxytocin on the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump was highly dependent on the hormonal status of the animals. When the diethylstilboestrol was administered together with progesterone, the inhibitory action of oxytocin was totally suppressed, consistent with the expected action of this agent. The results suggest that regulation of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump may be important in the prolonged elevation of intracellular Ca2+ caused by oxytocin. PMID:2775210

  17. Sorting Nexin 11 Regulates Lysosomal Degradation of Plasma Membrane TRPV3.

    PubMed

    Li, Caiyue; Ma, Wenbo; Yin, Shikui; Liang, Xin; Shu, Xiaodong; Pei, Duanqing; Egan, Terrance M; Huang, Jufang; Pan, Aihua; Li, Zhiyuan

    2016-05-01

    The trafficking of ion channels to/from the plasma membrane is considered an important mechanism for cellular activity and an interesting approach for disease therapies. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) ion channel is widely expressed in skin keratinocytes, and its trafficking mechanism to/from the plasma membrane is unknown. Here, we report that the vesicular trafficking protein sorting nexin 11 (SNX11) downregulates the level of the TRPV3 plasma membrane protein. Overexpression of SNX11 causes a decrease in the level of TRPV3 current and TRPV3 plasma membrane protein in TRPV3-transfected HEK293T cells. Subcellular localizations and western blots indicate that SNX11 interacts with TRPV3 and targets it to lysosomes for degradation, which is blocked by the lysosomal inhibitors chloroquine and leupeptin. Both TRPV3 and SNX11 are highly expressed in HaCaT cells. We show that TRPV3 agonists-activated Ca(2+) influxes and the level of native TRPV3 total protein in HaCaT cells are decreased by overexpression of SNX11 and increased by knockdown of SNX11. Our findings reveal that SNX11 promotes the trafficking of TRPV3 from the plasma membrane to lysosomes for degradation via protein-protein interactions, which demonstrates a previously unknown function of SNX11 as a regulator of TRPV3 trafficking from the plasma membrane to lysosomes. PMID:26818531

  18. Plasma membrane phosphoinositide balance regulates cell shape during Drosophila embryo morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Reversi, Alessandra; Loeser, Eva; Subramanian, Devaraj; Schultz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Remodeling of cell shape during morphogenesis is driven by the coordinated expansion and contraction of specific plasma membrane domains. Loss of this coordination results in abnormal cell shape and embryonic lethality. Here, we show that plasma membrane lipid composition plays a key role in coordinating plasma membrane contraction during expansion. We found that an increase in PI(4,5)P2 levels caused premature actomyosin contraction, resulting in the formation of shortened cells. Conversely, acute depletion of PI(4,5)P2 blocked plasma membrane expansion and led to premature actomyosin disassembly. PI(4,5)P2-mediated contractility is counteracted by PI(3,4,5)P3 and the zygotic gene bottleneck, which acts by limiting myosin recruitment during plasma membrane expansion. Collectively, these data support a model in which the ratio of PI(4,5)P2/PI(3,4,5)P3 coordinates actomyosin contractility and plasma membrane expansion during tissue morphogenesis, thus ensuring proper cell shape. PMID:24798734

  19. Detecting subtle plasma membrane perturbation in living cells using second harmonic generation imaging.

    PubMed

    Moen, Erick K; Ibey, Bennett L; Beier, Hope T

    2014-05-20

    The requirement of center asymmetry for the creation of second harmonic generation (SHG) signals makes it an attractive technique for visualizing changes in interfacial layers such as the plasma membrane of biological cells. In this article, we explore the use of lipophilic SHG probes to detect minute perturbations in the plasma membrane. Three candidate probes, Di-4-ANEPPDHQ (Di-4), FM4-64, and all-trans-retinol, were evaluated for SHG effectiveness in Jurkat cells. Di-4 proved superior with both strong SHG signal and limited bleaching artifacts. To test whether rapid changes in membrane symmetry could be detected using SHG, we exposed cells to nanosecond-pulsed electric fields, which are believed to cause formation of nanopores in the plasma membrane. Upon nanosecond-pulsed electric fields exposure, we observed an instantaneous drop of ~50% in SHG signal from the anodic pole of the cell. When compared to the simultaneously acquired fluorescence signals, it appears that the signal change was not due to the probe diffusing out of the membrane or changes in membrane potential or fluidity. We hypothesize that this loss in SHG signal is due to disruption in the interfacial nature of the membrane. The results show that SHG imaging has great potential as a tool for measuring rapid and subtle plasma membrane disturbance in living cells. PMID:24853757

  20. High heterogeneity of plasma membrane microfluidity in multidrug-resistant cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, Céline; Roche, Yann; Millot, Christine; Deturche, Régis; Royer, Pascal; Manfait, Michel; Plain, Jérôme; Jeannesson, Pierre; Millot, Jean-Marc; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2009-05-01

    Diffusion-time distribution analysis (DDA) has been used to explore the plasma membrane fluidity of multidrug-resistant cancer cells (LR73 carcinoma cells) and also to characterize the influence of various membrane agents present in the extracellular medium. DDA is a recent single-molecule technique, based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), well suited to retrieve local organization of cell membrane. The method was conducted on a large number of living cells, which enabled us to get a detailed overview of plasma membrane microviscosity, and plasma membrane micro-organization, between the cells of the same line. Thus, we clearly reveal the higher heterogeneity of plasma membrane in multidrug-resistant cancer cells in comparison with the nonresistant ones (denoted sensitive cells). We also display distinct modifications related to a membrane fluidity modulator, benzyl alcohol, and two revertants of multidrug resistance, verapamil and cyclosporin-A. A relation between the distribution of the diffusion-time values and the modification of membrane lateral heterogeneities is proposed.

