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Sample records for plasma thrombin generation

  1. Inhibition of thrombin generation in plasma by fibrin formation (Antithrombin I).

    PubMed

    de Bosch, N B; Mosesson, M W; Ruiz-Sáez, A; Echenagucia, M; Rodriguez-Lemoin, A

    2002-08-01

    The adsorption of thrombin to fibrin during clotting defines "Antithrombin I" activity. We confirmed that thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or in Reptilase defibrinated normal plasma was higher than in normal plasma. Repletion of these fibrinogen-deficient plasmas with fibrinogen 1 (gamma A/gamma A), whose fibrin has two "low affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding sites, resulted in moderately reduced thrombin generation by 29-37%. Repletion with fibrinogen 2 (gamma'/gamma A), which in addition to low affinity thrombin-binding sites in fibrin, has a "high affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding site in the carboxy-terminal region of its gamma' chain, was even more effective and reduced thrombin generation by 57-67%. Adding peptides that compete for thrombin binding to fibrin [S-Hir53-64 (hirugen) or gamma'414-427] caused a transient delay in the onset of otherwise robust thrombin generation, indicating that fibrin formation is necessary for full expression of Antithrombin I activity. Considered together, 1) the increased thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or fibrinogen-depleted normal plasma that is mitigated by fibrinogen replacement; 2) evidence that prothrombin activation is increased in afibrinogenemia and normalized by fibrinogen replacement; 3) the severe thrombophilia that is associated with defective thrombin-binding in dysfibrinogenemias Naples I and New York I, and 4) the association of afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia with venous or arterial thromboembolism, indicate that Antithrombin I (fibrin) modulates thromboembolic potential by inhibiting thrombin generation in blood. PMID:12195697

  2. A direct thrombin inhibitor suppresses protein C activation and factor Va degradation in human plasma: Possible mechanisms of paradoxical enhancement of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Kamisato, Chikako; Furugohri, Taketoshi; Morishima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated that antithrombin (AT)-independent thrombin inhibitors paradoxically increase thrombin generation (TG) in human plasma in a thrombomodulin (TM)- and protein C (PC)-dependent manner. We determined the effects of AT-independent thrombin inhibitors on the negative-feedback system, activation of PC and production and degradation of factor Va (FVa), as possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical enhancement of TG. TG in human plasma containing 10nM TM was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. As an index of PC activation, plasma concentration of activated PC-PC inhibitor complex (aPC-PCI) was measured. The amounts of FVa heavy chain and its degradation product (FVa(307-506)) were examined by western blotting. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors, melagatran and dabigatran (both at 25-600nM) and 3-30μg/ml active site-blocked thrombin (IIai), increased peak levels of TG. Melagatran, dabigatran and IIai significantly decreased plasma concentration of aPC-PCI complex at 25nM or more, 75nM or more, and 10 and 30μg/ml, respectively. Melagatran (300nM) significantly increased FVa and decreased FVa(307-506). In contrast, a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban preferentially inhibited thrombin generation (≥25nM), and higher concentrations were required to inhibit PC activation (≥150nM) and FVa degradation (300nM). The present study suggests that the inhibitions of protein C activation and subsequent degradation of FVa and increase in FVa by antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors may contribute to the paradoxical TG enhancement, and edoxaban may inhibit PC activation and FVa degradation as a result of TG suppression. PMID:26974491

  3. Differential In Vitro Inhibition of Thrombin Generation by Anticoagulant Drugs in Plasma from Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Potze, Wilma; Arshad, Freeha; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Blokzijl, Hans; van den Berg, Arie P.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Porte, Robert J.; Lisman, Ton

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications is frequently required in patients with cirrhosis. However anticoagulant therapy is often withheld from these patients, because of the perceived bleeding diathesis. As a result of the limited clinical experience, the anticoagulant of choice for the various indications is still not known. Objectives We evaluated the in vitro effect of clinically approved anticoagulant drugs in plasma from patients with cirrhosis. Patients/Methods Thirty patients with cirrhosis and thirty healthy controls were studied. Thrombin generation assays were performed before and after addition of unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban, to estimate anticoagulant potencies of these drugs. Results Addition of dabigatran led to a much more pronounced reduction in endogenous thrombin potential in patients compared to controls (72.6% reduction in patients vs. 12.8% reduction in controls, P<0.0001). The enhanced effect of dabigatran was proportional to the severity of disease. In contrast, only a slightly increased anticoagulant response to heparin and low molecular weight heparin and even a reduced response to fondaparinux and rivaroxaban was observed in plasma from cirrhotic patients as compared to control plasma. Conclusions The anticoagulant potency of clinically approved drugs differs substantially between patients with cirrhosis and healthy individuals. Whereas dabigatran and, to a lesser extent, heparin and low molecular weight heparin are more potent in plasma from patients with cirrhosis, fondaparinux and rivaroxaban showed a decreased anticoagulant effect. These results may imply that in addition to dose adjustments based on altered pharmacokinetics, drug-specific dose adjustments based on altered anticoagulant potency may be required in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:24505487

  4. Plasma Thrombin Generation and Sensitivity to Activated Protein C Among Patients With Myeloma and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Maeve P; Kevane, Barry; O'Shea, Susan I; Quinn, Shane; Egan, Karl; Gilligan, Oonagh M; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of the prothrombotic state in myeloma has yet to be definitively characterized. Similarly, while recent evidence suggests that patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) may also be at increased risk of thrombosis, the magnitude and the etiology of this risk have also yet to be defined. The present study aims to characterize patterns of plasma thrombin generation and sensitivity to the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C (APC) at the time of initial diagnosis of myeloma and in response to therapy in comparison to that observed among patients with MGUS and matched, healthy volunteers. Patients presenting with newly diagnosed/newly relapsed myeloma (n = 8), MGUS (n = 8), and matched healthy volunteers (n = 8) were recruited. Plasma thrombin generation was determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Peak thrombin generation was significantly higher in patients with myeloma (383.4 ± 33.4 nmol/L) and MGUS (353.4 ± 16.5 nmol/L) compared to healthy volunteers (276.7 ± 20.8 nmol/L; P < .05). In the presence of APC, endogenous thrombin potential was significantly lower in control plasma (228.6 ± 44.5 nmol/L × min) than in either myeloma (866.2 ± 241.3 nmol/L × min, P = .01) or MGUS plasma (627 ± 91.5 nmol/L × min, P = .003). Within the myeloma cohort, peak thrombin generation was significantly higher at diagnosis (353.2 ± 15.9 nmol/L) than following completion of the third cycle of therapy (282.1 ± 15.2 nmol/L; P < .005). Moreover, sensitivity to APC increased progressively with each cycle of chemotherapy. Further study of the etiology and evolving patterns of hypercoagulability among patients with these conditions is warranted and may have future implications for thromboprophylaxis strategies. PMID:26759370

  5. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  6. Thrombin generation, ProC®Global, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in thawed plasma stored for seven days and after methylene blue/light pathogen inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Hron, Gregor; Kellner, Sarah; Wasner, Christina; Westphal, Antje; Warkentin, Theodore E.; Greinacher, Andreas; Selleng, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Methylene blue pathogen inactivation and storage of thawed plasma both lead to changes in the activity of several clotting factors. We investigated how this translates into a global loss of thrombin generation potential and alterations in the protein C pathway. Materials and methods Fifty apheresis plasma samples were thawed and each divided into three subunits. One subunit was stored for 7 days at 4 °C, one was stored for 7 days at 22 °C and one was stored at 4 °C after methylene blue/light treatment. Thrombin generation parameters, ProC®Global-NR, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed on days 0 and 7. Results The velocity of thrombin generation increased significantly after methylene blue treatment (increased thrombin generation rate; time to peak decreased) and decreased after storage (decreased thrombin generation rate and peak thrombin; increased lag time and time to peak). The endogenous thrombin generation potential remained stable after methylene blue treatment and storage at 4 °C. Methylene blue treatment and 7 days of storage at 4 °C activated the protein C pathway, whereas storage at room temperature and storage after methylene blue treatment decreased the functional capacity of the protein C pathway. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time showed only modest alterations. Discussion The global clotting capacity of thawed plasma is maintained at 4 °C for 7 days and directly after methylene blue treatment of thawed plasma. Thrombin generation and ProC®Global are useful tools for investigating the impact of pathogen inactivation and storage on the clotting capacity of therapeutic plasma preparations. PMID:26192785

  7. Differential Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways to Thrombin Generation in Adult, Maternal and Cord Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Nicklaus T.; Szlam, Fania; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Bernstein, Peter S.; Szlam, Arthur D.; Tanaka, Kenichi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombin generation (TG) is a pivotal process in achieving hemostasis. Coagulation profiles during pregnancy and early neonatal period are different from that of normal (non-pregnant) adults. In this ex vivo study, the differences in TG in maternal and cord plasma relative to normal adult plasma were studied. Methods Twenty consented pregnant women and ten consented healthy adults were included in the study. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery. Platelet-poor plasma was isolated for the measurement of TG. In some samples, anti-FIXa aptamer, RB006, or a TFPI inhibitor, BAX499 were added to elucidate the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway to TG. Additionally, procoagulant and inhibitor levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma, and these values were used to mathematically simulate TG. Results Peak TG was increased in maternal plasma (393.6±57.9 nM) compared to adult and cord samples (323.2±38.9 nM and 209.9±29.5 nM, respectively). Inhibitory effects of RB006 on TG were less robust in maternal or cord plasma (52% vs. 12% respectively) than in adult plasma (81%). Likewise the effectiveness of BAX499 as represented by the increase in peak TG was much greater in adult (21%) than in maternal (10%) or cord plasma (12%). Further, BAX499 was more effective in reversing RB006 in adult plasma than in maternal or cord plasma. Ex vivo data were reproducible with the results of the mathematical simulation of TG. Conclusion Normal parturient plasma shows a large intrinsic pathway reserve for TG compared to adult and cord plasma, while TG in cord plasma is sustained by extrinsic pathway, and low levels of TFPI and AT. PMID:27196067

  8. Mechanistic Modeling of the Effects of Acidosis on Thrombin Generation

    PubMed Central

    Mitrophanov, Alexander Y.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acidosis, a frequent complication of trauma and complex surgery, results from tissue hypoperfusion and IV resuscitation with acidic fluids. While acidosis is known to inhibit the function of distinct enzymatic reactions, its cumulative effect on the blood coagulation system is not fully understood. Here, we use computational modeling to test the hypothesis that acidosis delays and reduces the amount of thrombin generation in human blood plasma. Moreover, we investigate the sensitivity of different thrombin generation parameters to acidosis, both at the individual and population level. METHODS: We used a kinetic model to simulate and analyze the generation of thrombin and thrombin–antithrombin complexes (TAT), which were the end points of this study. Large groups of temporal thrombin and TAT trajectories were simulated and used to calculate quantitative parameters, such as clotting time (CT), thrombin peak time, maximum slope of the thrombin curve, thrombin peak height, area under the thrombin trajectory (AUC), and prothrombin time. The resulting samples of parameter values at different pH levels were compared to assess the acidosis-induced effects. To investigate intersubject variability, we parameterized the computational model using the data on clotting factor composition for 472 subjects from the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. To compare acidosis-induced relative parameter changes in individual (“virtual”) subjects, we estimated the probabilities of relative change patterns by counting the pattern occurrences in our virtual subjects. Distribution overlaps for thrombin generation parameters at distinct pH levels were quantified using the Bhattacharyya coefficient. RESULTS: Acidosis in the range of pH 6.9 to 7.3 progressively increased CT, thrombin peak time, AUC, and prothrombin time, while decreasing maximum slope of the thrombin curve and thrombin peak height (P < 10–5). Acidosis delayed the onset and decreased the amount of TAT generation (P

  9. Bidirectional functions of thrombin on fibrinolysis: Evidence of thrombin-dependent enhancement of fibrinolysis provided by spontaneous plasma clot lysis.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Martyna; Suzuki, Yuko; Sano, Hideto; Brzoska, Tomasz; Tanaka, Hiroki; Urano, Tetsumei

    2016-07-01

    Besides procoagulant activity, thrombin exhibits anticoagulant and profibrinolytic activities. We demonstrated that the euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) was shortened by endogenously generated thrombin as a result of the inactivation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). In contrast, thrombin suppressed fibrinolytic activity through the activation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI). Here, using three different clot lysis assays of the ECLT, the tissue plasminogen activator supplemented plasma clot lysis time (tPA-PCLT) and the spontaneous plasma clot lysis time (s-PCLT), we analyzed how the coagulation process modifies fibrinolysis. The ECLT was shortened by exogenously supplemented thrombin in a dose-dependent manner in the absence of calcium ion (Ca(++)), whereas this shortening was not observed in the presence of Ca(++) where endogenous prothrombin was effectively activated to thrombin. This shortening was also not observed for the tPA-PCLT, in which tPA is supplemented in excess and PAI-1 activity is mostly lost. On the contrary, thrombin dose-dependently prolonged the tPA-PCLT, which was mostly abolished by inhibitors of carboxypeptidase and activated FXIII, suggesting that the prolongation is TAFI- and Factor XIII-dependent. The s-PCLT was shortened when thrombin generation was boosted by supplementing tissue factor and phosphatidylserine together with Ca(++), which was more apparent in the presence of inhibitors of activated FXIII and activated TAFI. Thus, thrombin appeared to express its enhancing effect on fibrinolysis even in plasma, in addition to its inhibiting effect. These bidirectional functions of thrombin on fibrinolysis seem to take place on demand under different environments to maintain adequate vascular blood flow. PMID:27179129

  10. Investigation of the selectivity of thrombin-binding aptamers for thrombin titration in murine plasma.

    PubMed

    Trapaidze, Ana; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bancaud, Aurélien; Gué, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-15

    Detection of thrombin in plasma raises timely challenges to enable therapeutic management of thrombosis in patients under vital threat. Thrombin binding aptamers represent promising candidates as sensing elements for the development of real-time thrombin biosensors; however implementation of such biosensor requires the clear understanding of thrombin-aptamer interaction properties in real-like environment. In this study, we used Surface Plasmon Resonance technique to answer the questions of specificity and sensitivity of thrombin detection by the thrombin-binding aptamers HD1, NU172 and HD22. We systematically characterized their properties in the presence of thrombin, as well as interfering molecular species such as the thrombin precursor prothrombin, thrombin in complex with some of its natural inhibitors, nonspecific serum proteins, and diluted plasma. Kinetic experiments show the multiple binding modes of HD1 and NU172, which both interact with multiple sites of thrombin with low nanomolar affinities and show little specificity of interaction for prothrombin vs. thrombin. HD22, on the other hand, binds specifically to thrombin exosite II and has no affinity to prothrombin at all. While thrombin in complex with some of its inhibitors could not be recognized by any aptamer, the binding of HD1 and NU172 properties is compromised by thrombin inhibitors alone, as well as with serum albumin. Finally, the complex nature of plasma was overwhelming for HD1, but we define conditions for the thrombin detection at 10nM range in 100-fold diluted plasma by HD22. Consequently HD22 showed key advantage over HD1 and NU172, and appears as the only alternative to design an aptasensor. PMID:26594887

  11. Heparin coating of tantalum coronary stents reduces surface thrombin generation but not factor IXa generation.

    PubMed

    Blezer, R; Cahalan, L; Cahalan, P T; Lindhout, T

    1998-07-01

    In the present study we used an in-vitro technique to examine initiation and propagation of blood coagulation at the surface of tantalum coronary stents exposed to flowing platelet-rich and platelet-free plasma. The time course of factor IXa production at the surface of the stent was not influenced by platelets. In spite of a significant factor IXa production, no thrombin activity was detected when the tantalum stent was exposed to platelet-free plasma; only when the stent was exposed to platelet-rich plasma was extensive thrombin production observed. These findings indicate that tantalum triggers blood coagulation, but that (adherent) platelets are essential for thrombin generation. Heparin-coated tantalum stents exposed to flowing platelet-rich plasma showed that factor IXa generation was slightly reduced compared with the bare stent. However, the heparin coating drastically delayed the onset of thrombin generation and largely reduced the steady-state production of thrombin. We found a clear relationship between the antithrombin binding capacity and the antithrombogenic potential of the heparin-coated stents. The mode of action of immobilized heparin is thought to abrogate thrombin generation by inhibiting thrombin-dependent positive feedback reactions at the surface of the coronary stent. PMID:9712292

  12. Simultaneous measurement of thrombin generation and fibrin formation in whole blood under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Kelchtermans, Hilde; Pelkmans, Leonie; Bouwhuis, Anne; Schurgers, Evelien; Lindhout, Theo; Huskens, Dana; Miszta, Adam; Hemker, H Coenraad; Lancé, Marcus D; de Laat, Bas

    2016-07-01

    Assays based on the formation of thrombin and fibrin are frequently used, and results are considered exchangeable in research/clinical settings. However, thrombin generation and fibrin formation do not always go hand in hand and flow profoundly influences thrombus formation. We describe the technical/clinical evaluation of an assay to simultaneously measure thrombin generation and fibrin formation under conditions of flow. Introduction of a fluorometer into a 'cone and base principle'-based rheometer allowed the measurement of thrombin generation (using a thrombin-sensitive substrate) and fibrin formation (changes in viscosity), while applying a linear shear flow. Increasing shear rates inversely related with thrombin generation and fibrin formation. Increasing fibrinogen concentrations in defibrinated plasma resulted in increased thrombin generation and fibrin formation. In pre-operative samples of 70 patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, fibrin formation and thrombin generation parameters correlated with fibrinogen content, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and whole blood Calibrated Automated Thrombinography (CAT) parameters, respectively. Upon dividing patients into two groups based on the median clot strength, a significant difference in perioperative/total blood loss was established. In conclusion, we clinically evaluated a method capable of simultaneously measuring thrombin generation and fibrin formation in plasma/whole blood under continuous flow, rendering our method one step closer to physiology. Importantly, our test proved to be indicative for the amount of blood loss during/after cardiothoracic surgery. PMID:27074907

  13. Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Di Cera, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin is a Na+-activated, allosteric serine protease that plays opposing functional roles in blood coagulation. Binding of Na+ is the major driving force behind the procoagulant, prothrombotic and signaling functions of the enzyme, but is dispensable for cleavage of the anticoagulant protein C. The anticoagulant function of thrombin is under the allosteric control of the cofactor thrombomodulin. Much has been learned on the mechanism of Na+ binding and recognition of natural substrates by thrombin. Recent structural advances have shed light on the remarkable molecular plasticity of this enzyme and the molecular underpinnings of thrombin allostery mediated by binding to exosite I and the Na+ site. This review summarized our current understanding of the molecular basis of thrombin function and allosteric regulation. The basic information emerging from recent structural, mutagenesis and kinetic investigation of this important enzyme is that thrombin exists in three forms, E*, E and E:Na+, that interconvert under the influence of ligand binding to distinct domains. The transition between the Na+-free slow from E and the Na+-bound fast form E:Na+ involves the structure of the enzyme as a whole, and so does the interconversion between the two Na+-free forms E* and E. E* is most likely an inactive form of thrombin, unable to interact with Na+ and substrate. The complexity of thrombin function and regulation has gained this enzyme pre-eminence as the prototypic allosteric serine protease. Thrombin is now looked upon as a model system for the quantitative analysis of biologically important enzymes. PMID:18329094

  14. Dabigatran is Less Effective Than Warfarin at Attenuating Mechanical Heart Valve-Induced Thrombin Generation

    PubMed Central

    Jaffer, Iqbal H; Stafford, Alan R; Fredenburgh, James C; Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Noel C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with mechanical heart valves (MHV) require warfarin to prevent thromboembolism. Although dabigatran was as effective as warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation when compared with warfarin in patients with MHV, the study was stopped early because of more strokes and bleeding with dabigatran. To determine why dabigatran was less effective than warfarin, we compared their effects on thrombin generation induced by MHV. Methods and Results Thrombin generation in the absence or presence of valve leaflets or sewing ring segments (SRS) was quantified. Studies were done in control plasma, plasma depleted of factors (F) XII, XI, or VII, plasma containing varying concentrations of dabigatran, or plasma from patients on dabigatran or warfarin with varying dabigatran concentrations or international normalized ratio (INR) values. Mean endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) increased 1.2-, 1.5-, and 1.8-fold in the presence of leaflets, Teflon SRS, and Dacron SRS, respectively. Whereas ETP in FVII-depleted and control plasma was similar, ETP was reduced to background levels in FXII-depleted plasma and abrogated in FXI-depleted plasma. Dabigatran had little effect on ETP at concentrations below 400 ng/mL, whereas in plasma from warfarin-treated patients, ETP was suppressed with INR values over 1.5. Conclusions MHV induce thrombin generation via the intrinsic pathway and generate sufficient thrombin to overwhelm clinically relevant dabigatran concentrations. In contrast, warfarin is more effective than dabigatran at suppressing MHV-induced thrombin generation. These data explain why dabigatran failed in MHV patients and suggest that strategies targeting FXII or FXI may suppress the root cause of thrombosis in such patients. PMID:26304938

  15. The modification of the thrombin generation test for the clinical assessment of dabigatran etexilate efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gribkova, Irina V; Lipets, Elena N; Rekhtina, Irina G; Bernakevich, Alex I; Ayusheev, Dorzho B; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Sinauridze, Elena I

    2016-01-01

    A new oral anticoagulant, dabigatran etexilate (DE, a prodrug of direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) dabigatran), has been used clinically to prevent thrombosis. The assessment of dabigatran efficiency is necessary in some clinical cases, such as renal insufficiency, risk of bleeding, and drug interactions. However, a specific thrombin generation test (TGT) that is one of the most informative and sensitive to anticoagulant therapy (calibrated automated thrombinography (САТ)) shows a paradoxical increase of test parameters, such as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak thrombin, in patients receiving DE. The paradoxical behaviour of ETP and peak thrombin in these patients in the presence of DTIs is mostly caused by a decrease in the activity of thrombin in the α2-macroglobulin-thrombin complex that is used as a calibrator in CAT. For a correct estimation of the TGT parameters in patient's plasma containing DTIs we proposed to use our previously described alternative calibration method that is based on the measurement of the fluorescence signal of a well-known concentration of the reaction product (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin). In this study, the validity of such approach was demonstrated in an ex vivo study in patients with knee replacement and two special patients with multiple myeloma, who received DE for thrombosis prophylaxis. PMID:27377013

  16. The modification of the thrombin generation test for the clinical assessment of dabigatran etexilate efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gribkova, Irina V.; Lipets, Elena N.; Rekhtina, Irina G.; Bernakevich, Alex I.; Ayusheev, Dorzho B.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Sinauridze, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    A new oral anticoagulant, dabigatran etexilate (DE, a prodrug of direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) dabigatran), has been used clinically to prevent thrombosis. The assessment of dabigatran efficiency is necessary in some clinical cases, such as renal insufficiency, risk of bleeding, and drug interactions. However, a specific thrombin generation test (TGT) that is one of the most informative and sensitive to anticoagulant therapy (calibrated automated thrombinography (САТ)) shows a paradoxical increase of test parameters, such as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak thrombin, in patients receiving DE. The paradoxical behaviour of ETP and peak thrombin in these patients in the presence of DTIs is mostly caused by a decrease in the activity of thrombin in the α2-macroglobulin-thrombin complex that is used as a calibrator in CAT. For a correct estimation of the TGT parameters in patient’s plasma containing DTIs we proposed to use our previously described alternative calibration method that is based on the measurement of the fluorescence signal of a well-known concentration of the reaction product (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin). In this study, the validity of such approach was demonstrated in an ex vivo study in patients with knee replacement and two special patients with multiple myeloma, who received DE for thrombosis prophylaxis. PMID:27377013

  17. Follow-up of thrombin generation after prostate cancer surgery: global test for increased hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Benyo, Matyas; Flasko, Tibor; Molnar, Zsuzsanna; Kerenyi, Adrienne; Batta, Zoltan; Jozsa, Tamas; Harsfalvi, Jolan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that evaluation of thrombin generation identifies patients at thrombotic risk. Thrombin generation has a central role in hemorrhage control and vascular occlusion and its measurement provides new metrics of these processes providing sufficient evaluation of an individual's hemostatic competence and response to anticoagulant therapy. The objective of the study is to assess a new measure of hypercoagulability that predisposes to venous thromboembolism in the postoperative period after radical prostatectomy. Pre- (day-1) and postoperative (hour 1, day 6, month 1 and 10) blood samples of 24 patients were tested for plasma thrombin generation (peak thrombin), routine hematology and hemostasis. Patients received low molecular weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis. Peak thrombin levels were higher in patients compared to controls at baseline (p<0.001), and elevated further in the early postoperative period (p<0.001). Longer general anesthesia and high body mass index were associated with increased thrombin generation after surgery (p = 0.024 and p = 0.040). D dimer and fibrinogen levels were higher after radical prostatectomy (p = 0.001 and p<0.001). Conventional clotting tests remained within the reference range. Our study contributed to the cognition of the hypercoagulable state in cancer patients undergoing pelvic surgery and revealed the course of thrombin generation after radical prostatectomy. Whilst it is unsurprising that thrombin generation increases after tissue trauma, further evaluation of this condition during the postoperative period would lead urologists to an international and well-supported consensus regarding thromboprophylaxis in order to provide better clinical outcome. Considering the routine evaluation of procoagulant activity and extending prophylactic anticoagulant therapy accordingly may potentially prevent late thrombotic events. PMID:23236465

  18. Inhibitory effect of apixaban compared with rivaroxaban and dabigatran on thrombin generation assay.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pancras C; White, Andrew; Luettgen, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    The effect of the oral direct activated factor X (factor Xa) inhibitor apixaban on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation in human plasma was investigated in vitro using the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) method and compared with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. Pooled citrated, anticoagulated, platelet-poor human plasma was spiked with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or dabigatran at concentrations of 0.01 to 10 μM. The inhibitory potencies of the compounds were quantified by 5 CAT parameters: the control thrombin lag time (LT) and time to thrombin peak (TTP) for the doubling of inhibitor concentration (IC2x); and the control endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), thrombin peak, and maximum rate of thrombin generation (Vmax) for the inhibitor concentration, which inhibited 50% (IC50). The inhibitors modified CAT concentration dependently. Their inhibitory potencies, expressed as IC2x LT, IC2x TTP, IC50 ETP, IC50 peak thrombin, and IC50 Vmax, were as follows: 0.10 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.65 ± 0.11, 0.089 ± 0.019, and 0.049 ± 0.007 μM for apixaban; 0.049 ± 0.007, 0.070 ± 0.009, 0.43 ± 0.07, 0.048 ± 0.008, and 0.022 ± 0.005 μM for rivaroxaban; and 0.063 ± 0.019, 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.50 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.06, and 0.57 ± 0.27 μM for dabigatran. In summary, apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran have similar potencies in the prolongation of LT and TTP. The CAT parameters that are related to the rate of thrombin generation during the propagation phase (ie, peak thrombin and Vmax) are more sensitive to activities of apixaban and rivaroxaban than dabigatran. The ETP is the least sensitive parameter for measuring the activities of these inhibitors. Recombinant activated factor VII at 5 and 50 μg/mL reversed the anticoagulant effects of apixaban more at 0.2 μM than at 2 μM. Our study suggests that the CAT method is a sensitive assay to monitor the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of

  19. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy and circulating markers of thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, David N.; Miller, Richard K; Pressman, Eva K; Francis, Charles W; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if subjects experiencing acute vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy have increased plasma markers of thrombin generation compared to non-bleeding controls. Methods Subjects with clinically apparent acute (within 24 hours of sample collection) vaginal bleeding between 6 and 20 weeks estimated gestational age and without known thrombophilias were enrolled, along with non-bleeding controls, and underwent collection of maternal plasma. Concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Differences between bleeding and non-bleeding subjects were assessed through linear regression with adjustment for gestational age. Results 20 subjects with vaginal bleeding and 20 controls were included. Bleeding was significantly associated with increased concentrations of TAT (p=0.007) and F1+2 (p=0.044) when corrected for gestational age. Among bleeding subjects, there was no association between markers of thrombin generation and the subject’s description of bleeding quantity, though higher concentrations were associated with a longer self-reported duration of bleeding. Conclusions Clinically apparent vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is associated with increased circulating maternal markers of thrombin generation. Thus, these maternal markers may have a future role in risk stratification. PMID:22129041

  20. Correcting thrombin generation ex vivo using different haemostatic agents following cardiac surgery requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Percy, Charles L; Hartmann, Rudolf; Jones, Rhidian M; Balachandran, Subramaniam; Mehta, Dheeraj; Dockal, Michael; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; O'Donnell, Valerie B; Hall, Judith E; Collins, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Recently, lower thrombin generation has been associated with excess bleeding post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Therefore, treatment to correct thrombin generation is a potentially important aspect of management of bleeding in this group of patients. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibition on thrombin generation when added ex vivo to the plasma of patients who had undergone cardiac surgery requiring CPB. Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were recruited. Blood samples were collected before administration of heparin and 30 min after its reversal. Thrombin generation was measured in the presence and absence of different concentrations of FFP, rFVIIa, PCC and an anti-TFPI antibody. A total of 102 patients were recruited. Thrombin generation following CPB was lower compared with pre-CPB (median endogenous thrombin potential pre-CPB 339 nmol/l per min, post-CPB 155 nmol/l per min, P < 0.0001; median peak thrombin pre-CPB 35 nmol/l, post-CPB 11 nmol/l, P < 0.0001). Coagulation factors and anticoagulants decreased, apart from total TFPI, which increased (55-111 ng/ml, P < 0.0001), and VWF (144-170 IU/dl, P < 0.0001). Thrombin generation was corrected to pre-CPB levels by the equivalent of 15 ml/kg FFP, 45 μg/kg rFVIIa and 25 U/kg of PCC. Inhibition of TFPI resulted in an enhancement of thrombin generation significantly beyond pre-CPB levels. This study shows that FFP, rFVIIa, PCC and inhibition of TFPI correct thrombin generation in the plasma of patients who have undergone surgery requiring CPB. Inhibition of TFPI may be a further potential therapeutic strategy for managing bleeding in this group of patients. PMID:25928274

  1. Correcting thrombin generation ex vivo using different haemostatic agents following cardiac surgery requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Percy, Charles L.; Hartmann, Rudolf; Jones, Rhidian M.; Balachandran, Subramaniam; Mehta, Dheeraj; Dockal, Michael; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; O’Donnell, Valerie B.; Hall, Judith E.; Collins, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lower thrombin generation has been associated with excess bleeding post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Therefore, treatment to correct thrombin generation is a potentially important aspect of management of bleeding in this group of patients. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibition on thrombin generation when added ex vivo to the plasma of patients who had undergone cardiac surgery requiring CPB. Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were recruited. Blood samples were collected before administration of heparin and 30 min after its reversal. Thrombin generation was measured in the presence and absence of different concentrations of FFP, rFVIIa, PCC and an anti-TFPI antibody. A total of 102 patients were recruited. Thrombin generation following CPB was lower compared with pre-CPB (median endogenous thrombin potential pre-CPB 339 nmol/l per min, post-CPB 155 nmol/l per min, P < 0.0001; median peak thrombin pre-CPB 35 nmol/l, post-CPB 11 nmol/l, P < 0.0001). Coagulation factors and anticoagulants decreased, apart from total TFPI, which increased (55–111 ng/ml, P < 0.0001), and VWF (144–170 IU/dl, P < 0.0001). Thrombin generation was corrected to pre-CPB levels by the equivalent of 15 ml/kg FFP, 45 μg/kg rFVIIa and 25 U/kg of PCC. Inhibition of TFPI resulted in an enhancement of thrombin generation significantly beyond pre-CPB levels. This study shows that FFP, rFVIIa, PCC and inhibition of TFPI correct thrombin generation in the plasma of patients who have undergone surgery requiring CPB. Inhibition of TFPI may be a further potential therapeutic strategy for managing bleeding in this group of patients. PMID:25928274

  2. Thrombin generation assay: a new tool to predict and optimize clinical outcome in cardiovascular patients?

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Pollina, Alberto; Fileti, Luca; Marchesini, Jlenia; Tebaldi, Matteo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Antithrombotic therapy (including antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs) is the cornerstone of the current medical treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). This therapy and particularly the new antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs have significantly reduced the ischemic risk, but have increased bleeding complications. Recently, several studies have emphasized the negative prognostic impact on long-term mortality of these bleeding adverse events. Thus, new assays to estimate the bleeding risk and the efficacy of these antithrombotic drugs are clearly in demand. Regarding the anticoagulant drugs, new promising data have emerged about the thrombin generation assay (TGA). TGA measures the ability of plasma to generate thrombin. TGA may be used to check coagulation function, to value risk of thrombosis and to compare the efficacy of different anticoagulants employed in clinical management of patients with ACS. The TGA result is a curve which describes the variation of thrombin's amount during the activation of the coagulation cascade. All available anticoagulant drugs influence the principal parameters generated by TGA and so it is possible to evaluate the effects of the medical treatment. In this review we provide a brief description of the assay and we summarize the principals of previous studies by analyzing the relationship between anticoagulant drugs and TGA. Moreover, a brief summary of its ability to predict ischemic and bleeding risks has been provided. PMID:22688556

  3. Platelet glycoprotein VI binds to polymerized fibrin and promotes thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Ollivier, Véronique; Loyau, Stéphane; Schaff, Mathieu; Dumont, Bénédicte; Favier, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Gachet, Christian; Mangin, Pierre H; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2015-07-30

    Fibrin, the coagulation end product, consolidates the platelet plug at sites of vascular injury and supports the recruitment of circulating platelets. In addition to integrin αIIbβ3, another as-yet-unidentified receptor is thought to mediate platelet interaction with fibrin. Platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI) interacts with collagen and several other adhesive macromolecules. We evaluated the hypothesis that GPVI could be a functional platelet receptor for fibrin. Calibrated thrombin assays using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) showed that tissue factor-triggered thrombin generation was impaired in GPVI-deficient patients and reduced by the anti-GPVI Fab 9O12. Assays on reconstituted PRP and PRP from fibrinogen-deficient patients revealed a fibrinogen-dependent enhancement of thrombin generation, which relied on functional GPVI. The effect of GPVI was found to depend on fibrin polymerization. A binding assay showed a specific interaction between GPVI-Fc and fibrin, inhibited by the Fab 9O12. This Fab also reduced platelet adhesion to fibrin at low (300 s(-1)) and high (1500 s(-1)) wall shear rates. Platelets adherent to fibrin displayed shape change, exposure of procoagulant phospholipids, and the formation of small clots. When hirudinated blood was perfused at 1500 s(-1) over preformed fibrin-rich clots, the Fab 9O12 decreased the recruitment of platelets by up to 85%. This study identifies GPVI as a platelet receptor for polymerized fibrin with 2 major functions: (1) amplification of thrombin generation and (2) recruitment of circulating platelets to clots. These so-far-unrecognized properties of GPVI confer on it a key role in thrombus growth and stabilization. PMID:25977585

  4. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, Rinske; van Oerle, René; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Kragten, Johannes A.; Crijns, Harry; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310–885) vs. 380(235–540) μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2–20.9] and 4.5 [1.1–18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:27419389

  5. Effect of heparin on TAFI-dependent inhibition of fibrinolysis: relative importance of TAFIa generated by clot-bound and fluid phase thrombin.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Mario; Pentimone, Anna; Binetti, Bianca M; Cramarossa, Marialisa; Piro, Donatella; Semeraro, Nicola

    2002-08-01

    Heparin has been proposed to enhance thrombolysis by inhibiting thrombin-dependent generation of activated TAFI (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor), a carboxypeptidase that inhibits fibrinolysis. We evaluated the effect of heparin in an in vitro thrombolysis model consisting of a radiolabelled blood clot submerged in defibrinated plasma. Fibrinolysis was induced by adding t-PA (250 ng/ml) and calcium to the plasma bath. Control experiments indicated that thrombin generation induced by recalcification caused significant TAFI activation and inhibited clot lysis. Heparin (up to 1 U/ml), added to the plasma bath, failed to enhance clot lysis. Thrombin generation in the fluid phase was totally inhibited by heparin at concentrations > 0.5 U/ml. In contrast, thrombin generation on the clot surface was not inhibited by heparin (1 U/ml). TAFIa generation did occur in heparin-containing samples (1 U/ml) and amounted to about 10% of TAFIa formed in control samples. This low amount of TAFIa did exert antifibrinolytic activity as indicated by the observation that the addition of a specific TAFIa inhibitor (PTI) along with heparin enhanced clot lysis. Hirudin (10 micrograms/ml), at variance with heparin, inhibited clot-bound thrombin and enhanced clot lysis. These data show that heparin is unable to stimulate fibrinolysis through a TAFI-dependent mechanism, most likely because of its inefficiency in inhibiting thrombin generation on the clot surface. Moreover, they suggest that clot-bound thrombin plays a major role in TAFI-mediated inhibition of fibrinolysis through "localized" TAFIa generation. PMID:12195701

  6. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1958-03-11

    This patent describes apparatus for producing an electricity neutral ionized gas discharge, termed a plasma, substantially free from contamination with neutral gas particles. The plasma generator of the present invention comprises a plasma chamber wherein gas introduced into the chamber is ionized by a radiofrequency source. A magnetic field is used to focus the plasma in line with an exit. This magnetic field cooperates with a differential pressure created across the exit to draw a uniform and uncontaminated plasma from the plasma chamber.

  7. Patients Referred for Bleeding Symptoms of Unknown Cause: Does Evaluation of Thrombin Generation Contribute to Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Elena; Zetterberg, Eva; Lövdahl, Susanna; Berntorp, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with mild to moderate bleeding symptoms referred for coagulation investigation sometimes never receive a definitive diagnosis. Bleed assessment tools have been developed and validated to assess the severity of symptoms. Global coagulation assays, e.g., the thrombin generation test (thrombogram) have a potential to identify hemostatic defects that are not detected in specific assays. Material and Methods One hundred and eighty-five patients referred to our centre because of bleeding symptoms were evaluated using the bleeding assessment tool (BAT) described by Tosetto and colleagues in 2006. Blood samples were investigated for thrombin generation (TG) capacity (Technoclone), in platelet poor (PPP) plasma, and specific clotting factors, i.e., von Willebrand factor, factor VIII and IX, as well as INR, APTT, platelet count, and platelet adhesion. Results Of the 185 patients, five women were diagnosed with mild von Willebrand disease and one male with mild hemophilia A. The remaining 179 subjects (76% females and 24% males with average ages of 33 and 28 years, respectively) were evaluated further. In the total cohort and among women, peak TG, and lag time correlated with bleeding score (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively with correlation coefficients). No such correlations were found among males. Discussion and Conclusion Although our study showed some correlation between TG and bleeding score, results are generally consistent with a previous report which failed to demonstrate the value of TG measurement in a similar setting. In conclusion, the complexity of the mechanisms underlying clinical bleeding complicates the ability to use TG tests as reliable predictors of bleeding. Mild congenital bleeding disorders, especially VWD, should be specifically screened for in patients with mild/moderate symptoms. PMID:26977273

  8. Genetic Determinants of Thrombin Generation and Their Relation to Venous Thrombosis: Results from the GAIT-2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fernandez, Laura; Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Carrasco, Marina; Millon, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Vilalta, Noelia; Brunel, Helena; Font, Montserrat; Hamsten, Anders; Souto, Juan Carlos; Soria, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease where known genetic risk factors explain only a small portion of the genetic variance. Then, the analysis of intermediate phenotypes, such as thrombin generation assay, can be used to identify novel genetic risk factors that contribute to VTE. Objectives To investigate the genetic basis of distinct quantitative phenotypes of thrombin generation and its relationship to the risk of VTE. Patients/Methods Lag time, thrombin peak and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured in the families of the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT-2) Project. This sample consisted of 935 individuals in 35 extended families selected through a proband with idiopathic thrombophilia. We performed also genome wide association studies (GWAS) with thrombin generation phenotypes. Results The results showed that 67% of the variation in the risk of VTE is attributable to genetic factors. The heritabilities of lag time, thrombin peak and ETP were 49%, 54% and 52%, respectively. More importantly, we demonstrated also the existence of positive genetic correlations between thrombin peak or ETP and the risk of VTE. Moreover, the major genetic determinant of thrombin generation was the F2 gene. However, other suggestive signals were observed. Conclusions The thrombin generation phenotypes are strongly genetically determined. The thrombin peak and ETP are significantly genetically correlated with the risk of VTE. In addition, F2 was identified as a major determinant of thrombin generation. We reported suggestive signals that might increase our knowledge to explain the variability of this important phenotype. Validation and functional studies are required to confirm GWAS results. PMID:26784699

  9. Thrombin detection in murine plasma using engineered fluorescence resonance energy transfer aptadimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapaidze, Ana; Brut, Marie; Mazères, Serge; Estève, Daniel; Gué, Anne-Marie; Bancaud, Aurélien

    2015-12-01

    Biodetection strategies, in which two sides of one target protein are targeted simultaneously, have been shown to increase specificity, selectivity, and affinity, and it has been suggested that they constitute excellent candidates for protein sensing in complex media. In this study we propose a method to engineer the sequence of a DNA construct dedicated to reversible thrombin detection. This construct, called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) aptadimer, is assembled with two aptamers, which target different epitopes of thrombin, interconnected with a DNA linker that contains a FRET couple and a reversible double helix stem. In the absence of target, the stem is stable maintaining a FRET couple in close proximity, and fluorescence is unquenched upon thrombin addition due to the dehybridization of the stem. We define design rules for the conception of FRET aptadimers, and develop a software to optimize their functionality. One engineered FRET aptadimer sequence is subsequently characterized experimentally by temperature scanning fluorimetry, demonstrating the relevance of our technology for thrombin sensing in bulk and diluted murine plasma.

  10. PLASMA GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, J.M.; Baker, W.R.

    1963-09-17

    This invention is a magnetohydrodynamic device for generating a highly ionized ion-electron plasma at a region remote from electrodes and structural members, thus avoiding contamination of the plasma. The apparatus utilizes a closed, gas-filled, cylindrical housing in which an axially directed magnetic field is provided. At one end of the housing, a short cylindrical electrode is disposed coaxially around a short axial inner electrode. A radial electrical discharge is caused to occur between the inner and outer electrodes, creating a rotating hydromagnetic ionization wave that propagates aiong the magnetic field lines toward the opposite end of the housing. A shorting switch connected between the electrodes prevents the wave from striking the opposite end of the housing. (AEC)

  11. [THE TEST OF GENERATION OF THROMBIN IN DYNAMICS IN PATIENTS AFTER TRANSCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION].

    PubMed

    Napalkova, O S; Emanuel, V L; Karpenko, M A; Berezovskaia, G A; Iakovlev, A N; Yudina, V A; Vasilieva, E Yu; Lapin, S V; Tishkov, A V; Hisheva, N A

    2015-04-01

    The article presents results of observation of generation of thrombin in patients with ischemic heart disease in different terms after transcutaneous coronary intervention. The sampling included 37 patients with stable ischemic heart disease. The control group included 30 healthy individuals. To study system of hemostasis of this category of patients the test of generation of thrombin and its modification with added thrombomodulin were applied for evaluating anti-coagulant activity of system of protein C. The comparison of indicators of test of generation of thrombin in patients with ischemic heart disease before operation and in individuals of control group revealed no reliable differences (p > 0.05). The observation of patients with stable ischemic heart disease in various time-frame after mechanical re-vascularization of myocardium established significant increasing of generation of thrombin and decreasing of anticoagulant activity of system of protein C at 1-3 day after operation (p < 0.05). The positive correlation was established between endogenous thrombin potential and annexin 5, an early marker of dysfunction of endothelium in mentioned time-frame after operation (p = 0.0008; r = 0.57). The significant increasing of content of anti-inflammatory markers of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen was observed at 1-3 day after transcutaneous coronary intervention (p < 0.05). In that way, the study data give evidence to hyper-coagulation in patients with stable ischemic heart disease in early time-frame after operation despite normal values of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, D-dimer and applied standard disaggregant therapy. PMID:26189289

  12. Association between Stable Coronary Artery Disease and In Vivo Thrombin Generation

    PubMed Central

    Baños-González, Manuel Alfonso; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Quintanar-Trejo, Leslie; Aptilon-Duque, Gad; Flores-García, Mirthala; Cruz-Robles, David; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Thrombin has been implicated as a key molecule in atherosclerotic progression. Clinical evidence shows that thrombin generation is enhanced in atherosclerosis, but its role as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerotic burden has not been proven in coronary artery disease (CAD) stable patients. Objectives. To evaluate the association between TAT levels and homocysteine levels and the presence of coronary artery disease diagnosed by coronary angiography in patients with stable CAD. Methods and Results. We included 95 stable patients admitted to the Haemodynamics Department, including 63 patients with significant CAD and 32 patients without. We measured the thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and homocysteine concentrations in all the patients. The CAD patients exhibited higher concentrations of TAT (40.76 μg/L versus 20.81 μg/L, p = 0.002) and homocysteine (11.36 μmol/L versus 8.81 μmol/L, p < 0.01) compared to the patients without significant CAD. Specifically, in patients with CAD+ the level of TAT level was associated with the severity of CAD being 36.17 ± 24.48 μg/L in the patients with bivascular obstruction and 42.77 ± 31.81 μg/L in trivascular coronary obstruction, p = 0.002. Conclusions. The level of in vivo thrombin generation, quantified as TAT complexes, is associated with the presence and severity of CAD assessed by coronary angiography in stable CAD patients. PMID:27597926

  13. Association between Stable Coronary Artery Disease and In Vivo Thrombin Generation.

    PubMed

    Valente-Acosta, Benjamin; Baños-González, Manuel Alfonso; Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Martínez-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Quintanar-Trejo, Leslie; Aptilon-Duque, Gad; Flores-García, Mirthala; Cruz-Robles, David; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; de la Peña-Díaz, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Background. Thrombin has been implicated as a key molecule in atherosclerotic progression. Clinical evidence shows that thrombin generation is enhanced in atherosclerosis, but its role as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerotic burden has not been proven in coronary artery disease (CAD) stable patients. Objectives. To evaluate the association between TAT levels and homocysteine levels and the presence of coronary artery disease diagnosed by coronary angiography in patients with stable CAD. Methods and Results. We included 95 stable patients admitted to the Haemodynamics Department, including 63 patients with significant CAD and 32 patients without. We measured the thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and homocysteine concentrations in all the patients. The CAD patients exhibited higher concentrations of TAT (40.76 μg/L versus 20.81 μg/L, p = 0.002) and homocysteine (11.36 μmol/L versus 8.81 μmol/L, p < 0.01) compared to the patients without significant CAD. Specifically, in patients with CAD+ the level of TAT level was associated with the severity of CAD being 36.17 ± 24.48 μg/L in the patients with bivascular obstruction and 42.77 ± 31.81 μg/L in trivascular coronary obstruction, p = 0.002. Conclusions. The level of in vivo thrombin generation, quantified as TAT complexes, is associated with the presence and severity of CAD assessed by coronary angiography in stable CAD patients. PMID:27597926

  14. Monitoring Low Molecular Weight Heparins at Therapeutic Levels: Dose-Responses of, and Correlations and Differences between aPTT, Anti-Factor Xa and Thrombin Generation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Owain; Lybeck, Emanuel; Strandberg, Karin; Tynngård, Nahreen; Schött, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH’s) are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH’s include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH’s varying affinities for FXa and thrombin. Aim To examine the effects of two different LMWH’s on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests’ concordance. Method Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU)/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR) and Hemochron Jr (HCJ)) and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat). Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP) was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents. Results Methods’ mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11) and 69s (SD 14) for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21) and 140s (SD 28) for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62–0.87), whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80–0.92). Conclusions aPTT displays a linear dose-respone to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa’s present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is

  15. Effects of normoxic and hypoxic exercise regimens on monocyte-mediated thrombin generation in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chang, Ya-Lun; Chen, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Fu, Tieh-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    Exercise and hypoxia paradoxically modulate vascular thrombotic risks. The shedding of procoagulant-rich microparticles from monocytes may accelerate the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. The present study explores the manner in which normoxic and hypoxic exercise regimens affect procoagulant monocyte-derived microparticle (MDMP) formation and monocyte-promoted thrombin generation (TG). Forty sedentary healthy males were randomized to perform either normoxic (NET; 21% O2, n=20) or hypoxic (HET; 15% O2, n=20) exercise training (60% VO(2max)) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 5 weeks. At rest and immediately after HET (100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min), the MDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography respectively. The results demonstrated that acute 12% O2 exercise (i) increased the release of coagulant factor V (FV)/FVIII-rich, phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed and tissue factor (TF)-expressed microparticles from monocytes, (ii) enhanced the peak height and rate of TG in monocyte-rich plasma (MRP) and (iii) elevated concentrations of norepinephrine/epinephrine, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma. Following the 5-week intervention, HET exhibited higher enhancements of peak work-rate and cardiopulmonary fitness than NET did. Moreover, both NET and HET decreased the FV/FVIII-rich, PS-exposed and TF-expressed MDMP counts and the peak height and rate of TG in MRP following the HET. However, HET elicited more suppression for the HE (hypoxic exercise)-enhanced procoagulant MDMP formation and dynamic TG in MPR and catecholamine/peroxide/pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma than NET. Hence, we conclude that HET is superior to NET for enhancing aerobic capacity. Furthermore, HET effectively suppresses procoagulant MDMP formation and monocyte-mediated TG under severe hypoxic stress, compared with NET. PMID:25826125

  16. Favorable outcome of rivaroxaban-associated intracerebral hemorrhage reversed by 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate: impact on thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Sophie; Chabanne, Russell; Coste, Aurélien; Longeras, François; Sinegre, Thomas; Schmidt, Jeannot; Samama, Charles-Marc; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Lebreton, Aurélien

    2015-06-01

    The management of life-threatening bleeding associated with rivaroxaban remains a challenge for physicians due to the lack of evidence about clinically effective options for anticoagulation reversal. We report a favorable outcome in a patient receiving rivaroxaban prophylaxis, who developed a spontaneous subdural hematoma treated by a surgical evacuation and administration of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate. Classical coagulation variables were associated with impaired thrombin generation. Reversal with prothrombin complex concentrates improved all thrombin generation measures. Thrombin generation tests may be suitable for assessing the clinical utility of reversal drugs on rivaroxaban-induced coagulopathy. PMID:26035221

  17. Sensitive and selective detection of thrombin by using a cyclic peptide as affinity ligand.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-15

    Here we describe a sensitive assay for thrombin by using a high binding-affinity cyclic peptide against thrombin as affinity ligand. The cyclic peptide is immobilized on the magnetic beads or microplates to selectively capture thrombin. The enriched thrombin then catalyzes the cleavage of a substrate of thrombin to a detectable product. The detection of thrombin is finally achieved by measuring the generated product. This assay enables the detection of thrombin at tens fM in 100 µL of sample solution when fluorogenic substrate was applied, while detection limits reached pM level when chromogenic substrate was used. Thrombin in plasma sample can be detected with this assay. This cyclic peptide affinity ligand shows potentials for thrombin analysis in other detection formats. PMID:25048449

  18. Activity of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Dubis, Joanna; Zuk, Natalia; Grendziak, Ryszard; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Pfanhauser, Monika; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) experience impaired balance between fibrinolysis and coagulation, manifested by increased prothrombotic tendency and intensified inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the TAFI activity level (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) in the plasma of AAA patients. Plasma levels of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator and uPAR (urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor) were measured as markers of fibrinolytic activity. The study showed that the activity of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the plasma of AAA patients was significantly lower than in the plasma of the control individuals (64.6 ± 10.1 vs. 54.2 ± 10.9%, P < 0.0001). TAFI activity positively correlated with the white blood cell count (r = 0.486, P < 0.005). The uPAR concentration in the AAA patients was statistically significantly higher than in the control group and positively correlated with TAFI activity (r = 0.409, P = 0.02). The levels of PAI-1 and D-dimers (fibrin fragments) were significantly higher in patients with AAA than in the control group (44.3 ± 17.5 vs. 21.7 ± 8.7 ng/ml and 1869.6 ± 1490.1 vs. 181.5 ± 188.6 ng/ml, respectively). Lowered activity of the fibrinolysis inhibitor TAFI may heighten the blood fibrinolytic potential in AAA patients and contribute to the development of comorbidities. Therefore, TAFI participation in AAA pathogenesis cannot be excluded. PMID:24378973

  19. Association of aortic valve sclerosis with thrombin generation in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Iida, M; Yamamoto, M; Yamazaki, M; Sawaguchi, M; Honjo, H; Kodama, I; Kamiya, K

    2008-11-01

    Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS) may predispose to a prothrombotic state, as AVS is predictor of cardiovascular events in hypertensive populations. Thrombin exerts non-thrombotic effects such as vessel tone regulation, progression of atherosclerosis and stimulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion. We hypothesized that hypertensive patients with AVS may have a persistently activated thrombin generation. We studied 234 asymptomatic never-treated hypertensive patients (73 of them with AVS). Prothrombin F1+2 (F1+2), as a marker of thrombin generation and fibrin D-dimer, as a marker of thrombus formation, ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Presence of AVS, aortic jet velocity and left ventricular diameter at diastole were determined by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. F1+2 (median and interquartile range (IQR) = 1.05, 0.87-1.38 nM vs. 0.93, 0.72-1.16) and ANP (22, 14-37 pg ml(-1) vs. 17, 11-25) levels were greater, and glomerular filtration rate values (65+/-9 ml min(-1)/1.73 m2 vs. 68+/-11) were lower in hypertensive patients with AVS than in those without AVS. F1+2 (odds ratio, 95% CI = 2.94, 1.07-8.6) was independently associated with AVS after being adjusted for age, gender and the variables of cardiorenal functions measured. After 6 months of treatment using valsartan, F1+2 levels remained elevated in hypertensive patients with AVS (1.14, 0.83-1.42 nM vs. 1.07, 0.84-1.5, n=19), but decreased in those without AVS (1.01, 0.85-1.31 vs. 0.8, 0.84-1.78, n=27). Thrombin generation was associated with AVS in untreated hypertensive patients, and this association was persistent after blood-pressure-lowering treatment using valsartan. PMID:18633427

  20. Influence of fibrinogen degradation products on thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time of canine plasma.

    PubMed

    Mischke, R; Wolling, H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate how thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time are influenced by fibrinogen degradation products (FDP), different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml) of the purified FDP X, Y, D and E were added to the plasma of healthy dogs. If fragment Y was added to the plasma a considerable inhibitory effect could be demonstrated for all three test systems. A significant prolongation (p < 0.05) was found for concentrations of > or =0.1 mg/ml (thrombin time, APTT) and > or =0.2 mg/ml (prothrombin time). With FDP Y concentrations from >0.185 mg/ml (prothrombin time) to >0.24 mg/ml (APTT) coagulation time was prolonged beyond the respective reference range. As regards the other fragments, a comparable inhibitory effect could only be shown for fragment X added to the thrombin time test system. This effect can most probably be explained by the competition of the FDP X and fibrinogen for the fibrinogen binding sites of thrombin, rather than by a fibrin polymerization disorder. The results demonstrate that for plasma with normal fibrinogen concentration the group tests are only prolonged beyond the reference range at FDP concentrations very rarely found in spontaneous hyperfibrinolysis. PMID:11014962

  1. Thrombin-activated human platelets acutely generate oxidized docosahexaenoic-acid-containing phospholipids via 12-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lloyd T; Thomas, Christopher P; Kühn, Hartmut; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2010-10-01

    Arachidonate-containing oxidized phospholipids are acutely generated by 12-LOX (12-lipoxygenase) in agonist-activated platelets. In the present study, formation of structurally related lipids by oxidation of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)-containing phospholipids is demonstrated using lipidomic approaches. Precursor scanning reverse-phase LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS) identified a new family of lipids that comprise phospholipid-esterified HDOHE (hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid). Two diacyl and two plasmalogen PEs (phosphatidylethanolamines) containing predominantly the 14-HDOHE positional isomer (18:0p/14-HDOHE-PE, 18:0a/14-HDOHE-PE, 16:0a/14-HDOHE-PE and 16:0p/14-HDOHE-PE) were structurally characterized using MS/MS and by comparison with biogenic standards. An involvement of 12-LOX was indicated as purified recombinant human 12-LOX also generated the 14-HDOHE isomer from DHA. Pharmacological studies using inhibitors and recombinant platelet 12-LOX indicate that they form via esterification of newly formed non-esterified HDOHE. HDOHE-PEs formed at significant rates (2-4 ng/4×10(7) cells) within 2-180 min of thrombin stimulation, and their formation was blocked by calcium chelation. In summary, a new family of oxidized phospholipid was identified in thrombin-activated human platelets. PMID:20653566

  2. Standardization of the endogenous thrombin potential measurement: how to minimize the effect of residual platelets in stored plasma.

    PubMed

    Chantarangkul, Veena; Clerici, Marigrazia; Bressi, Caterina; Tripodi, Armando

    2004-02-01

    Platelet contamination in stored plasma may affect coagulation assays, including the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), which has been proposed for the investigation of hyper- and hypo-coagulability. The current recommendation of filtering plasma before freezing cannot be always met. This study provides evidence that filtering frozen plasma after thawing, prior to testing, may help to eliminate the unwanted effect of residual platelets on the ETP. This may have important implications in future studies, as the ETP could be determined with plasma that have been collected without precautions relating to platelet contamination, as is the case for plasmas collected in epidemiological studies. PMID:14717784

  3. Direct characterization of factor VIII in plasma: detection of a mutation altering a thrombin cleavage site (arginine-372----histidine).

    PubMed Central

    Arai, M; Inaba, H; Higuchi, M; Antonarakis, S E; Kazazian, H H; Fujimaki, M; Hoyer, L W

    1989-01-01

    An immunoadsorbent method has been developed for the direct analysis of normal and variant plasma factor VIII. Using this method, the molecular defect responsible for mild hemophilia A has been identified for a patient whose plasma factor VIII activity is 0.05 unit/ml, even though the factor VIII antigen content is 3.25 units/ml. Although the variant factor VIII has an apparently normal molecular mass and chain composition, the 92-kDa heavy chain accumulates when the variant protein is incubated with thrombin and the 44-kDa heavy chain fragment cannot be detected. In contrast, thrombin cleavage of the 80-kDa light chain to the 72-kDa fragment is normal. As these data indicate a loss of factor VIII cleavage by thrombin at arginine-372, the genetic defect was determined by polymerase-chain-reaction amplification of exon 8 of the factor VIII gene and direct sequencing of the amplified product. A single-base substitution (guanine----adenine) was identified that produces an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid residue 372. These data identify the molecular basis of an abnormal factor VIII, "factor VIII-Kumamoto," that lacks procoagulant function because of impaired thrombin activation. Images PMID:2498882

  4. Thrombin-Mediated Platelet Activation of Lysed Whole Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Comparison Between Platelet Activation Markers and Ultrastructural Alterations.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; van der Spuy, Wendy J; Kaberry, Lindsay L; Shayi, Millicent

    2016-06-01

    Platelet ultrastructural alterations representing spurious activation have been identified in pathological conditions. A limitation of platelet studies is that sample preparation may lead to artifactual activation processes which may confound results, impacting the use of scanning electron microscopy as a supplemental diagnostic tool. We used scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze platelet activation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood (WB) samples. PRP generated using a single high g force centrifugation, and WB samples treated with a red blood cell lysis buffer, were exposed to increasing concentrations of the agonist thrombin. Platelets in lysed WB samples responded to thrombin by elevating the activation marker CD62p definitively, with corresponding ultrastructural changes indicating activation. Conversely, CD62p expression in PRP preparations remained static. Ultrastructural analysis revealed fully activated platelets even under low concentration thrombin stimulation, with considerable fibrin deposition. It is proposed that the method for PRP production induced premature platelet activation, preventable by using an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and fibrin polymerization. Nevertheless, our results show a definitive correspondence between flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy in platelet activation studies, highlighting the potential of the latter technique as a supplemental diagnostic tool. PMID:27329313

  5. Thromboelastography, thrombin generation test and thrombodynamics reveal hypercoagulability in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, Marina A; Urnova, Evdokiya S; Sinauridze, Elena I; Tarandovskiy, Ivan D; Orel, Elena B; Poletaev, Alexander V; Mendeleeva, Larisa P; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Balandina, Anna N

    2015-01-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Therefore, adequate laboratory control of hemostasis and subsequent adjustments of anticoagulant therapy are necessary. We studied hemostasis changes using thromboelastography (TEG), thrombin generation test (TGT) and thrombodynamics (TD) in primary MM patients (PMMpt, n=25) and patients in remission (RMMpt, n=34) during blood stem cell (BSC) mobilization. TD and TEG reveal hypercoagulability in PMMpt (*p<0.05) in relation to healthy volunteers. There was no difference in any of the tests between PMMpt and RMMpt. We detected no heparin effect in 22% of patients one day after the onset of the prophylactic heparin treatment (500 IU/h) during BSC mobilization; tests shifted toward the hypercoagulability in 75% of patients one day after cyclophosphamide (4 g/m2) chemotherapy. Global hemostasis tests were in good agreement with each other, revealed hypercoagulability and heparin "resistance" in patients with MM and may be useful for therapy individualization. PMID:25907422

  6. Solid expellant plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  7. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system. PMID:27171403

  8. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system. PMID:27171403

  9. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  10. Thrombin Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitor unfractionated heparin therapy and to detect heparin contamination in a blood sample. While it is still ... thrombin time may sometimes be ordered when heparin contamination of a sample is suspected or when a ...

  11. The Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma is due to Impaired Initial Thrombin Generation but not Clot Formation or Clot Strength

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jeffrey N.; Moore, Ernest E.; Wohlauer, Max V.; Droz, Nathan; Fragoso, Miguel; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    The Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma (ACOT) has been described as a very early hypocoagulable state, but the mechanism remains controversial. One proposed mechanism is tissue hypoperfusion leading to protein C activation, with subsequent inhibition of Factors V and VIII. Variability in trauma has impeded the use of clinical data towards the elucidation of the mechanisms of ACOT, but thrombelastography (TEG) may provide insight by assessing hemostatic function from initial thrombin activation to fibrinolysis. We hypothesized that, in a controlled animal model of trauma/hemorrhagic shock, clotting factor dysfunction is the predominant mechanism in early ACOT. Methods Rats anesthetized by inhaled isoflurane (n=6) underwent laparotomy, and hemorrhage was induced to maintain a MAP of 35 mmHg for 30 minutes. Rats were then resuscitated with twice their shed blood volume in normal saline. TEG was performed at baseline, shock, and post-resuscitation periods. No heparin was given. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with post-hoc Fisher’s test. Results Coagulation factor function was significantly impaired in the early stages of trauma/hemorrhagic shock. TEG R and SP-values were significantly increased from baseline to shock (p<0.001) and from shock to post-resuscitation periods (p<0.05). Delta (R-SP), a measure of thrombin generation, showed a significant increase (p<0.05) from baseline to shock. No significant changes were found in K, Angle, MA, and LY30 values. Conclusion Clotting factor derangement leading to impaired thrombin generation is the principle etiology of ACOT in this model and not the dynamics of clot formation, fibrin cross-linking, clot strength/platelet function, or fibrinolysis. PMID:21550061

  12. Recombinant human activated protein C resets thrombin generation in patients with severe sepsis – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    de Pont, Anne-Cornélie JM; Bakhtiari, Kamran; Hutten, Barbara A; de Jonge, Evert; Vroom, Margreeth B; Meijers, Joost CM; Büller, Harry R; Levi, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) is the first drug for which a reduction of mortality in severe sepsis has been demonstrated. However, the mechanism by which this reduction in mortality is achieved is still not clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dynamics of the anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrinolytic action of rhAPC in patients with severe sepsis, by comparing rhAPC-treated patients with case controls. Methods In this prospectively designed multicenter case control study, 12 patients who were participating in the ENHANCE study, an open-label study of rhAPC in severe sepsis, were treated intravenously with rhAPC at a constant rate of 24 μg/kg/h for a total of 96 h. Twelve controls with severe sepsis matching the inclusion criteria received standard therapy. The treatment was started within 48 h after the onset of organ failure. Blood samples were taken before the start of the infusion and at 4, 8, 24, 48, 96 and 168 h, for determination of parameters of coagulation and inflammation. Results Sepsis-induced thrombin generation as measured by thrombin-antithrombin complexes and prothrombin fragment F1+2, was reset by rhAPC within the first 8 h of infusion. The administration of rhAPC did not influence parameters of fibrinolysis and inflammation. There was no difference in outcome or occurrence of serious adverse events between the treatment group and the control group. Conclusion Sepsis-induced thrombin generation in severely septic patients is reset by rhAPC within the first 8 h of infusion without influencing parameters of fibrinolysis and inflammation. PMID:16277710

  13. Plasma motor generator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

  14. Impact of experimental haemodilution on platelet function, thrombin generation and clot firmness: effects of different coagulation factor concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Carolina; Escolar, Gines; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Lopez-Vílchez, Irene; Lozano, Miguel; Cid, Joan; Pino, Marcos; Beltrán, Joan; Basora, Misericordia; Pereira, Arturo; Galan, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haemodilution during resuscitation after massive haemorrhage may worsen the coagulopathy and perpetuate bleeding. Materials and methods Blood samples from healthy donors were diluted (30 and-60%) using crystalloids (saline, Ringer’s lactate, PlasmalyteTM) or colloids (6% hydroxyethylstarch [HES130/0.4], 5% human albumin, and gelatin). The effects of haemodilution on platelet adhesion (Impact R), thrombin generation (TG), and thromboelastometry (TEM) parameters were analysed as were the effects of fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), activated recombinant factor VII (FVIIa), and cryoprecipates on haemodilution. Results Platelet interactions was already significantly reduced at 30% haemodilution. Platelet reactivity was not improved by addition of any of the concentrates tested. A decrease in TG and marked alterations of TEM parameters were noted at 60% haemodilution. HES130/0.4 was the expander with the most deleterious action. TG was significantly enhanced by PCC whereas rFVIIa only caused a mild acceleration of TG initiation. Fibrinogen restored the alterations of TEM parameters caused by haemodilution including those caused by HES 130/0.4. Cryoprecipitates significantly improved the alterations caused by haemodilution on TG and TEM parameters; the effects on TG disappeared after ultracentrifugation of the cryoprecipitates. Discussion The haemostatic alterations caused by haemodilution are multifactorial and affect both blood cells and coagulation. In our in vitro approach, HES 130/0.4 had the most deleterious effect on haemostasis parameters. Coagulation factor concentrates did not improve platelet interactions in the Impact R, but did have favourable effects on coagulation parameters measured by TG and TEM. Fibrinogen notably improved TEM parameters without increasing thrombin generation, suggesting that this concentrate may help to preserve blood clotting abilities during haemodilution without enhancing the prothrombotic risk. PMID

  15. Sucrose Octasulfate Selectively Accelerates Thrombin Inactivation by Heparin Cofactor II*

    PubMed Central

    Sarilla, Suryakala; Habib, Sally Y.; Kravtsov, Dmitri V.; Matafonov, Anton; Gailani, David; Verhamme, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Inactivation of thrombin (T) by the serpins heparin cofactor II (HCII) and antithrombin (AT) is accelerated by a heparin template between the serpin and thrombin exosite II. Unlike AT, HCII also uses an allosteric interaction of its NH2-terminal segment with exosite I. Sucrose octasulfate (SOS) accelerated thrombin inactivation by HCII but not AT by 2000-fold. SOS bound to two sites on thrombin, with dissociation constants (KD) of 10 ± 4 μm and 400 ± 300 μm that were not kinetically resolvable, as evidenced by single hyperbolic SOS concentration dependences of the inactivation rate (kobs). SOS bound HCII with KD 1.45 ± 0.30 mm, and this binding was tightened in the T·SOS·HCII complex, characterized by Kcomplex of ∼0.20 μm. Inactivation data were incompatible with a model solely depending on HCII·SOS but fit an equilibrium linkage model employing T·SOS binding in the pathway to higher order complex formation. Hirudin-(54–65)(SO3−) caused a hyperbolic decrease of the inactivation rates, suggesting partial competitive binding of hirudin-(54–65)(SO3−) and HCII to exosite I. Meizothrombin(des-fragment 1), binding SOS with KD = 1600 ± 300 μm, and thrombin were inactivated at comparable rates, and an exosite II aptamer had no effect on the inactivation, suggesting limited exosite II involvement. SOS accelerated inactivation of meizothrombin 1000-fold, reflecting the contribution of direct exosite I interaction with HCII. Thrombin generation in plasma was suppressed by SOS, both in HCII-dependent and -independent processes. The ex vivo HCII-dependent process may utilize the proposed model and suggests a potential for oversulfated disaccharides in controlling HCII-regulated thrombin generation. PMID:20053992

  16. Method for generating surface plasma

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul A.; Aragon, Ben P.

    2003-05-27

    A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.

  17. Magnesium as a regulator of thrombin formation in bovine ovarian follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Hirakushi, K; Inoue, K; Horiuchi, T; Sakai, J; Okada, T; Sugie, I

    1998-07-01

    In the ovarian follicular fluid (FF) of Holstein cows, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels and their roles on thrombin generation were examined and compared with the blood samples. Total Ca levels in FF increased while the total Mg levels decreased with follicular development from preantral to preovulatory stage of follicles. These changes resulted in Ca values being significantly (p < 0.05) higher in FF from the most developed follicles and the Mg values being significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the least developed follicles. To determine whether the high level of Mg might function to regulate thrombin generation in FF as occurs in plasma, the influence of Mg supplementation of FF from various types of follicles was examined. In FF from small size follicles, Mg accelerated the prothrombin time, an estimation of the overall rate of thrombin production, although a similar effects was not observed in FF from medium and large size follicles. The addition of Mg to FF from all sizes of follicles resulted an inhibition in factor X activation. Since activation of factor X is a precursor step for thrombin formation it is concluded that Mg can function as a slow accelerator of thrombin generation in FF from follicles at the antral stage of development. It is likely to have a more important role in regulating the rate of thrombin generation as the follicle develops. PMID:9713812

  18. A major phospholipase A2 from Daboia russelii russelii venom shows potent anticoagulant action via thrombin inhibition and binding with plasma phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2014-04-01

    This is the first report on antithrombin effects of a phospholipase A2 (RVAPLA2) purified from venom of Daboia russelii russelii. The N-terminal sequence as well as in-gel tryptic digested peptides of RVAPLA2 showed significant homology with PLA2s from Russell's viper venom. RVAPLA2 demonstrated highest specific activity in hydrolyzing phosphatidylcholine (1.8 × 10(6) U/mg) with Km and Vmax values of 0.61 mM and 132.3 μmol/min, respectively. RVAPLA2 exerted dose-dependent catalytic and strong anticoagulant activities; however, studies indicated dissociation of its catalytic and anticoagulant sites. The anticoagulant action of RVAPLA2 was partially contributed by catalytic hydrolysis of plasma phospholipids. RVAPLA2 showed strong anticoagulant effect via thrombin inhibition with a Ki value of 380 nM as well as by binding to pro-coagulant phospholipids of plasma. In ex-vivo conditions, RVAPLA2 (1.0 μM) was non-hemolytic and non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells. It did not inhibit the collagen-induced aggregation of platelets. RVAPLA2 at a dose of 5 mg/kg was not lethal to mice after 48 h of injection. It demonstrated in vivo anticoagulant activity possibly due to targeting thrombin and binding with plasma phospholipids. PMID:24333043

  19. Statins but Not Aspirin Reduce Thrombotic Risk Assessed by Thrombin Generation in Diabetic Patients without Cardiovascular Events: The RATIONAL Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macchia, Alejandro; Laffaye, Nicolás; Comignani, Pablo D.; Cornejo Pucci, Elena; Igarzabal, Cecilia; Scazziota, Alejandra S.; Herrera, Lourdes; Mariani, Javier A.; Bragagnolo, Julio C.; Catalano, Hugo; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Background The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG) among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks), assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018). On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716). The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent. Conclusions/Significance While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754 PMID:22470429

  20. Plasma Generated Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    Z-pinch plasma simulations have been performed that indicate the production of spherules under certain experimental parameters. (A. L. Peratt, private communication) While performing experiments dealing with the impact of plasma discharges on various materials, we observed that spherules were created at the surface of some of the materials. For specific materials and conditions, spherules were always produced. Both individual spherules and joined spherules were created. The size and shapes were nearly identical to items found by the Mars rover, Opportunity, and called ``blueberries.'' Sky & Telescope, June 2004, p. 20, among other sources indicated the blueberries were gray spherules composed of hematite. The experiments produced hematite spherules identical in appearance to those found on Mars. These experiments suggest how the newly discovered blueberries were formed on Mars while providing an explanation that does not depend on the presence of water.

  1. Fibrinogen blocks the autoactivation and thrombin-mediated activation of factor XI on dextran sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, C F; Colman, R W

    1992-01-01

    The intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation is activated when factor XIa, one of the three contact-system enzymes, is generated and then activates factor IX. Factor XI has been shown to be efficiently activated in vitro by surface-bound factor XIIa after factor XI is transported to the surface by its cofactor, high molecular weight kininogen (HK). However, individuals lacking any of the three contact-system proteins--namely, factor XII, prekallikrein, and HK--do not suffer from bleeding abnormalities. This mystery has led several investigators to search for an "alternate" activation pathway for factor XI. Recently, factor XI has been reported to be autoactivated on the soluble "surface" dextran sulfate, and thrombin was shown to accelerate the autoactivation. However, it was also reported that HK, the cofactor for factor XIIa-mediated activation of factor XI, actually diminishes the thrombin-catalyzed activation rate of factor XI. Nonetheless, it was suggested that thrombin was a more efficient activator than factor XIIa. In this report we investigated the effect of fibrinogen, the major coagulation protein in plasma, on the activation rate of factor XI. Fibrinogen, the preferred substrate for thrombin in plasma, virtually prevented autoactivation of factor XI as well as the thrombin-mediated activation of factor XI, while having no effect on factor XIIa-catalyzed activation. HK dramatically curtailed the autoactivation of factor XI in addition to the thrombin-mediated activation. These data indicate that factor XI would not be autoactivated in a plasma environment, and thrombin would, therefore, be unlikely to potentiate the activation. We believe that the "missing pathway" for factor XI activation remains an enigma that warrants further investigation. PMID:1454798

  2. Inhibition of thrombin activity with DNA-aptamers.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolsky, A B; Titaeva, E V; Khaspekova, S G; Spiridonova, V A; Kopylov, A M; Mazurov, A V

    2009-07-01

    The effects of two DNA aptamers (oligonucleotides) 15TBA and 31TBA (15- and 31-mer thrombin-binding aptamers, respectively) on thrombin activity were studied. Both aptamers added to human plasma dose-dependently increased thrombin time (fibrin formation upon exposure to exogenous thrombin), prothrombin time (clotting activation by the extrinsic pathway), and activated partial thromboplastin time (clotting activation by the intrinsic pathway). At the same time, these aptamers did not modify amidolytic activity of thrombin evaluated by cleavage of synthetic chromogenic substrate. Aptamers also inhibited thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation. The inhibitory effects of 31TBA manifested at lower concentrations than those of 15TBA in all tests. These data indicate that the studied antithrombin DNA aptamers effectively suppress its two key reactions, fibrin formation and stimulation of platelet aggregation, without modifying active center of the thrombin molecule. PMID:19902090

  3. Thrombin Inhibition with Dabigatran Protects against High-Fat Diet–Induced Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Anna K.; Joshi, Nikita; Towery, Keara L.; Kassel, Karen M.; Sullivan, Bradley P.; Flick, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Robust coagulation cascade activation is common in obese patients with NAFLD. We identified a critical temporal relationship between thrombin generation and the manifestation of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1, 2, and 3 months. Mice fed a HFD exhibited dramatic increases in hepatocellular injury and inflammation over time. Hepatic fibrin deposition preceded an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, and the most dramatic changes in liver histopathology occurred in conjunction with a detectable increase in plasma thrombin-antithrombin levels at 3 months. To directly determine whether thrombin activity promotes NAFLD pathogenesis, mice were fed a HFD and simultaneously treated with the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate for 3 months. Notably, dabigatran treatment significantly reduced hepatic fibrin deposition, hepatic inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and steatosis in mice fed a HFD. Of interest, dabigatran treatment also significantly attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain. Gene expression analysis suggested that thrombin potentially drives NAFLD pathogenesis by altering the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism and bile acid synthesis. Collectively, the results suggest that thrombin activity is central to HFD-induced body weight gain, liver injury, and inflammation and provide the proof-of-principle evidence that pharmacological thrombin inhibition could be effective in limiting NAFLD and associated pathologies. PMID:25138021

  4. Structural stability of human alpha-thrombin studied by disulfide reduction and scrambling.

    PubMed

    Rajesh Singh, R; Chang, Jui Yoa

    2003-09-23

    Human alpha-thrombin is a very important plasma serine protease, which is involved in physiologically vital processes like hemostasis, thrombosis, and activation of platelets. Knowledge regarding the structural stability of alpha-thrombin is essential for understanding its biological regulation. Here, we investigated the structural and conformational stability of alpha-thrombin using the techniques of disulfide reduction and disulfide scrambling. alpha-Thrombin is composed of a light A-chain (36 residues) and a heavy B-chain (259 residues) linked covalently by an inter-chain disulfide bond (Cys(1)-Cys(122)). The B-chain is stabilized by three intra-chain disulfide bonds (Cys(42)-Cys(58), Cys(168)-Cys(182), and Cys(191)-Cys(220)) (Chymotrypsinogen nomenclature). Upon reduction with dithiothreitol (DTT), alpha-thrombin unfolded in a 'sequential' manner with sequential reduction of Cys(168)-Cys(182) within the B-chain followed by the inter-chain disulfide, generating two distinct partially reduced intermediates, I-1 and I-2, respectively. Conformational stability of alpha-thrombin was investigated by the technique of disulfide scrambling. alpha-Thrombin denatures by scrambling its native disulfide bonds in the presence of denaturant [urea, guanidine hydrochloride (GdmCl) or guanidine thiocyanate (GdmSCN)] and a thiol initiator. During the process, cleavage of the inter-chain disulfide bond and release of the A-chain from B-chain was the foremost event. The three disulfides in the B-chain subsequently scrambled to form three major isomers (designated as X-Ba, X-Bb, and X-Bc). Complete denaturation of alpha-thrombin was observed at low concentrations of denaturants (0.5 M GdmSCN, 1.5 M GdmCl, or 3 M urea) indicating low conformational stability of the protease. PMID:14499592

  5. Pulsed metallic-plasma generators.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmour, A. S., Jr.; Lockwood, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    A pulsed metallic-plasma generator is described which utilizes a vacuum arc as the plasma source. The arc is initiated on the surface of a consumable cathode which can be any electrically conductive material. Ignition is accomplished by using a current pulse to vaporize a portion of a conductive film on the surface of an insulator separating the cathode from the ignition electrode. The film is regenerated during the ensuing arc. Over 100 million ignition cycles have been accomplished by using four 0.125-in. diameter zinc cathodes operating in parallel and high-density aluminum-oxide insulators. Among the applications being investigated for the generator are metal deposition, vacuum pumping, electric propulsion, and high-power dc arc interruption.

  6. Inhibition of Cellular Adhesion by Immunological Targeting of Osteopontin Neoepitopes Generated through Matrix Metalloproteinase and Thrombin Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Jürets, Alexander; Le Bras, Marie; Staffler, Günther; Stein, Gesine; Leitner, Lukas; Neuhofer, Angelika; Tardelli, Matteo; Turkof, Edvin; Zeyda, Maximilian; Stulnig, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a secreted protein involved in inflammatory processes and cancer, induces cell adhesion, migration, and activation of inflammatory pathways in various cell types. Cells bind OPN via integrins at a canonical RGD region in the full length form as well as to a contiguous cryptic site that some have shown is unmasked upon thrombin or matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Thus, the adhesive capacity of osteopontin is enhanced by proteolytic cleavage that may occur in inflammatory conditions such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, tumor growth and metastasis. Our aim was to inhibit cellular adhesion to recombinant truncated proteins that correspond to the N-terminal cleavage products of thrombin- or matrix metalloproteinase-cleaved OPN in vitro. We specifically targeted the cryptic integrin binding site with monoclonal antibodies and antisera induced by peptide immunization of mice. HEK 293 cells adhered markedly stronger to truncated OPN proteins than to full length OPN. Without affecting cell binding to the full length form, the raised monoclonal antibodies specifically impeded cellular adhesion to the OPN fragments. Moreover, we show that the peptides used for immunization were able to induce antisera, which impeded adhesion either to all OPN forms, including the full-length form, or selectively to the corresponding truncated recombinant proteins. In conclusion, we developed immunological tools to selectively target functional properties of protease-cleaved OPN forms, which could find applications in treatment and prevention of various inflammatory diseases and cancers. PMID:26840958

  7. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Methods: Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. Results: A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. Conclusions: The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension. PMID:27397996

  8. Acceleration of thrombin-antithrombin complex formation in rat hindquarters via heparinlike molecules bound to the endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, J A; McKenney, J B; Rosenberg, R D

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the role of heparinlike molecules in the regulation of coagulation by perfusing rat hindquarters with purified human thrombin and with its plasma inhibitor, antithrombin. Our data indicate that contact of the hemostatic components with the endothelium enhances the rate of thrombin-antithrombin complex formation by as much as 19-fold over the uncatalyzed rate of enzyme-inhibitor interaction. Heparinlike molecules are responsible for the antithrombin accelerating activity. The amount of thrombin-antithrombin complex generated within the hindlimb preparation after pretreatment of the vasculature with purified Flavobacterium heparinase or with addition of platelet Factor IV to the hemostatic components, was equal to the uncatalyzed levels. These heparinlike molecules appear to be tightly bound to the luminal surface of the endothelium, since they could not be detected within the physiologic buffer that was perfused through the animal. The above mucopolysaccharides function in a manner similar to commercial heparin, since modification of antithrombin at a site critical for heparin-dependent acceleration of the protease inhibitor resulted in a level of interaction product identical to the uncatalyzed amount. Finally, addition of diisofluorophosphate-thrombin to the enzyme perfusion stream reduced the amount of thrombin-antithrombin complex formed in the animal by 30-40%, which suggested that thrombin bound to the endothelium as well as enzyme free in solution are accessible to antithrombin that has interacted with heparinlike molecules present on the endothelium. PMID:6746897

  9. Mutant B-Raf(V600E) Promotes Melanoma Paracellular Transmigration by Inducing Thrombin-mediated Endothelial Junction Breakdown.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Feng, Shan; Liu, Gentao; Wang, Heyong; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Bai, Huiyuan; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng

    2016-01-29

    Tumor invasiveness depends on the ability of tumor cells to breach endothelial barriers. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the adhesion of melanoma cells to endothelium regulates adherens junction integrity and modulates tumor transendothelial migration (TEM) by initiating thrombin generation. We found that the B-Raf(V600E) mutation in metastatic melanoma cells up-regulated tissue factor (TF) expression on cell membranes and promoted thrombin production. Co-culture of endothelial monolayers with metastatic melanoma cells mediated the opening of inter-endothelial spaces near melanoma cell contact sites in the presence of platelet-free plasma (PFP). By using small interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that B-Raf(V600E) and TF silencing attenuated the focal disassembly of adherens junction induced by tumor contact. Vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) disassembly was dependent on phosphorylation of p120-catenin on Ser-879 and VE-cadherin on Tyr-658, Tyr-685, and Tyr-731, which can be prevented by treatment with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, or by silencing the thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, in endothelial cells. We also provided strong evidence that tumor-derived thrombin enhanced melanoma TEM by inducing ubiquitination-coupled VE-cadherin internalization, focal adhesion formation, and actin assembly in endothelium. Confocal microscopic analysis of tumor TEM revealed that junctions transiently opened and resealed as tumor cells accomplished TEM. In addition, in the presence of PFP, tumor cells preferentially transmigrated via paracellular routes. PFP supported melanoma transmigration under shear conditions via a B-Raf(V600E)-thrombin-dependent mechanism. We concluded that the activation of thrombin generation by cancer cells in plasma is an important process regulating melanoma extravasation by disrupting endothelial junction integrity. PMID:26504080

  10. Self-energized plasma compressor. [for compressing plasma discharged from coaxial plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shriver, E. L.; Igenbergs, E. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The self-energized plasma compressor is described which compresses plasma discharged from a coaxial plasma generator. The device includes a helically shaped coil which is coaxially aligned with the center axis of the coaxial plasma generator. The plasma generator creates a current through the helical coil which, in turn, generates a time varying magnetic field that creates a force which acts radially upon the plasma. The coaxial plasma generator and helical coil move the plasma under high pressure and temperature to the narrow end of the coil. Positioned adjacent to the narrow end of the coil are beads which are engaged by the plasma to be accelerated to hypervelocities for simulating meteoroids.

  11. Challenges of the management of severe hemophilia A with inhibitors: two case reports emphasizing the potential interest of a high-purity human Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate and individually tailored prophylaxis guided by thrombin-generation test.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sophie; Crampe, Carine; Dargaud, Yesim; Lavigne-Lissalde, Géraldine; Escuriola-Ettingshausen, Carmen; Tardy, Brigitte; Meley, Roland; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Stephan, Jean L; Berger, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Severe hemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the best strategy of treatment when patients develop inhibitors. The objective is to illustrate the benefit of a high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrate (Octanate) in the management of ITI. We also wanted to raise the potential interest of laboratory assays such as thrombin-generation test (TGT) and epitope mapping. Two patients were treated during ITI, first with a recombinant FVIII and then with plasma-derived factor VIII without success, and, finally, with Octanate. Bypassing agents were used based on the results of TGT. Epitope mapping was performed during ITI therapy. These observations suggest the potential contribution of Octanate in the management of ITI in difficult cases. The use of bypassing agents can be necessary in prophylaxis or to treat bleedings, and may be guided by TGT results. Epitope mapping is used to describe the inhibitor. This article shows a decrease of the inhibitor directed against the C2 domain after initiation of Octanate. A high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate (Octanate) may be a valuable therapeutical option for ITI therapy. TGT and epitope mapping could be of help in the management of ITI. PMID:26517064

  12. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Marx, Pauline F

    2004-09-01

    The coagulation system is a potent mechanism that prevents blood loss after vascular injury. It consists of a number of linked enzymatic reactions resulting in thrombin generation. Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into a fibrin clot. The clot is subsequently removed by the fibrinolytic system upon wound healing. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which is identical to the previously identified proteins procarboxypeptidase B, R, and U, forms a link between blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. TAFI circulates as an inactive proenzyme in the bloodstream, and becomes activated during blood clotting. The active form, TAFIa, inhibits fibrinolysis by cleaving off C-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin that stimulates the tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Consequently, removal of these lysines leads to less plasmin formation and subsequently to protection of the fibrin clot from break down. Moreover, TAFI may also play a role in other processes such as, inflammation and tissue repair. In this review, recent developments in TAFI research are discussed. PMID:15379716

  13. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, G.; Karger, O.; Knetsch, A.; Xi, Y.; Deng, A.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Smith, J.; Manahan, G. G.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Hidding, B.