  1. Bright fluorogenic squaraines with tuned cell entry for selective imaging of plasma membrane vs. endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Collot, Mayeul; Kreder, Rémy; Tatarets, Anatoliy L; Patsenker, Leonid D; Mely, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2015-12-14

    A rational design of squaraine dyes with lipophilic and zwitterionic groups tunes cell entry, allowing for selective far-red/near-infrared imaging of plasma membrane vs. endoplasmic reticulum. They exhibit up to 110-fold fluorescence enhancement in biomembranes and enable cellular imaging at 1 nM concentration, which make them the brightest membrane probes to date. PMID:26455447

  2. [Isolation and characteristics of the plasma membrane fraction from the swine myometrium].

    PubMed

    Kondratiuk, T P; Bychenok, S F; Prishchepa, L A; Babich, L G; Kurskiĭ, M D

    1986-01-01

    An accelerated method is developed for isolating a fraction of plasma membranes of pig myometrium using ultracentrifugation within the sucrose density gradient (15% and 30%). The membranes possessed the high activity of 5'-nucleotidase and Na+, K+-ATPase and the low activity of rhotenon-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The vesicularized preparations of plasma membranes are able of ATP-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ (7.5 +/- 0.3 nmol. 45Ca2+ per 1 mg of protein for 15 min). Phosphate increases the calcium accumulation in the presence of ATP and Mg2+. Ionophore A 23187 promotes a complete and rapid release of the previously active-accumulated calcium. The release of 45Ca2+ accumulated by the membrane fraction may be reached by introduction of 1 mM EGTA or DS-Na into the incubation medium, that evidences for the cation accumulation inside closed structures. Using concanavalin-A-sepharose 4B it is shown that 60% of membrane vesicles are turned inside out. The low saponine concentrations (0.0005%) which inhibit Ca2+-accumulation by plasma membranes but not by the endoplasmic reticulum inhibit this process by 60-70% in preparations of the isolated membrane fraction. The method has certain advantages over the previously applied methods used for isolating of plasma membrane fragments from smooth muscles. PMID:3016962

  3. Effect of ion bombardment on plasma-driven superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through a niobium membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notkin, M. E.; Livshits, A. I.; Bruneteau, A. M.; Bacal, M.

    2001-08-01

    Hydrogen plasma-driven permeation through the superpermeable niobium membrane was investigated under bombardment of the input membrane surface with hydrogen, deuterium and helium ions with energy 0-250 eV over the range of membrane temperature 910-1420 K. The membrane surface was covered with a nonmetal monolayer generating a potential barrier responsible for the superpermeability to suprathermal hydrogen particles. Both an increase of ion energy and an increase of mass of sputtering ions result in a significant decrease of permeability due to destruction of the nonmetal monolayer, when the ion energy is higher than the threshold energy of surface film sputtering. On the contrary, the increase of the membrane temperature results in the decrease of the ion bombardment effect and in the increase of the membrane permeability due to recovery of the surface barrier through segregation of impurities dissolved in the membrane bulk onto the membrane surface. To increase the membrane ability to recover the potential barrier, oxygen was dissolved in the membrane bulk up to a concentration of 2.5 at.%. This resulted in a significant decrease of the damaging effect of ion bombardment and in the extension of the range of the membrane temperature and ion energy over which plasma-driven superpermeability was observed.

  4. Computational analysis of the tether pulling experiment to probe plasma membrane - cytoskeleton interaction in cells

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Kristopher R.; Popel, Aleksander S.; Anvari, Bahman; Brownell, William E.; Spector, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Tethers are thin membrane tubes that can be formed when relatively small and localized forces are applied to cellular membranes and lipid bilayers. Tether pulling experiments have been used to better understand the fine membrane properties. These include the interaction between the plasma membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton, which is an important factor affecting membrane mechanics. We use a computational method aimed at the interpretation and design of tether pulling experiments in cells with a strong membrane-cytoskeleton attachment. In our model, we take into account the detailed information on the topology of bonds connecting the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. We compute the force-dependent piecewise membrane deflection and bending as well as modes of stored energy in three major regions of the system: body of the tether, membrane-cytoskeleton attachment zone, and the transition zone between the two. We apply our method to three cells: cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. OHCs have a special system of pillars connecting the membrane and the cytoskeleton, and HEK and CHO cells have a bond arrangement via bonds (e.g., PIP2) which is common to many other cells. We also present a validation of our model by using experimental data on CHO and HEK cells. The proposed method can be an effective tool in the analyses of experiments to probe the properties of cellular membranes. PMID:19905340

  5. Multi-layer electrospun membrane mimicking tendon sheath for prevention of tendon adhesions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shichao; Yan, Hede; Fan, Dapeng; Song, Jialin; Fan, Cunyi

    2015-01-01

    Defect of the tendon sheath after tendon injury is a main reason for tendon adhesions, but it is a daunting challenge for the biomimetic substitute of the tendon sheath after injury due to its multi-layer membrane-like structure and complex biologic functions. In this study, a multi-layer membrane with celecoxib-loaded poly(l-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PELA) electrospun fibrous membrane as the outer layer, hyaluronic acid (HA) gel as middle layer, and PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the inner layer was designed. The anti-adhesion efficacy of this multi-layer membrane was compared with a single-layer use in rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model. The surface morphology showed that both PELA fibers and celecoxib-loaded PELA fibers in multi-layer membrane were uniform in size, randomly arrayed, very porous, and smooth without beads. Multi-layer membrane group had fewer peritendinous adhesions and better gliding than the PELA membrane group and control group in gross and histological observation. The similar mechanical characteristic and collagen expression of tendon repair site in the three groups indicated that the multi-layer membrane did not impair tendon healing. Taken together, our results demonstrated that such a biomimetic multi-layer sheath could be used as a potential strategy in clinics for promoting tendon gliding and preventing adhesion without poor tendon healing. PMID:25822877

  6. A 39-kD plasma membrane protein (IP39) is an anchor for the unusual membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosiere, T.K.; Marrs, J.A.; Bouck, G.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The major integral plasma membrane protein (IP39) of Euglena gracilis was radiolabeled, peptide mapped, and dissected with proteases to identify cytoplasmic domains that bind and anchor proteins of the cell surface. When plasma membranes were radioiodinated and extracted with octyl glucoside, 98% of the extracted label was found in IP39 or the 68- and 110-kD oligomers of IP39. The octyl glucoside extracts were incubated with unlabeled cell surface proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (overlays). Radiolabel from the membrane extract bound one (80 kD) of the two (80 and 86 kD) major membrane skeletal protein bands. Resolubilization of the bound label yielded a radiolabeled polypeptide identical in Mr to IP39. Intact plasma membranes were also digested with papain before or after radioiodination, thereby producing a cytoplasmically truncated IP39. The octyl glucoside extract of truncated IP39 no longer bound to the 80-kD membrane skeletal protein in the nitrocellulose overlays. EM of intact or trypsin digested plasma membranes incubated with membrane skeletal proteins under stringent conditions similar to those used in the nitrocellulose overlays revealed a partially reformed membrane skeletal layer. Little evidence of a membrane skeletal layer was found, however, when plasma membranes were predigested with papain before reassociation. A candidate 80-kD binding domain of IP39 has been tentatively identified as a peptide fragment that was present after trypsin digestion of plasma membranes, but was absent after papain digestion in two-dimensional peptide maps of IP39. Together, these data suggest that the unique peripheral membrane skeleton of Euglena binds to the plasma membrane through noncovalent interactions between the major 80-kD membrane skeletal protein and a small, papain sensitive cytoplasmic domain of IP39.

  7. Mechanism and structure of the plant plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Briskin, D.P.

    1993-12-31

    Objectives of this project were the following: development of an enriched preparation of the red beet plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} ATPase in order to develop a procedure for detergent solubilization of the enzyme from the membrane using detergents, resolution by a method which could be upscaled for batch isolation, and then reconstitution into liposomes to allow characterization of Ca{sup 2+} transport by the purified enzyme and; characterization of the reaction mechanism for the coupling of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis to Ca{sup 2+} transport as mediated by the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} ATPase.

  8. Plasma Membrane Proteomics of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Identifies Potential Targets for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Tu, Patricia G.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease. PMID:25029196

  9. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)serotonin into plasma membrane vesicles from mouse cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, C.A.; Reith, M.E.A.

    1988-05-05

    Preparations of plasma membrane vesicles were used as a tool to study the properties of the serotonin transporter in the central nervous system. The vesicles were obtained after hypotonic shock of synaptosomes purified from mouse cerebral cortex. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)serotonin had a Na/sup +/-dependent and Na/sup +/-independent component. The Na/sup +/-dependent uptake was inhibited by classical blockers of serotonin uptake and had a K/sub m/ of 63-180 nM, and a V/sub max/ of 0.1-0.3 pmol mg/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ at 77 mM Na/sup +/. The uptake required the presence of external Na/sup +/ and internal K/sup +/. Replacement of Cl/sup -/ by other anions (NO/sub 2//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2 -/) reduced uptake appreciably. Gramicidin prevented uptake. Although valinomycin increased uptake somewhat, the membrane potential per se could not drive uptake because no uptake was observed when a membrane potential was generated by the SCN/sup -/ ion in the absence of internal K/sup +/ and with equal (Na/sup +/) inside and outside. The increase of uptake as a function of (Na/sup +/) indicated a K/sub m/ for Na/sup +/ of 118 mM and a Hill number of 2.0, suggesting a requirement of two sodium ions for serotonin transport. The present results are accommodated very well by the model developed for porcine platelet serotonin transport except for the number of sodium ions that are required for transport.