    2015-08-01

    A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  14. Optical spectra of FLASH generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stránský, M.; Rohlena, Karel

    2014-05-01

    Time integrated measurements of optical spectra of the plasma generated by pulses of the free electron laser facility FLASH on a solid target at DESY Hamburg are interpreted in terms of plasma hydrodynamics. It is shown that the main contribution to the optical range comes from the expanding stage of the plasma evolution on a ns scale, whereas the UV part is partially obscured by the optically dense outstreaming plasma near the ablated hole.

  15. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.

  16. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  17. Hydrogen ionic plasma generated using Al plasma grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oohara, W.; Anegawa, N.; Egawa, M.; Kawata, K.; Kamikawa, T.

    2016-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced in the apertures of a plasma grid made of aluminum under the irradiation of positive ions, generating an ionic plasma consisting of positive and negative ions. The saturation current ratio obtained using a Langmuir probe reflects the existence ratio of electrons and is found to increase in connection with the diffusion of the ionic plasma. The local increment of the current ratio suggests the collapse of negative ions and the replacement of detached electrons.

  18. Role of clot-associated (-derived) thrombin in cell proliferation induced by fibrin clots in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gandossi, E; Lunven, C; Berry, C N

    2000-01-01

    Thrombin is a potent mitogenic agent. Clot-associated thrombin retains its amidolytic and pro-aggregant activity. We therefore studied the ability of fibrin clots to induce proliferation in CCL39 cells (Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts), in the absence and presence of the thrombin inhibitors PPACK, recombinant hirudin (rHV2 Lys47) and heparin:antithrombin III. Fibrin clots incubated for 48 h with CCL39 cells led to significant cell proliferation, which was dependent on the concentration of thrombin used to prepare the clots. Thus, clots prepared with 91 nmol l−1 thrombin produced a similar proliferation (231±21%) to that obtained with 50 nmol l−1 thrombin in solution (213±29%). Rabbit plasma clots led to a 499±41% increase in cell number under identical conditions. Fibrin clot-induced cell proliferation was inhibited by all three thrombin inhibitors with no difference in IC50 values compared to those obtained against thrombin in solution, suggesting that cell proliferation be due to thrombin leaching from the clots. We found a time-dependent increase in thrombin release from the clots attaining a plateau at 24 h (∼61% of the total thrombin used in clot formation). Clots separated from the cells using porous cell culture chamber inserts led to similar proliferation to that of clots in contact with the cells. Thus fibrin-clot induced CCL39 proliferation is due to thrombin released from the clots. PMID:10696104

  19. SLOW THROMBIN IS ZYMOGEN-LIKE

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Blood coagulation is the result of a cascade of zymogen activation events, however, its initiation is allosteric. Factor VIIa circulates in a zymogen-like state and is allosterically activated by binding to tissue factor. Thrombin, the final protease generated in the blood coagulation cascade, has also been shown to exist in a low activity state in the absence of cofactors, and the structural features of this ‘slow’ form has been studied for many years. In this manuscript I will review the general features that render zymogens inactive and how proteolytic cleavage results in activation, but I will also show how this distinction is blurred by zymogens that have activity (protease-like zymogens) and proteases with low activity (zymogen-like proteases). This will then be applied in the analysis of slow thrombin to reveal how allosteric activation of thrombin simply reflects the conversion from a zymogen-like enzyme to an active serine protease. PMID:19630791

  20. The phosphorylation status of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 in astrocytes and neurons from rat hippocampus determines the thrombin-induced calcium release and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Zündorf, Gregor; Reiser, Georg

    2011-12-01

    Challenge of protease-activated receptors induces cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c)) increase, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation with a bandwidth of responses in individual cells. We detected in this study in situ the thrombin-induced [Ca(2+) ](c) rise and ROS formation in dissociated hippocampal astrocytes and neurons in a mixed culture. In identified cells, single cell responses were correlated with extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation level. On average, in astrocytes, thrombin induced a transient [Ca(2+) ](c) rise with concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and extrusion rate and high ERK1/2 phosphorylation level. Correlation analysis of [Ca(2+) ](c) response characteristics of single astrocytes reveals that astrocytes with nuclear phosphoERK1/2 localization have a smaller Ca(2+) amplitude and extrusion rate compared with cells with a cytosolic phosphoERK1/2 localization. In naive neurons, without thrombin challenge, variable ERK1/2 phosphorylation patterns are observed. ROS were detected by hydroethidine. Only in neurons with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation level, we see sustained intracellular rise in fluorescence of the dye lasting over several minutes. ROS formation was abolished by pre-incubation with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, thrombin induced an immediate, transient hydroethidine fluorescence increase. This was interpreted as NADPH oxidase-mediated O(2) (•-) -release into the extracellular milieu, because it was decreased by pre-incubation with apocynin, and could be eluted by superfusion. In conclusion, the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 determines the thrombin-dependent [Ca(2+) ](c) increase and ROS formation and, thus, influences the capacity of thrombin to regulate neuroprotection or neurodegeneration. PMID:21988180

  1. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1991-07-16

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.

  2. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Chin-Chi; Gorbatkin, Steven M.; Berry, Lee A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.

  3. Physics issues associated with low-beta plasma generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic aspects of MHD generators are explored by examining the propagation of dense, low-beta streams of plasma. Three situations are considered: the basic principles of plasma-stream propagation, the propagation of plasma streams into vacuum, and the propagation of plasma streams into ambient plasmas. These three situations are analogous to plasma generators, plasma generators with vacuum loads, and plasma generators with plasma loads. Kinetic (microphysics) aspects include oscillations of the generator plasma, the effects of diocotron instabilities, the acceleration of particles, the starvation of current systems, and plasma-wave production.

  4. High frequency plasma generator for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, H.; Divergilio, W. F.; Fosnight, V. V.; Komatsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program to experimentally develop two new types of plasma generators for 30 cm electrostatic argon ion thrusters are presented. The two plasma generating methods selected for this study were by radio frequency induction (RFI), operating at an input power frequency of 1 MHz, and by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at an operating frequency of 5.0 GHz. Both of these generators utilize multiline cusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement and beam profile optimization. The program goals were to develop a plasma generator possessing the characteristics of high electrical efficiency (low eV/ion) and simplicity of operation while maintaining the reliability and durability of the conventional hollow cathode plasma sources. The RFI plasma generator has achieved minimum discharge losses of 120 eV/ion while the ECH generator has obtained 145 eV/ion, assuming a 90% ion optical transparency of the electrostatic acceleration system. Details of experimental tests with a variety of magnet configurations are presented.

  5. Changes in the pattern of distribution of von Willebrand factor in rat aortic endothelial cells following thrombin generation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Senis, Y A; Richardson, M; Tinlin, S; Maurice, D H; Giles, A R

    1996-04-01

    The pattern of distribution of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in relatively large sheets of rat aortic endothelial cells (EC) obtained by the Häutchen technique were analysed by immunocytochemistry and light microscopy. EC were examined pre and post administration of a procoagulant mixture of factor Xa (F.Xa) and phosphotidylcholine/phosphotidylserine (PCPS) vesicles which was demonstrated to result in the selective loss of high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) of plasma VWF in the rat. In placebo animals the pattern was heterogenous both in overall distribution and in individual cells which showed both a diffuse and granular pattern. Groups of intensely stained EC were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aorta and staining was particularly prominent around the orifices of the intercostal arteries, implicating shear-stress as a possible factor in VWF expression by EC. Changes in the pattern of distribution of staining were observed at various time points post-infusion of F.Xa/PCPS, suggesting the immediate release of VWF from EC stores followed by the recruitment of EC to synthesize and store VWF. These changes are consistent with the decrease in EC Weibel-Palade Body (WPB) content observed by EM in previously reported studies using this model. PMID:8611460

  6. [THROMBIN-MEDIATED EFFECTS OF BLOOD MICROPARTICLES ON FORMATION, STRUCTURE, AND STABILITY OF FIBRIN CLOTS].

    PubMed

    Nabiullina, R M; Mustafin, I G; Ataullakhanov, F I; Litvinov, R I; Zubairova, L D

    2015-07-01

    The effects of blood microparticles (MPs) on the dynamics of fibrin polymerization, clot structure and susceptibility to fibrinolysis were studied. Kinetics of fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis, thrombin generation in platelet-free, microparticle-depleted and microparticle-depleted plasma replenished with cephalin, from healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. MPs have profound effects on all stages of fibrin formation, decrease its turbidity. All parameters obtained in the absence of MPs were recovered after reconstitution of phospholipids. Thrombin generation rates were reduced in the absence of MPs. In the presence of MPs the fibrin networks had less poro us structures with thinner fibers, while clots formed in the absence of MPs had larger pores and were built of thicker fibers. Clots formed in the presence of MPs were significantly more resistant to fibrinolysis. Results show that normally circulating MPs can support the formation of stable clots at the sites of vascular injury. PMID:26591054

  7. Joint health scores in a haemophilia A cohort from Pakistan with minimal or no access to factor VIII concentrate: correlation with thrombin generation and underlying mutation.

    PubMed

    Khanum, F; Bowen, D J; Kerr, B C; Collins, P W

    2014-05-01

    Haemophilia A is associated with recurrent joint bleeding which leads to synovitis and debilitating arthropathy. Coagulation factor VIII level is an important determinant of bleed number and development of arthropathy . The aim of this study was to compare the haemophilia joint health score (HJHS) and Gilbert score with severity, age, thrombin generation (TG) and underlying mutation in a haemophilia A cohort which had minimal access to haemostatic replacement therapy. Ninety-two haemophilia A individuals were recruited from Pakistan. Age, age at first bleed, target joints, haemophilic arthropathy joints, HJHS and Gilbert score were recorded. A strong correlation was found between HJHS and Gilbert score (r = 0.98), both were significantly higher in severe (n = 59) compared with non-severe (n = 29) individuals before the age of 12 years (P ≤ 0.01) but not thereafter. When individuals were divided according to developmental age (<12 years, 12-16 years and >16 years), both HJHS and Gilbert score were significantly lower in the youngest group (P ≤ 0.001), there was no difference between 12-16 years and >16 years. In severe individuals there was no correlation between in vitro TG and joint score, whereas in non-severe individuals there was a weak negative correlation. In the severe group, no significant difference was observed for either joint score according to the underlying mutation type (inversion, missense, nonsense, frameshift). In this cohort of haemophilia A individuals with minimal access to haemostatic treatment, haemophilic arthropathy correlated with severity and age; among severe individuals, joint health scores did not relate to either the underlying mutation or in vitro TG. PMID:24354535

  8. High-harmonic generation in cavitated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Comier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2008-05-15

    A method is proposed for producing coherent x-rays via high-harmonic generation using ultraintense lasers interacting with highly stripped ions in cavitated plasmas. This method relies on plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense drive beam (laser or electron beam) to produce an ion cavity. An ultrashort pulse laser propagating in the plasma-electron-free ion cavity generates laser harmonics. The longitudinal electron motion, which inhibits high-harmonic generation at high laser intensities, can be suppressed by the space-charge field in the ion cavity or by using a counterpropagating laser pulse. Periodic suppression of the longitudinal electron motion may also be used to quasi-phase-match. This method enables harmonic generation to be extended to the sub-A regime.

  9. 30-cm electron cyclotron plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, Hank

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on the development of a 30-cm-diam electron cyclotron resonance plasma generator are presented. This plasma source utilizes samarium-cobalt magnets and microwave power at a frequency of 4.9 GHz to produce a uniform plasma with densities of up to 3 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm in a continuous fashion. The plasma generator contains no internal structures, and is thus inherently simple in construction and operation and inherently durable. The generator was operated with two different magnetic geometries. One used the rare-earth magnets arranged in an axial line cusp configuration, which directly showed plasma production taking place near the walls of the generator where the electron temperature was highest but with the plasma density peaking in the central low B-field regions. The second configuration had magnets arranged to form azimuthal line cusps with approximately closed electron drift surfaces; this configuration showed an improved electrical efficiency of about 135 eV/ion.

  10. Ion beams from laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. H.; Anderson, R. J.; Gray, L. G.; Rosenfeld, J. P.; Manka, C. K.; Carruth, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the space-charge-limited beams produced by the plasma blowoffs generated by 20-MW bursts of 1.06-micron radiation from an active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Laser power densities near 10 to the 11th/sq cm on solid targets generate thermalized plasma plumes which drift to a 15-kV gridded extraction gap where the ions are extracted, accelerated, and electrostatically focused; the spatially defined ion beams are then magnetically analyzed to determine the charge state content in the beams formed from carbon, aluminum, copper, and lead targets. This technique preserves time-of-flight (TOF) information in the plasma drift region, which permits plasma ion temperatures and mass flow velocities to be determined from the Maxwellian ion curve TOF shapes for the individual charge species.

  11. Hirudin as a molecular probe for thrombin in vitro and during systemic coagulation in the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Zoldhelyi, P; Chesebro, J H; Owen, W G

    1993-01-01

    The amount of thrombin active in vivo in the intravascular space (blood and endothelial surface), both basally and in experimental intravascular coagulation, is measured by way of the accessibility of thrombin to intravascular hirudin. Blood samples from pigs given intravenous 125I-labeled hirudin contain 125I-labeled hirudin-thrombin complex in concentrations indicative of a basal thrombin concentration in vivo of 0.5 nmol/liter. Intravenous infusion of Salmonella endotoxin elicits an increase in the circulating concentration of hirudin-thrombin complex that begins within 15 min and is 20-30 times basal after 4 hr. Induction of mild intravascular coagulation is evidenced by a modest reduction in plasma fibrinogen concentrations. It is concluded that there is a basal pool of hirudin-accessible thrombin in the intravascular space that, were it free in the plasma phase, would be sufficient in principle to sustain intravascular coagulation. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8446595

  12. Effect of thrombin on maturing human megakaryocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, E. M.; Massé, J. M.; Caen, J. P.; Garcia, I.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Debili, N.; Vainchenker, W.

    1993-01-01

    Thrombin causes platelet activation and secretion. In some nucleated cells, it is mitogenic. In this study, we have investigated how human megakaryocytes (MKs) respond to this agonist and whether the response depends on the maturation stage. MKs were cultured from bone marrow precursors in liquid culture in the presence of normal plasma. To determine whether thrombin can activate MKs, 14-day MK cultures were incubated with thrombin for 5 minutes, and cells were studied by electron microscopy, either by standard techniques or after embedding in glycol-methacrylate for immunoelectron microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of thrombin-treated MKs revealed dramatic morphological changes reminiscent of those found in platelets, including shape change and organelle centralization that involved immature as well as mature cells. MKs were also able to secrete alpha-granule proteins in the dilated cisternae of the demarcation membrane system, as shown by immunogold staining for thrombospondin and glycoprotein Ib. These changes were rapid (less than 5 minutes) but despite them, MKs remained viable for more than 24 hours. To determine whether thrombin has a mitogenic activity, it was added to the culture of MKs from day 3 to day 10 of culture at concentrations varying from 0.1 to 10 U/ml. Cells were subsequently studied by a double staining technique using flow cytometry to determine MK number and ploidy. No changes were observed in these two parameters, showing that thrombin is not mitogenic for MKs at the concentrations used. In conclusion, this study confirms for human MKs previous observations made about guinea pig MKs (Fedorko et al, Lab Invest 1977, 36:32). In addition, it demonstrates that immature MKs are able to respond to thrombin and that more mature cells can secrete alpha-granule proteins into the demarcation membrane system, which is in continuity with the extracellular space. This phenomenon may have implications for pathological states such as myelofibrosis

  13. A balance between TFPI and thrombin-mediated platelet activation is required for murine embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ellery, Paul E. R.; Maroney, Susan A.; Cooley, Brian C.; Luyendyk, James P.; Zogg, Mark; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a critical anticoagulant protein present in endothelium and platelets. Mice lacking TFPI (Tfpi−/−) die in utero from disseminated intravascular coagulation. They are rescued by concomitant tissue factor (TF) deficiency, demonstrating that TFPI modulates TF function in vivo. Recent studies have found TFPI inhibits prothrombinase activity during the initiation of coagulation and limits platelet accumulation during thrombus formation, implicating TFPI in modulating platelet procoagulant activity. To examine whether altered platelet function would compensate for the lack of TFPI and rescue TFPI-null embryonic lethality, Tfpi+/− mice lacking the platelet thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4; Par4−/−), or its coreceptor, PAR3, were mated. PAR3 deficiency did not rescue Tfpi−/− embryos, but >40% of expected Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− offspring survived to adulthood. Adult Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice did not exhibit overt thrombosis. However, they had focal sterile inflammation with fibrin(ogen) deposition in the liver and elevated plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes, indicating activation of coagulation at baseline. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice have platelet and fibrin accumulation similar to Par4−/− mice following venous electrolytic injury but were more susceptible than Par4−/− mice to TF-induced pulmonary embolism. In addition, ∼30% of the Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice were born with short tails. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice are the first adult mice described that lack TFPI with unaltered TF. They demonstrate that TFPI physiologically modulates thrombin-dependent platelet activation in a manner that is required for successful embryonic development and identify a role for TFPI in dampening intravascular procoagulant stimuli that lead to thrombin generation, even in the absence of thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:25954015

  14. Characterization of railgun-generated plasma armatures

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Production and acceleration of plasmas using railguns is of interest because of the high temperatures and velocities which can be achieved. Railgun-generated plasmas can be used to model difficult-to-study phenomena such as the conditions present when a space vehicle re-enters the earth's atmosphere. There is also interest in the use of plasma railguns in material-processing applications such as deposition of heated particles onto a substrate. To understand and control these processes it is necessary to be able to determine parameters of the plasmas such as temperature, density, and composition. The methods by which these plasma characteristics can be systematically determined are the foci of this study. A rectangular-bore railgun and the vacuum chamber in which it was enclosed were constructed and successfully operated. Magnetic probes and phototransistors were used to determine the velocities of the plasma armatures produced by the railgun. Gated plasma-emission spectroscopy was used to determine the composition, electron density, and temperature at various positions within the plasma armatures.

  15. Cold plasma brush generated at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Yixiang; Huang, C.; Yu, Q. S.

    2007-01-15

    A cold plasma brush is generated at atmospheric pressure with low power consumption in the level of several watts (as low as 4 W) up to tens of watts (up to 45 W). The plasma can be ignited and sustained in both continuous and pulsed modes with different plasma gases such as argon or helium, but argon was selected as a primary gas for use in this work. The brush-shaped plasma is formed and extended outside of the discharge chamber with typical dimension of 10-15 mm in width and less than 1.0 mm in thickness, which are adjustable by changing the discharge chamber design and operating conditions. The brush-shaped plasma provides some unique features and distinct nonequilibrium plasma characteristics. Temperature measurements using a thermocouple thermometer showed that the gas phase temperatures of the plasma brush are close to room temperature (as low as 42 deg. C) when running with a relatively high gas flow rate of about 3500 ml/min. For an argon plasma brush, the operating voltage from less than 500 V to about 2500 V was tested, with an argon gas flow rate varied from less than 1000 to 3500 ml/min. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical applications including battery-powered operation and use in large-scale applications. Several polymer film samples were tested for surface treatment with the newly developed device, and successful changes of the wettability property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic were achieved within a few seconds.

  16. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing. PMID:22380221

  17. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    A prototype RF H{sup -} surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA/kW. Control experiments with H{sup -} beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  18. Plasma membrane associated phospholipase C from human platelets: Synergistic stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis by thrombin and guanosine 5 prime -O-(3-thiotriphosphate)

    SciTech Connect

    Baldassare, J.J.; Henderson, P.A.; Fisher, G.J. )

    1989-01-10

    The effects of thrombin and GTP{gamma}S on the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides by membrane-associated phospholipase C (PLC) from human platelets were examined with endogenous ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes or with lipid vesicles containing either ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol or ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) or thrombin (1 unit/mL) did not stimulate release of inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}), or inositol phosphate (IP) from ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes. IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, but not IP, from ({sup 3}H)inositol-labeled membranes were, however, stimulated 3-fold by GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) plus thrombin (1 unit/mL). A higher concentration of GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) alone also stimulated IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, but not IP, release. In the presence of 1 mM calcium, release of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} was increased 6-fold over basal levels; however, formation of IP was not observed. At submicromolar calcium concentration, hydrolysis of exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) by platelet membrane associated PLC was also markedly enhanced by GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) or GTP{gamma}S (1 {mu}M) plus thrombin (1 unit/mL). Under identical conditions, exogenous phosphatidylinositol (PI) was not hydrolyzed. The same substrate specificity was observed when the membrane-associated PLC was activated with 1 mM calcium. Thrombin-induced hydrolysis of PIP{sub 2} was inhibited by treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin or pretreatment of intact platelets with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA) prior to preparation of membranes. Pertussis toxin did not inhibit GTP{gamma}S (100 {mu}M) or calcium (1 mM) dependent PIP{sub 2} breakdown, while TPA inhibited GTP{gamma}S-dependent but not calcium-dependent phospholipase C activity.

  19. Loss of high-affinity prostacyclin receptors in platelets and the lack of prostaglandin-induced inhibition of platelet-stimulated thrombin generation in subjects with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, N N; Bauman, W A; Sinha, A K

    1996-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, platelets of those with SCI (n = 30) showed neither increased aggregation nor resistance to the antiaggregatory effects of prostacyclin when compared with normal controls (n = 30). Prostanoid-induced cAMP synthesis was similar in both groups. In contrast, prostacyclin, which completely inhibited the platelet-stimulated thrombin generation in normal controls, failed to do so in those with SCI. Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H]prostaglandin E1, used as a prostacyclin receptor probe, showed the presence of one high-affinity (Kd1 = 8.11 +/- 2.80 nM; n1 = 172 +/- 32 sites per cell) and one low-affinity (Kd2 = 1.01 +/- 0.3 microM; n2 = 1772 +/- 226 sites per cell) prostacyclin receptor in normal platelets. In contrast, the same analysis in subjects with SCI showed significant loss (P < 0.001) of high-affinity receptor sites (Kd1 = 6.34 +/- 1.91 nM; n1 = 43 +/- 10 sites per cell) with no significant change in the low affinity-receptors (Kd2 = 1.22 +/- 0.23; n2 = 1820 +/- 421). Treatment of these platelets with insulin, which has been demonstrated to restore both of the high- and low-affinity prostaglandin receptor numbers to within normal ranges in coronary artery disease, increased high-affinity receptor numbers and restored the prostacyclin effect on thrombin generation. These results demonstrate that the loss of the inhibitory effect of prostacyclin on the stimulation of thrombin generation was due to the loss of platelet high-affinity prostanoid receptors, which may contribute to atherogenesis in individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:8552614

  20. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  1. rf-generated ambient-afterglow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Shariff; Mynampati, Sandhya; Pashaie, Bijan; Dhali, Shirshak K.

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained importance due to their potential application in polymer surface treatment, surface cleaning of metals, thin film deposition, and destruction of biological hazards. In this paper a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure afterglow plasma source in argon and helium is discussed. The light intensity measurement shows that the radio-frequency discharge is continuous in time unlike the intermittent nature of a low frequency dielectric-barrier discharge. The discharge, under ambient conditions, can be generated in argon, helium, and nitrogen. Spectroscopic measurements show that metastables are capable of producing oxygen atoms and other excited species. The argon afterglow, in particular, is capable of dissociating oxygen molecules in the ambient gas. An afterglow model has been developed to study the interaction of the plasma with the ambient gas. Results from applications of the plasma to surface treatment of metals and polymers, and bacterial decontamination are briefly discussed.

  2. Plasma generators, reactor systems and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Lee, James E.

    2007-06-19

    A plasma generator, reactor and associated systems and methods are provided in accordance with the present invention. A plasma reactor may include multiple sections or modules which are removably coupled together to form a chamber. Associated with each section is an electrode set including three electrodes with each electrode being coupled to a single phase of a three-phase alternating current (AC) power supply. The electrodes are disposed about a longitudinal centerline of the chamber and are arranged to provide and extended arc and generate an extended body of plasma. The electrodes are displaceable relative to the longitudinal centerline of the chamber. A control system may be utilized so as to automatically displace the electrodes and define an electrode gap responsive to measure voltage or current levels of the associated power supply.

  3. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, J.H.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

  4. Characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Weidong; Li, Jianqiao; Ning, Jianguo

    2013-09-15

    The characteristics of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact were studied through both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Based on thermodynamics and statistical physics, a thermal ionization model was proposed to explore the relationships of ionization degree and plasma conductivity to temperature with consideration of the velocity distribution law in the thermodynamic equilibrium state. In order to derive the temperature, internal energy, and density of the plasma generated by the impact for the above relationships, a 3-D model for the impact of an aluminum spherical projectile on an aluminum target was established and five cases with different impact angles were numerically simulated. Then, the temperature calculated from the internal energy and the Thomas Fermi (TF) model, the internal energy and the density of the plasma were put into the function of the ionization degree to study the characteristics of plasma. Finally, based on the experimental data, a good agreement was obtained between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results, and the feasibility of this theoretical model was verified.

  5. Plasma driven neutron/gamma generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Antolak, Arlyn

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for the generation of neutron/gamma rays is described including a chamber which defines an ion source, said apparatus including an RF antenna positioned outside of or within the chamber. Positioned within the chamber is a target material. One or more sets of confining magnets are also provided to create a cross B magnetic field directly above the target. To generate neutrons/gamma rays, the appropriate source gas is first introduced into the chamber, the RF antenna energized and a plasma formed. A series of high voltage pulses are then applied to the target. A plasma sheath, which serves as an accelerating gap, is formed upon application of the high voltage pulse to the target. Depending upon the selected combination of source gas and target material, either neutrons or gamma rays are generated, which may be used for cargo inspection, and the like.

  6. Electric-arc steam plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  7. Thrombin and fibrinogen γ' impact clot structure by marked effects on intrafibrillar structure and protofibril packing.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Marco M; Macrae, Fraser L; Duval, Cédric; McPherson, Helen R; Bridge, Katherine I; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Ridger, Victoria C; Connell, Simon D; Philippou, Helen; Ariëns, Robert A S

    2016-01-28

    Previous studies have shown effects of thrombin and fibrinogen γ' on clot structure. However, structural information was obtained using electron microscopy, which requires sample dehydration. Our aim was to investigate the role of thrombin and fibrinogen γ' in modulating fibrin structure under fully hydrated conditions. Fibrin fibers were studied using turbidimetry, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, and magnetic tweezers in purified and plasma solutions. Increased thrombin induced a pronounced decrease in average protofibril content per fiber, with a relatively minor decrease in fiber size, leading to the formation of less compact fiber structures. Atomic force microscopy under fully hydrated conditions confirmed that fiber diameter was only marginally decreased. Decreased protofibril content of the fibers produced by high thrombin resulted in weakened clot architecture as analyzed by magnetic tweezers in purified systems and by thromboelastometry in plasma and whole blood. Fibers produced with fibrinogen γ' showed reduced protofibril packing over a range of thrombin concentrations. High-magnification electron microscopy demonstrated reduced protofibril packing in γ' fibers and unraveling of fibers into separate protofibrils. Decreased protofibril packing was confirmed in plasma for high thrombin concentrations and fibrinogen-deficient plasma reconstituted with γ' fibrinogen. These findings demonstrate that, in fully hydrated conditions, thrombin and fibrinogen γ' have dramatic effects on protofibril content and that protein density within fibers correlates with strength of the fibrin network. We conclude that regulation of protofibril content of fibers is an important mechanism by which thrombin and fibrinogen γ' modulate fibrin clot structure and strength. PMID:26608329

  8. Pulsed Energy Systems for Generating Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. Franklin; Shotts, Z.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will describe the techniques needed to electrically generate highly ionized dense plasmas for a variety of applications. The components needed in pulsed circuits are described in terms of general performance parameters currently available from commercial vendors. Examples of pulsed systems using these components are described and technical data from laboratory experiments presented. Experimental data are given for point designs, capable of multi-megawatt power levels.

  9. Laboratory investigations of impact-generated plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, David A.; Schultz, Peter H.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of plasma that was produced in laboratory by hypervelocity impacts were investigated to demonstrate the feasibility of generation of magnetic fields by meteoritic impacts and to explain the presence of paleomagnetic fields on the lunar surface. The impact-generated magnetic fields were found to exhibit spatial and temporal complexity that depended on the impact angle, the velocity, and the projectile/target composition. The results suggest that crater-related paleomagnetism associated with this mechanism should exhibit similar complexity with spatial wavelengths on the order of a fraction of the crater radius.

  10. Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M. |

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas.

  11. An aptamer assay using rolling circle amplification coupled with thrombin catalysis for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Hao, Lihua; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    We describe a sensitive aptamer-based sandwich assay for protein detection on microplate by using rolling circle amplification (RCA) coupled with thrombin catalysis. This assay takes advantage of RCA generating long DNA oligonucleotides with repeat thrombin-binding aptamer sequence, specific aptamer affinity binding to achieve multiple thrombin labeling, and enzyme activity of thrombin for signal generation. Protein target is specifically captured by antibody-coated microplate. Then, an oligonucleotide containing an aptamer for protein and a primer sequence is added to form a typical sandwich structure. Following a template encoded with complementary sequence of aptamer for thrombin, RCA reaction extends the primer sequence into a long oligonucleotide. Many thrombin molecules bind with the RCA product. Thrombin catalyzes the conversion of its chromogenic or fluorogenic peptide substrates into detectable products for final quantification of protein targets. We applied this strategy to the detection of a model protein target, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Due to double signal amplifications from RCA and thrombin catalysis, this assay enabled the detection of PDGF-BB as low as 3.1 pM when a fluorogenic peptide substrate was used. This assay provides a new way for signal generation in RCA-involved assay through direct thrombin labeling, circumventing time-consuming preparation of enzyme-conjugate and affinity probes. This method has promise for a variety of analytical applications. PMID:27108282

  12. Pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of dabigatran etexilate, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Joachim; Clemens, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is a novel, oral reversible direct thrombin inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed and converted to its active form, dabigatran. Dabigatran has been shown to be a potent, competitive, and reversible inhibitor of thrombin, inhibiting both thrombin activity and generation. Studies in healthy volunteers and in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery indicate that dabigatran has a predictable pharmacokinetic profile, allowing for a fixed-dose regimen without the need for coagulation monitoring. In healthy volunteers, peak plasma concentrations of dabigatran are reached approximately 2 hours after oral administration. The elimination half-life is 12 to 14 hours, with clearance predominantly occurring via renal excretion of unchanged drug. Dabigatran is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, has no interactions with food, and also has a low potential for drug-drug interactions. The pharmacokinetic profile of dabigatran is consistent across a broad range of different patient populations and is unaffected by gender, body weight, ethnic origin, obesity, and mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. Small differences in dabigatran pharmacokinetics associated with age are attributable to variation in renal function. Dabigatran etexilate produces a predictable pharmacodynamic effect and requires no coagulation monitoring. It has been approved in the European Union (EU) and Canada for prophylaxis of thromboembolism in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating its use in the treatment of venous thromboembolism, prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, and treatment of thromboembolic complications, following acute coronary syndromes. PMID:19696042

  13. Stanniocalcin-1 inhibits thrombin-induced signaling and protects from bleomycin-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Luping; Zhang, Lin; Ju, Huiming; Li, Qingtian; Pan, Jenny Szu-Chin; Al-Lawati, Zahraa; Sheikh-Hamad, David

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin-induced and proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated signaling increases ROS production, activates ERK, and promotes inflammation and fibroblast proliferation in bleomycin-induced lung injury. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) activates anti-oxidant pathways, inhibits inflammation and provides cytoprotection; hence, we hypothesized that STC1 will inhibit thrombin/PAR1 signaling and protect from bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. We determined thrombin level and activity, thrombin-induced PAR-1-mediated signaling, superoxide generation and lung pathology after intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin to WT and STC1 Tg mice. Lungs of bleomycin-treated WT mice display: severe pneumonitis; increased generation of superoxide; vascular leak; increased thrombin protein abundance and activity; activation of ERK; greater cytokine/chemokine release and infiltration with T-cells and macrophages. Lungs of STC1 Tg mice displayed none of the above changes. Mechanistic analysis in cultured pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) suggests that STC1 inhibits thrombin-induced and PAR1-mediated ERK activation through suppression of superoxide. In conclusion, STC1 blunts bleomycin-induced rise in thrombin protein and activity, diminishes thrombin-induced signaling through PAR1 to ERK, and inhibits bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Moreover, our study identifies a new set of cytokines/chemokines, which play a role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung injury. These findings broaden the array of potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung diseases characterized by thrombin activation, oxidant stress and inflammation. PMID:26640170

  14. Evaluation of Potential Thrombin Inhibitors from the White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Caroline Fabri Bittencourt; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; Belchor, Mariana Novo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Pena; Pinho, Marcus Vinícius Terashima; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the effects of methanol (MeOH) and hydroalcoholic (HA) extracts and their respective partition phases obtained from white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.) leaves on human thrombin activity. Among the extracts and phases tested, only the ethyl acetate and butanolic partitions significantly inhibited human thrombin activity and the coagulation of plasma in the presence of this enzyme. Chromatographic analyses of the thrombin samples incubated with these phases revealed that different compounds were able to interact with thrombin. The butanolic phase of the MeOH extract had the most potent inhibitory effects, reducing enzymatic activity and thrombin-induced plasma coagulation. Two glycosylated flavonoids in this partition were identified as the most potent inhibitors of human thrombin activity, namely quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (QAra) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Qn). Chromatographic analyses of thrombin samples incubated with these flavonoids demonstrated the chemical modification of this enzyme, suggesting that the MeOH extract contained other compounds that both induced structural changes in thrombin and diminished its activity. In this article, we show that despite the near absence of the medical use of mangrove compounds, this plant contains natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26197325

  15. Volumetric Near-Field Microwave Plasma Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2003-01-01

    A periodic series of microwave-induced plasmoids is generated using the outgoing wave from a microwave horn and the reflected wave from a nearby on-axis concave reflector. The plasmoids are spaced at half-wavelength separations according to a standing-wave pattern. The plasmoids are enhanced by an effective focusing in the near field of the horn (Fresnel region) as a result of a diffractive narrowing. Optical imaging, electron density, and rotational temperature measurements characterize the near field plasma region. Volumetric microwave discharges may have application to combustion ignition in scramjet engines.

  16. The Behavior of Plasma Gases in Explosively-Driven Plasma Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Minsu; Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Inho

    2011-06-01

    The plasma-hydrodynamic computer simulation has been performed in order to investigate the thermodynamic and electrical properties of plasma generated in an explosively-driven cylindrical plasma generator. An one-dimensional hydrodynamic code, One-D, was written for this study and a realistic plasma equation of state model was applied to the code. A couple of plasma generators were manufactured and filled by dry air or pressurized argon gas for plasma medium. The plasma thickness and flow velocity were measured by utilizing the optical and electrical pins. The simulation results of the plasma characteristics were in good agreement with the measured values.

  17. Thrombin-Responsive Gated Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticles As Coagulation Regulators.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Ribes, Àngela; Mas, Núria; Aznar, Elena; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, M Dolores; Murguía, Jose R; Venkataraman, Abbaraju; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of achieving sophisticated actions in complex biological environments using gated nanoparticles is an exciting prospect with much potential. We herein describe new gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) loaded with an anticoagulant drug and capped with a peptide containing a thrombin-specific cleavage site. When the coagulation cascade was triggered, active thrombin degraded the capping peptidic sequence and induced the release of anticoagulant drugs to delay the clotting process. The thrombin-dependent response was assessed and a significant increase in coagulation time in plasma from 2.6 min to 5 min was found. This work broadens the application of gated silica nanoparticles and demonstrates their ability to act as controllers in a complex scenario such as hemostasis. PMID:26794474

  18. A plasmonic aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin via arrested rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Bi, Sai; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Jianfei; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Min; Gui, Rijun; Li, Yanhui; Xia, Yanzhi

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive signal generation mechanism for gold nanoparticle growth by reducing gold ions with hydrogen peroxide is applied in a plasmonic aptasensor, achieving naked-eye detection of thrombin at the single-molecule level based on the specific interaction of aptamer-thrombin via an arrested rolling circle amplification to yield horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzymes as biocatalysts. PMID:25864665

  19. Generator of steam plasma for gasification of solid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An'shakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Rad'ko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A structural design of an electric-arc steam plasma torch (plasmatron) with copper tubular electrodes has been proposed and implemented. Operational parameters are determined for the stable generation of steam plasma. Experimental data are presented on the energy characteristics of the plasma generator with the capacity up to 100 kW.

  20. Intracellular Ascorbate Prevents Endothelial Barrier Permeabilization by Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Parker, William H; Qu, Zhi-chao; May, James M

    2015-08-28

    Intracellular ascorbate (vitamin C) has previously been shown to tighten the endothelial barrier and maintain barrier integrity during acute inflammation in vitro. However, the downstream effectors of ascorbate in the regulation of endothelial permeability remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated ascorbate as a mediator of thrombin-induced barrier permeabilization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and their immortalized hybridoma line, EA.hy926. We found that the vitamin fully prevented increased permeability to the polysaccharide inulin by thrombin in a dose-dependent manner, and it took effect both before and after subjection to thrombin. Thrombin exposure consumed intracellular ascorbate but not the endogenous antioxidant GSH. Likewise, the antioxidants dithiothreitol and tempol did not reverse permeabilization. We identified a novel role for ascorbate in preserving cAMP during thrombin stimulation, resulting in two downstream effects. First, ascorbate maintained the cortical actin cytoskeleton in a Rap1- and Rac1-dependent manner, thus preserving stable adherens junctions between adjacent cells. Second, ascorbate prevented actin polymerization and formation of stress fibers by reducing the activation of RhoA and phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Although ascorbate and thrombin both required calcium for their respective effects, ascorbate did not prevent thrombin permeabilization by obstructing calcium influx. However, preservation of cAMP by ascorbate was found to depend on both the production of nitric oxide by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, which ascorbate is known to activate, and the subsequent generation cGMP by guanylate cyclase. Together, these data implicate ascorbate in the prevention of inflammatory endothelial barrier permeabilization and explain the underlying signaling mechanism. PMID:26152729

  1. Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes is accompanied by significant morphological and ultrastructural changes in both erythrocytes and in thrombin-generated fibrin: implications for diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Alummoottil, Sajee; Soma, Prashilla; Buys, Antoinette V; Kell, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    We have noted in previous work, in a variety of inflammatory diseases, where iron dysregulation occurs, a strong tendency for erythrocytes to lose their normal discoid shape and to adopt a skewed morphology (as judged by their axial ratios in the light microscope and by their ultrastructure in the SEM). Similarly, the polymerization of fibrinogen, as induced in vitro by added thrombin, leads not to the common 'spaghetti-like' structures but to dense matted deposits. Type 2 diabetes is a known inflammatory disease. In the present work, we found that the axial ratio of the erythrocytes of poorly controlled (as suggested by increased HbA1c levels) type 2 diabetics was significantly increased, and that their fibrin morphologies were again highly aberrant. As judged by scanning electron microscopy and in the atomic force microscope, these could be reversed, to some degree, by the addition of the iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) or deferasirox (DFX). As well as their demonstrated diagnostic significance, these morphological indicators may have prognostic value. PMID:25848817

  2. Etching with electron beam generated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S.G.; Muratore, C.; Fernsler, R.F.; Meger, R.A.

    2004-11-01

    A modulated electron beam generated plasma has been used to dry etch standard photoresist materials and silicon. Oxygen-argon mixtures were used to etch organic resist material and sulfur hexafluoride mixed with argon or oxygen was used for the silicon etching. Etch rates and anisotropy were determined with respect to gas compositions, incident ion energy (from an applied rf bias) and plasma duty factor. For 1818 negative resist and i-line resists the removal rate increased nearly linearly with ion energy (up to 220 nm/min at 100 eV), with reasonable anisotropic pattern transfer above 50 eV. Little change in etch rate was seen as gas composition went from pure oxygen to 70% argon, implying the resist removal mechanism in this system required the additional energy supplied by the ions. With silicon substrates at room temperature, mixtures of argon and sulfur hexafluoride etched approximately seven times faster (1375 nm/min) than mixtures of oxygen and sulfur hexafluoride ({approx}200 nm/min) with 200 eV ions, the difference is attributed to the passivation of the silicon by involatile silicon oxyfluoride (SiO{sub x}F{sub y}) compounds. At low incident ion energies, the Ar-SF{sub 6} mixtures showed a strong chemical (lateral) etch component before an ion-assisted regime, which started at {approx}75 eV. Etch rates were independent of the 0.5%-50% duty factors studied in this work.

  3. Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) electrodynamic tether experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, Mario D.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) flight of June 26, 1993 has been the most sophisticated and most successful mission that has been carried out thus far with an electrodynamic tether. Three papers from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Washington, DC concerned with the PMG, submitted at the Fourth International Space Conference on Tethers in Space, in Washington, DC, in April 1995, are contained in this document. The three papers are (1) Electromagnetic interactions between the PMG tether and the magneto-ionic medium of the Ionosphere; (2) Tether-current-voltage characteristics, as determined by the Hollow Cathode Operation Modes; and (3) Hawaii-Hilo ground observations on the occasion for the PMG flight of June 23, 1993.

  4. Procoagulant activity on platelets adhered to collagen or plasma clot.

    PubMed

    Ilveskero, S; Siljander, P; Lassila, R

    2001-04-01

    In a new 2-stage assay of platelet procoagulant activity (PCA), we first subjected gel-filtered platelets to adhesion on collagen (as a model of primary hemostasis) or plasma clots (as a model of preformed thrombus) for 30 minutes, and then the adherent platelets were supplemented with pooled, reptilase-treated, diluted plasma. Defibrinated plasma provided coagulation factors for assembly on platelet membranes without uncontrolled binding of thrombin to fibrin(ogen). Platelet adhesion to both surfaces showed modest individual variation, which increased at platelet densities that allowed aggregation. However, adhesion-induced PCA varied individually and surface-independently >3-fold, suggesting a uniform platelet procoagulant mechanism. Permanently adhered platelets showed markedly enhanced PCA when compared with the platelet pool in suspension, even after strong activation. The rate of thrombin generation induced by clot-adherent platelets was markedly faster than on collagen-adherent platelets during the initial phase of coagulation, whereas collagen-induced PCA proceeded slowly, strongly promoted by tissue thromboplastin. Therefore at 10 minutes, after adjustment for adhered platelets, collagen supported soluble thrombin formation as much as 5 times that of the thrombin-retaining clots. Activation of platelets by their firm adhesion was accompanied by formation of microparticles, representing about one third of the total soluble PCA. Collagen-adhered platelets provide soluble thrombin and microparticles, whereas the preformed clot serves to localize and accelerate hemostasis at the injury site, with the contribution of retained thrombin and microparticles. PMID:11304482

  5. Edge plasma boundary layer generated by kink modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    2011-06-15

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external wall touching and free boundary kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. Both kinds of modes generate {delta}-functional surface current at the plasma edge. Free boundary kink modes also perturb the core plasma current, which in the plasma edge compensates the difference between the {delta}-functional surface currents of free boundary and wall touching kink modes. In addition, the resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  6. Edge plasma boundary layer generated by kink modes in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external wall touching and free boundary kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. Both kinds of modes generate δ-functional surface current at the plasma edge. Free boundary kink modes also perturb the core plasma current, which in the plasma edge compensates the difference between the δ-functional surface currents of free boundary and wall touching kink modes. In addition, the resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  7. Plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids: direct current streamers versus microwave plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-07-01

    Two approaches to generate non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma in bubbles immersed in liquids are compared using high-fidelity 2D fluid simulations. In the first approach, corona/streamer like plasma is generated using high-voltage negative and positive pulses applied between two electrodes (pin-to-plane geometry) immersed in liquid. In the second, the plasma is generated using a remote microwave source (frequency 2.45 GHz). We find that the microwave approach requires less energy, while generating a denser, more chemically reactive and more uniform plasma within the bubble volume, as compared to the plasma generated using high-voltage pulsing.