  10. Interplay between phosphorylation and palmitoylation mediates plasma membrane targeting and sorting of GAP43

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier-Kemper, Anne; Igaev, Maxim; Sündermann, Frederik; Janning, Dennis; Brühmann, Jörg; Moschner, Katharina; Reyher, Hans-Jürgen; Junge, Wolfgang; Glebov, Konstantin; Walter, Jochen; Bakota, Lidia; Brandt, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation and lipidation provide posttranslational mechanisms that contribute to the distribution of cytosolic proteins in growing nerve cells. The growth-associated protein GAP43 is susceptible to both phosphorylation and S-palmitoylation and is enriched in the tips of extending neurites. However, how phosphorylation and lipidation interplay to mediate sorting of GAP43 is unclear. Using a combination of biochemical, genetic, and imaging approaches, we show that palmitoylation is required for membrane association and that phosphorylation at Ser-41 directs palmitoylated GAP43 to the plasma membrane. Plasma membrane association decreased the diffusion constant fourfold in neuritic shafts. Sorting to the neuritic tip required palmitoylation and active transport and was increased by phosphorylation-mediated plasma membrane interaction. Vesicle tracking revealed transient association of a fraction of GAP43 with exocytic vesicles and motion at a fast axonal transport rate. Simulations confirmed that a combination of diffusion, dynamic plasma membrane interaction and active transport of a small fraction of GAP43 suffices for efficient sorting to growth cones. Our data demonstrate a complex interplay between phosphorylation and lipidation in mediating the localization of GAP43 in neuronal cells. Palmitoylation tags GAP43 for global sorting by piggybacking on exocytic vesicles, whereas phosphorylation locally regulates protein mobility and plasma membrane targeting of palmitoylated GAP43. PMID:25165142

  11. Tuning the resistance of polycarbonate membranes by plasma-induced graft surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Lukas; Hegemann, Dirk; de Courten, Damien; Wolf, Martin; Rossi, René M.; Meier, Wolfgang P.; Scherer, Lukas J.

    2013-03-01

    To tune the permeability resistance of porous polycarbonate (PC) membranes for caffeine, their surfaces were plasma modified with different monomers in a grafting from process. These coatings provided characteristic surface hydrophilicities. It was found that membranes with more hydrophilic surfaces have lower resistances to let caffeine pass through than membranes with hydrophobic surfaces. Additionally, it was possible to post-modify a poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (AEMA) coated PC membrane with octanoic acid (Oct) under mild conditions. This post modification allowed transforming a slightly hydrophilic PC-AEMA membrane with a moderate permeability resistance into a hydrophobic PC-AEMA-Oct membrane with a high permeability resistance. Overall, it was possible to tune the PC membrane resistance for caffeine in a range from 5100 up to 15,100 s/cm.

  12. Neomycin inhibits the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, W.F. )

    1991-05-01

    The inositol phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), have been shown to increase the vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of plant plasma membranes. In this paper, the authors show the effect of various concentrations of phosphatidyinositol, PIP, and PIP{sub 2} on the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. PIP and PIP{sub 2} at concentrations at 10 nanomoles per 30 microgram membrane protein per milliliter of reaction mixture caused a twofold and 1.8-fold increase in the ATPase activity, respectively. The effect of these negatively charged phospholipids on the ATPase activity was inhibited by adding the positively charged aminoglycoside, neomycin. Neomycin did not affect the endogenous plasma membrane ATPase activity in the absence of exogenous lipids.

  13. Plasma Membrane Repair in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Demonbreun, Alexis R; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Since an intact membrane is required for normal cellular homeostasis, membrane repair is essential for cell survival. Human genetic studies, combined with the development of novel animal models and refinement of techniques to study cellular injury, have now uncovered series of repair proteins highly relevant for human health. Many of the deficient repair pathways manifest in skeletal muscle, where defective repair processes result in myopathies or other forms of muscle disease. Dysferlin is a membrane-associated protein implicated in sarcolemmal repair and also linked to other membrane functions including the maintenance of transverse tubules in muscle. MG53, annexins, and Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins interact with dysferlin to form a membrane repair complex and similarly have roles in membrane trafficking in muscle. These molecular features of membrane repair are not unique to skeletal muscle, but rather skeletal muscle, due to its high demands, is more dependent on an efficient repair process. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, as well as Ca(2+), are central regulators of membrane organization during repair. Given the importance of muscle health in disease and in aging, these pathways are targets to enhance muscle function and recovery from injury. PMID:26781830

  14. GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains in the live cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Sevcsik, Eva; Brameshuber, Mario; Fölser, Martin; Weghuber, Julian; Honigmann, Alf; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2015-01-01