  8. Generation of solution plasma over a large electrode surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Genki; Nakasugi, Yuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2015-07-01

    Solution plasma has been used in a variety of fields such as nanomaterials synthesis, the degradation of harmful substances, and solution analysis. However, as existing methods are ineffective in generating plasma over a large surface area, this study investigated the contact glow discharge electrolysis, in which the plasma was generated on the electrode surface. To clarify the condition of plasma generation, the effect of electrolyte concentration and temperature on plasma formation was studied. The electrical energy needed for plasma generation is higher than that needed to sustain a plasma, and when the electrolyte temperature was increased from 32 to 90 °C at 0.01 M NaOH solution, the electric power density for vapor formation decreased from 2005 to 774 W/cm2. From these results, we determined that pre-warming of the electrolyte is quite effective in generating plasma at lower power density. In addition, lower electrolyte concentrations required higher power density for vapor formation owing to lower solution conductivity. On the basis these results, a method for large-area and flat-plate plasma generation is proposed in which an initial small area of plasma generation is extended. When used with a plate electrode, a concentration of current to the edge of the plate meant that plasma could be formed by covering the edge of the electrode plate.

  9. Scaling Relations for Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, F. O.; Wicks, M.; Corke, T. C.; Patel, M.

    2012-11-01

    A parametric investigation into the performance of plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVG) for flow control was performed. The study utilized an array of PSVGs, which were flush mounted to a flat, zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer development plate. This work focused on characterizing the effect of freestream velocity, peak-to-peak applied voltage, inter-electrode spacing and covered electrode length on the streamwise vorticity produced by these devices. The performance of the PSVGs was also compared to that of passive vortex generators under identical flow conditions. Based upon the results of the parametric study, the flow physics of streamwise vorticity production by the PSVGs was discerned and the mechanisms are described in this paper. In addition, scaling relations are developed and presented for PSVGs, which, can be used in order to design actuator arrays for specific flow control applications. This work was supported by Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II Contract No. N00014-11-C-0267 issued by the U.S. Department of the Navy.

  10. Urinary Thrombin: A Novel Marker of Glomerular Inflammation for the Diagnosis of Crescentic Glomerulonephritis (Prospective Observational Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kitamoto, Yasunori; Arizono, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroyoshi; Tomita, Kimio; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Taguma, Yoshio; Imamura, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Crescentic glomerulonephritis (CresGN), an uncommon rapidly progressive disease, is characterized by severe glomerular inflammation with fibrin deposition. The lack of specific CresGN biomarkers delays diagnosis and threatens life. Because fibrin deposits in CresGN glomeruli indicate thrombin generation, we hypothesized that thrombin is excreted in urine and is a specific CresGN biomarker. Methods We measured urinary thrombin activity in 200 untreated patients (17 with CresGN, 183 with primary glomerulonephritis) and controls (8 patients with healed CresGN, 11 with nephrosclerosis, and 10 with tubulointerstitial nephritis, and 66 healthy volunteers). CresGN types included 15 pauci-immune and 2 immune complex. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of thrombinuria in 169 patients with hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy tissues were immunostained for tissue factor and fibrin. We analyzed the relationship of thrombinuria to plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex, hematuria, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular fibrin deposition, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We studied changes in thrombin activities after glucocorticoid treatment in 12 patients with thrombinuria. Results The highest thrombinuria occurrence was in CresGN (70.6%), followed by membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (41.7%), IgA nephropathy (9.2%), and acute glomerulonephritis (0%). More than 75% of patients with nonproliferative glomerulonephritis manifested no thrombinuria. No controls had thrombinuria. Thrombinuria showed high CresGN specificity (90.1%) and moderate sensitivity (70.6%) and was detected in 4 of 7 patients with ANCA-negative CresGN. In CresGN, thrombinuria was associated with fibrin deposition in glomerular extracapillary tissue, where monocytes/macrophages expressed tissue factor. Thrombinuria in CresGN was unrelated to plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex, hematuria, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and

  11. The Importance of Thrombin in Cerebral Injury and Disease.

    PubMed

    Krenzlin, Harald; Lorenz, Viola; Danckwardt, Sven; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that prothrombin and its active derivative thrombin are expressed locally in the central nervous system. So far, little is known about the physiological and pathophysiological functions exerted by thrombin in the human brain. Extra-hepatic prothrombin expression has been identified in neuronal cells and astrocytes via mRNA measurement. The actual amount of brain derived prothrombin is expected to be 1% or less compared to that in the liver. The role in brain injury depends upon its concentration, as higher amounts cause neuroinflammation and apoptosis, while lower concentrations might even be cytoprotective. Its involvement in numerous diseases like Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia and haemorrhage is becoming increasingly clear. This review focuses on elucidation of the cerebral thrombin expression, local generation and its role in injury and disease of the central nervous system. PMID:26761005

  12. The Importance of Thrombin in Cerebral Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Krenzlin, Harald; Lorenz, Viola; Danckwardt, Sven; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that prothrombin and its active derivative thrombin are expressed locally in the central nervous system. So far, little is known about the physiological and pathophysiological functions exerted by thrombin in the human brain. Extra-hepatic prothrombin expression has been identified in neuronal cells and astrocytes via mRNA measurement. The actual amount of brain derived prothrombin is expected to be 1% or less compared to that in the liver. The role in brain injury depends upon its concentration, as higher amounts cause neuroinflammation and apoptosis, while lower concentrations might even be cytoprotective. Its involvement in numerous diseases like Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia and haemorrhage is becoming increasingly clear. This review focuses on elucidation of the cerebral thrombin expression, local generation and its role in injury and disease of the central nervous system. PMID:26761005

  13. Thrombin stimulates insulin secretion via protease-activated receptor-3

    PubMed Central

    Hänzelmann, Sonja; Wang, Jinling; Güney, Emre; Tang, Yunzhao; Zhang, Enming; Axelsson, Annika S; Nenonen, Hannah; Salehi, Albert S; Wollheim, Claes B; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik; Costa, Ivan G; Castelo, Robert; Rosengren, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    The disease mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly defined. Here we aimed to explore the pathophysiology of T2D by analyzing gene co-expression networks in human islets. Using partial correlation networks we identified a group of co-expressed genes (‘module’) including F2RL2 that was associated with glycated hemoglobin. F2Rl2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that encodes protease-activated receptor-3 (PAR3). PAR3 is cleaved by thrombin, which exposes a 6-amino acid sequence that acts as a ‘tethered ligand’ to regulate cellular signaling. We have characterized the effect of PAR3 activation on insulin secretion by static insulin secretion measurements, capacitance measurements, studies of diabetic animal models and patient samples. We demonstrate that thrombin stimulates insulin secretion, an effect that was prevented by an antibody that blocks the thrombin cleavage site of PAR3. Treatment with a peptide corresponding to the PAR3 tethered ligand stimulated islet insulin secretion and single β-cell exocytosis by a mechanism that involves activation of phospholipase C and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Moreover, we observed that the expression of tissue factor, which regulates thrombin generation, was increased in human islets from T2D donors and associated with enhanced β-cell exocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate that thrombin generation potential in patients with T2D was associated with increased fasting insulin and insulinogenic index. The findings provide a previously unrecognized link between hypercoagulability and hyperinsulinemia and suggest that reducing thrombin activity or blocking PAR3 cleavage could potentially counteract the exaggerated insulin secretion that drives insulin resistance and β-cell exhaustion in T2D. PMID:26742564

  14. Fibrinogen Substrate Recognition by Staphylocoagulase·(Pro)thrombin Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Panizzi, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Richter, Klaus; Bock, Paul E.; Bode, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin generation and fibrinogen (Fbg) clotting are the ultimate proteolytic reactions in the blood coagulation pathway. Staphylocoagulase (SC), a protein secreted by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, activates prothrombin (ProT) without proteolysis. The SC·(pro)thrombin complex recognizes Fbg as a specific substrate, converting it directly into fibrin. The crystal structure of a fully active SC fragment containing residues 1–325 (SC-(1–325)) bound to human prethrombin 2 showed previously that SC inserts its Ile1-Val2 N terminus into the Ile16 pocket of prethrombin 2, inducing a functional active site in the cognate zymogen conformationally. Exosite I of α-thrombin, the Fbg recognition site, and proexosite I on ProT are blocked by domain 2 of SC-(1–325). In the present studies, active site-labeled fluorescent ProT analogs were used to quantitate Fbg binding to the SC-(1–325)·ProT complex. Fbg binding and cleavage are mediated by expression of a new Fbg-binding exosite on the SC-(1–325)·ProT complex, resulting in formation of an (SC-(1–325)·ProT)2·Fbg pentameric complex with a dissociation constant of 8–34 nM. In both crystal structures, the SC-(1–325)·(pre)thrombin complexes form dimers, with both pro-teinases/zymogens facing each other over a large U-shaped cleft, through which the Fbg substrate could thread. On this basis, a molecular model of the pentameric (SC-(1–325)·thrombin)2·Fbg encounter complex was generated, which explains the coagulant properties and efficient Fbg conversion. The results provide new insight into the mechanism that mediates high affinity Fbg binding and cleavage as a substrate of SC·(pro)thrombin complexes, a process that is central to the molecular pathology of S. aureus endocarditis. PMID:16230339

  15. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors – mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, M. T.; Burke, F.; Warnock, M.; Zhou, Y.; Sweigart, J.; Chen, A.; Ricketts, D.; Lucchesi, B. R.; Chen, Z.; Di Cera, E.; Hilfinger, J.; Kim, J. S.; Mosberg, H. I.; Schmaier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin – RPPGF. Methods and Results These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 µm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4–8.2 µm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 µm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 µm and 16 ± 4 µm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin_s aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. Conclusion FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets. PMID:18315550

  16. Catabolism of hirudin and thrombin-hirudin complexes in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bichler, J; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R

    1993-01-01

    The metabolic fate of the anticoagulant protein, hirudin, and its complex with thrombin are presently unknown. Therefore we have labelled hirudin and human thrombin-hirudin complex with the residualizing label dilactitol-125I-tyramine (*I-DLT) in order to identify their tissue sites of catabolism in the rat. The rapid plasma clearance of hirudin after intravenous injection was unaffected by *I-DLT labelling, and by 2 h 6% or less of the injected dose remained in the blood. The majority (80.3 +/- 4.0%, n = 2) of *I-DLT-hirudin radioactivity recovered in tissues was found in kidney, and kidney was also at least 150 times more active in taking up hirudin, on a weight basis, than any other tissue examined (liver, spleen, skin, muscle, intestine, fat, lung). *I-DLT-hirudin which bound to thrombin was isolated by chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose; hirudin itself does not bind to concanavalin A. Radioactivity from thrombin-*I-DLT-hirudin was precipitable by anti-thrombin antibody and *I-DLT-thrombin-hirudin was precipitable by anti-hirudin antibody. By 1 h after injection of labelled thrombin-hirudin complexes, the recoveries of radioactivity from hirudin and thrombin in liver were comparable (38.6 +/- 3.0 and 36.4 +/- 4.1%, n = 3), whereas more radioactivity was recovered in kidney from hirudin than from thrombin (27.6 +/- 8.7 compared with 13.6 +/- 4.5%) and less was recovered in lung (0.4 +/- 0.2 compared with 17.7 +/- 2.9%). We conclude that hirudin is catabolized predominantly in kidney, whereas the thrombin-hirudin complex is catabolized by both liver and kidney. PMID:8280076

  17. Thrombin-linked aptamer assay for detection of platelet derived growth factor BB on magnetic beads in a sandwich format.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Here we describe a thrombin-linked aptamer assay (TLAA) for protein by using thrombin as an enzyme label, harnessing enzyme activity of thrombin and aptamer affinity binding. TLAA converts detection of specific target proteins to the detection of thrombin by using a DNA sequence that consists of two aptamers with the first aptamer binding to the specific target protein and the second aptamer binding to thrombin. Through the affinity binding, the thrombin enzyme is labeled on the protein target, and thrombin catalyzes the hydrolysis of small peptide substrate into product, generating signals for quantification. As a proof of principle, we show a sandwich TLAA for platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) by using anti-PDGF-BB antibody coated on magnetic beads and an oligonucleotide containing the aptamer for PDGF-BB and the aptamer for thrombin. The binding of PDGF-BB to both the antibody and the aptamer results in labeling the complex with thrombin. We achieved detection of PDGF-BB at 16 pM. This TLAA contributes a new application of thrombin and its aptamer in bioanalysis, and shows potentials in assay developments. PMID:27343590

  18. Determination of a novel thrombin receptor antagonist (SCH 530348) in human plasma: evaluation of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography™-tandem mass spectrometry for routine bioanalytical analysis.

    PubMed

    Tama, Cristina I; Shen, Jim X; Schiller, James E; Hayes, Roger N; Clement, Robert P

    2011-05-15

    SCH 530348 is a safe and effective oral anti-platelet agent for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Clinical study results suggest that SCH 530348 dosage at 20 mg or 40 mg is feasible to achieve rapid maximum platelet inhibition following an acute coronary event or intervention procedure. To permit accurate determinations of circulating SCH 530348 in plasma following dosing, a method for measuring SCH 530348 concentrations in human plasma was validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method utilized semi-automated 96-well protein precipitation with gradient chromatography using an ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.7 μm) column. The retention time of SCH 530348 was approximately 1.5 min. This method was validated for routine quantitation of SCH 530348 over the concentration range of 1.00-1000 ng/mL. Inter-run accuracy based on mean percent theoretical for replicate quality control samples was better than 95.2%. Inter-run precision based on percent relative deviation for replicate quality control samples was ≤3.3%. SCH 530348 quality control samples were stable in human plasma for up to three freeze/thaw cycles, for at least 467 days when frozen at -20 °C and for at least 7 h when stored at room temperature. The lower limit of quantitation was 1.00 ng/mL for a 100 μL plasma aliquot. PMID:21353434

  19. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B. )

    1990-02-06

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of {sup 125}I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M{sub r} 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of {sup 125}I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin.

  20. Light-curing polymers for laser plasma generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktionov, E. Y.; Protasov, Y. S.; Protasov, Y. Y.; Telekh, V. D.

    2015-07-01

    Solid rather than liquid media are used in pulsed laser plasma generators despite sophisticated transportation and dosing system need for a long-term operation. Liquid media could be more preferable due to transfer and dosing (down to 10-14 L) being well developed, but plasma generation of those results in intense droplet formation and kinetic energy losses. Combination of liquids transportation advantages and solids plasma generation efficiency might resolve this trade-off. Liquid-to-solid transition can be induced by cooling down to sublimation temperature, thermo-, photo- or electron induced polymerization (curing). Light cured polymers seem to be very useful as active media for plasma generators, since they can be solidified very fast (ca. 30 ms) just before impact. We considered experimentally several UV- curing polymer and mixtures ablation regimes and supply schemes for laser plasma generation. The best results were obtained for liquid polymer at high-power pulsed irradiation matching curing optimum wavelength.

  1. Calcium inhibition of the activation of protein C by thrombin. Role of the P3 and P3' residues.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, A R; Esmon, C T

    1994-07-15

    Protein C, a precursor to a natural plasma anticoagulant, and the platelet thrombin receptor, involved in cell activation, both require proteolytic cleavage to be activated. In humans, the sequences adjacent to the scissile bond of protein C, DPR/LID and the thrombin receptor DPR/SFL are similar. Previous studies with Asp-->Gly mutants indicated that both the P3 and the P3' Asp residues make either peptides or protein C a poor substrate for free thrombin, but thrombin interaction with thrombomodulin overcomes these inhibitory interactions. Similar mechanisms are probably operative in the thrombin receptor. In rodents, the P3 Asp residue of the human thrombin receptor is replaced by Asn and in protein C, the P3' residue is Asn. To determine the functional significance of these Asp-->Asn substitutions, the Asp in the P3 or P3' position of human protein C was changed to Asn. The resultant mutants were still resistant to activation by thrombin, and still required Ca2+ for activation by thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. We conclude that, unlike activation of the Asp-->Gly mutants by thrombin, activation of the P3 and P3' Asp-->Asn mutants is still potently inhibited by physiological Ca2+. Furthermore, even though the charge has been deleted, thrombomodulin acceleration is retained. PMID:8055928

  2. A convenient sandwich assay of thrombin in biological media using nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Yue, Qiaoli; Shen, Tongfei; Wang, Lei; Xu, Shuling; Li, Haibo; Xue, Qingwang; Zhang, Yuanfu; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

    2014-06-15

    A new aptamer biosensor was presented for the detection of thrombin in this work, which was based on fluorescence polarization (FP) using silica nanoparticles as enhancement probe. The silica nanoparticles covered by streptavidin were tagged with a thrombin aptamer (5'-biotin-GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG-3'), which was bound to the surface of silica nanoparticle through the specific interaction between streptavidin and biotin. In the presence of thrombin, it induced the aptamer to form quadruplex structure. When the other thrombin aptamer labeled with fluorescein (5'-FAM-AGTCCGTGGTAGGGCAGGTTGGGGTGACT-3') was added to the above system, a sandwich structure can form at the surface of silica nanoparticles. The fluorescence polarization was therefore enhanced and quantification between fluorescence polarization signal and concentration of thrombin was built. The sensor provided a linear range from 0.6 to 100 nM for thrombin with a detection limit of 0.20 nM (3.29 SB/m, according to the recent recommendation of IUPAC) in a homogeneous media. The same linear range was obtained in spiked human serum samples with a slightly higher detection limit (0.26 nM), demonstrating high anti-interference of the sensor in a complex biological sample matrix. And the sensor can be used to monitor spiked concentration of thrombin level in real human plasma with satisfactory results obtained. PMID:24508546

  3. Nanostructured bioluminescent sensor for rapidly detecting thrombin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longyan; Bao, Yige; Denstedt, John; Zhang, Jin

    2016-03-15

    Thrombin plays a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The abnormal level of thrombin in body fluids may lead to different diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, etc. Detection of thrombin level in blood and/or urine is one of important methods for medical diagnosis. Here, a bioluminescent sensor is developed for non-invasively and rapidly detecting thrombin in urine. The sensor is assembled through conjugating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a recombinant protein containing Renilla luciferase (pRluc) by a peptide, which is thrombin specific substrate. The luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescence can be quenched by peptide-conjugating Au NPs. In the presence of thrombin, the short peptide conjugating luciferase and Au NPs is digested and cut off, which results in the recovery of bioluminescence due to the release of luciferase from Au NPs. The bioluminescence intensity at 470 nm is observed, and increases with increasing concentration of thrombin. The bioluminescence intensity of this designed sensor is significantly recovered when the thrombin digestion time lasts for 10 min. In addition, a similar linear relationship between luminescence intensity and the concentration of thrombin is found in the range of 8 nM to 8 μM in both buffer and human urine spiked samples. The limit of detection is as low as 80 pM. It is anticipated that our nanosensor could be a promising tool for clinical diagnosis of thrombin in human urine. PMID:26397418

  4. Abruption-Induced Preterm Delivery Is Associated with Thrombin-Mediated Functional Progesterone Withdrawal in Decidual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.; Kayisli, Umit A.; Stocco, Carlos; Murk, William; Vatandaslar, Emre; Buchwalder, Lynn F.; Schatz, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Plasma progesterone levels remain elevated throughout human pregnancy, suggesting that reduced reproductive-tract progesterone receptor (PR) initiates labor. Placental abruption and excess thrombin generation elicit preterm delivery (PTD). PR, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and total and p-ERK1/2 in decidual cells (DCs) and interstitial trophoblasts (IT) were assessed via immunohistochemical staining in abruption-associated PTD versus gestational-age matched control placentas, and in cultured DCs incubated with estradiol (E2) ± medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) ± thrombin. Immunostaining for PR was lower in DC nuclei in abruption versus control decidua and was absent from ITs; GR was higher in IT than DCs, with no abruption-related changes in either cell type; p-ERK1/2 was higher in DCs in abruption than control decidua, with total ERK 1/2 unchanged. Immunoblotting of cultured DCs demonstrated strong E2, weak MPA, and intermediate E2+MPA mediated elevation of PR-A and PR-B levels, with constitutive GR expression. In cultured DCs, thrombin inhibited PR but not GR mRNA levels, reduced PR binding to DNA and [3H]progesterone binding to PR, and enhanced phosphorylated but not total ERK1/2 levels. Coincubation with a specific p-ERK1/2 inhibitor reversed thrombin-enhanced p-ERK1/2 and lowered PR levels. Thus, abruption-associated PTD is initiated by functional progesterone withdrawal, as indicated by significantly reduced DC nuclear expression of PR-A and PR-B. Functional withdrawal of progesterone results in increased p-ERK1/2, and is thus one pathway initiating abruption-associated PTD. PMID:23058370

  5. Terahertz generation in multiple laser-induced air plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-K.; Kim, Jae Hun; Yang, C.-E.; Yin, Stuart Shizhuo; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul

    2008-12-08

    An investigation of the terahertz wave generation in multiple laser-induced air plasmas is presented. First, it is demonstrated that the intensity of the terahertz wave increases as the number of air plasmas increases. Second, the physical mechanism of this enhancement effect of the terahertz generation is studied by quantitatively measuring the intensity of the generated terahertz wave as a function of phase difference between adjacent air plasmas. It is found out that the superposition is the main mechanism to cause this enhancement. Thus, the results obtained in this paper not only provide a technique to generate stronger terahertz wave but also enable a better understanding of the mechanism of the terahertz generation in air plasma.

  6. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors - mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, M T; Burke, F; Warnock, M; Zhou, Y; Sweigart, J; Chen, A; Ricketts, D; Lucchesi, B R; Chen, Z; Cera, E Di; Hilfinger, J; Kim, J S; Mosberg, H I; Schmaier, A H

    2008-04-29

    Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin - RPPGF. These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 μm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4--8.2 μm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 μm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 μm and 16 ± 4 μm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin's aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets.

  7. Depolarization of subalfvenic plasma jet generating field-aligned currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobyanin, D. B.; Gavrilov, B. G.; Podgorny, I. M.

    2004-01-01

    The subalfvenic magnetized plasma jet propagating across the geomagnetic field generates the field-aligned currents in ionospheric plasma. The transverse polarization electric field Ep = - V × B in the jet is reduced due to a leakage of polarization charges through the field-aligned currents (plasma jet depolarization). These phenomena are investigated in the laboratory experiment. It was revealed that the depolarization is accompanied by appearing of the electric field Ea along the plasma velocity vector and creation of an additional pair of the field-aligned currents being generated at the leading and trailing edge of the moving plasma. The value of Ea is comparable with the transverse electric field Ep. The depolarization results in the plasma jet deflection. The possibility of a manifestation of these effects in the NORTH STAR Russian-American active rocket experiment is discussed.

  8. Slot-Antenna/Permanent-Magnet Device for Generating Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    A device that includes a rectangular-waveguide/slot-antenna structure and permanent magnets has been devised as a means of generating a substantially uniform plasma over a relatively large area, using relatively low input power and a low gas flow rate. The device utilizes electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) excited by microwave power to efficiently generate plasma in a manner that is completely electrodeless in the sense that, in principle, there is no electrical contact between the plasma and the antenna. Plasmas generated by devices like this one are suitable for use as sources of ions and/or electrons for diverse material-processing applications (e.g., etching or deposition) and for ion thrusters. The absence of plasma/electrode contact essentially prevents plasma-induced erosion of the antenna, thereby also helping to minimize contamination of the plasma and of objects exposed to the plasma. Consequently, the operational lifetime of the rectangular-waveguide/ slot-antenna structure is long and the lifetime of the plasma source is limited by the lifetime of the associated charged-particle-extraction grid (if used) or the lifetime of the microwave power source. The device includes a series of matched radiating slot pairs that are distributed along the length of a plasma-source discharge chamber (see figure). This arrangement enables the production of plasma in a distributed fashion, thereby giving rise to a uniform plasma profile. A uniform plasma profile is necessary for uniformity in any electron- or ion-extraction electrostatic optics. The slotted configuration of the waveguide/ antenna structure makes the device scalable to larger areas and higher powers. All that is needed for scaling up is the attachment of additional matched radiating slots along the length of the discharge chamber. If it is desired to make the power per slot remain constant in scaling up, then the input microwave power must be increased accordingly. Unlike in prior ECR microwave plasma-generating

  9. Plasma generation by dielectric resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, Stephen; Chapman, Adam; Luo, Wei; Lanagan, Michael; Hopwood, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Arrays of dielectric resonators—illuminated by an antenna—are used to ignite and sustain multiple microwave plasmas in parallel. Calcium titanate cylindrical resonators were arranged in a linear array with separation distances between 0.5 and 5 mm. The operating frequency was near the HEM111 resonance of 1.1 GHz. Paschen curves of the breakdown field and voltage in argon atmosphere are consistent with parallel plate microwave breakdown except within discharge gaps of 1 mm or less. Sustaining of argon plasma between 0.5 Torr and 1 atm within the array is found to alter the electromagnetic scattering from the dielectric resonators, suggesting applications in plasma-reconfigurable metamaterials and photonic crystals.

  10. Zinc modulates thrombin adsorption to fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmeier, P.; Halbmayer, M.; Fischer, M.; Marx, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Human thrombin with high affinity to Sepharose insolubilized fibrin monomers (high-affinity thrombin) was used to investigate the effect of Zn(II) on the thrombin adsorption to fibrin. Results showed that at Zn(II) concentrations exceeding 100 mumols/l, thrombin binding to fibrin was decreased concomitant with the Zn(II) concentration and time; at lower Zn(II) concentrations, thrombin adsorption was enhanced. Experimental results were identical by using 125I-labelled high-affinity alpha-thrombin or by measuring the thrombin activity either by chromogenic substrate or by a clotting time method. In contrast, Ca(II) alone (final conc. 3 mmol/l) or in combination with Zn(II) was not effective. However, at higher Ca(II) concentrations (7.5-15 mmol/l), thrombin adsorption was apparently decreased. Control experiments revealed that Zn(II) had no impact on the clottability of fibrinogen, and that the results of the experiments with Ca(II) were not altered by possible cross-linking of fibrin. We conclude that unlike Ca(II), Zn(II) is highly effective in modulating thrombin adsorption to fibrin.

  11. Tissue factor and thrombin mediate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Chong, Albert J; Pohlman, Timothy H; Hampton, Craig R; Shimamoto, Akira; Mackman, Nigel; Verrier, Edward D

    2003-02-01

    Reperfusion of the ischemic heart is necessary to prevent irreversible injury of the myocardium, which leads to permanent organ dysfunction. However, reperfusion in itself leads to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is characterized by an acute inflammatory response mediated by activated inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. The molecular mechanisms of myocardial I/R injury are not completely known. Tissue factor (TF) and thrombin, two potent procoagulant and proinflammatory mediators, are recognized to play significant roles in myocardial I/R injury. To investigate the role of TF and thrombin in myocardial I/R injury, we used rabbit and murine in situ coronary artery ligation models. Increased TF mRNA, antigen, and activity were found in ischemic cardiomyocytes. Administration of an inhibitory antirabbit TF monoclonal antibody before or during the onset of ischemia resulted in a significant reduction in infarct size. Functional inhibition of thrombin with hirudin also reduced the infarct size. However, defibrinogenating rabbits with ancrod had no effect on infarct size, suggesting a requirement of thrombin generation but not fibrin deposition in myocardial I/R injury. PMID:12607707

  12. Radial Plasma Flow Switch on GIT-12 Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Shishlov, A. V.; Fedunin, A. V.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Fursov, F. I.

    2006-01-01

    The preliminary experiments were performed on wire array implosion driven by a radial plasma flow switch on the GIT-12 generator operating in a microsecond mode. Imploding gas puff z-pinch plasma was used to provide fast switching of the current to an aluminum wire array. The experimental results are presented in the paper.

  13. Identification and Mechanistic Analysis of a Novel Tick-Derived Inhibitor of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Jablonka, Willy; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Lukszo, Jan; Drake, Steven K.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2015-01-01

    A group of peptides from the salivary gland of the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, a vector of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever show weak similarity to the madanins, a group of thrombin-inhibitory peptides from a second tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis. We have evaluated the anti-serine protease activity of one of these H. marginatum peptides that has been given the name hyalomin-1. Hyalomin-1 was found to be a selective inhibitor of thrombin, blocking coagulation of plasma and inhibiting S2238 hydrolysis in a competitive manner with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 12 nM at an ionic strength of 150 mM. It also blocks the thrombin-mediated activation of coagulation factor XI, thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, and the activation of coagulation factor V by thrombin. Hyalomin-1 is cleaved at a canonical thrombin cleavage site but the cleaved products do not inhibit coagulation. However, the C-terminal cleavage product showed non-competitive inhibition of S2238 hydrolysis. A peptide combining the N-terminal parts of the molecule with the cleavage region did not interact strongly with thrombin, but a 24-residue fragment containing the cleavage region and the C-terminal fragment inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner and also inhibited coagulation of plasma. These results suggest that the peptide acts by binding to the active site as well as exosite I or the autolysis loop of thrombin. Injection of 2.5 mg/kg of hyalomin-1 increased arterial occlusion time in a mouse model of thrombosis, suggesting this peptide could be a candidate for clinical use as an antithrombotic. PMID:26244557

  14. Inductively generated streaming plasma ion source

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.; Greenly, John B.

    2006-07-25

    A novel pulsed, neutralized ion beam source is provided. The source uses pulsed inductive breakdown of neutral gas, and magnetic acceleration and control of the resulting plasma, to form a beam. The beam supplies ions for applications requiring excellent control of ion species, low remittance, high current density, and spatial uniformity.

  15. Plasma treatment for next-generation nanobiointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Igor; Keidar, Michael; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Modic, Martina; Cvelbar, Uros; Fang, Jinghua; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-01-01

    Energy deficiency, global poverty, chronic hunger, chronic diseases, and environment conservation are among the major problems threatening the whole mankind. Nanostructure-based technologies could be a possible solution. Such techniques are now used for the production of many vitally important products including cultured and fermented food, antibiotics, various medicines, and biofuels. On the other hand, the nanostructure-based technologies still demonstrate low efficiency and controllability, and thus still are not capable to decisively address the global problems. Furthermore, future technologies should ensure lowest possible environmental impact by implementing green production principles. One of the most promising approaches to address these challenges are the sophisticatedly engineered biointerfaces. Here, the authors briefly evaluate the potential of the plasma-based techniques for the fabrication of complex biointerfaces. The authors consider mainly the atmospheric and inductively coupled plasma environments and show several examples of the artificial plasma-created biointerfaces, which can be used for the biotechnological and medical processes, as well as for the drug delivery devices, fluidised bed bioreactors, catalytic reactors, and others. A special attention is paid to the plasma-based treatment and processing of the biointerfaces formed by arrays of carbon nanotubes and graphene flakes. PMID:26104191

  16. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  17. Thrombin selectively induces transcription of genes in human monocytes involved in inflammation and wound healing.

    PubMed

    López, Mercedes L; Bruges, Gustavo; Crespo, Gustavo; Salazar, Victor; Deglesne, Pierre-Antoine; Schneider, Heike; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector; Schmitz, M Lienhard; Preissner, Klaus T

    2014-11-01

    Thrombin is essential for blood coagulation but functions also as a mediator of cellular signalling. Gene expression microarray experiments in human monocytes revealed thrombin-induced upregulation of a limited subset of genes, which are almost exclusively involved in inflammation and wound healing. Among these, the expression of F3 gene encoding for tissue factor (TF) was enhanced indicating that this physiological initiator of coagulation cascade may create a feed-forward loop to enhance blood coagulation. Activation of protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR1) was shown to play a main role in promoting TF expression. Moreover, thrombin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, an event that is required for expression of thrombin-regulated genes. Thrombin also increased the expression of TF at the protein level in monocytes as evidenced by Western blot and immunostaining. Furthermore, FXa generation induced by thrombin-stimulated monocytes was abolished by a TF blocking antibody and therefore it is entirely attributable to the expression of tissue factor. This cellular activity of thrombin provides a new molecular link between coagulation, inflammation and wound healing. PMID:25057055

  18. Thrombin-unique coagulation system protein with multifaceted impacts on cancer and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z; Hempel, Dominika; Sierko, Ewa; Tucker, Stephanie C; Honn, Kenneth V

    2016-06-01

    The association between blood coagulation and cancer development is well recognized. Thrombin, the pleiotropic enzyme best known for its contribution to fibrin formation and platelet aggregation during vascular hemostasis, may also trigger cellular events through protease-activated receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, leading to cancer progression. Our pioneering findings provided evidence that thrombin contributes to cancer metastasis by increasing adhesive potential of malignant cells. However, there is evidence that thrombin regulates every step of cancer dissemination: (1) cancer cell invasion, detachment from primary tumor, migration; (2) entering the blood vessel; (3) surviving in vasculature; (4) extravasation; (5) implantation in host organs. Recent studies have provided new molecular data about thrombin generation in cancer patients and the mechanisms by which thrombin contributes to transendothelial migration, platelet/tumor cell interactions, angiogenesis, and other processes. Though a great deal is known regarding the role of thrombin in cancer dissemination, there are new data for multiple thrombin-mediated events that justify devoting focus to this topic with a comprehensive approach. PMID:27189210

  19. A research program in magnetogasdynamics utilizing hypervelocity coaxial plasma generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spight, C.

    1976-01-01

    A broadly-gauged research program in magnetogasdynamics utilizing hypervelocity coaxial plasma generators is presented. A complete hypervelocity coaxial plasma generator facility was assembled and tested. Significant progress was made in the direction of understanding the important processes in the interaction of hypervelocity MGD flow with transverse applied fields. It is now proposed to utilize the accumulated experimental capability and theoretical analysis in application to the analysis and design parameterization of pulsed magnetogasdynamic direct energy convertor configurations.

  20. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander; Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Smith, Jonathan; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G.; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical "plasma torch" distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  1. Next Generation Plasma Impedance Probe Instrumentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, C. G.; Swenson, C. M.; Fish, C.

    2003-12-01

    Four Utah State University Plasma Impedance Probes (PIP) were part of NASA's Sequential Rocket Study of Descending Layers in the E-Region (E-Winds). The payloads were launched at 11:19 pm, 1:41 am, 2:50 am and 3:07 am on June 30 and July 1, 2003 from Wallops Island, Virginia into the nighttime D and E-regions. The PIP is a suite of instruments for observing relative and absolute electron densities, magnetic field strength, and electron-neutral collision frequency. The suite consists of a Plasma Frequency Probe, a Swept Impedance Probe, a Q probe, an experimental Ion Impedance probe, and a DC Langmuir probe. The first four instrument diagnostics are based on the impedance characteristics of an antenna immersed in plasma. Resonance effects at low frequencies (1-100 kHz) where ion dynamics become important were observed by the Ion Impedance Probe. This data set may lead to the first mid-latitude measurements of ion-neutral collision frequency and full conductivity measurements of the ionosphere. Preliminary analysis of flight data shows a considerable amount of sensitivity in all of the instruments that should allow for absolute electron density measurement in the 1 to 10 per cc range and comparable accuracy in electron neutral collision frequency. This paper presents the instrumentation techniques, calibrations and initial results for this flight.

  2. Hydrogen Generation from the Dissociation of Water Using Microwave Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Ho Jung; Soo Ouk, Jang; Hyun Jong, You

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced by direct dissociation of water vapor, i.e., splitting water molecules by the electrons in water plasma at low pressure (<10-50 Torr) using microwave plasma discharge. This condition generates a high electron temperature, which facilitates the direct dissociation of water molecules. A microwave plasma source is developed, utilizing the magnetron of a microwave oven and a TE10 rectangular waveguide. The quantity of the generated hydrogen is measured using a residual gas analyzer. The electron density and temperature are measured by a Langmuir probe, and the neutral temperature is calculated from the OH line intensity.

  3. Millimeter-wave generation via plasma three-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Robert W.; Santoru, Joseph

    1988-06-01

    Plasma three-wave mixing is a collective phenomena whereby electron-beam-driven electron plasma waves (EPWs) are nonlinearly coupled to an electromagnetic (EM) radiation field. The basic physics of three-wave mixing is investigated in the mm-wave regime and the scaling of mm-wave characteristics established with beam and plasma parameters. Our approach is to employ two counterinjected electron beams in a plasma-loaded circular waveguide to drive counterstreaming EPWs. The nonlinear coupling of these waves generates an EM waveguide mode which oscillates at twice the plasma frequency and is coupled out into rectangular waveguides. Independent control of the waveguide plasma, beam voltage, and beam current is exercised to allow a careful parametric investigation of beam transport, EPW dynamics and three-wave-mixing physics. The beam-plasma experiment, which employs a wire-anode discharge to generate high-density plasma in a 3.8 cm-diameter waveguide, has been used to generate radiation at frequencies from 7 to 60 GHz. Two cold-cathode, secondary-emission electron guns are used to excite the EPWs. Output radiation is observed only when both beams are injected, and the total beam current exceeds a threshold value of 3 A. The threshold is related to the self-magnetic pinch of each beam which increases the beam density and growth rate of the EPWs.

  4. Plasma effects on harmonic spectra generated from moderately relativistic laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Ondarza-Rovira, R; Boyd, T J M

    2012-08-01

    When intense p-polarized laser light is incident on a plasma with an electron density many times the critical density, the flux of fast electrons created by Brunel absorption excites plasma oscillations. These oscillations may in turn affect the spectrum of high harmonics by modulating the spectrum at the plasma frequency, ω(p), and by coupling to the radiation field through the steep density gradient at the plasma-vacuum interface, so generating plasma line emission (PLE) at ω(p) and harmonics of ω(p). Both aspects depend sensitively on a range of plasma and laser pulse parameters, including the initial electron density, the density profile at the plasma-vacuum interface, and the intensity, pulse shape, and pulse length of the incident laser light. These various dependences have been characterised for moderately relativistic laser-plasma interactions by means of a series of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PMID:23005869

  5. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Thrombin use in surgery: an evidence-based review of its clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Sung W; Lew, Wesley K; Weaver, Fred A

    2010-01-01

    When surgical ligation of bleeding fails, or is not possible, surgeons rely on a number of hemostatic aids, including thrombin. This review discusses the history, pharmacology and clinical application of thrombin as a surgical hemostat. The initial thrombin was bovine in origin, but its use has been complicated by the formation of antibodies that cross-react with human coagulation factors. This has been associated with life-threatening bleeding and in some circumstances anaphylaxis and death. Human thrombin, isolated from pooled plasma of donors, was developed in an effort to minimize these risks, but its downsides are its limited availability and the potential for transmitting blood-borne pathogens. Recently a recombinant thrombin has been developed, and approved for use by the FDA. It has the advantage of being minimally antigenic and devoid of the risk of viral transmission. Thrombin is often used in conjunction with other hemostatic aids, including absorbable agents such as Gelfoam, and with fibrinogen in fibrin glues. The last part of this review will discuss these agents in detail, and review their clinical applications. PMID:22282693

  7. Carbon Multicharged Ion Generation from Laser Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2014-10-01

    Multicharged ions (MCI) have potential uses in different areas such as microelectronics and medical physics. Carbon MCI therapy for cancer treatment is considered due to its localized energy delivery to hard-to-reach tumors at a minimal damage to surrounding tissues. We use a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 40 ns pulse width operated at 1064 nm to ablate a graphite target in ultrahigh vacuum. A time-of-flight energy analyzer followed by a Faraday cup is used to characterize the carbon MCI extracted from the laser plasma. The MCI charge state and energy distribution are obtained. With increase in the laser fluence, the ion charge states and ion energy are increased. Carbon MCI up to C+9 are observed along with carbon clusters. When an acceleration voltage is applied between the carbon target and a grounded mesh, ion extraction is observed to increase with the applied voltage. National Science Foundation.

  8. The Dynamical Generation of Current Sheets in Astrophysical Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Gregory G.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulence profoundly affects particle transport and plasma heating in many astrophysical plasma environments, from galaxy clusters to the solar corona and solar wind to Earth's magnetosphere. Both fluid and kinetic simulations of plasma turbulence ubiquitously generate coherent structures, in the form of current sheets, at small scales, and the locations of these current sheets appear to be associated with enhanced rates of dissipation of the turbulent energy. Therefore, illuminating the origin and nature of these current sheets is critical to identifying the dominant physical mechanisms of dissipation, a primary aim at the forefront of plasma turbulence research. Here, we present evidence from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations that strong nonlinear interactions between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, or strong Alfvén wave collisions, are a natural mechanism for the generation of current sheets in plasma turbulence. Furthermore, we conceptually explain this current sheet development in terms of the nonlinear dynamics of Alfvén wave collisions, showing that these current sheets arise through constructive interference among the initial Alfvén waves and nonlinearly generated modes. The properties of current sheets generated by strong Alfvén wave collisions are compared to published observations of current sheets in the Earth's magnetosheath and the solar wind, and the nature of these current sheets leads to the expectation that Landau damping of the constituent Alfvén waves plays a dominant role in the damping of turbulently generated current sheets.

  9. Magnetic Field Generation During the Collision of Narrow Plasma Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Jun-ichi; Kazimura, Yoshihiro; Haruki, Takayuki

    1999-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the collision of narrow plasma clouds,whose transverse dimension is on the order of the electron skin depth.A 2D3V (two dimensions in space and three dimensions in velocity space)particle-in-cell (PIC) collisionless relativistic code is used toshow the generation of a quasi-staticmagnetic field during the collision of narrow plasma clouds both inelectron-ion and electron-positron (pair) plasmas. The localizedstrong magnetic fluxes result in the generation of the charge separationwith complicated structures, which may be sources of electromagneticas well as Langmuir waves. We also present one applicationof this process, which occurs during coalescence of magnetic islandsin a current sheet of pair plasmas.

  10. Thomson parabola spectrometry for gold laser-generated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Ando, L.; Ullschmied, J.

    2013-02-15

    The plasma generated from thin gold films irradiated in high vacuum at high intensity ({approx}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) laser shot is characterized in terms of ion generation through time-of-flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometry. Gold ions and protons, accelerated in forward direction by the electric field developed in non-equilibrium plasma, have been investigated. Measurements, performed at PALS laboratory, give information about the gold charge states distributions, the ion energy distributions and the proton acceleration driven as a function of film thickness, laser parameters, and angular emission. The ion diagnostics of produced plasma in forward direction permits to understand some mechanisms developed during its expansion kinetics. The role of the focal position of a laser beam with respect to the target surface, plasma properties, and the possibility to accelerate protons up to energies above 3 MeV has been presented and discussed.

  11. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  12. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  13. Charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The charge exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster was investigated experimentally using both 5 cm and 15 cm thrusters. Results are shown for wide ranges of radial distance from the thruster and angle from the beam direction. Considerations of test environment, as well as distance from the thruster, indicate that a valid simulation of a thruster on a spacecraft was obtained. A calculation procedure and a sample calculation of charge exchange plasma density and saturation electron current density are included.

  14. Spontaneous generation of rotation in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Parra Diaz, Felix

    2013-12-24

    Three different aspects of intrinsic rotation have been treated. i) A new, first principles model for intrinsic rotation [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has been implemented in the gyrokinetic code GS2. The results obtained with the code are consistent with several experimental observations, namely the rotation peaking observed after an L-H transition, the rotation reversal observed in Ohmic plasmas, and the change in rotation that follows Lower Hybrid wave injection. ii) The model in [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has several simplifying assumptions that seem to be satisfied in most tokamaks. To check the importance of these hypotheses, first principles equations that do not rely on these simplifying assumptions have been derived, and a version of these new equations has been implemented in GS2 as well. iii) A tokamak cross-section that drives large intrinsic rotation has been proposed for future large tokamaks. In large tokamaks, intrinsic rotation is expected to be very small unless some up-down asymmetry is introduced. The research conducted under this contract indicates that tilted ellipticity is the most efficient way to drive intrinsic rotation.

  15. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2010-11-22

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the δ-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  16. Plasma structure and behavior in a disk magnetohydrodynamic generator

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    2004-11-15

    We describe the structure and behavior of a nonequilibrium cesium-seeded helium plasma in a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic generator. Excellent time-resolved optical measurements clarify the spatial distribution of the electron temperature. A correlation analysis and the visualization of the plasma structure reveal its propagation phenomena from upstream to downstream and the transformation from a homogeneous quasisteady state to a self-consistent periodical state. A linear perturbation analysis suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma structure associated with the unique electron temperature behavior is closely related to ionization instability due to weak seed ionization.

  17. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  18. Laser-generated plasma by carbon nanoparticles embedded into polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Cutroneo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanoparticles have been embedded into polyethylene at different concentrations by using chemical-physical processes. The synthesized material was characterized in terms of physical modifications concerning the mechanical, compositional and optical properties. Obtained flat targets have been irradiated by Nd:YAG laser at intensities of the order of 1010 W/cm2 in order to generate non-equilibrium plasma in vacuum. The laser-matter interaction produces charge separation effects with consequent acceleration of protons and carbon ions. Plasma was characterized using time-of-flight measurements of the accelerated ions. Applications of the produced targets in order to generate carbon ion beams from laser-generated plasma are presented and discussed.

  19. A study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth Herbert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory.

  20. Magnetic Field Generation in Galactic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, Merav; Cowley, Steve; Maron, Jason; McWilliams, James

    2000-10-01

    The origin of the magnetic field in the universe is one of the great problems in astrophysics. The observed magnetic fields in spiral galaxies, for example, are of the order of microgauss and are coherent over galactic scales. It is usually assumed that turbulent fluid motions will enhance a seed field. In the present work we investigate the growth of the magnetic field in plasmas with high magnetic Prandtl number (the ratio of viscosity to resistivity). This growth occurs initially at scales below the viscous scale [1]. Kinney et al. [2] showed that in 2D the field saturates at an amplitude independent of the mean scale of the field. We discuss the initial growth in the three dimensional case where the dynamics of the field are on scales less than the viscosity scale [3]. At low initial field, the field grows and the scale decreases until the resistive scale is reached. The field then grows at a reduced rate until it reaches an equilibrium with the mean scale at a resistive scale. At higher initial amplitude, the field saturates before the mean scale has decreased to the resistive scale. The subsequent evolution is a slow decrease of the scale to the resistive scale, at which point it reaches equilibrium and stops evolving. To explain the large scale coherence of galactic fields, an inverse cascade is necessary. There is no evidence of an inverse cascade. We will present results for extended physics models including tensor viscosity and ambipular diffusion. [1] R. Kulsrud, and S. Anderson, Astrophys. J., 396, 606 (1992); A. Gruzinov, S. Cowley, and R. Sudan, Phys.Rev.Lett., 77, 4342 (1996). [2] R. M. Kinney, B. Chandran, S. Cowley, J. C. McWilliams, Astrophys. J., accepted to publication (2000). [3] M. Opher, S. Cowley, R. M. Kinney, B. Chandran, J. Maron and J.C. McWilliams, in preparation (2000).

  1. Magnetic Field Generation in Galactic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, M.; Cowley, S.; Schekochihin, A.; Kinney, R. M.; Chandran, B.; Maron, J.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    The origin of the magnetic field in the universe is one of the great problems in astrophysics. The observed magnetic fields in spiral galaxies, for example, are of the order of microgauss and are coherent over galactic scales. Its is usually assumed that turbulent fluid motions will enhance a seed field. In the present work we invetigate the growth of the magnetic field in plasmas with high magnetic Prandtl number (the ratio of viscosity to resistivity). This growth occur initially at scales below the viscous scale [1]. Kinney et al. [2] showed that in 2D the field saturates at an amplitude independent of the mean scale of the field. We discuss the initial growth in the three dimensional case where the dynamics of the field on scales less than the viscosity scale [3]. At low initial field, the field grows and the scale decreases until the resistive scale is reached. The field then grows at a reduced rate until it reaches an equilibrium with the mean scale at a resistive scale. At higher initial amplitude, the field saturates before the mean scale has decreased to the resistive scale. The subsequent evolution is a slow decrease of the scale to the resistive scale, at which point it reaches equilibrium and stops evolving. To explain the large scale coherence of galactic fields, an inverse cascade is necessary. There is no evidence of an inverse cascade. We will present results for extended physics models including tensor viscosity and ambipular diffusion. [1] R. Kulsrud, and S. Anderson, Astrophys. J., 396, 606 (1992); A. Gruzinov, S. Cowley, and R. Sudan, Phys.Rev.Lett., 77, 4342 (1996). [2] R. M. Kinney, B. Chandran, S. Cowley, J. C. McWilliams, Astrophys. J., accepted to publication (2000). [3] M. Opher, S. Cowley, A. Schekochihin, R. M. Kinney, B. Chandran, J. Maron and J.C. McWilliams, in preparation (2001).

  2. Plasma Boosted Hydrogen Generation for Vehicle Pollution Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Daniel R.

    1999-11-01

    Plasma boosted hydrogen generators could improve the environmental quality of vehicles onboard production of hydrogen. (Bromberg,L, Cohn DR, Rabinovich A, Surma JE, Virden J, Compact plasmatron boosted hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. Int J Hydrogen Energy 1999;24) Plasma based devices can provide a rapid response and compact means of converting a wide range of fuels into hydrogen-rich gas. Spark ignition engine operation could facilitate an order of magnitude reduction in Nox generation during the entire driving cycle. Hydrogen-rich gas might also be employed to reduce pollution in Diesel engine vehicles. There also may be applications to fuel cell and turbine vehicles. In addition, plasma boosted hydrogen generation might be employed to facilitate the use of biomass derived oils by onboard conversion into hydrogen-rich gas. Use of biomass derived oils could lead to a net reduction in CO2 production. Plasma based devices facilitate hydrogen production from partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels by providing additional enthalpy, reactive species and mixing. Experimental studies of hydrogen production from compact plasma based devices will be discussed.

  3. Reversible thrombin detection by aptamer functionalized STING sensors

    PubMed Central

    Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R. Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the difficult correlation between the measured ionic current and the analyte concentration in solution. Here we show that STING sensors functionalized with aptamers allow the quantitative detection of thrombin. The binding of thrombin generates a signal that can be directly correlated to its concentration in the bulk solution. PMID:21636261

  4. Analyses of the plasma generated by laser irradiation on sputtered target for determination of the thickness used for plasma generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaki, Masafumi; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Sekine, Megumi; Munemoto, Naoya; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Cinquegrani, David; Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Washio, Masakazu

    2014-02-15

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory, laser ion source has been developed to provide heavy ion beams by using plasma generation with 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation onto solid targets. The laser energy is transferred to the target material and creates a crater on the surface. However, only the partial material can be turned into plasma state and the other portion is considered to be just vaporized. Since heat propagation in the target material requires more than typical laser irradiation period, which is typically several ns, only the certain depth of the layers may contribute to form the plasma. As a result, the depth is more than 500 nm because the base material Al ions were detected. On the other hand, the result of comparing each carbon thickness case suggests that the surface carbon layer is not contributed to generate plasma.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Frelinger Iii, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D

    2016-03-01

    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications. PMID:26030682

  6. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  7. Prospective evaluation of hemostatic system activation and thrombin potential in healthy pregnant women with and without factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, S; Weltermann, A; Philipp, K; Hafner, E; Kaider, A; Kittl, E M; Brenner, B; Mannhalter, C; Lechner, K; Kyrle, P A

    1999-10-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with alterations of the hemostatic system towards a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The risk of venous thrombosis is higher in pregnant women with factor V Leiden (FVL) than in those with wildtype factor V. Routine laboratory assays are not useful to detect hypercoagulable conditions. A prospective and systematic evaluation of hemostatic system activation in women with and without FVL during an uncomplicated pregnancy employing more sensitive markers of hypercoagulability, such as prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D-Dimer, or the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), an indicator of the plasma's potential to generate thrombin, has not been performed. We prospectively followed 113 pregnant women with (n = 11) and without (n = 102) FVL and measured F1+2. TAT, D-Dimer and the ETP at the 12th, 22nd and 34th gestational week as well as 3 months after delivery (baseline) in each subject. None of the women developed clinical signs of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum. Pregnant women with and without FVL exhibited substantial activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system as indicated by a gradual increase of F1+2, TAT and D-Dimer throughout uncomplicated pregnancy up to levels similar to those found in acute thromboembolic events (p < 0.0001 by analysis of variance for each parameters). Levels of F1+2 and TAT were comparable between women with and without FVL, but levels of D-Dimer were significantly higher in women with FVL than in those without the mutation (p = 0.0005). The ETP remained unchanged in both women with and without FVL at all timepoints. Our data demonstrate a substantial coagulation and fibrinolytic system activation in healthy women with and without FVL during uncomplicated pregnancy. An elevated F1+2, TAT or D-Dimer level during pregnancy is not necessarily indicative for an acute thromboembolic event. The normal ETP in both

  8. The direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin.

    PubMed

    Greinacher, Andreas; Warkentin, Theodore E

    2008-05-01

    This review discusses the pharmacology and clinical applications of hirudin, a bivalent direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI). Besides the current major indication for hirudin--anticoagulation of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)--the experience with hirudin in other indications, especially acute coronary syndromes, are briefly presented. Hirudins have been formally studied prior to their regulatory approval; however, important information on their side effects and relevant preventative measures only became available later. Therefore, current recommendations and dosing schedules for hirudin differ considerably from the information given in the package inserts. Drawbacks of hirudin and important precautions for avoiding potential adverse effects are discussed in detail in the third part of this review. PMID:18449411

  9. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltchaninov, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kurkan, I. K.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions.

  10. Analysis of plasmas generated by fission fragments. [nuclear pumped lasers and helium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deese, J. E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A kinetic model is developed for a plasma generated by fission fragments and the results are employed to study helium plasma generated in a tube coated with fissionable material. Because both the heavy particles and electrons play important roles in creating the plasma, their effects are considered simultaneously. The calculations are carried out for a range of neutron fluxes and pressures. In general, the predictions of the theory are in good agreement with available intensity measurements. Moreover, the theory predicts the experimentally measured inversions. However, the calculated gain coefficients are such that lasing is not expected to take place in a helium plasma generated by fission fragments. The effects of an externally applied electric field are also considered.

  11. Lissajous Electron Plasma (LEP) Generation for Dry Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Noboru; Ohkuni, Mitsuhiro; Tamaki, Tokuhiko; Nakayama, Ichiro; Harafuji, Kenji; Sivaram, Srinivasan; Kubota, Masafumi

    1992-12-01

    A new concept for plasma generation which enhances plasma density at low pressures through the use of a high-frequency rotating electric field is introduced. A 50-MHz electric power was applied to three electrodes which are positioned with a triangular symmetry. A phase shift of 120° between the electrodes brought about uniform and high plasma density at a pressure of 1 Pa. The nonuniformity of Ar gas plasma generated was within 10% over a 6'' wafer using a tuned Langmuir probe electron density measurement. Polysilicon etchings were made by both SF6/O2 and Cl2/O2 plasmas. The achieved polysilicon etch-rate was over 200 nm/min for both kinds of plasmas at an electric power of 90 W along with a 13.56 MHz RF bias power of 30 W applied to the substrate. High etch-rate selectivity between polysilicon and oxide of 45 for SF6/O2 and 152 for Cl2/O2 was realized. A very low etch-rate nonuniformity of 1.5% was attained for Cl2/O2.

  12. Thrombin-receptor agonist peptides, in contrast to thrombin itself, are not full agonists for activation and signal transduction in human platelets in the absence of platelet-derived secondary mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, L F; Pumiglia, K; Côté, Y P; Feinstein, M B

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic thrombin receptor peptides (TRPs), comprising the first 6-14 amino acids of the new N-terminus tethered ligand of the thrombin receptor that is generated by thrombin's proteolytic activity, were reported to activate platelets equally with thrombin itself and are considered to be full agonists [Vu et al. (1991) Cell 64, 1057-1068]. Using aspirin plus ADP-scavengers or the ADP-receptor antagonist adenosine 5'-[alpha-thio]triphosphate to prevent the secondary effects of the potent agonists that are normally released from stimulated platelets (i.e. ADP and thromboxane A2), we assessed the direct actions of thrombin and TRPs (i.e. TRP42-47 and TRP42-55). Compared with thrombin, under these conditions, TRPs: (1) failed to aggregate platelets completely; (2) produced less activation of glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa; (3) did not cause association of GPIIb and pp60c-src with the cytoskeleton; and (4) caused less alpha-granule secretion, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2, arachidonic acid release and phosphatidyl inositol (PtdOH) production. Furthermore, TRPs induced transient increases in protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas these same responses to thrombin were greater and more sustained. Hirudin added after thrombin accelerated protein dephosphorylation, thereby mimicking the rate of spontaneous dephosphorylation seen after stimulation by TRPs. Platelets totally desensitized to very high concentrations of TRPs, by prior exposure to maximally effective concentrations of the peptides, remained responsive to alpha- and gamma-thrombins. Thrombin-stimulated PtdOH production in permeabilized platelets desensitized to TRPs was abolished by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[beta S]), as in normal platelets. These results are discussed in terms of the allosteric Ternary Complex Model for G-protein linked receptors [Samama et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 4625-4636]. We conclude that: (1) TRPs

  13. Thrombin time and anti-IIa dabigatran's activity: hypothesis of thrombin time's predictive value.

    PubMed

    Le Guyader, Maïlys; Kaabar, Mohammed; Lemaire, Pierre; Pineau Vincent, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa®) is a new oral anticoagulant, competitive inhibitor, selective, fast, direct and reversible of thrombin. Dabigatran has an impact on a large panel of used coagulation tests. There is no relationship between thrombin time's lengthening and anti-IIa activity. This study defines thrombin time's predictive value, when its time is normal. The result of negative value is 97,6%. 255 patients were studied between January 2013 and July 2014. Thrombin time and anti-IIa activity were dosed for each patient. This study can be an assistant for therapeutic decision for laboratories without specialized test. PMID:26489812

  14. Protein C inhibits endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in A549 lung cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, I.; Majerus, P.W.

    1987-05-01

    We investigated the effect of protein C on the endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. We previously showed that exposure of umbilical vein endothelial cells to thrombin stimulated the internalization and degradation of thrombin. A similar internalization was stimulated by a monoclonal antithrombomodulin antibody. We have repeated these studies in the presence of protein C and found that endocytosis of /sup 125/I-thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes, but not /sup 125/I-antithrombomodulin-thrombomodulin complexes, is inhibited. Activated protein C did not inhibit endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. Protein C inhibited both internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-thrombin and diisopropylphosphoryl (DIP) /sup 125/I-thrombin in human lung cancer cells (A549). These effects were observed at protein C concentrations found in human plasma. Protein S had no effect on the inhibition of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes by protein C. We propose that protein C may regulate the rate of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in vivo and thereby control the capacity for endothelium to activate protein C.

  15. Development of rf plasma generators for neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.C.; Ehlers, K.W.; Kippenhan, D.; Pincosy, P.A.; Pyle, R.V.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Fosnight, V.V.

    1984-10-01

    The development of low frequency (1-2 MHz) rf plasma generators for high power neutral beam applications is summarized. Immersed couplers from one to three turns were used. Acceptable plasma profiles, less than or equal to 15% max/min, were obtained in a variety of field-free magnetic bucket and magnetic filter-bucket sources, with 10 x 10 cm or 10 x 40 cm extraction areas. Hydrogen beam properties were measured with a 7 x 10 cm accelerator operated at 80 kV. Atomic fraction and power efficiency were at least as high as with arc plasmas in similar chambers. The potential advantages of an rf plasma source are: ease of operation; reliability; and extended service lifetime.

  16. Diagnostics of DC plasma jets generated with Laval anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmane, M.; Soucy, G.; Boulos, M.I.; Henne, R.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma jets originating from d.c. torches equipped with Laval nozzles are considered to be more efficient for both vacuum and atmospheric plasma spraying than those generated with the standard cylindrical anodes. The present study is devoted to the measurement of the temperature and velocity fields in plasma jets resulting from three different nozzles: a cylindrical and two Laval anodes with nominal Mach numbers of 2.5 and 3. The enthalpy probe and emission spectroscopy techniques are used for this purpose. Attention is given to the effect of the chamber pressure on the distribution of the temperature and velocity fields. The results show that when Laval nozzles are used at reduced chamber pressure (200 torr), the jets are wider, with higher temperature and velocity values in the central regions, compared to those obtained using cylindrical anodes. These characteristics are expected to improve the results of plasma spraying processes with respect to the layer quality and deposition efficiency.

  17. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Preliminary characterization of a laser-generated plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiter, P. A.; Malamud, G.; Trantham, M.; Fein, J.; Davis, J.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results from recent experiments to create a flowing plasma sheet. Two groups of three laser beams with nominally 1.5 kJ of energy per group were focused to separate pointing locations, driving a shock into a wedge target. As the shock breaks out of the wedge, the plasma is focused on center, creating a sheet of plasma. Measurements at 60 ns indicate the plasma sheet has propagated 2825 microns with an average velocity of 49 microns/ns. These experiments follow previous experiments [Krauland et al. 2013], which are aimed at studying similar physics as that found in the hot spot region of cataclysmic variables. Krauland et al. created a flowing plasma, which represents the flowing plasma from the secondary star. This flow interacted with a stationary object, which represented the disk around the white dwarf. A reverse shock is a shock formed when a freely expanding plasma encounters an obstacle. Reverse shocks can be generated by a blast wave propagating through a medium. They can also be found in binary star systems where the flowing gas from a companion star interacts with the accretion disk of the primary star.

  19. About plasma points' generation in Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Afonin, V. I.; Potapov, A. V.; Lazarchuk, V. P.; Murugov, V. M.; Senik, A. V.

    1997-05-05

    The streak tube study results (at visible and x-ray ranges) of dynamics of fast Z-pinch formed at explosion of metal wire in diode of high current generator are presented. Amplitude of current in the load reached {approx}180 kA at increase time {approx}50 ns. The results' analysis points to capability of controlling hot plasma points generation process in Z-pinch.

  20. Generation of nano roughness on fibrous materials by atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, I.; Scapinello, M.; Stefan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric plasma technology finds novel applications in textile industry. It eliminates the usage of water and of hazard liquid chemicals, making production much more eco-friendly and economically convenient. Due to chemical effects of atmospheric plasma, it permits to optimize dyeing and laminating affinity of fabrics, as well as anti-microbial treatments. Other important applications such as increase of mechanical resistance of fiber sleeves and of yarns, anti-pilling properties of fabrics and anti-shrinking property of wool fabrics were studied in this work. These results could be attributed to the generation of nano roughness on fibers surface by atmospheric plasma. Nano roughness generation is extensively studied at different conditions. Alternative explanations for the important practical results on textile materials and discussed.

  1. Plasma-wave generation in a dynamic spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Huan

    2016-03-01

    The studies on the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves have largely been focusing on binary mergers containing at least one neutron star. Numerical studies have shown however, that binary black holes can also give off electromagnetic signals when immersed in magnetized plasma. I will present some analytical work that explore the underlying mechanism for generating such signals.

  2. Use of Plasma Actuators as a Moving-Wake Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.; Klapetzky Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The work documented in this report tests the concept of using plasma actuators as a simple and easy way to generate a simulated moving-wake and the disturbances associated with it in turbines. This wake is caused by the blades of the upstream stages of the turbine. Two types of devices, one constructed of arrays of NACA 0018 airfoils, and the one constructed of flat plates were studied. The airfoils or plates were equipped with surface mounted dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators, which were used to generate flow disturbances resembling moving-wakes. CTA hot-wire anemometry and flow visualization using a smoke-wire were used to investigate the wake independence at various spacings and downstream locations. The flat plates were found to produce better results than the airfoils in creating large velocity fluctuations in the free-stream flow. Different dielectric materials, plasma actuator locations, leading edge contours, angles of attack and plate spacings were investigated, some with positive results. The magnitudes of the velocity fluctuations were found to be comparable to existing mechanical moving-wake generators, thus proving the feasibility of using plasma actuators as a moving-wake generator.

  3. Design and fabrication of a 30 second pulsed plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, L.A.; Ehlers, K.W.; Lietzke, A.F.; Matuk, C.A.; Maruyama, Y.; Paterson, J.A.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1983-10-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for a large hybrid magnetic cusp plasma generator developed for 30 sec pulse length are described. Included are the magnetic cusp geometry features, water cooling characteristics, filament structures, and the high energy density actively cooled anode and electron dump employed.

  4. An electrochemical aptasensor electrocatalyst for detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rong; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Qingwen; Yao, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This work reports a novel signal amplification strategy based on three-dimensional ordered macroporous C60-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (3DOM C60-PEDOT-[BMIm][BF6]) for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin by cascade catalysis of Au-PEDOT@SiO2 microspheres and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Au-PEDOT@SiO2 microspheres were constructed not only as nanocarriers to anchor the large amounts of secondary thrombin aptamers but also as nanocatalysts to catalyze the oxidation of ethanol efficiently. Significantly, the electrochemical signal was greatly enhanced based on cascade catalysis: First, ADH catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde with the concomitant generation of NADH in the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NAD(+)). Then, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as nanocatalysts could effectively catalyze NADH to produce NAD(+) with the help of PEDOT as redox probe. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed aptasensor exhibits a linear range of 2 × 10(-13) to 2 × 10(-8) M with a low detection limit of 2 × 10(-14) M for thrombin detection and shows high sensitivity and good specificity. PMID:26869084

  5. Energetics of thrombin-fibrinogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Hopfner, K P; Di Cera, E

    1992-11-24

    The kinetic mechanism of thrombin-fibrinogen interaction has been elucidated by steady-state measurements of synthetic substrate hydrolysis by human alpha-thrombin in the presence of human fibrinogen used as a competitive inhibitor and sucrose used as a viscogenic agent. Sucrose greatly affects the FKm for thrombin-fibrinogen interaction, without altering the intrinsic properties of the system. Under conditions of pH 7.5 and 0.1 M NaCl, fibrinogen behaves like a sticky substrate for thrombin, with acylation being comparable to dissociation in the temperature range 20-37 degrees C. In the same temperature range, deacylation is much faster than acylation. The van't Hoff enthalpy of binding for thrombin-fibrinogen interaction is -24 +/- 3 kcal/mol and the entropy is -55 +/- 11 cal mol-1 deg-1. A chemical compensation effect is present in the binding of fibrinogen and synthetic amide substrates to thrombin, with the delta H and delta G values being linked through a linear relationship. PMID:1445891

  6. Adenosine regulates the proinflammatory signaling function of thrombin in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Dinarvand, Peyman; Rezaie, Alireza R.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma level of the regulatory metabolite adenosine increases during the activation of coagulation and inflammation. Here we investigated the effect of adenosine on modulation of thrombin-mediated proinflammatory responses in HUVECs. We found that adenosine inhibits the barrier-disruptive effect of thrombin in HUVECs by a concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of cell surface expression of adenosine receptors revealed that A2A and A2B are expressed at the highest level among the four receptor subtypes (A2B>A2A>A1>A3) on HUVECs. The barrier-protective effect of adenosine in response to thrombin was recapitulated by the A2A specific agonist, CGS 21680, and abrogated both by the siRNA knockdown of the A2A receptor and by the A2A-specific antagonists, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261. The thrombin-induced RhoA activation and its membrane translocation were both inhibited by adenosine in a cAMP-dependent manner, providing a molecular mechanism through which adenosine exerts a barrier-protective function. Adenosine also inhibited thrombin-mediated activation of NF-κB and decreased adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to stimulated HUVECs via down-regulation of expression of cell surface adhesion molecules, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin. Moreover, adenosine inhibited thrombin-induced elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and HMGB-1; and chemokines, MCP-1, CXCL-1 and CXCL-3. Taken together, these results suggest that adenosine may inhibit thrombin-mediated proinflammatory signaling responses, thereby protecting the endothelium from injury during activation of coagulation and inflammation. PMID:24477600

  7. Parametric calculations of plasma jets generated by microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foletto, M.; Boeuf, J. P.; Pitchford, L. C.

    2014-10-01

    ``Guided streamers'' or ``plasma jets'' can be generated in open air by applying rf or impulse voltages to a microdischarge through which there is a flow of helium. For flow conditions such that a helium column surrounded by air extends some distance (centimeters) past the exit of the microdischarge, a plasma jet can be initiated. Previous works have shown that this is essentially a streamer propagating in the easily-ionized helium column and impeded from branching by the surrounding air. For many applications, it is of interest to understand the parameters controlling the properties of the plasma jet. To this end, we present results from a series of parametric calculations using our previously published model to identify the influence of the microdischarge configuration on the generation, propagation, and properties of the plasma jet. We focus mainly on a geometry with hollow, concentric electrodes separated by a dielectric tube corresponding to the experiments of Douat et al., and we vary the dimensions and relative off-set of the electrodes, applying an impulse voltage or the experimental waveform to the inner electrode. For the same applied voltage waveform, parameters which influence the electric field and electron density in the plasma jet are the dielectric permittivity, the tube diameter, and the dielectric length. Support by the French National Research Agency project PAMPA.

  8. Characteristics of Solution Plasma Generated with Coaxial DBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Kenji; Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Imai, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, solution plasma processing, or plasma processing in or in contact with an aqueous solution, has attracted much attention because of its various possible applications. Although different types of plasma generation methods have been proposed, most of them do not cover a wide range of electrical conductivity of the water to be treated. Since the water subjected to the plasma treatment can have any values of electrical conductivity depending on the purposes of treatments, we must develop methods that cover a wide range of electrical conductivity of water. The conventional solution plasma has shown a strong dependence on the electrical conductivity of water, in which stable discharge is available only in the water with an electrical conductivity of 100 +/- 50 μS/cm. The coaxial-type DBD in contrast has shown intense discharge within the conductivity range of 0.5-160 μS/cm. This result indicates that the coaxial type DBD has more ``robust'' dependence on the electrical conductivity of water. Furthermore, the coaxial type DBD has shown 3-fold higher energy efficiency in indigo carmine degradation than the conventional solution plasma.

  9. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  10. Ion species control in high flux deuterium plasma beams produced by a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.-N.; Shu, W.M.; Nakamura, H.; O'Hira, S.; Nishi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The ion species ratios in low energy high flux deuterium plasma beams formed in a linear plasma generator were measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. And the species control in the plasma generator was evaluated by changing the operational parameters like neutral pressure, arc current, and axial magnetic confinement to the plasma column. The measurements reveal that the lower pressures prefer to form more D{sup +} ions, and the medium magnetic confinement at the higher pressures results in production of more D{sub 2}{sup +}, while the stronger confinement and/or larger arc current are helpful to D{sub 2}{sup +} conversion into D{sub 3}{sup +}. Therefore, the ion species can be controlled by adjusting the operational parameters of the plasma generator. With suitable adjustment, we can achieve plasma beams highly enriched with a single species of D{sup +}, D{sub 2}{sup +}, or D{sub 3}{sup +}, to a ratio over 80%. It has been found that the axial magnetic configuration played a significant role in the formation of D{sub 3}{sup +} within the experimental pressure range.

  11. Two-color pump of laser plasmas for harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various laser-produced metal plasmas were used for high-order sum and difference harmonic generation using the mixing of tunable mid-infrared pulses from optical parametric amplifier and 810 nm ultrashort pulses. We show that, regardless of non-optimal spatio-temporal overlap of two sources of radiation in the plasmas, the application of proposed technique allows a significant growth of harmonic yield and broadening of the number of different combinations of interacting waves in the extreme ultraviolet region, which could be useful for observation of the resonance induced enhancement of some frequency components.

  12. Dynamics and interactions of pulsed laser generated plasma bubbles in dusty plasma liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Hongyu; Liao Chenting; I Lin

    2005-10-31

    The plasma bubble with dust particle depletion can be generated by a nano-second laser pulse focused on one of the dust particles suspended in a strongly coupled dusty plasma liquid. The bubble dynamics at different time scales, including the initial forming and later traveling stages are investigated. In the first stage, dust particles are pushed outward by the outward ion flow associated with the plume generated by the more intensed plasma. The bubble then travels downward at a speed about 60 mm/s associated with a surrounding dipole-like dust flow field. Two bubbles can also be simultaneously generated at different locations by separated laser pulses to study their interactions. Strong coupling is observed between two vertical bubbles. However, two horizontal bubbles are weakly coupled. The possible mechanism is discussed.

  13. Plasma Characteristics Using Superimposed Dual Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma Source for Next Generation Device Processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Chul Hee; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2015-11-01

    U-shaped inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source was investigated as a linear plasma source for the next generation roll-to-toll flexible display processing. For the radio frequency power to the source, the dual frequency composed of 13.56 MHz and 2 MHz was used and the effect of dual frequency to the U-shaped ICP source on the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma uniformity was investigated. As the operating condition, 200 mTorr Ar was used without operating turbo pumps. The use of superimposed dual frequency composed of 13.56 MHz + 2 MHz instead the single frequency of 13.56 MHz increased the plasma density slightly at the same total power. In addition, the addition of 2 MHz rf power to 0.4 kW while maintaining 1 kW 13.56 MHz rf power not only decreased electron temperature but also improved both the plasma uniformity and the process uniformity measured by photoresist etching. Therefore, by using the dual frequency to the U-shaped ICP source, not only the plasma density but also plasma uniformity could be improved in addition to the decrease of possible damage to the substrate. PMID:26726573

  14. Voltage distribution over capacitively coupled plasma electrode for atmospheric-pressure plasma generation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    When capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is used to generate large-area plasma, the standing wave effect becomes significant, which results in the hindering of the uniform plasma process such as in a plasma etcher or plasma chemical vapor deposition. In this study, the transmission line modeling method is applied to calculate the voltage distribution over atmospheric-pressure CCP electrodes with the size of 1 m × 0.2 m. The measured plasma impedance in our previous study was used in the present calculation. The results of the calculations clearly showed the effects of excitation frequency and the impedance of the plasma on the form of the voltage distribution caused by the standing wave effect. In the case of 150 MHz frequency, the standing wave effect causes a drastic change in the voltage distribution via plasma ignition; however, the change is small for 13.56 MHz. It was also clarified that the power application position is important for obtaining a uniform voltage distribution. PMID:23634893

  15. Antiplatelet therapy: thrombin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Tomasello, Salvatore D; Ueno, Masafumi; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2011-01-01

    Activated platelets stimulate thrombus formation in response to rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque or endothelial cell erosion, promoting atherothrombotic disease. Multiple pathways contribute to platelet activation. Aspirin, an irreversible inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthesis, in combination with clopidogrel, an inhibitor of P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate platelet receptors, represent the current standard-of-care of antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Although these agents have demonstrated significant clinical benefit, the increased risk of bleeding and the recurrence of thrombotic events represent substantial limitations. Thrombin is one of the most important platelet activators. The inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 showed a good safety profile in preclinical studies. In fact, phase II studies with vorapaxar (SCH530348) and atopaxar (E5555) showed no increase of bleeding events in addition to the current standard-of-care of antiplatelet therapy. Although the results of phase III trials for both drugs are awaited, this family is a promising new addition to the current clinical practice for patients with atherothrombotic disease, not only as an alternative, but also as additional therapy. PMID:21906120

  16. Electric probe investigations of microwave generated, atmospheric pressure, plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Porteanu, H. E.; Kuehn, S.; Gesche, R.

    2010-07-15

    We examine the applicability of the Langmuir-type of characterization for atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated in a millimeter-size cavity microwave resonator at 2.45 GHz. Wide range I-V characteristics of helium, argon, nitrogen, air and oxygen are presented for different gas fluxes, distances probe-resonator, and microwave powers. A detailed analysis is performed for the fine variation in the current around the floating potential. A simplified theory specially developed for this case is presented, considering the ionic and electronic saturation currents and the floating potential. Based on this theory, we conclude that, while the charge carrier density depends on gas flow, distance to plasma source, and microwave absorbed power, the electron temperature is quite independent of these parameters. The resulting plasma parameters for helium, argon, and nitrogen are presented.

  17. Plasma-generated reactive oxygen species for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, J. S.; Hammer, M. U.; Winter, J.; Tresp, H.; Duennbier, M.; Iseni, S.; Martin, V.; Puech, V.; Weltmann, K. D.; Reuter, S.

    2012-10-01

    To get a better insight into the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cellular components, fundamental studies are essential to determine the nature and concentration of plasma-generated ROS, and the chemistry induced in biological liquids by those ROS. In this context, we have measured the absolute density of the main ROS created in three different atmospheric pressure plasma sources: two geometrically distinct RF-driven microplasma jets (μ-APPJ [1] and kinpen [2]), and an array of microcathode sustained discharges [3]. Optical diagnostics of the plasma volumes and effluent regions have been performed: UV absorption for O3 and IR emission for O2(a^1δ) [4]. High concentrations of both ROS have been obtained (10^14--10^17cm-3). The effect of different parameters, such as gas flows and mixtures and power coupled to the plasmas, has been studied. For plasma biomedicine, the determination of the reactive species present in plasma-treated liquids is of great importance. In this work, we focused on the measurement of the concentration of H2O2 and NOX radicals, generated in physiological solutions like NaCl and PBS.[4pt] [1] N. Knake et al., J. Phys. D: App. Phys. 41, 194006 (2008)[0pt] [2] K.D. Weltmann et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 82, 1223 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.S. Sousa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141502 (2010)[0pt] [4] J.S. Sousa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011502 (2008)

  18. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  19. The Interaction of Explosively Generated Plasma with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Douglas; LANL Team

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that the temperature of explosively generated plasma (EGP) is of the order of 1 eV and plasma ejecta can be focused to achieve velocities as high as 25 km/s. These high velocity plasma can readily penetrate a wide range of materials including metals. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to determine if EGP could be used for explosive ordnance demolition and other applications. The test goals were: to benignly disable ordnance containing relatively sensitive high performance explosives (PBX-9501); and to investigate the possibility of interrupting an ongoing detonation in a powerful high explosive (again PBX-9501) with EGP. Experiments were performed to establish the optimum sizes of plasma generators for the benign deactivation of high explosives, i.e., the destruction of the ordnance without initiating a detonation or comparable violent event. These experiments were followed by attempts to interrupt an ongoing detonation by the destruction of the unreacted explosive in its path. The results were encouraging. First, it was demonstrated that high explosives could be destroyed without the initiation of a detonation or high order reaction. Second, ongoing detonations were successfully interrupted with EGP. LA-UR-15-20612.

  20. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, D.; Esarey, E.; Kim, J.K.

    1997-06-10

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention. 21 figs.

  1. Proposed generation and compression of a target plasma for MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Thurston, R.S.; Chrien, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF), in which a magnetothermally insulated plasma is hydrodynamically compressed to fusion conditions, represents an approach to controlled fusion which avoids difficulties of both traditional inertial confinement and magnetic confinement approaches. The authors are proposing to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetized target fusion by: (1) creating a suitable magnetized target plasma, (2) performing preliminary liner compression experiments using existing pulsed power facilities and demonstrated liner performance. Once the target plasma and the means for its generation have been optimized, the authors plan to conduct preliminary liner compression experiments aimed at demonstrating the near-adiabatic compression of the target plasma desired for MTF. Relevant liner compression experiments have been performed at Los Alamos in the Scyllac Fast Liner Program and, more recently, in the Pegasus facility and the Procyon explosive pulsed power program. In a series of liner experiments they plan to map out the dependence of temperature and neutron production as functions of the initial plasma conditions and the liner compression achieved. With the above research program, they intend to demonstrate most of the key principles involved in magnetized target fusion, and develop the experimental and theoretical tools needed to design and execute fully integrated MTF ignition experiments.

  2. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, Donald; Esarey, Eric; Kim, Joon K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention.

  3. Generation of Electromagnetic Bursts in the Plasma Cyclotron Maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, M. E.; Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.

    2013-06-01

    We study experimentally the frequency and energy characteristics of electromagnetic waves in the plasma cyclotron maser, where the active medium is the two-component nonequilibrium plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge, which is produced by a high-power gyrotron radiation in a mirror trap. At the plasma decay stage, high-power (up to 200 W) pulses of electromagnetic radiation are detected synchronously with the precipitation of energetic electrons from the trap. This radiation propagates across the magnetic trap, and the radiation frequency fits in the interval between the electron gyrofrequency at the center of the mirror and the frequency of the electron cyclotron resonance heating. Synchronicity of the generated radiation with the electron precipitation out of the trap, as well as the dependence of the radiation frequency on the magnetic field of the trap, confirm the cyclotron mechanism of the arising instability. It is shown that electron precipitation, which is due to the cyclotron instability of the low-density plasma, ensures fast relaxation (as compared with the loss due to the Coulomb collisions) of the energy stored in the hot component of the plasma.

  4. Improved Magnetic Field Generation Efficiency and Higher Temperature Spheromak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R D; Hill, D N; McLean, H S; Hooper, E B; Hudson, B F; Moller, J M; Romero-Talamas, C A

    2008-09-15

    New understanding of the mechanisms governing the observed magnetic field generation limits on the sustained spheromak physics experiment has been obtained. Extending the duration of magnetic helicity injection during the formation of a spheromak and optimizing the ratio of injected current to bias flux produce higher magnetic field plasmas with record spheromak electron temperatures. To explore magnetic field buildup efficiency limits, the confinement region geometry was varied resulting in improved field buildup efficiencies.

  5. Tailoring the plasma channel generated by femtosecond laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Pengfei; Jia, Wei

    2015-02-01

    By investigating the spatial and temporal variations of the propagating pulses, we have shown for the first time that the lattice waveguides can induce nonlinear effects to tailor the plasma channel generated by a femtosecond laser pulse. Different types of the spatiotemporal localized nonlinear light bullet’s propagating configurations have been predicted. By adjusting the parameters of the modulation potential, longer continuum filaments and reshaped laser pulses can be obtained, due to the focusing nonlinearity of the lattice modulation index.

  6. Generation of attosecond electron bunches in a laser-plasma accelerator using a plasma density upramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikum, M. K.; Li, F. Y.; Assmann, R. W.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D.

    2016-09-01

    Attosecond electron bunches and attosecond radiation pulses enable the study of ultrafast dynamics of matter in an unprecedented regime. In this paper, the suitability for the experimental realization of a novel scheme producing sub-femtosecond duration electron bunches from laser-wakefield acceleration in plasma with self-injection in a plasma upramp profile has been investigated. While it has previously been predicted that this requires laser power above a few hundred terawatts typically, here we show that the scheme can be extended with reduced driving laser powers down to tens of terawatts, generating accelerated electron pulses with minimum length of around 166 attoseconds and picocoulombs charge. Using particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models, the evolution of the accelerated electron bunch within the plasma as well as simple scalings of the bunch properties with initial laser and plasma parameters are presented.

  7. Nonthermal Argon Plasma Generator and Some Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunoiu, M.; Jugunaru, I.; Bica, I.; Balasoiu, M.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory - made nonthermal plasma generator is presented. It has a diameter of 0.020 m and length of 0.155 m and contains two electrodes. The first electrode is a 2% Th-W alloy, 0.002 m in diameter bar, centred inside the generator's body by means of a four channel teflon piece; the other three channels, 0.003 m in diameter, are used for Ar supply. The second electrode is a nozzle of 0.002 m - 0.008 m diameter and 0.005m length. A ~500 kV/m electric field is generated between the two electrodes by a high frequency source (13.56 MHz ±5%), equipped with a OT-1000 (Tungsram) power triode. For Ar flows ranging from 0.00008 m3/s to 0.00056 m3/s, a plasma jet of length not exceeding 0.015 m and temperature below 315 K is obtained. Anthurium andraeanumis sample , blood matrix, human hair and textile fibers may be introduced in the plasma jet. For time periods of 30 s and 60 s, various effects like, cell detexturization, fast blood coagulation or textile fiber or hair cleaning and smoothing are obtained. These effects are presented and discussed in the paper.

  8. DETECTION OF ENDOGENOUS TISSUE FACTOR LEVELS IN PLASMA USING THE CALIBRATED AUTOMATED THROMBOGRAM ASSAY

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Veronique; Wang, Jianguo; Manly, David; Machlus, Kellie R.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Mackman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background The calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) assay measures thrombin generation in plasma. Objective Use the CAT assay to detect endogenous tissue factor (TF) in recalcified platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-free plasma (PFP). Methods Blood from healthy volunteers was collected into citrate and incubated at 37°C with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 5 hours. PRP and PFP were prepared and clotting was initiated by recalcification. Thrombin generation was measured using the CAT assay. Results The lag time (LT) was significantly shortened in PRP prepared from LPS-treated blood compared with untreated blood (10 ± 3 min versus 20 ± 6 min), and this change was reversed by the addition of inactivated human factor VIIa. LPS stimulation did not change the peak thrombin. Similar results were observed in PFP (21 ± 4 min versus 35 ± 5 min). LPS stimulation also significantly reduced the LT of PRP and PFP derived from blood containing citrate and a factor XIIa inhibitor. Finally, a low concentration of exogenous TF shortened the LT of PFP prepared from unstimulated, citrated blood without affecting the peak thrombin. Conclusion Changes in LT in the CAT assay can be used to monitor levels of endogenous TF in citrated plasma. PMID:19345399

  9. Current interruption and particle beam generation by a plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdin, G.; Venneri, F.

    1982-11-01

    Through collaboration with Dr. K. H. Schoenbach of Texas Tech University the plasma focus opening switch (PFOS) was revised to answer basic questions as to utility of the concept. To estimate the plasma temperature and classical resistivity a soft X-ray spectrometer and X-ray pinhole camera were developed. The temperature was estimated from a coronal model to range between 0.4 to 0.5 keV for either a nitrogen or neon impurity (1 to 2%) in deuterium at 3 torr. Strong pinches were observed in pure neon (0.6 torr) with an electron temperature in the same range. The corresponding classical resistance of the pinch is 9 m omega whereas 500 m omega is more consistent with output voltage pulse and current flow at interruption indicating anomalous resistivity is present. A one-dimensional two-fluid computer code has been developed to model anomalous resistivity in the pinch phase and preliminary results are consistent with the snowplow model. The final analysis of the plasma focus particle beam generation experiments was completed and a strong correlation was found for the beam-target model as the mechanism for neutron production in the Illinois plasma focus device.

  10. Plasma flash x-ray generator (PFXG-02)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Germer, Rudolf K.; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Usuki, Tatsumi; Sato, Koetsu; Obara, Haruo; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2003-07-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, high-voltage main condenser of about 200 nF is charged up to 50 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod iron target of 3.0 mm in diameter by electric field in the x-ray tube, the weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of iron ions and electrons, forms by target evaporating. At a charging voltage of 50 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, the linear plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The x-ray pulse widths were about 800 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of about 10 μC/kg at 1.0 m from x-ray source with a charging voltage of 50 kV. The plasma x-rays were diffused after passing through two lead slits.

  11. Plasma and Shock Generation by Indirect Laser Pulse Action

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Borodziuk, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, K.; Kralikova, B.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Rozanov, V. B.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Kalal, M.; Limpouch, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2006-01-15

    In the paper the results of our experiment with flyer disks, accelerated to high velocities by the PALS iodine laser and subsequently creating craters when hitting massive targets , are presented. We have carried out experiments with the double targets consisted of a disk placed in front of a massive target part at distances of either 200 or 500 {mu}m. Both elements of the targets were made of Al. The following disk irradiation conditions were used: laser energy of 130 J, laser wavelength of 1.315 {mu}m, pulse duration of 0.4 ns, and laser spot diameter of 250 {mu}m. To measure some plasma parameters and accelerated disk velocity a three frame interferometric system was used. Efficiency of crater creation by a disk impact was determined from the crater parameters, which were obtained by means of a crater replica technique. The experimental results concern two main stages: (a) ablative plasma generation and disk acceleration and (b) disk impact and crater creation. Spatial density distributions at different moments of plasma generation and expansion are shown. Discussion of the experimental results on the basis of a 2-D theoretical model of the laser -- solid target interaction is carried out.