    The organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane has been the subject of a long-lasting debate. Membrane rafts of higher lipid chain order were proposed to mediate protein interactions, but have thus far not been directly observed. Here we use protein micropatterning combined with single-molecule tracking to put current models to the test: we rearranged lipid-anchored raft proteins (glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchored-mGFP) directly in the live cell plasma membrane and measured the effect on the local membrane environment. Intriguingly, this treatment does neither nucleate the formation of an ordered membrane phase nor result in any enrichment of nanoscopic-ordered domains within the micropatterned regions. In contrast, we find that immobilized mGFP-GPIs behave as inert obstacles to the diffusion of other membrane constituents without influencing their membrane environment over distances beyond their physical size. Our results indicate that phase partitioning is not a fundamental element of protein organization in the plasma membrane. PMID:25897971

  15. GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains in the live cell plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sevcsik, Eva; Brameshuber, Mario; Fölser, Martin; Weghuber, Julian; Honigmann, Alf; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2015-01-01

    The organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane has been subject of a long-lasting debate. Membrane rafts of higher lipid chain order were proposed to mediate protein interactions, but have thus far not been directly observed. Here, we use protein micropatterning combined with single-molecule tracking to put current models to the test: we rearranged lipid-anchored raft proteins (glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchored mGFP) directly in the live cell plasma membrane and measured the effect on the local membrane environment. Intriguingly, this treatment does neither nucleate the formation of an ordered membrane phase, nor result in any enrichment of nanoscopic ordered domains within the micropatterned regions. In contrast, we find that immobilized mGFP-GPIs behave as inert obstacles to the diffusion of other membrane constituents without influencing their membrane environment over distances beyond their physical size. Our results indicate that phase partitioning is not a fundamental element of protein organization in the plasma membrane. PMID:25897971

  16. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from platelet plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rengasamy, A.; Feinberg, H.

    1988-02-15

    A platelet membrane preparation, enriched in plasma membrane markers, took up /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in exchange for intravesicular Na+ and released it after the addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The possibility that contaminating dense tubular membrane (DTS) vesicles contributed the Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was eliminated by the addition of vanadate to inhibit Ca/sup +/-ATPase-mediated DTS Ca/sup 2 +/ sequestration and by the finding that only plasma membrane vesicles exhibit Na/sup +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake. Ca/sup 2 +/ released by IP3 was dependent on low extravesicular Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations. IP3-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release was additive to that released by Na/sup +/ addition while GTP or polyethylene glycol (PEG) had no effect. These results strongly suggest that IP3 facilitates extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ influx in addition to release from DTS membranes.

  17. Effects of non-thermal plasma on the electrical properties of an erythrocyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin Young; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Tae Soo; Lim, Jaekwan; Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma is used here for membrane oxidation and permeabilization in which the electrical properties of an erythrocyte membrane are investigated after treatments. The zeta potential as measured by electrophoresis shows the increased negativity of the membrane surface potential (Ψs). The secondary electron emission coefficient ( γ) measured by a focused ion beam shows a decrease in the dipole potential (Ψd) of lipid molecules. The voltage-sensitive fluorescent intensity as measured by flow cytometry shows a decrease in the trans-membrane potential (ΔΨ) through the lipid bilayer membrane. These results allow us to take a step forward to unveil the complex events occurring in plasma-treated cells.

  18. Prevention of PVDF ultrafiltration membrane fouling by coating MnO2 nanoparticles with ozonation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenzheng; Brown, Matthew; Graham, Nigel. J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Pre-treatment is normally required to reduce or control the fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in drinking water treatment process. Current pre-treatment methods, such as coagulation, are only partially effective to prevent long-term fouling. Since biological activities are a major contributor to accumulated fouling, the application of an oxidation/disinfection step can be an effective complement to coagulation. In this study, a novel pre-treatment method has been evaluated at laboratory scale consisting of the addition of low dose ozone into the UF membrane tank after coagulation and the use of a hollow-fibre membrane coated with/without MnO2 nanoparticles over a test period of 70 days. The results showed that there was minimal fouling of the MnO2 coated membrane (0.5 kPa for 70 days), while the uncoated membrane experienced both reversible and irreversible fouling. The difference was attributed to the greatly reduced presence of bacteria and organic matter because of the catalytic decomposition of ozone to hydroxyl radicals and increase of the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. In particular, the MnO2 coated membrane had a much thinner cake layer, with significantly less polysaccharides and proteins, and much less accumulated organic matter within the membrane pores. PMID:27436142

  19. Prevention of PVDF ultrafiltration membrane fouling by coating MnO2 nanoparticles with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Brown, Matthew; Graham, Nigel J D