  12. Theoretical and numerical predictions of hypervelocity impact-generated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianqiao; Song, Weidong Ning, Jianguo

    2014-08-15

    The hypervelocity impact generated plasmas (HVIGP) in thermodynamic non-equilibrium state were theoretically analyzed, and a physical model was presented to explore the relationship between plasma ionization degree and internal energy of the system by a group of equations including a chemical reaction equilibrium equation, a chemical reaction rate equation, and an energy conservation equation. A series of AUTODYN 3D (a widely used software in dynamic numerical simulations and developed by Century Dynamic Inc.) numerical simulations of the impacts of hypervelocity Al projectile on its targets at different incident angles were performed. The internal energy and the material density obtained from the numerical simulations were then used to calculate the ionization degree and the electron temperature. Based on a self-developed 2D smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code and the theoretical model, the plasmas generated by 6 hypervelocity impacts were directly simulated and their total charges were calculated. The numerical results are in good agreements with the experimental results as well as the empirical formulas, demonstrating that the theoretical model is justified by the AUTODYN 3D and self-developed 2D SPH simulations and applicable to predict HVIGPs. The study is of significance for astrophysical and cosmonautic researches and safety.

  13. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    DOEpatents

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich; Shiryaev, Vasili Nikolaevich

    2010-03-02

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron:3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  14. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    DOEpatents

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich

    2008-12-09

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  15. Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.

  16. Population inversions in ablation plasmas generated by intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Kammash, T.; Brake, M. L.

    1988-11-01

    Experiments during the past three years have concerned the generation and spectroscopic study of electron beam-driven carbon plasmas in order to explore the production of optical and ultraviolet radiation from nonequilibrium populations. The output of MELBA (Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator), has been connected to an electron beam diode consisting of an aluminum (or brass) cathode stalk and a carbon anode. Magnetic field coils have been designed, procured, and utilized to focus the electron beam. A side viewing port permitted spectroscopic diagnostics to view across the surface of the anode. Spectroscopic diagnosis has been performed using a 1 m spectrograph capable of operation from the vacuum ultraviolet through the visible. This spectrograph is coupled to a 1024 channel optical multichannel analyzer. Spectra taken during the initial 400 ns period of the e-beam pulse showed a low effective charge plasma with primarily molecular components (C2, CH) as well as atomic hydrogen and singly ionized carbon (CII). When the generator pulse was crowbarred after the first 400 ns, the spectra revealed a continuation of the low charge state plasma.

  17. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Tai Ho; Williams, Arthur H.

    1985-01-01

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasmas generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  18. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, T.H.; Williams, A.H.

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasma generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  19. Exploiting the antithrombotic effect of the (pro)thrombin inhibitor bothrojaracin.

    PubMed

    Assafim, Mariane; Frattani, Flávia S; Ferreira, Marcos S; Silva, Dione M; Monteiro, Robson Q; Zingali, Russolina B

    2016-09-01

    Bothrojaracin is a 27 kDa C-type lectin-like protein from Bothrops jararaca snake venom. It behaves as a potent thrombin inhibitor upon high-affinity binding to thrombin exosites. Bothrojaracin also forms a stable complex with prothrombin that can be detected in human plasma. Formation of the zymogen-inhibitor complex severely decreases prothrombin activation and contributes to the anticoagulant activity of bothrojaracin. In the present study, we employed two rodent models to evaluate the antithrombotic effect of bothrojaracin in vivo: stasis-induced thrombosis and thrombin-induced pulmonary thromboembolism. It was observed that bothrojaracin interacts with rat prothrombin in plasma. Ex-vivo assays showed stable complex formation even after 24 h of a single bothrojaracin dose. As a result, bothrojaracin showed significant antithrombotic activity in a rat venous thrombosis model elicited by thromboplastin combined with stasis. The antithrombotic activity of bothrojaracin (1 mg/kg) persisted for up to 24 h and it was associated with moderate bleeding as assessed by a tail transection method. Formation of bothrojaracin-prothrombin complex has been also observed following intravenous administration of the inhibitor into mice. As a result, bothrojaracin effectively protected mice from thrombin-induced fatal thromboembolism. We conclude that bothrojaracin is a potent antithrombotic agent in vivo and may serve as a prototype for the development of new zymogen-directed drugs that could result in prolonged half-life and possible decreased hemorrhagic risk. PMID:27179421

  20. On the generation of plasma waves in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1993-06-01

    Voyager 1 plasma wave measurements of Saturn's inner magnetosphere are reviewed with regard to interpretative aspects of the wave spectrum. A comparison of the wave emission profile with the electron plasma frequency obtained from in situ measurements of the thermal ion density shows good agreement with various features in the wave data identified as electrostatic modes and electromagnetic radio waves. Theoretical calculations of the critical flux of superthermal electrons able to generate whistler-mode waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves through a loss-cone instability are presented. The comparison of model results with electron measurements shows excellent agreement, thereby lending support to the conclusion that a moderate perpendicular anisotropy in the hot electron distribution is present in the equatorial region of L = 5-8.

  1. Solar Wind Strahl Broadening by Self-Generated Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavan, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  2. Electromagnetic Properties of Impact-Generated Plasma, Vapor and Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.A.; Schultz, P.H.

    1998-11-02

    Plasma, vapor and debris associated with an impact or explosive event have been demonstrated in the laboratory to produce radiofrequency and optical electromagnetic emissions that can be diagnostic of the event. Such effects could potentially interfere with communications or remote sensing equipment if an impact occurred, for example, on a satellite. More seriously, impact generated plasma could end the life of a satellite by mechanisms that are not well understood and not normally taken into account in satellite design. For example, arc/discharge phenomena resulting from highly conductive plasma acting as a current path across normally shielded circuits may have contributed to the loss of the Olympus experimental communications satellite on August 11, 1993. The possibility of significant storm activity during the Leonid meteor showers of November 1998, 1999 and 2000 (impact velocity, 72 km/s) has heightened awareness of potential vulnerabilities from hypervelocity electromagnetic effects to orbital assets. The concern is justified. The amount of plasma, electrostatic charge and the magnitude of the resulting currents and electric fields scale nearly as the cube of the impact velocity. Even for microscopic Leonid impacts, the amount of plasma approaches levels that could be dangerous to spacecraft electronics. The degree of charge separation that occurs during hypervelocity impacts scales linearly with impactor mass. The resulting magnetic fields increase linearly with impactor radius and could play a significant role in our understanding of the paleomagnetism of planetary surfaces. The electromagnetic properties of plasma produced by hypervelocity impact have been exploited by researchers as a diagnostic tool, invoked to potentially explain the magnetically jumbled state of the lunar surface and blamed for the loss of the Olympus experimental communications satellite. The production of plasma in and around an impact event can lead to several effects: (1) the

  3. Osteopontin Fragments with Intact Thrombin-Sensitive Site Circulate in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Pak-Leong; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Wong, Raymond R. Y.; Yim, So-Fan; Ng, Margaret H. L.; Tam, Frankie C. H.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Wong, Yick-Fu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether circulating osteopontin (OPN) could be used as a biomarker for cervical cancer. We employed a monoclonal antibody (mAb 659) specific for the unique and intact thrombin-sensitive site in OPN using an inhibition ELISA. We found significantly higher levels of OPN in 33 cervical cancer patients in both the plasma (mean +/- SD, 612 +/- 106 ng/mL) and serum (424 +/- 121 ng/mL) compared to healthy subjects [409 +/- 56 ng/mL, from 31 plasma samples (P < 0.0001), and 314 +/- 98 ng/mL, from 32 serum samples (P = 0.0002), respectively]. Similar results were obtained when the plasma from a bigger group (147 individuals) of cervical cancer patients (560 +/- 211 ng/mL) were compared with the same plasma samples of the healthy individuals (P = 0.0014). More significantly, the OPN level was highest in stage III-IV disease (614 +/- 210 ng/mL, from 52 individuals; P = 0.0001) and least and non-discriminatory in stage I (473 +/- 110 ng/mL, from 40 individuals; P = 0.5318). No such discrimination was found when a mAb of a different specificity (mAb 446) was used in a similar inhibition ELISA to compare the two groups in the first study; a commercial capture ELISA also failed. The possibility that the target epitope recognized by the antibody probe in these assays was absent from the circulating OPN due to protein truncation was supported by gel fractionation of the OPN found in patients’ plasma: 60–64 kDa fragments were found instead of the presumably full-length OPN (68 kDa) seen in healthy people. How these fragments are generated and what possible role they play in cancer biology remain interesting questions. PMID:27494141

  4. Nonequilibrium dynamics of laser-generated plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Tz. B.; Ladouceur, H. D.; Baronavski, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    A time-dependent nonequilibrium kinetics model based upon the time-dependent electron Boltzmann equation coupled with an extensive air chemistry model accounting for gas heating and vibrational kinetics is developed. The model is applied to the temporal evolution of femtosecond laser-generated air plasma channels at atmospheric pressure in an external electric field. The plasma channel dynamics depend upon the initial free electron density, the initial electron energy of the plasma, and upon the externally applied electric field strength. The model predicts an electric breakdown field strength of 5-10kV/cm with a delay time of hundreds of nanoseconds when the electron density drops to the optimum value of ˜1012-1013cm-3. The experimentally observed breakdown field is ˜5.7kV/cm with a statistical breakdown delay time of ˜200ns. The reduction in the breakdown field strength in natural air from ˜30to5kV/cm is attributed to a combination of processes such as enhanced ionization due to relaxation of the initial electron energy distribution function toward a Maxwellian distribution, strong electron detachment, and gas heating. The calculated electron density decay of the laser-generated plasma channel in both pure nitrogen and dry air is in good agreement with the NRL experiments. The derived rate constant for recombination in dry air is bBair=3.9×10-8cm3s-1 and in pure nitrogen it is bBN2=4.4×10-8cm3s-1. The attachment rate coefficient in dry air is ηBair=7.5×106s-1.

  5. Shock Generation and Control Using DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mehul P.; Cain, Alan B.; Nelson, Christopher C.; Corke, Thomas C.; Matlis, Eric H.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a NASA Phase I SBIR contract, with some revisions to remove company proprietary data. The Shock Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI) phenomena in a supersonic inlet involve mutual interaction of oblique shocks with boundary layers, forcing the boundary layer to separate from the inlet wall. To improve the inlet efficiency, it is desired to prevent or delay shock-induced boundary layer separation. In this effort, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and the University of Notre Dame (UND) jointly investigated the use of dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuators for control of SBLI in a supersonic inlet. The research investigated the potential for DBD plasma actuators to suppress flow separation caused by a shock in a turbulent boundary layer. The research involved both numerical and experimental investigations of plasma flow control for a few different SBLI configurations: (a) a 12 wedge flow test case at Mach 1.5 (numerical and experimental), (b) an impinging shock test case at Mach 1.5 using an airfoil as a shock generator (numerical and experimental), and (c) a Mach 2.0 nozzle flow case in a simulated 15 X 15 cm wind tunnel with a shock generator (numerical). Numerical studies were performed for all three test cases to examine the feasibility of plasma flow control concepts. These results were used to guide the wind tunnel experiments conducted on the Mach 1.5 12 degree wedge flow (case a) and the Mach 1.5 impinging shock test case (case b) which were at similar flow conditions as the corresponding numerical studies to obtain experimental evidence of plasma control effects for SBLI control. The experiments also generated data that were used in validating the numerical studies for the baseline cases (without plasma actuators). The experiments were conducted in a Mach 1.5 test section in the University of Notre Dame Hessert Laboratory. The simulation results from cases a and b indicated that multiple

  6. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin

  7. Terahertz generation in plasmas using two-color laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Peñano, Joseph; Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Gordon, Daniel; Serafim, Philip

    2010-02-01

    We analyze the generation of terahertz radiation when an intense, short laser pulse is mixed with its frequency-doubled counterpart in plasma. The nonlinear coupling of the fundamental and the frequency-doubled laser pulses in plasma is shown to be characterized by a third order susceptibility which has a time dependence characteristic of the laser pulse durations. The terahertz generation process depends on the relative polarizations of the lasers and the terahertz frequency is omega approximately 1/tau(L), where tau(L) is the laser pulse duration. Since the laser pulse duration is typically in the picosecond or subpicosecond regime the resulting radiation is in the terahertz or multiterahertz regime. To obtain the third order susceptibility we solve the plasma fluid equations correct to third order in the laser fields, including both the relativistic and ponderomotive force terms. The relativistic and ponderomotive contributions to the susceptibility nearly cancel in the absence of electron collisions. Therefore, in this terahertz generation mechanism collisional effects play a critical role. Consistent with recent experimental observations, our model shows that (1) the terahertz field amplitude is proportional to I(1) square root I(2), where I(1) and I(2) are the intensities of the fundamental and second harmonic laser pulses, respectively, (2) the terahertz emission is maximized when the polarization of the laser beams and the terahertz are aligned, (3) for typical experimental parameters, the emitted terahertz field amplitude is on the order of tens of kilovolts/cm with duration comparable to that of the drive laser pulses, and (4) the direction of terahertz emission depends sensitively on experimental parameters. PMID:20365665

  8. Terahertz generation in plasmas using two-color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Penano, Joseph; Sprangle, Phillip; Gordon, Daniel; Hafizi, Bahman; Serafim, Philip

    2010-02-15

    We analyze the generation of terahertz radiation when an intense, short laser pulse is mixed with its frequency-doubled counterpart in plasma. The nonlinear coupling of the fundamental and the frequency-doubled laser pulses in plasma is shown to be characterized by a third order susceptibility which has a time dependence characteristic of the laser pulse durations. The terahertz generation process depends on the relative polarizations of the lasers and the terahertz frequency is omegaapprox1/tau{sub L}, where tau{sub L} is the laser pulse duration. Since the laser pulse duration is typically in the picosecond or subpicosecond regime the resulting radiation is in the terahertz or multiterahertz regime. To obtain the third order susceptibility we solve the plasma fluid equations correct to third order in the laser fields, including both the relativistic and ponderomotive force terms. The relativistic and ponderomotive contributions to the susceptibility nearly cancel in the absence of electron collisions. Therefore, in this terahertz generation mechanism collisional effects play a critical role. Consistent with recent experimental observations, our model shows that (1) the terahertz field amplitude is proportional to I{sub 1}sq root(I{sub 2}), where I{sub 1} and I{sub 2} are the intensities of the fundamental and second harmonic laser pulses, respectively, (2) the terahertz emission is maximized when the polarization of the laser beams and the terahertz are aligned, (3) for typical experimental parameters, the emitted terahertz field amplitude is on the order of tens of kilovolts/cm with duration comparable to that of the drive laser pulses, and (4) the direction of terahertz emission depends sensitively on experimental parameters.

  9. Plasma motor generator tether system for orbit reboost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulkower, Neal D.; Rusch, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive study of an electrodynamic tether used as a Plasma Motor Generator (PMG). The paper summarizes the work performed in the study and includes: (1) a detailed design of a 2 kW PMG tether system to be used for orbit reboost, (2) the selection of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) as the primary candidate spacecraft to host the experimental system, (3) analysis of the integration of the PMG tether system with these two spacecraft, (4) the simulation of the deployment of the tether, and (5) an engineering design and development plan leading to a flight demonstration of this PMG tether.

  10. Towards efficient generation of attosecond pulses from overdense plasma targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, N. M.; Hauri, C. P.; Nees, J. A.; Sokolov, I. V.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Mourou, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    Theoretical studies and computer simulations predict efficient generation of attosecond electromagnetic pulses from overdense plasma targets, driven by relativistically strong laser pulses. These predictions need to be validated in time resolved experiments in order to provide a route for applications. The first available femtosecond sources for these experiments are likely to be 10 fs pulses of a few millijoules, which could provide focal intensities at about the relativistic threshold. With particle-in-cell simulations, we demonstrate that the radiation resulting from interaction of such pulses with solid targets is expected to be attosecond trains with very high conversion efficiency as relativistic effects start to act.

  11. Magnetic field generation during intense laser channelling in underdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, A. G.; Sarri, G.; Vranic, M.; Amano, Y.; Doria, D.; Guillaume, E.; Habara, H.; Heathcote, R.; Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P. A.; Kar, S.; Silva, L. O.; Tanaka, K. A.; Vieira, J.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Channel formation during the propagation of a high-energy (120 J) and long duration (30 ps) laser pulse through an underdense deuterium plasma has been spatially and temporally resolved via means of a proton imaging technique, with intrinsic resolutions of a few μm and a few ps, respectively. Conclusive proof is provided that strong azimuthally symmetric magnetic fields with a strength of around 0.5 MG are created inside the channel, consistent with the generation of a collimated beam of relativistic electrons. The inferred electron beam characteristics may have implications for the cone-free fast-ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion.

  12. Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1981-08-18

    In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

  13. Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.; Deese, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A Boltzmann equation formulation is presented for the determination of the electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. The formulation takes into consideration ambipolar diffusion, elastic and inelastic collisions, recombination and ionization, and allows for the fact that the primary electrons are not monoenergetic. Calculations for He in a tube coated with fissionable material shows that, over a wide pressure and neutron flux range, the distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but the electrons are essentially thermal. Moreover, about a third of the energy of the primary electrons is transferred into the inelastic levels of He. This fraction of energy transfer is almost independent of pressure and neutron flux.

  14. High-order harmonic generation in carbon-nanotube-containing plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Naik, P. A.; Singhal, H.; Chakera, J. A.; Kumar, M.; Joshi, M. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-01-15

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in carbon-nanotube (CNT)-containing plasma plumes has been demonstrated. Various targets were ablated to produce the plasma plumes containing nanotubes for the HHG in these media. Harmonics up to the 29th order were generated. Odd and even harmonics were generated using a two-color pump. The integrity of CNTs within the plasma plume, indicating nanotubes as the source of high-order harmonics, was confirmed by structural studies of plasma debris.

  15. Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators in an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Christopher; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint

    2013-11-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted to compare plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs) and passive vortex generators (VGs). These devices were installed on a wing section by which the angle of attack could be used to vary the streamwise pressure gradient. The experiment was performed for freestream Mach numbers 0.1-0.2. Three-dimensional velocity components were measured using a 5-hole Pitot probe in the boundary layer. These measurements were used to quantify the production of streamwise vorticity and the magnitude of the reorientation term from the vorticity transport equation. The effect of Mach number, pressure gradient, operating voltage, and electrode length was then investigated for the PSVGs. The results indicate that the PSVGs could easily outperform the passive VGs and provide a suitable alternative for flow control.

  16. Generation of strongly coupled plasmas by high power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Zhang, Jiyan; Zheng, Zhijian; Ye, Xisheng

    2013-05-01

    (ultraviolet). To generate strongly coupled plasmas (SCP) by high power excimer laser, an Au-CH-Al-CH target is used to make the Al sample reach the state of SCP, in which the Au layer transforms laser energy to X-ray that heating the sample by volume and the CH layers provides necessary constraints. With aid of the MULTI-1D code, we calculate the state of the Al sample and its relationship with peak intensity, width and wavelength of laser pulses. The calculated results suggest that an excimer laser with peak intensity of the magnitude of 1013W/cm2 and pulse width being 5ns - 10ns is suitable to generate SCP with the temperature being tens of eV and the density of electron being of the order of 1022/cm-3. Lasers with shorter wavelength, such as KrF laser, are preferable.

  17. Dabigatran and Argatroban Diametrically Modulate Thrombin Exosite Function

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Calvin H.; Stafford, Alan R.; Leslie, Beverly A.; Fredenburgh, James C.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombin is a highly plastic molecule whose activity and specificity are regulated by exosites 1 and 2, positively-charged domains that flank the active site. Exosite binding by substrates and cofactors regulates thrombin activity by localizing thrombin, guiding substrates, and by inducing allosteric changes at the active site. Although inter-exosite and exosite-to-active-site allostery have been demonstrated, the impact of active site ligation on exosite function has not been examined. To address this gap, we used surface plasmon resonance to determine the effects of dabigatran and argatroban, active site-directed inhibitors, on thrombin binding to immobilized γA/γA-fibrin or glycoprotein Ibα peptide via exosite 1 and 2, respectively, and thrombin binding to γA/γ′-fibrin or factor Va, which is mediated by both exosites. Whereas dabigatran attenuated binding, argatroban increased thrombin binding to γA/γA- and γA/γ′-fibrin and to factor Va. The results with immobilized fibrin were confirmed by examining the binding of radiolabeled thrombin to fibrin clots. Thus, dabigatran modestly accelerated the dissociation of thrombin from γA/γA-fibrin clots, whereas argatroban attenuated dissociation. Dabigatran had no effect on thrombin binding to glycoprotein Ibα peptide, whereas argatroban promoted binding. These findings not only highlight functional effects of thrombin allostery, but also suggest that individual active site-directed thrombin inhibitors uniquely modulate exosite function, thereby identifying potential novel mechanisms of action. PMID:27305147

  18. Generation and Sustainment of Plasma Rotation by ICRF Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, F. W.

    2000-10-01

    When tokamak plasmas are heated by the fundamental minority ion-cyclotron process, they are observed to rotate toroidally, even though this heating process introduces negligable angular momentum. This work proposes and evaluates a physics mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. The argument has two elements. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a v_tor = 0 boundary condition at the plasma surface and a torque-density source. When the source consists of separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a finite central rotation velocity results, even though the volume integrated torque density - the angular momentum input - vanishes. Secondly, ions energized by the ICRF process can generate separated regions of positive and negative torque density. Heating increases their banana widths which leads to radial energetic-particle transport that must be balanced by neutralizing radial currents and a j_rB_pR torque density in the bulk plasma. Additional, comparable torque density results from collisional transfer of mechanical angular momentum from energetic particles to the bulk plasma and particle loss through banana particles impacting the wall. Monte-Carlo calculations utilizing the ORBIT code evaluate all sources of torque density and rigorously assure that no net angular momentum is introduced. Two models of ICRF heating, diffusive and instantaneous, give similar results. When the resonance location is on the LFS, the calculated rotation has the magnitude, profile, and co-current sense of Alcator C-Mod observations. For HFS resonance locations, the model predicts counter-current rotation. Scans of rotational profiles vs. resonance location, initial energy, particle loss, pitch, and qm will be presented as will the location of the velocity shear layer its scaling to a reactor.

  19. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutroneo, M.; Macková, A.; Havranek, V.; Malinsky, P.; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the research activity on Ion Beam Analysis methods performed at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics AS CR, Rez, Czech Republic. Recently, many groups are paying attention to implantation by laser generated plasma. This process allows to insert a controllable amount of energetic ions into the surface layers of different materials modifying the physical and chemical properties of the surface material. Different substrates are implanted by accelerated ions from plasma through terawatt iodine laser, at nominal intensity of 1015 W/cm2, at the PALS Research Infrastructure AS CR, in the Czech Republic. This regime of the laser matter interaction generates, multi-MeV proton beams, and multi-charged ions that are tightly confined in time (hundreds ps) and space (source radius of a few microns). These ion beams have a much lower transverse temperature, a much shorter duration and a much higher current than those obtainable from conventional accelerators. The implementation of protons and ions acceleration driven by ultra-short high intensity lasers is exhibited by adopting suitable irradiation conditions as well as tailored targets. An overview of implanted targets and their morphological and structural characterizations is presented and discussed.

  20. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  1. Promoting Plasma Physics as a Career: A Generational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James

    2005-10-01

    A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.

  2. Two-color high-harmonic generation in plasmas: efficiency dependence on the generating particle properties.

    PubMed

    Emelina, Anna S; Emelin, Mikhail Yu; Ganeev, Rashid A; Suzuki, Masayuki; Kuroda, Hiroto; Strelkov, Vasily V

    2016-06-27

    The high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in silver, gold, and zinc plasma plumes irradiated by orthogonally polarized two-color field is studied theoretically and experimentally. We find an increase of the HHG efficiency in comparison with the single-color case, which essentially depends on the plasma species and harmonic order. An increase of more than an order of magnitude is observed for silver plasma, whereas for gold and zinc it is lower; these results are reproduced in our calculations that include both propagation and microscopic response studies. We show that the widely used theoretical approach assuming the 1s ground state of the generating particle fails to reproduce the experimental results; the agreement is achieved in our theory using the actual quantum numbers of the outer electron of the generating particles. Moreover, our theoretical studies highlight the redistribution of the electronic density in the continuum wave packet as an important aspect of the HHG enhancement in the two-color orthogonally polarized fields with comparable intensities: in the single-color field the electronic trajectories with almost zero return energy are the most populated ones; in the two-color case the total field maximum can be shifted in time so that the trajectories with high return energies (in particular, the cut-off trajectory) become the most populated ones. PMID:27410560

  3. Different duplex/quadruplex junctions determine the properties of anti-thrombin aptamers with mixed folding.

    PubMed

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Spiridonova, Vera; Pica, Andrea; Napolitano, Valeria; Sica, Filomena

    2016-01-29

    Mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest as therapeutic targets as well as effective biomedical aptamers. In the case of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), the addition of a duplex motif to the G-quadruplex module improves the aptamer resistance to biodegradation and the affinity for thrombin. In particular, the mixed oligonucleotide RE31 is significantly more effective than TBA in anticoagulation experiments and shows a slower disappearance rate in human plasma and blood. In the crystal structure of the complex with thrombin, RE31 adopts an elongated structure in which the duplex and quadruplex regions are perfectly stacked on top of each other, firmly connected by a well-structured junction. The lock-and-key shape complementarity between the TT loops of the G-quadruplex and the protein exosite I gives rise to the basic interaction that stabilizes the complex. However, our data suggest that the duplex motif may have an active role in determining the greater anti-thrombin activity in biological fluids with respect to TBA. This work gives new information on mixed oligonucleotides and highlights the importance of structural data on duplex/quadruplex junctions, which appear to be varied, unpredictable, and fundamental in determining the aptamer functional properties. PMID:26673709

  4. Different duplex/quadruplex junctions determine the properties of anti-thrombin aptamers with mixed folding

    PubMed Central

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Spiridonova, Vera; Pica, Andrea; Napolitano, Valeria; Sica, Filomena

    2016-01-01

    Mixed duplex/quadruplex oligonucleotides have attracted great interest as therapeutic targets as well as effective biomedical aptamers. In the case of thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), the addition of a duplex motif to the G-quadruplex module improves the aptamer resistance to biodegradation and the affinity for thrombin. In particular, the mixed oligonucleotide RE31 is significantly more effective than TBA in anticoagulation experiments and shows a slower disappearance rate in human plasma and blood. In the crystal structure of the complex with thrombin, RE31 adopts an elongated structure in which the duplex and quadruplex regions are perfectly stacked on top of each other, firmly connected by a well-structured junction. The lock-and-key shape complementarity between the TT loops of the G-quadruplex and the protein exosite I gives rise to the basic interaction that stabilizes the complex. However, our data suggest that the duplex motif may have an active role in determining the greater anti-thrombin activity in biological fluids with respect to TBA. This work gives new information on mixed oligonucleotides and highlights the importance of structural data on duplex/quadruplex junctions, which appear to be varied, unpredictable, and fundamental in determining the aptamer functional properties. PMID:26673709

  5. Liquid crystal-based detection of thrombin coupled to interactions between a polyelectrolyte and a phospholipid monolayer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minmin; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2014-06-15

    Herein, we describe a real-time, label-free biosensing strategy for thrombin detection that uses the orientational properties of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and the interactions between a polyelectrolyte and a phospholipid monolayer. The imaging principle is based on the disruption of the orientation of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl by reorganized 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) sodium salt (DOPG) at the aqueous/LC interface. Positively charged, multiple arginine peptides (poly-l-arginine hydrochloride) interacted with negatively charged DOPG at the aqueous/LC interface, which caused reorganization of the phospholipid layer and induced an orientational transition of LCs from a homeotropic to a planar state. As a result, a dark to bright shift in the optical response was observed. Thrombin cleaves poly-l-arginine hydrochloride into peptides. Thus, when thrombin was added, the optical signals generated by the LCs reverted from bright to dark because of the weakened ability of the fragments to induce electrostatic interactions. The limit of detection of the LC-based sensor was 0.25ng/mL (6.7pM) thrombin, and the sensor was fully reusable. The detection limit of our LC-based interface sensor is 600 times lower than that of a previously reported enzyme-linked aptamer assay for the detection of thrombin. Thus, we have established a new, simple thrombin biosensor with high sensitivity and low interference. PMID:24708935

  6. Crystal structure of two new bifunctional nonsubstrate type thrombin inhibitors complexed with human alpha-thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Féthière, J.; Tsuda, Y.; Coulombe, R.; Konishi, Y.; Cygler, M.

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structures of two new thrombin inhibitors, P498 and P500, complexed with human alpha-thrombin have been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to crystallographic R-factors of 0.170 and 0.169, respectively. These compounds, with picomolar binding constants, belong to a family of potent bifunctional inhibitors that bind thrombin at two remote sites: the active site and the fibrinogen recognition exosite (FRE). The inhibitors incorporate a nonsubstrate type active site binding fragment: Dansyl-Arg-(D)Pipecolic acid (Dns-Arg-(D)Pip), reminiscent of the active-site directed inhibitors MD-805 and MQPA, rendering them resistant to thrombin-induced hydrolysis. The FRE binding fragment of these inhibitors corresponds to the hirudin55-65 sequence. They differ in the chemical nature of the nonpeptidyl linker bridging these two functional activities. In both cases, the active site binding fragment is well defined in the electron density. The DnsH1, ArgH2, and (D)PipH3 groups occupy the S3, S1, and S2 subsites of thrombin, respectively, in a way similar to that observed in the thrombin-MQPA complexes. Binding in the active site of thrombin is characterized by numerous van der Waals contacts and ring-ring system interactions. Unlike in the substrate-like inhibitors, ArgH2 enters the S1 specificity pocket from the P2 position and adopts a bent conformation to make an hydrogen bond to the carboxylate of Asp189. In this noncanonical position, its carbonyl points away from the oxyanion hole, which is now occupied by well-ordered solvent molecules. The linkers fit in the groove extending from the active site to the FRE. The C-terminal fragments of both inhibitors bind in the same way as analogous FRE binding elements in previously described complexes. PMID:8762149

  7. The inhibition of thrombin-dependent positive-feedback reactions is critical to the expression of the anticoagulant effect of heparin.

    PubMed Central

    Ofosu, F A; Sie, P; Modi, G J; Fernandez, F; Buchanan, M R; Blajchman, M A; Boneu, B; Hirsh, J

    1987-01-01

    Heparin catalyses the inhibition of two key enzymes of blood coagulation, namely Factor Xa and thrombin, by enhancing the antiproteinase activities of plasma antithrombin III and heparin cofactor II. In addition, heparin can directly inhibit the activation of Factor X and prothrombin. The contributions of each of these effects to the anticoagulant activity of heparin have not been delineated. We therefore performed experiments to assess how each of these effects of heparin contributes to its anticoagulant activity by comparing the effects of heparin, pentosan polysulphate and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl on the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Unlike heparin, pentosan polysulphate catalyses only the inhibition of thrombin by plasma. D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl is rapid enough an inhibitor of thrombin so that when added to plasma no complexes of thrombin with its inhibitors are formed, whether or not the plasma also contains heparin. Heparin (0.66 microgram/ml) and pentosan polysulphate (6.6 micrograms/ml) completely inhibited the intrinsic-pathway activation of 125I-prothrombin to 125I-prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and 125I-thrombin. On the addition of thrombin, a good Factor V activator, to the plasma before each sulphated polysaccharide, the inhibition of prothrombin activation was demonstrable only in the presence of higher concentrations of the sulphated polysaccharide. D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl also completely inhibited the intrinsic-pathway activation of prothrombin in normal plasma. The inhibitory effect of D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl was reversed if thrombin was added to the plasma before D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl. The inhibition of the activation of prothrombin by the three agents was also abolished with longer times with re-added Ca2+. Reversal of the inhibitory effects of heparin and pentosan polysulphate was associated with the accelerated formation of 125I-thrombin-antithrombin III and 125I-thrombin-heparin cofactor complexes respectively. These results suggest that the anticoagulant

  8. Monochromatic plasma x-ray generator and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Takahashi, Kei; Ichimaru, Toshio; Aiba, Wataru; Kumagai, Shigehito; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Ido, Hideaki; Sakamaki, Kimio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu

    1998-07-01

    The constructions of a plasma flash x-ray generator having a cold-cathode radiation tube and its application to soft radiography are described. The x-ray generator employs a high- voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a high-voltage condenser with a capacity of 0.2 (mu) F, a turbo-molecular pump, a thyristor pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high- voltage main condenser is charged up to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is a demountable triode which is connected to the turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. This tube consists of a rod-shaped carbon cathode, a trigger electrode made from a copper wire, a stainless-steel vacuum chamber, insulators, a polyethylene terephthalate x-ray window, and two anode electrodes (targets) of molybdenum and silver. The space between the anode and cathode electrodes had a constant value of approximately 20 mm, and the trigger electrode is set in the center of the cathode electrode. As the electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to the target by the electric field in the tube, the plasma x-ray source which consists of metal ions and electrons is produced by the target evaporating. Because the bremsstrahlung spectra are absorbed by the monochromatic filter, K-series characteristic x-rays are obtained. Both the tube voltage and current displayed damped oscillations, and their peak values increased according to increases in the charging voltage. In the present work, the peak tube voltage was almost equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current had a value of about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. When the charging voltage was increased, the intensities of the K-series characteristic x-rays increased. Next, the intensities

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generation in the Laboratory Simulated Martian Entry Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.; Drake, J.; Moses, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) conversion of the energy released during the planetary entry phase of an interplanetary vehicle trajectory. The effect of MHD conversion is multi-fold. It reduces and redirects heat transferred to the vehicle, and regenerates the dissipated energy in reusable and transportable form. A vehicle on an interplanetary mission carries about 10,000 kWh of kinetic energy per ton of its mass. This energy is dissipated into heat during the planetary atmospheric entry phase. For instance, the kinetic energy of Mars Pathfinder was about 4220 kWh. Based on the loss in velocity, Mars Pathfinder lost about 92.5% of that energy during the plasma-sustaining entry phase that is approximately 3900 kWh. An ideal MHD generator, distributed over the probe surface of Mars Pathfinder could convert more than 2000 kWh of this energy loss into electrical energy, which correspond to more than 50% of the kinetic energy loss. That means that the heat transferred to the probe surface can be reduced by at least 50% if the converted energy is adequately stored, or re-radiated, or directly used. Therefore, MHD conversion could act not only as the power generating, but also as the cooling process. In this paper we describe results of preliminary experiments with light and microwave emitters powered by model magnetohydrodynamic generators and discuss method for direct use of converted energy.

  10. Thrombin regulates the function of human blood dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagita, Manabu; Kobayashi, Ryohei; Kashiwagi, Yoichiro; Shimabukuro, Yoshio; Murakami, Shinya E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2007-12-14

    Thrombin is the key enzyme in the coagulation cascade and activates endothelial cells, neutrophils and monocytes via protease-activated receptors (PARs). At the inflammatory site, immune cells have an opportunity to encounter thrombin. However little is known about the effect of thrombin for dendritic cells (DC), which are efficient antigen-presenting cells and play important roles in initiating and regulating immune responses. The present study revealed that thrombin has the ability to stimulate blood DC. Plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC) isolated from PBMC expressed PAR-1 and released MCP-1, IL-10, and IL-12 after thrombin stimulation. Unlike blood DC, monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), differentiated in vitro did not express PAR-1 and were unresponsive to thrombin. Effects of thrombin on blood DC were significantly diminished by the addition of anti-PAR-1 Ab or hirudin, serine protease inhibitor. Moreover, thrombin induced HLA-DR and CD86 expression on DC and the thrombin-treated DC induced allogenic T cell proliferation. These findings indicate that thrombin plays a role in the regulation of blood DC functions.

  11. Rotorcraft Fuselage Flow Control Using Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Dustin; Thomas, Flint

    2012-11-01

    Active flow control, in the form of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators, is applied to a NASA ROBIN-mod7 generic rotorcraft fuselage model. The model is considered in what would be a typical cruise position i.e. a nose down position at α = -5° . This configuration gives rise to a massive 3-D flow separation over the aft ramp section of the fuselage, characterized by two counter-rotating, streamwise vortices. The control objective is to minimize these concentrated vortices by means of flush fuselage-mounted plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs), and consequently, reduce the form drag of the vehicle. Experiments were conducted at freestream Mach and Reynolds numbers of M∞ = 0 . 12 and ReL = 2 . 65 million, respectively. Aerodynamic loads under both natural and controlled conditions were acquired through use of an ATI Mini40 6-component force sensor. The pressure field on the ramp section was monitored by a 128 count static pressure array. Likewise, the flow field was captured by time-resolved PIV wake surveys. Results are compared with previous studies that utilized active flow control by way of pulsed jets or combustion actuators. This work is supported under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX10AM32G.

  12. Numerical modeling of arc plasma generator for chemical laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, Vidya; Ravikant, Chhaya; Singhal, Gaurav; Mittal, Alok P.

    2012-05-01

    The results of the numerical modeling of arc discharge phenomenon relevant to hydrogen fluoride/deuterium fluoride (HF/DF) laser applications are given. The overall mechanics of arc discharge phenomena on the basis of numerical modeling employing the commercial code COMSOL is discussed. The equations for a 2D axisymmetric, weakly compressible, laminar flow with heat transfer and the coupled hydrodynamic and electromagnetic equations are solved using the SIMPLE algorithm. The variations in the material properties, temperature, and velocity due to the generated arc are studied. A comparison of the results obtained with those from the studies available in the literature validates the computational data. Since each designed plasma arc tunnel is unique in itself and specific in application, this would enable one to alter arc discharge parameters to optimize a specific laser.

  13. Mechanisms of polymer degradation using an oxygen plasma generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, Joe A.; Sanford, Edward L.

    1987-01-01

    An RF oxygen plasma generator was used to produce polymer degradation which appears to be similar to that which has been observed in low Earth orbit. Mechanisms of this type of degradation were studied by collecting the reaction products in a cryogenic trap and identifying the molecular species using infrared, mass spectral, and X-ray diffraction techniques. No structurally dependent species were found from Kapton, Teflon, or Saran polymers. However, very reactive free radical entities are produced during the polymer degradation, as well as carbon dioxide and water. Reactions of the free radicals with the glass reaction vessel, with copper metal in the cold trap, and with a triphenyl phosphate scavenger in the cold trap, demonstrated the reactivity of the primary products.