    2016-01-01

    Pre-treatment is normally required to reduce or control the fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in drinking water treatment process. Current pre-treatment methods, such as coagulation, are only partially effective to prevent long-term fouling. Since biological activities are a major contributor to accumulated fouling, the application of an oxidation/disinfection step can be an effective complement to coagulation. In this study, a novel pre-treatment method has been evaluated at laboratory scale consisting of the addition of low dose ozone into the UF membrane tank after coagulation and the use of a hollow-fibre membrane coated with/without MnO2 nanoparticles over a test period of 70 days. The results showed that there was minimal fouling of the MnO2 coated membrane (0.5 kPa for 70 days), while the uncoated membrane experienced both reversible and irreversible fouling. The difference was attributed to the greatly reduced presence of bacteria and organic matter because of the catalytic decomposition of ozone to hydroxyl radicals and increase of the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. In particular, the MnO2 coated membrane had a much thinner cake layer, with significantly less polysaccharides and proteins, and much less accumulated organic matter within the membrane pores. PMID:27436142

  20. Prevention of PVDF ultrafiltration membrane fouling by coating MnO2 nanoparticles with ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenzheng; Brown, Matthew; Graham, Nigel. J. D.

    2016-07-01

    Pre-treatment is normally required to reduce or control the fouling of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in drinking water treatment process. Current pre-treatment methods, such as coagulation, are only partially effective to prevent long-term fouling. Since biological activities are a major contributor to accumulated fouling, the application of an oxidation/disinfection step can be an effective complement to coagulation. In this study, a novel pre-treatment method has been evaluated at laboratory scale consisting of the addition of low dose ozone into the UF membrane tank after coagulation and the use of a hollow-fibre membrane coated with/without MnO2 nanoparticles over a test period of 70 days. The results showed that there was minimal fouling of the MnO2 coated membrane (0.5 kPa for 70 days), while the uncoated membrane experienced both reversible and irreversible fouling. The difference was attributed to the greatly reduced presence of bacteria and organic matter because of the catalytic decomposition of ozone to hydroxyl radicals and increase of the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. In particular, the MnO2 coated membrane had a much thinner cake layer, with significantly less polysaccharides and proteins, and much less accumulated organic matter within the membrane pores.

  1. Characterization of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization: focus on OH radical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Honda, Ryosuke; Hokari, Yutaro; Takashima, Keisuke; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-08-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) is used medically for plasma-induced cell permeabilization. However, how plasma irradiation specifically triggers permeabilization remains unclear. In an attempt to identify the dominant factor(s), the distribution of plasma-produced reactive species was investigated, primarily focusing on OH radicals. A stronger plasma discharge, which produced more OH radicals in the gas phase, also produced more OH radicals in the liquid phase (OHaq), enhancing the cell membrane permeability. In addition, plasma irradiation-induced enhancement of cell membrane permeability decreased markedly with increased solution thickness (<1 mm), and the plasma-produced OHaq decayed in solution (diffusion length on the order of several hundred micrometers). Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of OHaq corresponded with the distribution of the permeabilized cells by plasma irradiation, while the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species in solution (detected by iodine-starch reaction) exhibited a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that OHaq, among the plasma-produced oxidizing species, represents the dominant factor in plasma-induced cell permeabilization. These results enhance the current understanding of the mechanism of APP as a cell-permeabilization tool.

  2. Hypoxia increases transepithelial electrical conductance and reduces occludin at the plasma membrane in alveolar epithelial cells via PKC-ζ and PP2A pathway.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Yshii, Cecilia; Butti, Maria L; Westphal, Whitney; Borcherding, Jennifer A; Allamargot, Chantal; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2011-04-01

    During pulmonary edema, the alveolar space is exposed to a hypoxic environment. The integrity of the alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the reabsorption of alveolar fluid. Tight junctions (TJ) maintain the integrity of this barrier. We set out to determine whether hypoxia creates a dysfunctional alveolar epithelial barrier, evidenced by an increase in transepithelial electrical conductance (G(t)), due to a decrease in the abundance of TJ proteins at the plasma membrane. Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) exposed to mild hypoxia (Po(2) = 50 mmHg) for 30 and 60 min decreased occludin abundance at the plasma membrane and significantly increased G(t). Other cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and claudins were not affected by hypoxia. AEC exposed to hypoxia increased superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Overexpression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) but not SOD2 prevented the hypoxia-induced G(t) increase and occludin reduction in AEC. Also, overexpression of catalase had a similar effect as SOD1, despite not detecting any increase in H(2)O(2) during hypoxia. Blocking PKC-ζ and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) prevented the hypoxia-induced occludin reduction at the plasma membrane and increase in G(t). In summary, we show that superoxide, PKC-ζ, and PP2A are involved in the hypoxia-induced increase in G(t) and occludin reduction at the plasma membrane in AEC. PMID:21257729

  3. The anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin alters nanoclustering in synthetic and cell plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Plowman, Sarah J; Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Hancock, John F