  14. Ancrod revisited: viscoelastic analyses of the effects of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom on plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2016-08-01

    Fibrinogen depletion via catalysis by snake venom enzymes as a therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat thrombotic disorders was utilized for over four decades, with ancrod being the quintessential agent. However, ancrod eventually was found to not be of clinical utility in large scale stroke trial, resulting in the eventual discontinuation of the administration of the drug for any indication. It was hypothesized that ancrod, possessing thrombin-like activity, may have unappreciated robust coagulation kinetics. Using thrombelastographic methods, a comparison of equivalent tissue factor initiated thrombin generation and Calloselasma rhodostoma venom (rich in ancrod activity) on plasmatic coagulation kinetics was performed. The venom resulted in thrombi that formed nearly twice as fast compared to thrombin formed clots, and there was no difference in fibrinolytic kinetics initiated by tissue-type plasminogen activator. In plasma containing iron and carbon monoxide modified fibrinogen, which may be found in patients at risk of stroke, the coagulation kinetic differences observed with venom was still more vigorous than that seen with thrombin. These phenomena may provide insight into the clinical failure of ancrod, and may serve as an impetus to revisit the concept of fibrinogen depletion via fibrinogenolytic enzymes, not those with thrombin-like activity. PMID:26905070

  15. Label-free cascade amplification strategy for sensitive visual detection of thrombin based on target-triggered hybridization chain reaction-mediated in situ generation of DNAzymes and Pt nanochains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ren, Wang; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-06-15

    A new magnetic bead-based cascade amplification strategy for highly sensitive visual detection of proteins (thrombin as a model analyte) was developed by coupling target-triggered hybridization chain reaction (HCR) with the synergistic catalysis of DNA concatemer-mediated hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes and Pt nanozymes. Initially, the biotinylated primer DNA (P-DNA) was complementary with aptamer to form dsDNA which was further linked to streptavidin-coated magnetic bead (MB), thereby fabricating the expected MB-based aptasensor. In the presence of target TB, the aptamer was taken away from the aptasensor, and the free P-DNA immediately triggered HCR to spontaneously form DNA concatemer-directed nanochains with numerous DNAzymes and Pt nanoclusters (PtNCs) to achieve cascades signal amplification. The dual peroxidase mimetics catalyzed the H2O2-mediated oxidation of colorless 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) into the colored TMB oxides (oxTMB), causing intensified color change of the chromogenic solution for the highly sensitive naked-eye detection of as low as 100.0 pM TB. In this strategy, the employment of magnetic separation and exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted digestion of residual dsDNA minimized the background noise and avoided the false positive results, greatly improving the detection accuracy and sensitivity with a low limit of detection (LOD=15.0 pM). The proposed visual platform has promise for detecting various types of proteins with careful DNA sequence designs. PMID:26878483

  16. Numerical model of the plasma sheath generated by the plasma source instrument aboard the Polar satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N.; Leung, W. C.; Moore, T. E.; Craven, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The plasma sheath generated by the operation of the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) aboard the Polar satellite is studied by using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code. When the satellite passes through the region of low-density plasma, the satellite charges to positive potentials as high as 40-50 V, owing to the photoelectron emission. In such a case, ambient core ions cannot accurately be measured or detected. The goal of the onboard PSI is to reduce the floating potential of the satellite to a sufficiently low value so that the ions in the polar wind become detectable. When the PSI is operated, ion-rich xenon plasma is ejected from the satellite, such that the floating potential of the satellite is reduced and is maintained at ~2 V. Accordingly, in our three-dimensional PIC simulation we considered that the potential of the satellite is 2 V as a fixed bias. Considering the relatively high density of the xenon plasma in the sheath (-10-103cm-3), the ambient plasma of low density (<1 cm-3) is neglected. In the simulations the electric fields and plasma dynamics are calculated self-consistently. We found that an ``apple''-shape positive potential sheath forms surrounding the satellite. In the region near the PSI emission a high positive potential hill develops. Near the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment detector away from the PSI, the potentials are sufficiently low for the ambient polar wind ions to reach it. In the simulations it takes only about a couple of tens of electron gyroperiods for the sheath to reach a quasi steady state. This time is approximately the time taken by the heavy Xe+ ions to expand up to about one average Larmor radius of electrons from the satellite surface. After this time the expansion of the sheath in directions transverse to the ambient magnetic field slows down because the electrons are magnetized. Using the quasi steady sheath, we performed trajectory calculations to characterize the detector response to a highly supersonic

  17. Numerical Model of the Plasma Sheath Generated by the Plasma Source Instrument Aboard the Polar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Wing C.; Singh, Nagendra; Moore, Thomas E.; Craven, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    The plasma sheath generated by the operation of the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) aboard the POLAR satellite is studied by using a 3-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. When the satellite passes through the region of low density plasma, the satellite charges to positive potentials as high as 4050Volts due to the photoelectrons emission. In such a case, ambient core ions cannot accurately be measured or detected. The goal of the onboard PSI is to reduce the floating potential of the satellite to a sufficiently low value so that the ions in the polar wind become detectable. When the PSI is operated, an ion-rich Xenon plasma is ejected from the satellite, such that the floating potential of the satellite is reduced and is maintained at about 2Volts. Accordingly, in our 3-dimensional PIC simulation, we considered that the potential of the satellite is 2Volts as a fixed bias. Considering the relatively high density of the Xenon plasma in the sheath (approx. 10 - 10(exp 3)/cc), the ambient plasma of low density (less than 1/cc) is neglected. In the simulations, the electric fields and plasma dynamics are calculated self-consistently. We found that an "Apple" shape positive potential sheath forms surrounding the satellite. In the region near the PSI emission, a high positive potential hill develops. Near the Thermal Ion Detection Experiment (TIDE) detector away from the PSI, the potentials are sufficiently low for the ambient polar wind ions to reach it. In the simulations, it takes about a hundred electron gyroperiods for the sheath to reach a quasi-steady state. This time is approximately the time taken by the heavy Xe(+) ions to expand up to about one average Larmor radius of electrons from the satellite surface. Using the steady state sheath, we performed trajectory calculations to characterize the detector response to a highly supersonic polar wind flow. The detected ions' velocity distribution shows significant deviations from a shifted Maxwellian in the

  18. Numerical Model of the Plasma Sheath Generated by the Plasma Source Instrument Aboard the Polar Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.; Leung, W. C.; Moore, T. E.; Craven, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma sheath generated by the operation of the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) aboard the Polar satellite is studied by using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code. When the satellite passes through the region of low-density plasma, the satellite charges to positive potentials as high as 40-50 V, owing to the photoelectron emission. In such a case, ambient core ions cannot accurately be measured or detected. The goal of the onboard PSI is to reduce the floating potential of the satellite to a sufficiently low value so that the ions in the polar wind become detectable. When the PSI is operated, ion-rich xenon plasma is ejected from the satellite, such that the floating potential of the satellite is reduced and is maintained at approximately 2 V. Accordingly, in our three-dimensional PIC simulation we considered that the potential of the satellite is 2 V as a fixed bias. Considering the relatively high density of the xenon plasma in the sheath (10-10(exp 3)/cc), the ambient plasma of low density (<1/cc) is neglected. In the simulations the electric fields and plasma dynamics are calculated self-consistently. We found that an 'apple'-shape positive potential sheath forms surrounding the satellite. In the region near the PSI emission a high positive potential hill develops. Near the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment detector away from the PSI, the potentials are sufficiently low for the ambient polar wind ions to reach it. In the simulations it takes only about a couple of tens of electron gyroperiods for the sheath to reach a quasi steady state. This time is approximately the time taken by the heavy Xe(+) ions to expand up to about one average Larmor radius of electrons from the satellite surface. After this time the expansion of the sheath in directions transverse to the ambient magnetic field slows down because the electrons are magnetized. Using the quasi steady sheath, we performed trajectory calculations to characterize the detector response to a

  19. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated cellular effects by triabin, a highly potent anion-binding exosite thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Glusa, E; Bretschneider, E; Daum, J; Noeske-Jungblut, C

    1997-06-01

    Triabin, a 17 kDa protein from the saliva of the assassin bug Triatoma pallidipennis is a potent thrombin inhibitor interfering with the anion-binding exosite of the enzyme. The recombinant protein, produced by the baculovirus/insect cell system, was used to study the inhibitory effect on thrombin-mediated cellular responses. The thrombin (1 nM)-stimulated aggregation of washed human platelets and the rise in cytoplasmic calcium in platelets were inhibited by triabin at nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, the rise in calcium induced by the thrombin receptor-activating peptide (10 microM) was not suppressed by triabin. In isolated porcine pulmonary arteries, preconstricted with PGF 2 alpha thrombin (2 nM) elicited an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by triabin in the same concentration range as found for the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Higher concentrations of triabin were required to diminish the contractile response of endotheliumdenuded pulmonary vessels to thrombin (10 nM). In cultured bovine coronary smooth muscle cells, the mitogenic activity of thrombin (3 nM), measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, was also suppressed by triabin. In all these assays, the inhibitory effect of triabin was dependent on the thrombin concentration used. These studies suggest that the new anion-binding exosite thrombin inhibitor triabin is one of the most potent inhibitors of thrombin-mediated cellular effects. PMID:9241757

  20. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei

    2012-07-15

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  1. Characteristics of semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma generated in a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Uk; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Myung-Il; Kim, Sun-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Bok

    2002-12-01

    Plasma ignition method has been applied in various fields particularly to the rocket propulsion, pyrotechnics, explosives, and to the automotive air-bag system. Ignition method for those applications should be safe and also operate reliably in hostile environments such as; electromagnetic noise, drift voltage, electrostatic background and so on. In the present Letter, a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma ignition device was fabricated and its plasma characteristics including the propagation speed of the plasma, plasma size, and plasma temperature were investigated with the aid of the visualization of micro scale plasma (i.e., ⩽350 μm), which generated from a micro-electro-mechanical poly-silicon semiconductor bridge (SCB).

  2. Effect of Electronic Polarization to Human α-Thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Li-Li; Li, Zong-Chao; He, Xiang; Zhang, Qing-Gang

    2014-04-01

    The polarized protein-specific charges (PPC) of human α-thrombin (thrombin) and its inhibitor (L86) are made possible by employing the recently developed molecular fractionation with conjugate caps approach incorporated the Poisson—Boltzmann model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of thrombin have been carried out to investigate the dynamics and stability of the thrombin-inhibitor using PPC and AMBER charges respectively. Detailed analysis and comparison of MD results show that the PPC can correctly describe the polarized state of the thrombin and L86. Especially, the root-mean-square deviation of backbone atoms and the hydrogen bonds using PPC are more stable than the AMBER charge. The present results indicate that protein polarization plays critical roles in maintaining the compact structure of thrombin.

  3. Terahertz generation by beating two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Qiao, Xin; Cheng, Li-Hong; Tang, Rong-An; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2015-09-15

    Terahertz (THz) radiation generated by beating of two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma is discussed theoretically. The critical angle between the two Langmuir waves and the critical wave-length (wave vector) of Langmuir waves for generating THz radiation are obtained analytically. Furthermore, the maximum radiation energy is obtained. We find that the critical angle, the critical wave-length, and the generated radiation energy strongly depend on plasma temperature and wave-length of the Langmuir waves. That is, the THz radiation generated by beating of two Langmuir waves in a warm and collisional plasma can be controlled by adjusting the plasma temperature and the Langmuir wave-length.

  4. Microwave plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids for hydrocarbons reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a computational modeling study of microwave plasma generated in cluster of atmospheric-pressure argon bubbles immersed in a liquid. We demonstrate that the use of microwaves allows the generation of a dense chemically active non-equilibrium plasma along the gas–liquid interface. Also, microwaves allow generation of overdense plasma in all the bubbles considered in the cluster which is possible because the collisional skin depth of the wave exceeds the bubble dimension. These features of microwave plasma generation in bubbles immersed in liquids are highly desirable for the large-scale liquid hydrocarbon reforming technologies.

  5. Efficient generation of ozone in arrays of microchannel plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. H.; Cho, J. H.; Ban, S. B.; Choi, R. Y.; Kwon, E. J.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2013-07-01

    Ozone is produced efficiently in arrays of low-temperature, linear microplasmas having a trapezoidal or parabolic cross-sectional profile and generated within nanoporous alumina (Al2O3) microchannels. Fabricated from aluminum foil by wet chemical processing, micropowder ablation, and one photolithographic step, arrays of microchannel plasma devices 3 cm in length and 250 µm in width at the aperture of the channel produce spatially uniform glow discharges in O2 feedstock gas at a pressure of 1 atm and flow rates of 0.25-2.5 standard litres per minute. Several device and array structures, incorporating embedded electrodes and Al/Al2O3 or glass channels, have been fabricated and tested extensively. A design based solely on microchannels fabricated in nanoporous alumina, flanked by Al electrodes buried in the channel wall, is found to be superior in performance to other materials and geometries. Altering the electric field profile inside the microchannels (by means of the electrode geometry) is found to have a significant impact on the reactor efficiency. Ozone output is observed to scale linearly with the number of microchannels in the array and the feedstock gas flow rate. Efficiencies and O3 concentrations surpassing 85 g kWh-1 and 17 g m-3, respectively, have been measured, and arrays as large as 120 microchannels have been realized to date. The results presented here suggest a new approach to plasma-chemical reactors, one in which ‘massively parallel’ processing of one or more gases in non-streamer (glow) discharges efficiently produces products of commercial value in thousands of micropores or microchannels fabricated in recyclable and inexpensive materials. Reductions of an order of magnitude in the weight and volume of microplasma-based O3 reactors, relative to conventional dielectric barrier discharge technology, appear to be feasible.

  6. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with /sup 14/C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more /sup 14/C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p < 0.001; /sup 14/C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p < 0.002) in response to thrombin (0.075 U/ml). Thus, a pathway independent of released ADP or TXA/sub 2/ formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of /sup 125/I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA/sub 2/ formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding.

  7. Flow and delta-P dictate where thrombin, fibrin, and von Willebrand Factor will be found.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Hemostasis occurs in two different topological scenarios: complete severing of a vessel or disruption of the vessel wall. Either to meet the daily rigors of active life or during an acute trauma, hemostasis involves the regulated and self-limiting production of thrombin to stop bleeding. In contrast, arterial and venous thrombosis typically involves the unregulated, intraluminal growth of a clot, in the absence of bleeding. For either hemostasis or thrombosis, the presence of flow and pressure gradients (delta-P, ΔP) dictates when and where thrombin and fibrin are located and in what quantity. For hemostatic clots, fibrin formation helped limit clot growth. We found that γ'-fibrinogen had a role in limiting clot growth via anti-thrombin activity at venous, but not arterial conditions. For hemophilic blood, severe factor deficiency (<1% healthy) led to a defect in both platelet and fibrin deposition under flow. However, moderate deficiency, which is associated with a less severe bleeding phenotype, had normalized platelet function but still lacked fibrin production. We conclude signaling levels of thrombin can be generated during moderate hemophilia to sufficiently activate platelets to achieve primary hemostasis, even if fibrin formation remains defective. Finally, as a clot grows, shear stresses can become sufficiently extreme in diseased arteries to drive von Willebrand Factor self-association into massive fibers, potentially the final burst of clot growth towards full thrombotic occlusion. PMID:27207416

  8. Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tinakiche, Nouara

    2013-02-15

    A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in this plasma.

  9. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bondu, Virginie; Schrader, Ron; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; McGuire, Paul; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Hjelle, Brian; Buranda, Tione

    2015-01-01

    Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus) is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients. PMID:25674766

  10. Core-shell nanostructures for ultrasensitive detection of α-thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xia; Liu, Hongli; Zhou, Xiaodong; Hu, Jiming

    2010-12-01

    We have synthesized a stable, sensitive and specific surface-enhanced Raman tag, and demonstrated its application in human α-thrombin detection. The tag consists of aptamer-modified core-shell nanoparticles with hydrophobic Au@Ag as core and silica as shell encapsulating Raman active molecules. By taking advantage of the Raman signal enhancement effect by metallic nanostructures, high stability and robustness of glass-coated core-shell nanostructures and the recognition capabilities of aptamers, we designed a sandwich detection for protein identification with high selectivity and sensitivity. In this way, we realized the ultrasensitive detection of α-thrombin. GDNs (glass-coated, dye-tagged nanoparticles), which were conjugated with oligonucleotides or antibodies, were extremely soluble in water, and had mechanical and chemical stability, easily controllable-size distribution and friendly biocompatibility. Specifically, the glass coating renders the particles amenable to use in many solvents without altering the Raman spectral response and makes agglomeration a nonfactor. All these merits open the door of the real applications in diagnostics or medical investigations in complex biofluids, such as human plasma and serum. Using the aptamer-modified GDNs as Raman tags, we successfully performed the detection of α-thrombin in human plasma. Furthermore, the overall method have been proved effective and selective, and may be implemented for multiplex target analysis simultaneously.

  11. Simulation of Current Generation in a 3-D Plasma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, F. S.; Dawson, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    In the advanced tokamak regime, transport phenomena can account for a signficant fraction of the toroidal current, possibly over that driven directly by the ohmic heating electric fields. Bootstrap theory accounts for contributions of the collisional modification of banana orbits on the toroidal currents. In our previous simulations in 21/2-D, currents were spontaneously generated in both the cylindrical and the toroidal geometries, contrary to neoclassical predictions. In these calculations, it was believed that the driving mechanism is the preferential loss of particles whose initial velocity is opposite to that of the plasma current. We are extending these simulations to three dimensions. A parallel 3-D electromagnetic PIC code running on the IBM SP2, with a localized field-solver has been developed to investigate the effects of perturbations parallel to the field lines, and direct comparisons has been made between the 21/2-D and 3-D simulations and we have found good agreements between the 2 1/2-D calculations and the 3-D results. We will present our new results at the meeting. Research partially supported by NSF and DOE.

  12. Generation of uniform electron beam plasma in a dielectric flask at fore-vacuum pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhin, D. B.; Burdovitsin, V. A.; Oks, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a system for the generation of spatially uniform and homogeneous dense plasma in a dielectric flask using a forevacuum-pressure plasma-cathode electron beam source. At optimum beam energy and gas pressure, the non-uniformity in plasma density distribution along the length of the flask is less than 10%, and the plasma density and electron temperature in the flask are greater than for the plasma produced in the vacuum chamber with no flask. The measured parameters of the beam plasma in the flask are compared to the predictions of a model based on balance equations.

  13. Radiofrequency plasma antenna generated by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    SciTech Connect

    Brelet, Y.; Houard, A.; Point, G.; Prade, B.; Carbonnel, J.; Andre, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Arantchouk, L.; Pellet, M.

    2012-12-24

    We demonstrate tunable radiofrequency emission from a meter-long linear plasma column produced in air at atmospheric pressure. A short-lived plasma column is initially produced by femtosecond filamentation and subsequently converted into a long-lived discharge column by application of an external high voltage field. Radiofrequency excitation is fed to the plasma by induction and detected remotely as electromagnetic radiation by a classical antenna.

  14. Pencil lead plasma for generating multimicrojoule high-order harmonics with a broad spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Pertot, Y.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Ozaki, T.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2011-03-07

    Using the plasma harmonic method, we show the generation of efficient and intense high-order harmonics from plasma of pencil lead. We demonstrate multimicrojoule energy in each harmonic order for the 11th to the 17th order of a Ti:sapphire laser. By analyzing the target morphology and the plasma composition, we conclude that these intense harmonics are generated from nanoparticles of graphitic carbon.

  15. Cylindrical plasmas generated by an annular beam of ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Allen, J. E.

    2015-07-15

    We investigate a cylindrical plasma system with ionization, by an annular beam of ultraviolet light, taking place only in the cylinder's outer region. In the steady state, both the outer and inner regions contain a plasma, with that in the inner region being uniform and field-free. At the interface between the two regions, there is an infinitesimal jump in ion density, the magnitude approaching zero in the quasi-neutral (λ{sub D} → 0) limit. The system offers the possibility of producing a uniform stationary plasma in the laboratory, hitherto obtained only with thermally produced alkali plasmas.

  16. Thomson scattering measurement of a collimated plasma jet generated by a high-power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Yamaura, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Sano, T.; Shimoda, R.; Tomita, K.; Uchino, K.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mizuta, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Crowston, R.; Woolsey, N.; Doyle, H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Michaut, C.; Pelka, A.; Yuan, D.; Li, Y.; Zhang, K.; Zhong, J.; Wang, F.; Takabe, H.

    2016-03-01

    One of the important and interesting problems in astrophysics and plasma physics is collimation of plasma jets. The collimation mechanism, which causes a plasma flow to propagate a long distance, has not been understood in detail. We have been investigating a model experiment to simulate astrophysical plasma jets with an external magnetic field [Nishio et al., EPJ. Web of Conferences 59, 15005 (2013)]. The experiment was performed by using Gekko XII HIPER laser system at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. We shot CH plane targets (3 mm × 3 mm × 10 μm) and observed rear-side plasma flows. A collimated plasma flow or plasma jet was generated by separating focal spots of laser beams. In this report, we measured plasma jet structure without an external magnetic field with shadowgraphy, and simultaneously measured the local parameters of the plasma jet, i.e., electron density, electron and ion temperatures, charge state, and drift velocity, with collective Thomson scattering.

  17. Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambrano, Gilberto R.; Weiss, Ethan J.; Zheng, Yao-Wu; Huang, Wei; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    2001-09-01

    Platelets are critical in haemostasis and in arterial thrombosis, which causes heart attacks and other events triggered by abnormal clotting. The coagulation protease thrombin is a potent activator of platelets ex vivo. However, because thrombin also mediates fibrin deposition and because multiple agonists can trigger platelet activation, the relative importance of platelet activation by thrombin in haemostasis and thrombosis is unknown. Thrombin triggers cellular responses at least in part through protease-activated receptors (PARs). Mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4 (ref. 9). Here we show that platelets from PAR4-deficient mice failed to change shape, mobilize calcium, secrete ATP or aggregate in response to thrombin. This result demonstrates that PAR signalling is necessary for mouse platelet activation by thrombin and supports the model that mouse PAR3 (mPAR3) does not by itself mediate transmembrane signalling but instead acts as a cofactor for thrombin cleavage and activation of mPAR4 (ref. 10). Importantly, PAR4-deficient mice had markedly prolonged bleeding times and were protected in a model of arteriolar thrombosis. Thus platelet activation by thrombin is necessary for normal haemostasis and may be an important target in the treatment of thrombosis.

  18. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  19. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  20. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  1. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  2. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  3. Acidosis, magnesium and acetylsalicylic acid: Effects on thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj; Loznikova, Svetlana; Sukhodola, Aleksandr; Halets, Inessa; Bryszewska, Maria; Shcharbin, Dzmitry

    2013-03-01

    Thrombin, an enzyme from the hydrolase family, is the main component of the blood coagulation system. In ischemic stroke it acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin forming blood clots in the brain. It has been found to phosphoresce at room temperature in the millisecond and microsecond ranges. The phosphorescence of thrombin was studied under physiological conditions, in acidosis (decrease of pH from 8.0 to 5.0) and on the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) and of acetylsalicylic acid, and its connection with thrombin function is discussed. Acidosis significantly increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. We propose that lactate-acidosis plays a protective role in stroke, preventing the formation of clots. The addition of NaCl and MgSO4 in different concentrations increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. Also, the addition of MgSO4 decreased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. However, magnesium sulfate and acetylsalicylic acid in the therapeutic concentrations used for treatment of ischemic stroke had no effect on thrombin internal dynamics. The data obtained will help to elucidate the conformational stability of thrombin under conditions modulating lactate-acidosis and in the presence of magnesium sulfate.

  4. Bare magnetic nanoparticles as fluorescence quenchers for detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiemiao; Yang, Liangrong; Liang, Xiangfeng; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-06-21

    Rapid and sensitive detection of thrombin has very important significance in clinical diagnosis. In this work, bare magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (magnetic nanoparticles) without any modification were used as fluorescence quenchers. In the absence of thrombin, a fluorescent dye (CY3) labeled thrombin aptamer (named CY3-aptamer) was adsorbed on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles through interaction between a phosphate backbone of the CY3-aptamer and hydroxyl groups on the bare magnetic nanoparticles in binding solution, leading to fluorescence quenching. Once thrombin was introduced, the CY3-aptamer formed a G-quartet structure and combined with thrombin, which resulted in the CY3-aptamer being separated from the magnetic nanoparticles and restoration of fluorescence. This proposed assay took advantage of binding affinity between the CY3-aptamer and thrombin for specificity, and bare magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence signal had a good linear relationship with thrombin concentration in the range of 1-60 nM, and the limit of detection for thrombin was estimated as low as 0.5 nM. Furthermore, this method could be applied for other target detection using the corresponding fluorescence labeled aptamer. PMID:25894923

  5. A plasma generator utilizing the high intensity ASTROMAG magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, James D.; Post, R. S.; Lane, B. G.; Tarrh, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The magnet configuration for the proposed particle astrophysics magnet facility (ASTROMAG) on the space station includes a cusp magnetic field with an intensity of a few tesla. With these large magnets (or others) located in the outer ionosphere, many quite interesting and unique plasma physics experiments become possible. First there are studies utilizing the magnet alone to examine the supersonic, sub-Alfvenic interaction with the ambient medium; the scale length for the magnet perturbation is approx. 20 m. The magnetic field geometry when combined with the Earth's and their relative motion will give rise to a host of plasma phenomena: ring nulls, x-points, ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid shocks, electron heating (possible shuttle glow without a surface) launching of Alfvenwaves, etc. Second, active experiments are possible for a controlled study of fundamental plasma phenomena. A controlled variable species plasma can be made by using an RF ion source; use of two soft iron rings placed about the line cusp would give an adequate resonance zone (ECH or ICH) and a confining volume suitable for gas efficiency. The emanating plasma can be used to study free expansion of plasma along and across field lines (polar wind), plasma flows around the space platform, turbulent mixing in the wake region, long wavelength spectrum of convecting modes, plasma-dust interactions, etc.

  6. Microwave plasma generation of hydrogen atoms for rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R.; Filpus, J.; Morin, T.; Snellenberger, R.; Asmussen, J.; Hawley, M.; Kerber, R.

    1981-01-01

    A flow microwave plasma reaction system is used to study the conversion of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms as a function of pressure, power density, cavity tuning, cavity mode, and time in the plasma zone. Hydrogen atom concentration is measured down-stream from the plasma by NOCl titration. Extensive modeling of the plasma and recombination zones is performed with the plasma zone treated as a backmix reaction system and the recombination zone treated as a plug flow. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the recombination process are examined in detail to provide an understanding of the conversion of recombination energy to gas kinetic energy. It is found that cavity tuning, discharge stability, and optimum power coupling are critically dependent on the system pressure, but nearly independent of the flow rate.

  7. Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng

    2014-09-15

    The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) ∝ v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.

  8. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  9. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  10. Planar Hall magnetoresistive aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Sinha, B; Ramulu, T S; Kim, K W; Venu, R; Lee, J J; Kim, C G

    2014-09-15

    The use of aptamer-based assays is an emerging and attractive approach in disease research and clinical diagnostics. A sensitive aptamer-based sandwich-type sensor is presented to detect human thrombin using a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor in cooperation with superparamagnetic labels. A PHR sensor has the great advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio, a small offset voltage and linear response in the low-field region, allowing it to act as a high-resolution biosensor. In the system presented here, the sensor has an active area of 50 µm × 50 µm with a 10-nm gold layer deposited onto the sensor surface prior to the binding of thiolated DNA primary aptamer. A polydimethylsiloxane well of 600-µm radius and 1-mm height was prepared around the sensor surface to maintain the same specific area and volume for each sensor. The sensor response was traced in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-functionalized magnetic labels on the sensor. A linear response to the thrombin concentration in the range of 86 pM-8.6 µM and a lower detection limit down to 86 pM was achieved by the proposed present method with a sample volume consumption of 2 µl. The proposed aptasensor has a strong potential for application in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24727201

  11. Dust generation at interaction of plasma jet with surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticos, Catalin; Toader, Dorina; Banu, Nicoleta; Scurtu, Adrian; Oane, Mihai

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of W and C with widths of a few microns will be exposed to plasma jet for studying the erosion of the surface and detachment of micron size dust particles. A coaxial plasma gun has been built inside a vacuum chamber for producing supersonic plasma jets. Its design is based on a 50 kJ coaxial plasma gun which has been successfully used for accelerating hypervelocity dust. Initial shots were carried out for a capacitor bank with C = 12 μF and charged up to 2 kV. Currents of tens of amps were measured with a Rogowsky coil and plasma flow speeds of 4 km/s were inferred from high-speed images of jet propagation. An upgrade consisting in adding capacitors in parallel will be performed in order to increase the energy up to 2 kJ. A coil will be installed at the gun muzzle to compress the plasma flow and increase the energy density of the jet on the sample surface. A CCD camera with a maximum recording speed of 100 k fps and a maximum resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels was set for image acquisition of the plasma and dust. A laser system used to illuminate the ejected dust from the surface includes a laser diode emitting at 650 nm with a beam power of 25 mW. The authors acknowledge support from EURATOM WP13-IPH-A03-P2-02-BS22.

  12. Background density channel generation by axial plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2012-10-01

    The supersonic expansion of a dense plasma into an ambient plasma can be observed in phenomena ranging from coronal mass ejections and protostellar outflows to astrophysical jets. To produce a supersonic plasma jet in a laboratory setting, a laser-produced plasma explodes into an ambient argon plasma (n˜5.10^12cm-3,cs˜6.10^5cm/s,vA˜1.2.10^7cm/s) in the Large Plasma Device at UCLA. This study focuses on the initial formation and evolution of the jet and its effects on the background magnetized plasma. Using a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic of Ar-II ions at their 611.5nm transition, the jet is seen to perturb the equilibrium population of the target argon ions. A CCD camera with a fast (>=3ns) shutter spatially and temporally resolves images of the fluorescence. Time-lapsed imaging shows an axially aligned channel of depleted fluorescence form near the source and travel with an undiminished speed characteristic of the jet (v/cs˜20) while remaining highly collimated. Langmuir probe measurements show a large ion flux moving in conjunction with the excited argon depletion after traveling more than an ion inertial length.

  13. Measurement of plasma-generated RONS in the cancer cells exposed by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Hea Min; Baek, Eun Jeong; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, Tae Hun

    2015-09-01

    The plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) could result in cellular responses including DNA damages and apoptotic cell death. These chemical species, O, O2-,OH, NO, and NO2-,exhibit strong oxidative stress and/or trigger signaling pathways in biological cells. Each plasma-generated chemical species having biological implication should be identified and quantitatively measured. For quantitative measurement of RONS, this study is divided into three stages; plasma diagnostics, plasma-liquid interactions, plasma-liquid-cell interactions. First, the optical characteristics of the discharges were obtained by optical emission spectroscopy to identify various excited plasma species. And the characteristics of voltage-current waveforms, gas temperature, and plume length with varying control parameters were measured. Next, atmospheric pressure plasma jet was applied on the liquid. The estimated OH radical densities were obtained by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at the liquid surface. And NO2-is detected by Griess test and compared between the pure liquid and the cell-containing liquid. Finally, bio-assays were performed on plasma treated human lung cancer cells (A549). Intracellular ROS production was measured using DCF-DA. Among these RONS, productions of NO and OH within cells were measured by DAF-2DA and APF, respectively. The data are very suggestive that there is a strong correlation among the production of RONS in the plasmas, liquids, and cells.

  14. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Reuter, S.; Graves, D. B.; Ostrikov, K.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors' vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  15. Magnetic field distribution in the plasma flow generated by a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. Myalton, V. V.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.

    2014-11-15

    The magnetic field in the plasma jet propagating from the plasma pinch region along the axis of the chamber in a megajoule PF-3 plasma focus facility is studied. The dynamics of plasma with a trapped magnetic flow is analyzed. The spatial sizes of the plasma jet region in which the magnetic field concentrates are determined in the radial and axial directions. The magnetic field configuration in the plasma jet is investigated: the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field inside the jet is determined. It is shown that the magnetic induction vector at a given point in space can change its direction during the plasma flight. Conclusions regarding the symmetry of the plasma flow propagation relative to the chamber axis are drawn.

  16. QED effects and radiation generation in relativistic laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.

    2011-06-01

    The radiative and quantum effects in laser plasmas are discussed. The self-consistent numerical model based on particle-in-cell and Monte-Carlo methods are developed. First we analyze the spectra of Compton backscattered photons and betatron radiation in the classical and quantum regimes. Then we address an interaction between intense laser pulse and relativistic electron beam. Finally we discuss the electron-positron pair plasma production in extremely-intense laser field. It is shown that such plasma can be an efficient source of energetic gammaquanta.

  17. Parasitic current losses due to solar electric propulsion generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.; Mandell, M. J.; Schnuelle, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion is a leading candidate for many upcoming space missions. Under many circumstances plasma produced by charge-exchange reactions within the ion beam dominates the ambient environment near the spacecraft. The calculations presented here contain a predictive hydrodynamic model for the charge-exchange plasma expansion, and a fully three-dimensional model for the structure of the plasma sheath around the solar array wing. Results of calculations for several configurations and voltage levels indicate that with kilovolt biases power losses of approximately 10 percent or more are likely, even with only one engine in operation, and that ameliorative measures should focus on the inboard portion of the solar arrays.

  18. Low-order harmonic generation in metal ablation plasmas in nanosecond and picosecond laser regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Arias, M.; Oujja, M.; Sanz, M.; Castillejo, M.; Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Satlikov, N. Kh.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.

    2012-02-15

    Low-order harmonics, third and fifth, of IR (1064 nm) laser emission have been produced in laser ablation plasmas of the metals manganese, copper and silver. The harmonics were generated in a process triggered by laser ablation followed by frequency up-conversion of a fundamental laser beam that propagates parallel to the target surface. These studies were carried out in two temporal regimes by creating the ablation plasma using either nanosecond or picosecond pulses and then probing the plasma plume with pulses of the same duration. The spatiotemporal behavior of the generated harmonics was characterized and reveals the distinct composition and dynamics of the plasma species that act as nonlinear media, allowing the comparison of different processes that control the generation efficiency. These results serve to guide the choice of laser ablation plasmas to be used for efficient high harmonic generation of laser radiation.

  19. Generation of magnetoacoustic zonal flows by Alfven waves in a rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Churikov, A. P.; Erokhin, N. N.; Tsypin, V. S.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2007-08-15

    Analytical theory of nonlinear generation of magnetoacoustic zonal flows in a rotating plasma is developed. As the primary modes causing such a generation, a totality of the Alfven waves are considered, along with the kinetic, inertial, and rotational. It is shown that in all these cases of the Alfven waves the generation is possible if the double plasma rotation frequency exceeds the zonal flow frequency.

  20. High density plasma gun generates plasmas at 190 kilometers per second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    Gun has thin metal foil disc which positions or localizes gas to be ionized during electrical discharge cycle, overcoming major limiting factor in obtaining such plasmas. Expanding plasma front travels at 190 km/sec, compared to plasmas of 50 to 60 km/sec previously achieved.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Flow in the Chamber of the Water-Argon Plasma Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlbočan, Peter; Varchola, Michal; Knížat, Branislav; Mlkvik, Marek; Olšiak, Róbert

    2012-12-01

    The paper describes the CFD simulation of the flow of gas and plasma in a plasma generator with a hybrid stabilization of the electric arc. The momentum equations of the model also take Lorentz forces into account. In the energy equation, Joule heat is introduced as an energy source. The introduction of boundary conditions is also explained, as along with plasma transport properties and a method of solution. The paper presents selected results of pressure and velocity fields in the chamber of the plasma generator.

  2. Microwave guiding and intense plasma generation at subcutoff dimensions for focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Dey, Indranuj; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2007-07-23

    The mechanism of microwave guiding and plasma generation is investigated in a circular waveguide with a subcutoff dimension using pulsed microwaves of 3 GHz. During the initial phase, gaseous breakdown is induced by the exponentially decaying wave. Upon breakdown, the refractive index of the plasma medium varies radially, with the plasma density reaching close to cutoff values in the central region. At lower pressures, the waves can propagate through the peripheral plasma with a reduced wavelength, due to the collisionally broadened upper hybrid resonance region. The intense narrow cross sectional plasma bears promise for multielemental focused ion beams.

  3. Harmonic generation in the extended plasmas produced on the non-metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    The review of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) studies in the extended plasma plumes produced on the surfaces of non-metal targets (elemental semiconductors, oxygen- and fluorine-contained crystals) is presented. The objective of those studies was to reveal the attractive properties of non-metal plasmas. We discuss the results of HHG optimization in the above plasma plumes using different methods. These studies demonstrate the usefulness of the plasma harmonic approach for the analysis of the nonlinear optical and spectroscopic properties of the extended laser-produced plasmas formed on the non-metal surfaces.

  4. Polarization electric field in subalfvenic plasma jet under condition of field- aligned currents generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobyanin, D.; Gavrilov, B.; Podgorny, I.

    The subalfvenic magnetized plasma jet propagating across the geomagnetic field generates field-aligned currents in the ionospheric plasma. As a result the transverse polarization electric field Ep =-VxB/c in the jet should be reduced (plasma jet depolarization). These phenomena are investigated in the laboratory experiment. It was revealed that the depolarization is accompanied by the appearing of the electric field E along the plasma velocity vector. The value of E is comparable with theaa transverse electric field. It results in the plasma jet deflection. The possibility of manifestation of these effects in the NORTH STAR Russian-American active rocket experiment is discussed.

  5. The functionalization of graphene using electron-beam generated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Baraket, M.; Walton, S. G.; Lock, E. H.; Robinson, J. T.; Perkins, F. K.

    2010-06-07

    A plasmas-based, reversible functionalization of graphene is discussed. Using electron-beam produced plasmas, oxygen and fluorine functionalities have been added by changing the processing gas mixtures from Ar/O{sub 2} to Ar/SF{sub 6}, respectively. The reversibility of the functionalization was investigated by annealing the samples. The chemical composition and structural changes were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Plasma contactors for use with electodynamic tethers for power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.; Gatsonis, N. A.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma contactors are proposed as a means of making good electrical contact between biased surfaces such as found at the ends of an electrodynamic tether and the space environment. The plasma contactor emits a plasma cloud which facilitates the electrical connection. The physics of this plasma cloud is investigated for contactors used as electron collectors. The central question addressed is whether the electrons collected by a plasma contactor come from the far field or by ionization of local neutral gas. This question is important because the system implications are different for the two mechanisms. It is shown that contactor clouds in space will consist of a spherical core possibly containing a shock wave. Outside of the core the cloud will expand anisotropically across the magnetic field leading to a turbulent cigar shape structure along the field. This outer region is itself divided into two regions by the ion response to the electric field. A two-dimensional theory for the outer regions of the cloud is developed. The current voltage characteristic of an Argon plasma contactor cloud is estimated for several ion currents in the range of 1 to 100 Amperes. It is suggested that the major source of collected electrons comes by ionization of neutral gas while collection of electrons from the far field is relatively small.

  7. Aptamer sandwich assays: human α-thrombin detection using liposome enhancement.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie A; Wang, Yang; Baeumner, Antje J

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescent dye-encapsulating liposomes tagged with aptamers were developed and used as reporting signals in an aptamer-based sandwich assay. α-Thrombin was utilized as a prototypical analyte as two well-studied aptamers binding distinct epitopes are available to form a sandwich complex. Cholesteryl-TEG-modified aptamers were embedded into the liposomal lipid bilayer while the interior cavity of the liposomes encapsulated fluorescent sulforhodamine B dye. Such liposomes successfully formed a sandwich complex with α-thrombin and a microtiter plate immobilized aptamer, proving that aptamers retain their ability to fold when anchored to the liposome surface. Parameters studied included liposomal aptamer coverage, sandwich aptamer orientation, aptamer label orientation, aptamer spacer length and type, incubation buffer, and aptamer concentration. The optimized conditions found here in the fluorescence assay led to a limit of detection of 64 pM or 2.35 ng/mL, corresponding to 6.4 fmol or 235 pg, respectively, in a 100 μL volume. This is an order of magnitude lower than previous sandwich aptamer assays using the same sequences with lowest reported limits of detection of 0.45 nM. In addition, the assay was applied successfully to the detection of α-thrombin in human plasma. The success of this method in a standard microtiter plate format and the relatively facile functionalization of liposomes with aptamers suggest that this approach provides a versatile option for routine analytical applications. PMID:20596697

  8. Comparison of laser-activated tissue solders and thrombin-activated cryoprecipitate for wound closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayton, Mark L.; Libutti, Steven K.; Bessler, Marc; Allendorf, John D. F.; Eiref, Simon D.; Marx, Gerard; Mou, Xiaode; Morales, Alfredo M.; Treat, Michael R.; Nowygrod, Roman

    1994-09-01

    To determine the relative strengths of various biologic adhesives at several timepoints, we compared thrombin-activated SD (solvent-detergent treated) cryoprecipitate with laser- activated SD cryoprecipitate and a laser-activated, albumin-based glue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n equals 79) received four, 3-cm, dorsal skin incisions which were closed with either laser- activated cryoprecipitate, laser-activated albumin solder, thrombin-activated cryoprecipitate, or standard skin staples. The cryoprecipitate was derived from pooled human plasma and was treated with a solvent-detergent process, rendering it free of envelope-coated viruses (i.e., HBV, HIV). An 808-nm diode laser was used to activate each solder with an average duration of exposure of 75 seconds per incision. Animals were sacrificed for evaluation of wound tensile strength and histology at 0 hours, 2 hours, 4 hours, and 4 days. At all timepoints tested, laser-activated solders were significantly stronger than thrombin-activated cryoprecipitate (p < 0.03) and control wounds (p < 0.003). There was no significant difference in tensile strength between the two types of laser-activated solder at any timepoint.

  9. Generation and diagnostics of atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} plasma by laser driven plasma wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Tanaka, Kensaku; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Satoshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} plasma was generated by a laser driven plasma wind tunnel. At an ambient pressure of 0.38 MPa, a stable plasma was maintained by a laser power of 1000 W for more than 20 min. The translational temperature was measured using laser absorption spectroscopy with the atomic oxygen line at 777.19 nm. The measured absorption profiles were analyzed by a Voigt function considering Doppler, Stark, and pressure-broadening effects. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, all broadening effects were consistent with each other. The measured temperature ranged from 8500 K to 8900 K.

  10. A study of plasma expansion phenomena in laboratory generated plasma wakes - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a single-ion, collisionless, streaming plasma has been investigated in the laboratory. Several characteristics of the process involved in 'plasma expansion into vacuum' that have been predicted theoretically were observed, including the creation and motion of a rarefaction wave disturbance; the creation and motion of an expansion front; and the acceleration of ions into the wake at speeds above the ion-acoustic speed. The expansion was limited to early times; i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma drift speed and vacuum chamber size. This prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory, but results are in good agreement with numerical simulations and other laboratory experiments for the early time expansion. The conclusion is that the plasma expansion process is the dominant wake filling mechanism in the near wake of a body, whose potential is approximately the plasma space potential.

  11. Ground-Based Simulation of Low-Earth Orbit Plasma Conditions: Plasma Generation and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Farnell, Casey C.; Shoemaker, Paul B.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    A 16-cm diameter plasma source operated on argon is described that is capable of producing a plasma environment that closely simulates the low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions experienced by satellites in the altitude range between 300 to 500 km. The plasma source uses a transverse-field magnetic filter, and has been successful in producing low electron temperature plasmas that contain streaming ion populations. Both of these characteristics are important because the plasma in LEO is relatively cold (e.g., Te approx. 0.1 eV) and the ram energy of the ions due to the motion of the satellite relative to the LEO plasma is high (e.g., 7,800 m/s which corresponds to approx. 5 eV for O+ ions). Plasma source operational conditions of flow rate and discharge power are presented that allow the electron temperature to be adjusted over a range from 0.14 to 0.4 eV. The expanding plasma flow field downstream of the source contains both low-energy, charge-exchange ions and streaming ions with energies that are adjustable over a range from 4 eV to 6 eV. At low flow rates and low facility pressures, the streaming ion component of the ion population comprises over 90% of the total plasma density. In the work described herein, a large area retarding potential analyzer was used to measure both electron and ion energy distribution functions in the low density, expanding plasma produced downstream of the plasma source. The benefits of using this type of plasma diagnostic tool in easily perturbed, low-density plasma are identified, and techniques are also discussed that can be used to perform real-time measurements of electron temperature. Finally, recommendations are made that may enable lower electron temperatures to be produced while simultaneously decreasing the plasma source flow rate below 1 to 2 sccm.

  12. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Belchenko, Yu I; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, I A; Kolmogorov, V V; Listopad, A A; Mishagin, V V; Putvinsky, S V; Shulzhenko, G I; Smirnov, A

    2014-02-01

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB6 cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode. PMID:24593569

  13. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  14. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-07-11

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

  15. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

  16. Label-free impedimetric biosensor for thrombin using the thrombin-binding aptamer as receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frense, D.; Kang, S.; Schieke, K.; Reich, P.; Barthel, A.; Pliquett, U.; Nacke, T.; Brian, C.; Beckmann, D.

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the further establishment of impedimetric biosensors with aptamers as receptors. Aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides which bind analytes with a specific region of their 3D structure. Electrical impedance spectroscopy is a sensitive method for analyzing changes on the electrode surface, e.g. caused by receptor-ligand-interactions. Fast and inexpensive prototyping of electrodes on the basis of commercially available compact discs having a 24 carat gold reflective layer was investigated. Electrode structures (CDtrodes [1]) in the range from few millimetres down to 100 microns were realized. The well-studied thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) was used as receptor for characterizing these micro- and macro-electrodes. The impedance signal showed a linear correlation for concentrations of thrombin between 1.0 nM to 100 nM. This range corresponds well with most of the references and may be useful for the point-of-care testing (POCT).

  17. Study of Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) tether system for orbit reboost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Detailed designs were produced for a 2 kW plasma motor generator tether system based largely on existing hardware and hardware designs. Specifically, the hollow cathode design and electronics are derived from ion propulsion equipment. A prototype tether was constructed and will be tested for deployment, strength, resistance to breakage and abrasion and electrical properties. In addition, laboratory development models of the electronics will be used to operate two plasma motor generator hollow cathode assemblies with this tether to verify electrical performance parameters for the complete system. Results show that a low cost demonstration of a plasma motor generator tether system appears to be feasible by the middle of the 1990s.

  18. Forced KLF4 expression increases the generation of mature plasma cells and uncovers a network linked with plasma cell stage.

    PubMed

    Schoenhals, Matthieu; Jourdan, Michel; Seckinger, Anja; Pantesco, Véronique; Hose, Dirk; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Moreaux, Jérôme; Klein, Bernard

    2016-07-17

    A role of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) in the generation of mature plasma cells (PC) is unknown. Indeed, KLF4 is critical in controlling the differentiation of various cell linages, particularly monocytes and epithelial cells. KLF4 is expressed at low levels in pro-B cells and its expression increases as they mature into pre-B cells, resting naïve B cells and memory B cells. We show here that KLF4 is expressed in human bone marrow plasma cells and its function was studied using an in vitro model of differentiation of memory B cells into long lived plasma cells. KLF4 is rapidly lost when memory B cells differentiate into highly cell cycling plasmablasts, poorly cycling early plasma cells and then quiescent long-lived plasma cells. A forced expression of KLF4 in plasmablasts enhances the yield of their differentiation into early plasma cell and long lived plasma cells, by inhibiting apoptosis and upregulating previously unknown plasma cell pathways. PMID:27230497

  19. APTAMER-BASED SERRS SENSOR FOR THROMBIN DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H; Baker, B R; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Pagba, C V; Laurence, T A; Lane, S M; Lee, L P; Tok, J B

    2008-07-02

    We describe an aptamer-based Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human a-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5{prime}-capped, 3{prime}-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes.