    2010-11-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin exhibits diverse biological effects, many of which have no clear molecular mechanism. Membrane-bound receptors and enzymes are sensitive to their phospholipid microenvironment. Amphipathic indomethacin could therefore potentially modulate cell signaling by changing membrane properties. Here we examined the effect of indomethacin on membrane lateral heterogeneity. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of cells expressing lipid-anchored probes revealed that treatment of BHK cells with therapeutic levels of indomethacin enhances cholesterol-dependent nanoclustering, but not cholesterol-independent nanoclustering. Immuno-electron microscopy and quantitative spatial mapping of intact plasma membrane sheets similarly showed a selective effect of indomethacin on promoting cholesterol-dependent, but not cholesterol-independent, nanoclustering. To further evaluate the biophysical effects of indomethacin, we measured fluorescence polarization of the phase-sensitive probe Laurdan and FRET between phase-partitioning probes in model bilayers. Therapeutic levels of indomethacin enhanced phase separation in DPPC/DOPC/Chol (1:1:1) and DPPC/Chol membranes in a temperature-dependent manner, but had minimal effect on the phase behavior of pure DOPC at any temperature. Taken together, the imaging results on intact epithelial cells and the biophysical assays of model membranes suggest that indomethacin can enhance phase separation and stabilize cholesterol-dependent nanoclusters in biological membranes. These effects on membrane lateral heterogeneity may have significant consequences for cell signaling cascades that are assembled on the plasma membrane. PMID:20826816

  4. The Anti-inflammatory Drug Indomethacin Alters Nanoclustering in Synthetic and Cell Plasma Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Plowman, Sarah J.; Lichtenberger, Lenard M.; Hancock, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin exhibits diverse biological effects, many of which have no clear molecular mechanism. Membrane-bound receptors and enzymes are sensitive to their phospholipid microenvironment. Amphipathic indomethacin could therefore potentially modulate cell signaling by changing membrane properties. Here we examined the effect of indomethacin on membrane lateral heterogeneity. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of cells expressing lipid-anchored probes revealed that treatment of BHK cells with therapeutic levels of indomethacin enhances cholesterol-dependent nanoclustering, but not cholesterol-independent nanoclustering. Immuno-electron microscopy and quantitative spatial mapping of intact plasma membrane sheets similarly showed a selective effect of indomethacin on promoting cholesterol-dependent, but not cholesterol-independent, nanoclustering. To further evaluate the biophysical effects of indomethacin, we measured fluorescence polarization of the phase-sensitive probe Laurdan and FRET between phase-partitioning probes in model bilayers. Therapeutic levels of indomethacin enhanced phase seperation in DPPC/DOPC/Chol (1:1:1) and DPPC/Chol membranes in a temperature-dependent manner, but had minimal effect on the phase behavior of pure DOPC at any temperature. Taken together, the imaging results on intact epithelial cells and the biophysical assays of model membranes suggest that indomethacin can enhance phase separation and stabilize cholesterol-dependent nanoclusters in biological membranes. These effects on membrane lateral heterogeneity may have significant consequences for cell signaling cascades that are assembled on the plasma membrane. PMID:20826816

  5. Use of cyclodextrins to manipulate plasma membrane cholesterol content: evidence, misconceptions and control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zidovetzki, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    The physiological importance of cholesterol in the cell plasma membrane has attracted increased attention in recent years. Consequently, the use of methods of controlled manipulation of membrane cholesterol content has also increased sharply, especially as a method of studying putative cholesterol-enriched cell membrane domains (rafts). The most common means of modifying the cholesterol content of cell membranes is the incubation of cells or model membranes with cyclodextrins, a family of compounds, which, due to the presence of relatively hydrophobic cavity, can be used to extract cholesterol from cell membranes. However, the mechanism of this activity of cyclodextrins is not completely established. Moreover, under conditions commonly used for cholesterol extraction, cyclodextrins may remove cholesterol from both raft and non-raft domains of the membrane as well as alter the distribution of cholesterol between plasma and intracellular membranes. In addition, other hydrophobic molecules such as phospholipids may also be extracted from the membranes by cyclodextrins. We review the evidence for the specific and non-specific effects of cyclodextrins and what is known about the mechanisms for cyclodextrin-induced cholesterol and phospholipid extraction. Finally, we discuss useful control strategies that may help to verify that the observed effects are due specifically to cyclodextrin-induced changes in cellular cholesterol. PMID:17493580

  6. Characterization of the Red Beet Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Reconstituted in a Planar Bilayer System.

    PubMed Central

    Briskin, D. P.; Basu, S.; Assmann, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    The transport activity of the red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plasma membrane H+-ATPase was examined following reconstitution into a planar bilayer membrane. Fusion of partially purified plasma membrane H+-ATPase with the bilayer membrane was accomplished by perfusion of proteoliposomes against the bilayer under hypoosmotic conditions. Following incorporation into the bilayer, an ATP-dependent current was measured that demonstrated properties consistent with those of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Current production was substrate specific for ATP, inhibited by orthovanadate, and insensitive to 200 nM erythrosin B but inhibited by 100 [mu]M erythrosin B. When current production was measured as a function of Mg:ATP concentration, a simple Michaelis-Menten relationship was observed and a Km of 0.62 mM was estimated. Current-voltage analysis of ATP-dependent current in the presence of 0.5 mM ATP, 20 mM ADP, 40 mM orthophosphate, and an opposing 2.5-unit [delta]pH revealed a reversal potential of about -149 mV. Based on the free energy available from ATP hydrolysis, this reversal potential is consistent with an H+/ATP stoichiometry of 1. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a planar bilayer system for investigation of energy coupling to H+ transport by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. PMID:12228483

  7. Oligomerization and Pore Formation by Equinatoxin II Inhibit Endocytosis and Lead to Plasma Membrane Reorganization*

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáez, Ana J.; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Keller, Heiko; Anderluh, Gregor; Simons, Kai; Schwille, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Pore-forming toxins have evolved to induce membrane injury by formation of pores in the target cell that alter ion homeostasis and lead to cell death. Many pore-forming toxins use cholesterol, sphingolipids, or other raft components as receptors. However, the role of plasma membrane organization for toxin action is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated cellular dynamics during the attack of equinatoxin II, a pore-forming toxin from the sea anemone Actinia equina, by combining time lapse three-dimensional live cell imaging, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, FRET, and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. Our results show that membrane binding by equinatoxin II is accompanied by extensive plasma membrane reorganization into microscopic domains that resemble coalesced lipid rafts. Pore formation by the toxin induces Ca2+ entry into the cytosol, which is accompanied by hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, plasma membrane blebbing, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and inhibition of endocytosis. We propose that plasma membrane reorganization into stabilized raft domains is part of the killing strategy of equinatoxin II. PMID:21885440

  8. The relationship between cAMP, Ca(2)+, and transport of CFTR to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Hwang, T C; Gillis, K D

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism whereby cAMP stimulates Cl(-) flux through CFTR ion channels in secretory epithelia remains controversial. It is generally accepted that phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the open probability of the CFTR channel. A more controversial hypothesis is that cAMP triggers the translocation of CFTR from an intracellular pool to the cell surface. We have monitored membrane turnover in Calu-3 cells, a cell line derived from human airway submucosal glands that expresses high levels of CFTR using membrane capacitance and FM1-43 fluorescence measurements. Using a conventional capacitance measurement technique, we observe an apparent increase in membrane capacitance in most cells that exhibit an increase in Cl(-) current. However, after we carefully correct our recordings for changes in membrane conductance, the apparent changes in capacitance are eliminated. Measurements using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43 also indicate that no changes in membrane turnover accompany the activation of CFTR. Robust membrane insertion can be triggered with photorelease of caged Ca(2)+ in Calu-3 cells. However, no increase in Cl(-) current accompanies Ca(2)+-evoked membrane fusion. We conclude that neither increases in cAMP or Ca(2)+ lead to transport of CFTR to the plasma membrane in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we conclude that membrane capacitance measurements must be interpreted with caution when large changes in membrane conductance occur. PMID:11479341

  9. The Relationship between Camp, Ca2+, and Transport of Cftr to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Gillis, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism whereby cAMP stimulates Cl− flux through CFTR ion channels in secretory epithelia remains controversial. It is generally accepted that phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the open probability of the CFTR channel. A more controversial hypothesis is that cAMP triggers the translocation of CFTR from an intracellular pool to the cell surface. We have monitored membrane turnover in Calu-3 cells, a cell line derived from human airway submucosal glands that expresses high levels of CFTR using membrane capacitance and FM1–43 fluorescence measurements. Using a conventional capacitance measurement technique, we observe an apparent increase in membrane capacitance in most cells that exhibit an increase in Cl− current. However, after we carefully correct our recordings for changes in membrane conductance, the apparent changes in capacitance are eliminated. Measurements using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1–43 also indicate that no changes in membrane turnover accompany the activation of CFTR. Robust membrane insertion can be triggered with photorelease of caged Ca2+ in Calu-3 cells. However, no increase in Cl− current accompanies Ca2+-evoked membrane fusion. We conclude that neither increases in cAMP or Ca2+ lead to transport of CFTR to the plasma membrane in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we conclude that membrane capacitance measurements must be interpreted with caution when large changes in membrane conductance occur. PMID:11479341

  10. Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F.; Tardy, Blaise L.; Dagastine, Raymond; Orbell, John D.; Schutz, Jürg A.; Duke, Mikel C.

    2016-07-01

    Advancing the design of thin-film composite membrane surfaces is one of the most promising pathways to deal with treating varying water qualities and increase their long-term stability and permeability. Although plasma technologies have been explored for surface modification of bulk micro and ultrafiltration membrane materials, the modification of thin film composite membranes is yet to be systematically investigated. Here, the performance of commercial thin-film composite desalination membranes has been significantly enhanced by rapid and facile, low pressure, argon plasma activation. Pressure driven water desalination tests showed that at low power density, flux was improved by 22% without compromising salt rejection. Various plasma durations and excitation powers have been systematically evaluated to assess the impact of plasma glow reactions on the physico-chemical properties of these materials associated with permeability. With increasing power density, plasma treatment enhanced the hydrophilicity of the surfaces, where water contact angles decreasing by 70% were strongly correlated with increased negative charge and smooth uniform surface morphology. These results highlight a versatile chemical modification technique for post-treatment of commercial membrane products that provides uniform morphology and chemically altered surface properties.