  20. Aptamer-based SERRS sensor for thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hansang; Baker, Brian R; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Pagba, Cynthia V; Laurence, Ted A; Lane, Stephen M; Lee, Luke P; Tok, Jeffrey B H

    2008-12-01

    We describe an aptamer-based surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human alpha-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single-step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5'-capped, 3'-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes. PMID:19367849

  1. Laser-induced plasma generation and evolution in a transient spray.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuya; Tomita, Eiji

    2014-01-13

    The behaviors of laser-induced plasma and fuel spray were investigated by visualizing images with an ultra-high-speed camera. Time-series images of laser-induced plasma in a transient spray were visualized using a high-speed color camera. The effects of a shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma on the evaporated spray behavior were investigated. The interaction between a single droplet and the laser-induced plasma was investigated using a single droplet levitated by an ultrasonic levitator. Two main conclusions were drawn from these experiments: (1) the fuel droplets in the spray were dispersed by the shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma; and (2) the plasma position may have shifted due to breakdown of the droplet surface and the lens effect of droplets. PMID:24921999

  2. Generation of periodic accelerating structures in plasma by colliding laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Shvets, G; Fisch, N J; Pukhov, A; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J

    1999-08-01

    A mechanism for generating large (>1 GeV/m) accelerating wakes in a plasma is proposed. Two slightly detuned counterpropagating laser beams, an ultrashort timing pulse and a long pump, exchange photons and deposit the recoil momentum in plasma electrons. This produces a localized region of electron current, which acts as a virtual electron beam, inducing intense plasma wakes with phase velocity equal to the group velocity of the short pulse. Modulating the pumping beam generates periodic accelerating structures in the plasma ("plasma linac") which can be used for particle acceleration unlimited by the dephasing between the particles and the wake. An important difference between this type of plasma accelerator and the conventional wakefield accelerators is that this type can be achieved with laser intensities I<10(18) W/cm(2). PMID:11970016

  3. Generation of high-power electromagnetic radiation by a beam-driven plasma antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annenkov, V. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study how efficiently electromagnetic radiation can be generated by a relativistic electron beam with a gigawatt power level during its injection into a thin magnetized plasma. It is shown that, if the transverse beam and plasma size is compared with the radiation wavelength and the plasma density is modulated along the magnetic field, such a beam-plasma system can radiate electromagnetic waves via the antenna mechanism. We propose a theoretical model describing generation of electromagnetic waves by this plasma antenna and calculate its main radiation characteristics. In the two-dimensional case theoretical predictions on the radiation efficiency are shown to be confirmed by the results of particle-in-cell simulations, and the three-dimensional variant of this theory is used to estimate the peak power of sub-terahertz radiation that can be achieved in beam-plasma experiments in mirror traps.

  4. [Human thrombin: enzymatic properties, stability and standardization of preparation].

    PubMed

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V; Chernyshenko, T M

    2002-01-01

    The work deals with estimation of thrombin preparation having such features as: sedimentation activity 3000-3200 NIH un. per 1 mg of protein and 97% of active centres. The enzyme isolated has been estimated according to the amidolytic activity on synthetic substrates S-2160 and BAPNA being equal 5200 and 185 milli un/mg of protein, respectively. According to the electrophoresis in PAAG in the presence of Ds-Na the preparation is homogenous, its molecular mass is 36000. The fibrinogen sedimentation time dependence on the isolated thrombin concentration has been estimated as well as the comparative analysis with the thrombin of the firm "Sigma" with the previously calibrated activity using the international standartion (coded P4) has been conducted. The absence of proportionality between the substrate sedimentation time and the preparation concentration has been determined. It has been revealed, that if the experimental findings are presented in the units 1/t against the thrombin units NIH the right lines are received within the limits used. The defreezing and secondary freezing of the preparation preserved under -20 degrees C have been showed as rendering an essential effect on thrombin activity. In order of the enzyme stabilizing at preserving the thrombin isolated has been concentrated applying the amycon membranes (MWCo: 30,000). While applying the thrombin water-saline solution in the conditions selected the preparation has showed itself practically stable during a year without utilizing any admixtures. The essential effect on thrombin has been found from the side of 1% glycin, 0.5% PEG, 1% saccharose and so on. The thrombin isolated high functional homogeneity, its stability permit to recommend the preparation as an operative standard. PMID:12916152

  5. The interaction of thrombin with platelet protease nexin

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, C.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Thrombin interacts with a platelet protein which is immunologically related to fibroblast protease nexin and has been termed platelet protease nexin I (PNI). Conflicting hypotheses about the relationship of the thrombin-PNI complex formation to platelet activation have been proposed. The studies presented here demonstrate that the platelet-associated and supernatant complexes with added 125I-thrombin are formed only under conditions which produce platelet activation in normal and chymotrypsin-modified platelets. The platelet-associated complex is formed prior to the appearance of complexes in supernatants. Appearance of the supernatant complex coincides with the appearance of thrombospondin in the reaction supernatants. Excess native thrombin, dansylarginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl) amide or hirudin can prevent radiolabeled platelet-associated complex formation if added before 125I-thrombin. DAPA or hirudin can prevent or dissociate complex formation if added up to one minute after thrombin but not at later time points. The surface associated complex is accessible to trypsin although a portion remains with the cytoskeletal proteins when thrombin-activated platelets are solubilized with Triton X 100. The surface-associated complex formation parallels many aspects of the specific measurable thrombin binding, yet it does not appear to involve other identified surface glycoprotein thrombin receptors or substrates. Although the time course of appearance of the complexes in supernatants is consistent with other data which suggest that PNI may be released from platelet granules during platelet activation, other explanations for the appearance of PNI on the platelet surface and in supernatants during platelet activation are possible.

  6. Thrombin induces endothelial arginase through AP-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifei; Chandrasekharan, Unni M; Bandyopadhyay, Smarajit; Morris, Sidney M; DiCorleto, Paul E; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2010-04-01

    Arterial thrombosis is a common disease leading to severe ischemia beyond the obstructing thrombus. Additionally, endothelial dysfunction at the site of thrombosis can be rescued by l-arginine supplementation or arginase blockade in several animal models. Exposure of rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) to thrombin upregulates arginase I mRNA and protein levels. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of thrombin-induced arginase changes in endothelial cells. Thrombin strikingly increased arginase I promoter and enzyme activity in primary cultured RAECs. Using different deletion and point mutations of the promoter, we demonstrated that the activating protein-1 (AP-1) consensus site located at -3,157 bp in the arginase I promoter was a thrombin-responsive element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed that upon thrombin stimulation, c-Jun and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) bound to the AP-1 site, which initiated the transactivation. Moreover, loss-of-function studies using small interfering RNA confirmed that recruitment of these two transcription factors to the AP-1 site was required for thrombin-induced arginase upregulation. In the course of defining the signaling pathway leading to the activation of AP-1 by thrombin, we found thrombin-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK or JNK1/2/3) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which were followed by the phosphorylation of both c-Jun and ATF-2. These findings reveal the basis for thrombin induction of endothelial arginase I and indicate that arginase inhibition may be an attractive therapeutic alternative in the setting of arterial thrombosis and its associated endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20032511

  7. Hydrodynamic Simulation of Laser-Driven Generation of Fast High-Density Plasma Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Glowacz, S.; Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Hora, H.

    2006-01-15

    The laser-induced skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration (S-LPA) is considered to be an efficient method of producing dense plasma blocks of very high ion current densities ({>=}1010A/cm2) and ion beam intensities having the potential to be applied in high energy density physics or for fast ignition of fusion targets. In this contribution properties of plasma blocks generation by S-LPA are studied using a two-fluid relativistic hydrodynamic model of laser-plasma interaction. The main mechanisms, which lead to the generation of high current density ion beams are briefly described and illustrated by numerical calculations performed for the subpicosecond neodymium-glass laser pulses of intensities up to 1019W/cm2 interacting with inhomogeneous hydrogen plasma. The impact of the relativistic effects (e.g. the relativistic change of critical electron density, the appearance of higher harmonics) as well as laser light polarisation on plasma block generation is analysed.

  8. Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tinakiche, Nouara

    2015-12-15

    A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron-ion plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in presence of a fraction of ions in a neutral-electron-positron plasma. The results obtained in the present work are interpreted and compared with previous studies.

  9. Laser driven terahertz generation in hot plasma with step density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manoj Jeong, Young Uk; Tripathi, Vipin Kumar

    2015-06-15

    An analytical formalism of terahertz (THz) radiation generation by beating of two lasers in a hot plasma with step density profile is developed. The lasers propagate obliquely to plasma surface normal, and the nonlinearity arises through the ponderomotive force. The THz is emitted in the specular reflection direction, and the yield is enhanced due to coupling with the Langmuir wave when the plasma frequency is close to THz frequency. The power conversion efficiency maximizes at an optimum angle of incidence.

  10. Magnetic field generation from Self-Consistent collective neutrino-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A.J.; Murayama H.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1999-11-24

    A new Lagrangian formalism for self-consistent collective neutrino-plasma interactions is presented in which each neutrino species is described as a classical ideal fluid. The neutrino-plasma fluid equations are derived from a covariant relativistic variational principle in which finite-temperature effects are retained. This new formalism is then used to investigate the generation of magnetic fields and the production of magnetic helicity as a result of collective neutrino-plasma interactions.

  11. Generation of collisionless shock in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiuza, Frederico

    2015-08-01

    Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments and are tightly connected with magnetic-field amplification and particle acceleration. The fast progress in high-power laser technology is bringing the study of high Mach number shocks into the realm of laboratory plasmas, where in situ measurements can be made helping us understand the fundamental kinetic processes behind shocks. I will discuss the recent progress in laser-driven shock experiments at state-of-the-art facilities like NIF and Omega and how these results, together with ab initio massively parallel simulations, can impact our understanding of magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas.

  12. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sydorenko, D.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Chen, L.; Ventzek, P. L. G.

    2015-12-15

    Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons was observed in simulation of a high-voltage dc discharge with electron emission from the cathode. An electron beam produced by the emission interacts with the nonuniform plasma in the discharge via a two-stream instability. The energy transfer from the beam to the plasma electrons is ensured by the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The waves with short wavelength near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. The sheath near the anode reflects some of the accelerated electrons back into the plasma. These electrons travel through the plasma, reflect near the cathode, and enter the accelerating area again but with a higher energy than before. Such particles are accelerated to energies much higher than after the first acceleration. This mechanism plays a role in explaining earlier experimental observations of energetic suprathermal electrons in similar discharges.

  13. Generation of electromagnetic emission during the injection of dense supersonic plasma flows into arched magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, Mikhail; Golubev, Sergey; Mansfeld, Dmitry; Vodopyanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Interaction of dense supersonic plasma flows with an inhomogeneous arched magnetic field is one of the key problems in near-Earth and space plasma physics. It can influence on the energetic electron population formation in magnetosphere of the Earth, movement of plasma flows in magnetospheres of planets, energy release during magnetic reconnection, generation of electromagnetic radiation and particle precipitation during solar flares eruption. Laboratory study of this interaction is of big interest to determine the physical mechanisms of processes in space plasmas and their detailed investigation under reproducible conditions. In this work a new experimental approach is suggested to study interaction of supersonic (ion Mach number up to 2.7) dense (up to 1015 cm‑3) plasma flows with inhomogeneous magnetic field (an arched magnetic trap with a field strength up to 3.3 T) which opens wide opportunities to model space plasma processes in laboratory conditions. Fully ionized plasma flows with density from 1013 cm‑3 to 1015 cm‑3 are created by plasma generator on the basis of pulsed vacuum arc discharge. Then plasma is injected in an arched open magnetic trap along or across magnetic field lines. The filling of the arched magnetic trap with dense plasma and further magnetic field lines break by dense plasma flow were experimentally demonstrated. The process of plasma deceleration during the injection of plasma flow across the magnetic field lines was experimentally demonstrated. Pulsed plasma microwave emission at the electron cyclotron frequency range was observed. It was shown that frequency spectrum of plasma emission is determined by position of deceleration region in the magnetic field of the magnetic arc, and is affected by plasma density. Frequency spectrum shifts to higher frequencies with increasing of arc current (plasma density) because the deceleration region of plasma flow moves into higher magnetic field. The observed emission can be related to the

  14. Generation of Radio Frequency Plasmas in Pure Water within Hole in Insulating Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro; Matsutomo, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shin; Mukasa, Shinobu; Tanaka, Ayaka; Kawashima, Ayato

    2015-09-01

    Recently, various types of plasmas in water have been investigated. In some cases, it has been observed that plasmas in water are not in contact with the metal electrodes. In these systems, no metal electrodes contaminate water. Our research group has carried out experimental investigations on RF plasma enclosed in a bubble within a hole in an insulating plate. RF power was applied between two electrodes, and an insulating plate was placed between them. RF plasmas in pure water (0.2mS/m) and 1 wt% NaCl solution can be generated within the hole, apart from the electrodes. When hole diameter is 3-10 mm, the plasmas can be maintained stably. From finite element method, the electric field and heat density before breakdown were estimated, and on the basis of those calculations it was shown that bubble formation is a key factor for plasma generation, that is, in both the cases, the existence of a bubble increases the electric field at the side of the bubble increases. These facts suggest plasma generation occurs at around the side of the bubble. However, solution can be treated as a conductor in 1 wt% NaCl solution. On the other hand, in pure water, water behaves as an insulator. Therefore, different mechanisms lead to the plasma generation.

  15. The role of laser wavelength on plasma generation and expansion of ablation plumes in air

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, A. E.; Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-04-14

    We investigated the role of excitation laser wavelength on plasma generation and the expansion and confinement of ablation plumes at early times (0-500 ns) in the presence of atmospheric pressure. Fundamental, second, and fourth harmonic radiation from Nd:YAG laser was focused on Al target to produce plasma. Shadowgraphy, fast photography, and optical emission spectroscopy were employed to analyze the plasma plumes, and white light interferometry was used to characterize the laser ablation craters. Our results indicated that excitation wavelength plays a crucial role in laser-target and laser-plasma coupling, which in turn affects plasma plume morphology and radiation emission. Fast photography and shadowgraphy images showed that plasmas generated by 1064 nm are more cylindrical compared to plasmas generated by shorter wavelengths, indicating the role of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption at longer laser wavelength excitation. Electron density estimates using Stark broadening showed higher densities for shorter wavelength laser generated plasmas, demonstrating the significance of absorption caused by photoionization. Crater depth analysis showed that ablated mass is significantly higher for UV wavelengths compared to IR laser radiation. In this experimental study, the use of multiple diagnostic tools provided a comprehensive picture of the differing roles of laser absorption mechanisms during ablation.

  16. The role of laser wavelength on plasma generation and expansion of ablation plumes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, A. E.; Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the role of excitation laser wavelength on plasma generation and the expansion and confinement of ablation plumes at early times (0-500 ns) in the presence of atmospheric pressure. Fundamental, second, and fourth harmonic radiation from Nd:YAG laser was focused on Al target to produce plasma. Shadowgraphy, fast photography, and optical emission spectroscopy were employed to analyze the plasma plumes, and white light interferometry was used to characterize the laser ablation craters. Our results indicated that excitation wavelength plays a crucial role in laser-target and laser-plasma coupling, which in turn affects plasma plume morphology and radiation emission. Fast photography and shadowgraphy images showed that plasmas generated by 1064 nm are more cylindrical compared to plasmas generated by shorter wavelengths, indicating the role of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption at longer laser wavelength excitation. Electron density estimates using Stark broadening showed higher densities for shorter wavelength laser generated plasmas, demonstrating the significance of absorption caused by photoionization. Crater depth analysis showed that ablated mass is significantly higher for UV wavelengths compared to IR laser radiation. In this experimental study, the use of multiple diagnostic tools provided a comprehensive picture of the differing roles of laser absorption mechanisms during ablation.

  17. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C C; Wright, E M; Moloney, J V

    2001-11-19

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse. PMID:11736337

  18. Expression screening of bacterial libraries of recombinant alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor variants for candidates with thrombin inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Varsha; Gierczak, Richard F; Sheffield, William P

    2013-12-01

    Exhaustive mutagenesis studies of the reactive centre loop (RCL), a key structural component of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily of protease inhibitors, are complicated by the size of the RCL, serpin conformational complexity, and, for most serpins, the lack of a serpin-dependent phenotype of expressing cells. Here, we describe a thrombin capture assay that distinguished thrombin-inhibitory recombinant human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (API M358R) from non-inhibitory API variants in Escherichia coli lysates prepared from either single clones or pools. Binding of API proteins in the lysates to thrombin immobilized on microtiter plate wells was quantified via colour generated by a peroxidase-coupled anti-API antibody. Bacterial expression plasmids encoding inhibitory API M358R were mixed 1:99 with plasmids encoding non-inhibitory API T345R/M358R and the resulting library screened in pools of 10. All above-background signals arising from pools or subsequently re-probed single clones were linked to the presence of plasmids encoding API M358R. Screening of a portion of another expression library encoding hypervariable API with all possibilities at codons 352-358 also yielded only novel, thrombin-inhibitory variants. Probing a smaller library expressing all possible codons at Ala347 yielded the wild type, 6 different functional variants, one partially active variant, and two variants with no thrombin-inhibitory activity. API antigen levels varied considerably less among Ala347 variants than activity levels, and comparison of rate constants of inhibition of purified API variants to their corresponding thrombin capture assay lysate values was used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The results indicate that the approach is sufficiently robust to correctly identify functional versus non-functional candidates in API expression libraries, and could be of value in systematically probing structure/function relationships not only in the API

  19. MicroRNA-146a decreases high glucose/thrombin-induced endothelial inflammation by inhibiting NAPDH oxidase 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huang-Joe; Huang, Yuan-Li; Shih, Ya-Yun; Wu, Hsing-Yu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lo, Wan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with hyperglycemia and increased thrombin production. However, it is unknown whether a combination of high glucose and thrombin can modulate the expression of NAPDH oxidase (Nox) subtypes in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Moreover, we investigated the role of a diabetes-associated microRNA (miR-146a) in a diabetic atherothrombosis model. We showed that high glucose (HG) exerted a synergistic effect with thrombin to induce a 10.69-fold increase in Nox4 mRNA level in HAECs. Increased Nox4 mRNA expression was associated with increased Nox4 protein expression and ROS production. Inflammatory cytokine kit identified that the treatment increased IL-8 and IL-6 levels. Moreover, HG/thrombin treatment caused an 11.43-fold increase of THP-1 adhesion to HAECs. In silico analysis identified the homology between miR-146a and the 3'-untranslated region of the Nox4 mRNA, and a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miR-146a mimic bound to this Nox4 regulatory region. Additionally, miR-146a expression was decreased to 58% of that in the control, indicating impaired feedback restraint of HG/thrombin-induced endothelial inflammation. In contrast, miR-146a mimic transfection attenuated HG/thrombin-induced upregulation of Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and inflammatory phenotypes. In conclusion, miR-146a is involved in the regulation of endothelial inflammation via modulation of Nox4 expression in a diabetic atherothrombosis model. PMID:25298619

  20. Generation and characterization of atmospheric plasma torch array

    SciTech Connect

    Koretzky, E.; Kuo, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    Using a capacitively coupled electrical discharge, an array of plasma torches can be produced simultaneously by using a common 60 cycle power source (i.e. a simple wall plug) at atmospheric pressure. The size of each torch depends on the geometry of the electrode pair and the streaming speed of the air flow. Such a flat panel plasma torch array can be made into the desired volume and plasma density. A laser beam is used to measure the dimensions of the torch. It is found that each torch has a radius of about 1 cm and a height of about 6.5 cm. Surprisingly, it is shown that the torch can cause up to 80% modulation of the laser beam intensity. From the voltage and current measurements, the average power consumption of each torch is estimated to be 0.6 kW. The electron density can also be estimated and is found to exceed 10{sup 13}cm{sup {minus}3}. The discharge may be represented by a lump circuit. Thus, a computer simulation of the discharge is performed. The results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulations have also been performed to study the dependence of average electron density, with the electron-ion recombination coefficient as a parameter. The study is aimed at developing an efficient large volume dense plasma for industrial applications.

  1. Thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin results in rapid platelet trapping which is not dependent on platelet activation or GPIb

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Atkinson, Ben T; Frampton, Jon; Watson, Steve P

    2003-01-01

    Activation of human platelets by thrombin is mediated by the proteolytic cleavage of two G-protein coupled protease-activated receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4. However, thrombin also binds specifically to the platelet surface glycoprotein GPIb. It has been claimed that thrombin can induce aggregation of platelets via a novel GPIb-mediated pathway, which is independent of PAR activation and fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 integrin, but dependent upon polymerizing fibrin and the generation of intracellular signals. In the presence of both fibrinogen and the αIIbβ3 receptor antagonist lotrafiban, thrombin induced a biphasic platelet aggregation response. The initial primary response was small but consistent and associated with the release of platelet granules. The delayed secondary response was more substantial and was abolished by the fibrin polymerization blocking peptide GPRP. Cleavage of the extracellular portion of GPIb by mocarhagin partially inhibited thrombin-induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation and release, but had no effect on the secondary fibrin-dependent response. Fixing of the platelets abolished αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation and release of adenine nucleotides, whereas the fibrin-dependent response remained, indicating that platelet activation and intracellular signalling are not necessary for this secondary ‘aggregation'. In conclusion, the secondary fibrin-dependent ‘aggregation' response observed in the presence of fibrinogen and lotrafiban is a platelet trapping phenomenon dependent primarily on the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to polymerizing fibrin by thrombin. PMID:12598411

  2. Modelling of plasma generation and thin film deposition by a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigeneger, F.; Becker, M. M.; Foest, R.; Loffhagen, D.

    2016-09-01

    The gas flow and plasma in a miniaturized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been investigated by means of hydrodynamic modelling. The investigation focuses on the interplay between the plasma generation in the active zone where the power is supplied by an rf voltage to the filaments, the transport of active plasma particles due to the gas flow into the effluent, their reactions with the thin film precursor molecules and the transport of precursor fragments towards the substrate. The main features of the spatially two-dimensional model used are given. The results of the numerical modelling show that most active particles of the argon plasma are mainly confined within the active volume in the outer capillary of the plasma jet, with the exception of molecular argon ions which are transported remarkably into the effluent together with slow electrons. A simplified model of the precursor kinetics yields radial profiles of precursor fragment fluxes onto the substrate, which agree qualitatively with the measured profiles of thin films obtained by static film deposition experiments.

  3. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

  4. A reflex electron beam discharge as a plasma source for electron beam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.S.; Rocca, J.J.; Szapiro, B. )

    1988-10-01

    A reflex electron beam glow discharge has been used as a plasma source for the generation of broad-area electron beams. An electron current of 120 A (12 A/cm/sup 2/) was extracted from the plasma in 10 ..mu..s pulses and accelerated to energies greater than 1 keV in the gap between two grids. The scaling of the scheme for the generation of multikiloamp high-energy beams is discussed.

  5. On uniform plasma generation for the large area plasma processing in intermediate pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Hwang, Hye-Ju; Cho, Jeong Hee; Chae, Hee Sun; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-04-21

    Radial plasma discharge characteristics in the range of 450 mm were studied in a dual inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which consisted of a helical ICP and the side type ferrite ICPs. Since the energy relaxation length is shorter than the distance between each of the ferrite ICPs in an intermediate pressure (600 mTorr), local difference in the plasma ignition along the antenna position were observed. In addition, large voltage drop in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs causes an increase in the displacement current to the plasma, and separate discharge mode (E and H mode) according to the antenna position was observed. This results in non-uniform plasma distribution. For the improvement in the discharge of the ferrite ICPs, a capacitor which is placed between the ends of antenna and the ground is adjusted to minimize the displacement current to the plasma. As a result, coincident transitions from E to H mode were observed along the antenna position, and radially concave density profile (edge focused) was measured. For the uniform density distribution, a helical ICP, which located at the center of the discharge chamber, was simultaneously discharged with the ferrite ICPs. Due to the plasma potential variation through the simultaneous discharge of helical ICP and ferrite ICPs, uniform radial distribution in both plasma density and electron temperature are achieved.

  6. Plasma convection and ion beam generation in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the dawn-dusk electric field E(dd), plasma in the magnetotail convects from the lobe toward the central plasma sheet (CPS). In the absence of space or velocity diffusion due to plasma turbulence, convection would yield a steady state distribution function f = V exp (-2/3) g(v exp 2 V exp 2/3), where V is the flux tube volume. Starting with such a distribution function and a plasma beta which varies from beta greater than 1 in the CPS to beta much smaller than 1 in the lobe, the evolution of the ion distribution function was studied considering the combined effects of ion diffusion by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in the ULF frequency range (1-10 mHz) and convection due to E(dd) x B drift in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and outer central plasma sheet (OCPS). The results show that, during the early stages after launching the KAWs, a beamlike ion distribution forms in the PSBL and at the same time the plasma density and temperature decrease in the OCPS. Following this stage, ions in the beams convect toward the CPS resulting in an increase of the plasma temperature in the OCPS.

  7. Dense electron-positron plasmas and bursts of gamma-rays from laser-generated quantum electrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgers, C. P.; Bell, A. R.; Brady, C. S.; Bennett, K.; Arber, T. D.; Duclous, R.; Kirk, J. G.

    2013-05-15

    In simulations of a 12.5 PW laser (focussed intensity I=4×10{sup 23}Wcm{sup −2}) striking a solid aluminum target, 10% of the laser energy is converted to gamma-rays. A dense electron-positron plasma is generated with a maximum density of 10{sup 26}m{sup −3}, seven orders of magnitude denser than pure e{sup −} e{sup +} plasmas generated with 1PW lasers. When the laser power is increased to 320 PW (I=10{sup 25}Wcm{sup −2}), 40% of the laser energy is converted to gamma-ray photons and 10% to electron-positron pairs. In both cases, there is strong feedback between the QED emission processes and the plasma physics, the defining feature of the new “QED-plasma” regime reached in these interactions.

  8. Plasma generation for controlled microwave-reflecting surfaces in plasma antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, Yury P.; Felsteiner, Joshua; Slutsker, Yakov Z.

    2014-04-28

    The idea of replacing metal antenna elements with equivalent plasma objects has long been of interest because of the possibility of switching the antenna on and off. In general, two kinds of designs have so far been reported: (a) Separate plasma “wires” which are thin glass tubes filled with gas, where plasma appears due to discharge inside. (b) Reflecting surfaces, consisting of tightly held plasma wires or specially designed large discharge devices with magnetic confinement. The main disadvantages of these antennas are either large weight and size or too irregular surfaces for proper reflection. To design a microwave plasma antenna in the most common radar wavelength range of 1–3 cm with a typical gain of 30 dB, a smooth plasma mirror having a 10–30 cm diameter and a proper curvature is required. The plasma density must be 10{sup 12}–10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} in order to exceed the critical density for the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. To achieve this we have used a ferromagnetic inductively coupled plasma (FICP) source, where a thin magnetic core of a large diameter is fully immersed in the plasma. In the present paper, we show a way to adapt the FICP source for creating a flat switchable microwave plasma mirror with an effective diameter of 30 cm. This mirror was tested as a microwave reflector and there was found no significant difference when compared with a copper plate having the same diameter.

  9. Higher-Order Harmonic Generation from Fullerene by Means of the Plasma Harmonic Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J. P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2009-01-09

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60} by an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Laser-produced plasmas from C{sub 60}-rich epoxy and C{sub 60} films were used as the nonlinear media. Harmonics up to the 19th order were observed. The harmonic yield from fullerene-rich plasma is about 25 times larger compared with those produced from a bulk carbon target. Structural studies of plasma debris confirm the presence and integrity of fullerenes within the plasma plume, indicating fullerenes as the source of high-order harmonics.

  10. Terahertz generation by two cross focused laser beams in collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. P. Singh, Ram Kishor

    2014-07-15

    The role of two cross-focused spatial-Gaussian laser beams has been studied for the high power and efficient terahertz (THz) radiation generation in the collisional plasma. The nonlinear current at THz frequency arises on account of temperature dependent collision frequency of electrons with ions in the plasma and the presence of a static electric field (applied externally in the plasma) and density ripple. Optimisation of laser-plasma parameters gives the radiated THz power of the order of 0.23  MW.

  11. High-temperature coal-syngas plasma characteristics for advanced MHD power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, A.V.; Kayukawa, N.; Okinaka, N.; Kamada, Y.; Yatsu, S.

    2006-03-15

    Properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma based on syngas (CO, H{sub 2}) combustion products were investigated experimentally with shock tube facility. The experiments were carried out under various MHD generator load and shock tube operation conditions. Important characteristics of syngas plasma such as temperature, electric field, conductivity, and total output power were directly measured and evaluated. Special attention was paid to the influence of syngas composition (CO : H{sub 2} : O{sub 2} ratio). The results show that syngas combustion can provide high plasma ionization and attainable plasma electrical conductivity has an order of 60-80 S/m at gas temperature 3100-3300 K.

  12. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semicoductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, Michael C.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a "cold plasma" which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place.

  13. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  14. Large-amplitude plasma wave generation with a high-intensity short-pulse beat wave.

    PubMed

    Walton, B; Najmudin, Z; Wei, M S; Marle, C; Kingham, R J; Krushelnick, K; Dangor, A E; Clarke, R J; Poulter, M J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Hawkes, S; Neely, D; Collier, J L; Danson, C N; Fritzler, S; Malka, V

    2002-12-15

    A short-pulse laser beat wave scheme for advanced particle accelerator applications is examined. A short, intense (3-ps, >10(18)-W cm(-2)) two-frequency laser pulse is produced by use of a modified chirped-pulse amplification scheme and is shown to produce relativistic plasma waves during interactions with low-density plasmas. The generation of plasma waves was observed by measurement of forward Raman scattering. Resonance was found to occur at an electron density many times that expected, owing to ponderomotive displacement of plasma within the focal region. PMID:18033483

  15. Development of a stable dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced laminar plasma jet generated at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jie; Li Shibo; Zhao Wei; Wang Yishan; Duan Yixiang

    2012-06-18

    A stable nonthermal laminar atmospheric-pressure plasma source equipped with dielectric-barrier discharge was developed to realize more efficient plasma generation, with the total energy consumption reduced to nearly 25% of the original. Temperature and emission spectra monitoring indicates that this plasma is uniform in the lateral direction of the jet core region. It is also found that this plasma contains not only abundant excited argon atoms but also sufficient excited N{sub 2} and OH. This is mainly resulted from the escape of abundant electrons from the exit, due to the sharp decrease of sustaining voltage and the coupling between ions and electrons.

  16. Bifunctional combined aptamer for simultaneous separation and detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Zehui; Shangguan, Dihua

    2010-02-15

    Here we report on the construction and evaluation of a bifunctional combined aptamer (BCA) that consists of a DNA streptavidin-binding aptamer (SBA), a DNA thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) and a fluorophore. The BCA adopts a new conformation that is very different from simply linking the conformations of the two individual aptamers together, so that it does not bind to streptavidin in the absence of thrombin. Binding of this novel DNA aptamer to streptavidin is triggered by the thrombin binding and depends on the concentration of thrombin. Meanwhile, fluorescence from the streptavidin captured BCA reflects the quantity of the target molecule in the sample. This aptamer combination strategy based on the SBA holds good potential for applications in simultaneous detection and separation of targets of aptamers or certain DNA and RNA targets. PMID:19959350

  17. Antithrombotic effects of bromophenol, an alga-derived thrombin inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Thrombin, the ultimate proteinase of the coagulation cascade, is an attractive target for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. A bromophenol derivative named (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4, 5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroiso-benzofuran 1, isolated from the brown alga Leathesia nana exhibited significant thrombin inhibitory activity. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of human thrombin in vitro with this bromophenol derivative, and its antithrombotic efficacy in vivo using the arteriovenous shunt model and the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis model in rats. The results show that the bromophenol derivative is a potential inhibitor of thrombin (IC50=1.03 nmol/L). In antithrombotic experiments in vivo, the bromophenol derivative also shows good effect comparing with the control group. These data indicate that the bromophenol derivative is a potential drug for prophylaxis and the treatment of thrombotic diseases.

  18. High Magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Fulkerson, S; Bower, J; Satariano, J; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2006-05-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system suppling 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  19. Decomposition of chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes in an electron beam generated plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, S.A.

    1996-02-01

    An electron beam generated plasma reactor (EBGPR) is used to determine the plasma chemistry kinetics, energetics and decomposition pathways of six chlorinated ethylenes and ethanes: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, ethyl chloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. A traditional chemical kinetic and chemical engineering analysis of the data from the EBGPR is performed, and the following hypothesis was verified: The specific energy required for chlorinated VOC decomposition in the electron beam generated plasma reactor is determined by the electron attachment coefficient of the VOC and the susceptibility of the molecule to radical attack. The technology was demonstrated at the Hanford Reservation to remove VOCs from soils.

  20. Apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Brad W; French, David M; Reid, Remington R; Lawrance, Julie E; Lepell, P David; Maestas, Sabrina S

    2016-03-01

    An apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas has been designed, constructed, and tested. The plasma is driven by a multi-kW, ∼5 GHz microwave beam focused at the center of a vacuum chamber using a Koch-type metal plate lens. Sustained plasma discharges have been generated in argon at pressures ranging from 150 to 200 mTorr, at beam power levels ranging from 5 to 10 kW, and at gas flow rates of approximately 200 SCCM. PMID:27036777

  1. Simulation study of wakefield generation by two color laser pulses propagating in homogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Mishra, Rohit; Saroch, Akanksha; Jha, Pallavi

    2013-09-15

    This paper deals with a two-dimensional simulation of electric wakefields generated by two color laser pulses propagating in homogeneous plasma, using VORPAL simulation code. The laser pulses are assumed to have a frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Simulation studies are performed for two similarly as well as oppositely polarized laser pulses and the respective amplitudes of the generated longitudinal wakefields for the two cases are compared. Enhancement of wake amplitude for the latter case is reported. This simulation study validates the analytical results presented by Jha et al.[Phys. Plasmas 20, 053102 (2013)].

  2. Single bubble generated by a pulsed discharge in liquids as a plasma microreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemaru, M.; Sorimachi, S.; Ibuka, S.; Ishii, S.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss a single bubble, generated by a pulsed discharge in liquids, in which reactive plasmas interact with gases and liquids. Double-pulsed microdischarges with variable time intervals were used. The first microdischarge was used to generate the bubble and the second one was used to create plasmas in it, which worked as a microcavity for plasma processing. The bubble remained for a period of 400-600 µs, which was affected by discharge energy. The electrode erosion caused by the discharge in or without the bubble was characterized.

  3. Apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Brad W.; French, David M.; Reid, Remington R.; Lawrance, Julie E.; Lepell, P. David; Maestas, Sabrina S.

    2016-03-01

    An apparatus for generating quasi-free-space microwave-driven plasmas has been designed, constructed, and tested. The plasma is driven by a multi-kW, ˜5 GHz microwave beam focused at the center of a vacuum chamber using a Koch-type metal plate lens. Sustained plasma discharges have been generated in argon at pressures ranging from 150 to 200 mTorr, at beam power levels ranging from 5 to 10 kW, and at gas flow rates of approximately 200 SCCM.

  4. Generation of plasma rotation by ion cyclotron resonance heating in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.S.; Phillips, C.K.; White, R.; Zweben, S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Rice, J.E.; Greenwald, M.J.; deGrassie, J.

    1999-05-01

    A physical mechanism for generation of a plasma rotation and radial electric field by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is presented in a tokamak geometry. By breaking the omnigenity of resonant ion orbits, ICRH can induce a nonambipolar minor-radial transport of resonant ions. This yields a radial charge separation, a modification to radial electric field E{sub r}, and the generation of plasma rotation. It is estimated that the ICRH fast-wave power available in the present-day tokamak experiments can be large enough to give a significant modification to plasma rotation. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Mapping return currents in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas using proton deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Sinenian, N.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Beg, F. N.

    2012-05-14

    Dynamic return currents and electromagnetic field structure in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas have been measured using proton deflectometry. Experiments were modeled to accurately interpret deflections observed in proton radiographs. Current flow is shown to begin on axis and migrate outwards with the expanding coronal plasma. Magnetic field strengths of {approx}1 T are generated by currents that increase from {approx}2 kA to {approx}7 kA over the course of the laser pulse. Proton deflectometry has been demonstrated to be a practical alternative to other magnetic field diagnostics for these types of plasmas.

  6. Characterization of Plasma Generated in a Commercial Grade Plasma Etching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessinger, Gabriella; Drake, Dereth; Popovic, Svetozar; Vuskovic, Leposava

    2014-10-01

    The use of plasma for etching and cleaning of many types of metal surfaces is becoming more prominent in industry. This is primarily due to the fact that plasma etching can reduce the amount of time necessary to clean/etch the surface and does not require large amounts of environmentally hazardous chemicals. Most plasma etching systems are designed and built in academic institutions. These systems provide reasonable etching rates and easy accessibility for monitoring plasma parameters. The downside is that the cost is typically high. Recently a number of commercial grade plasma etchers have been introduced on the market. These etching systems cost near a fraction of the price, making them a more economical choice for researchers in the field. However, very few academicians use these devices because their effectiveness has not yet been adequately verified in the current literature. We will present the results from experiments performed in a commercial grade plasma etching system, including analysis of the pulse characteristics observed by a photo diode and the plasma parameters obtained with optical emission spectroscopy.

  7. Optical Characterization of Plasma Generated in a Commercial Grade Plasma Etching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Ashley; Drake, Dereth

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma for etching and cleaning of many types of metal surfaces is becoming more prominent in industry. This is primarily due to the fact that plasma etching can reduce the amount of time necessary to clean/etch the surface and does not require large amounts of environmentally hazardous chemicals. Most plasma etching systems are designed and built in academic institutions. These systems provide reasonable etching rates and easy accessibility for monitoring plasma parameters. The downside is that the cost is typically high. Recently a number of commercial grade plasma etchers have been introduced on the market. These etching systems cost near a fraction of the price, making them a more economical choice for researchers in the field. However, very few academics use these devices because their effectiveness has not yet been adequately verified in the current literature. We will present the results from experiments performed in a commercial grade plasma etching system, including analysis of the pulse characteristics observed by a photo diode and the plasma parameters obtained with optical emission spectroscopy.

  8. Cold atmospheric plasma jet-generated RONS and their selective effects on normal and carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric helium plasma jets were fabricated and utilized for plasma–cell interactions. The effect of operating parameters and jet design on the generation of specific reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within cells and cellular response were investigated. It was found that plasma treatment induced the overproduction of RONS in various cancer cell lines selectively. The plasma under a relatively low applied voltage induced the detachment of cells, a reduction in cell viability, and apoptosis, while the plasma under higher applied voltage led to cellular necrosis in our case. To determine whether plasma-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs through interfering with mitochondria-related cellular response, we examined the plasma effects on ROS generation in both parental A549 cells and A549 ρ0 cells. It was observed that cancer cells were more susceptible to plasma-induced RONS (especially nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2−) radicals) than normal cells, and consequently, plasma induced apoptotic cell responses mainly in cancer cells. PMID:26838306

  9. Turbulent jet flow generated downstream of a low temperature dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma device.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Richard D; Walsh, James L

    2016-01-01

    Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence. PMID:27561246

  10. Turbulent jet flow generated downstream of a low temperature dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma device

    PubMed Central

    Whalley, Richard D.; Walsh, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence. PMID:27561246

  11. Generation of electromagnetic emission during the injection of dense supersonic plasma flows into arched magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, Dmitry; Golubev, Sergey; Viktorov, Mikhail; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Yushkov, George

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of dense supersonic plasma flows with an inhomogeneous arched magnetic field is one of the key problems in near-Earth and space plasma physics. In this work a new experimental approach is suggested to study interaction of supersonic (ion Mach number up to 2.7) dense (up to 1015cm-3) plasma flows with inhomogeneous magnetic field (an arched magnetic trap with a field strength up to 3.3 T) which opens wide opportunities to model space plasma processes in laboratory conditions. Fully ionized plasma flows with density from 1013cm-3 to 1015cm-3 are created by plasma generator on the basis of pulsed vacuum arc discharge and injected into open magnetic trap across magnetic field lines. The filling of the arched magnetic trap with plasma and further magnetic field lines break by dense plasma flow was accompanied by pulsed electromagnetic emission at electron cyclotron frequency range, which can generated by electrons in the place of intensive deceleration of plasma flow in magnetic field. Grant of Ministry of Education 14.Z50.31.0007.

  12. Effects of dabigatran in vitro on thrombin biomarkers by Calibrated Automated Thrombography in patients after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor; Sani, Yanti; Lynch, Donald; Schevchuck, Alex; Svetlov, Stan; Fong, Alan; Thevathasan, Lionel; Hanley, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Randomized trials suggest superior and safe stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation after anticoagulation with dabigatran (D) at a 150 mg BID as described in the RE-LY prospective randomized open-label trial when compared to warfarin. Thrombin generation (TG) is a cornerstone of coagulation cascade, and represents a critical biomarker of atherothrombosis. We, therefore, sought to define the effect of D in escalating concentrations on the time course of TG using the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram(®) (CAT) technology in patients after ischemic stroke. Serial plasma samples were obtained from 20 patients with ischemic stroke documented by neuroimaging, who were treated with aspirin for at least 30 days. The impact of 0.1, 0.23, 0.46, 0.69 mM D in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on TG indices was assessed using fluorogenic substrate CAT device. The following integrated CAT parameters: TGmax, start time (t-start) peak time (t-peak), and mean time (t-mean) were calculated for each D dose and compared with those of the vehicle. Preincubation of PPP with D resulted in dose-dependent significant inhibition of most TG indices. The TGmax was gradually reduced from 447 ± 21 nM at baseline and reach significance for 0.46 mM D (355 ± 44 nM, P = 0.03); and decreased further at 0.69 mM D to 302 ± 27 nM (P = 0.01). The t-peak has been achieved 2-3 times later than after vehicle already at 0.23 nM D. The t-start was delayed 3-4 fold starting from 0.23 mM concentration of D (P < 0.001 for all), but not different from D 0.1 mM (1.5 vs. 1.6; P = 0.34). The t-mean was not significantly affected by D. D in vitro impacts indices of TG predominantly by dose dependent inhibition of endogenous TG, and delayed thrombin production. This preliminary evidence, while intriguing, requires confirmation in post-stroke patients receiving orally dosed D in order to determine whether these findings are clinically relevant. PMID:22065286

  13. Density profile of a line plasma generated by laser ablation for laser wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Hwangbo, Y.; Ryu, W.-J.; Kim, K. N.; Park, S. H.

    2016-03-01

    An elongated line plasma generated by a laser ablation of an aluminum target was investigated, which can be used in the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) by employing ultra-intense laser pulse through the longitudinal direction of the plasma. To generate a uniform and long plasma channel along the propagation of ultra-intense laser pulse (main pulse), a cylindrical lens combined with a biprism was used to shape the intensity of a ns Nd:YAG laser (pre-pulse) on the Al target. A uniformity of laser intensity can be manipulated by changing the distance between the biprism and the target. The density profile of the plasma generated by laser ablation was measured using two interferometers, indicating that a 3-mm long uniform line plasma with a density of 6 × 1017 cm-3 could be generated. The density with main pulse was also measured and the results indicated that the density would increase further due to additional ionization of the plasma by the main ultra-intense laser pulse. The resulting plasma density, which is a crucial parameter for the LWFA, can be controlled by the intensity of the pre-pulse, the time delay between the pre- and main pulse, and the distance of the main pulse from the target surface.

  14. Molecular modeling studies, synthesis and biological evaluation of dabigatran analogues as thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ming-Hui; Chen, Hai-Feng; Ren, Yu-Jie; Shao, Fang-Ming

    2016-01-15

    In this work, 48 thrombin inhibitors based on the structural scaffold of dabigatran were analyzed using a combination of molecular modeling techniques. We generated three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models based on three alignments for both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) to highlight the structural requirements for thrombin protein inhibition. In addition to the 3D-QSAR study, Topomer CoMFA model also was established with a higher leave-one-out cross-validation q(2) and a non-cross-validation r(2), which suggest that the three models have good predictive ability. The results indicated that the steric, hydrophobic and electrostatic fields play key roles in QSAR model. Furthermore, we employed molecular docking and re-docking simulation explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein in detail. Molecular docking simulations identified several key interactions that were also indicated through 3D-QSAR analysis. On the basis of the obtained results, two compounds were designed and predicted by three models, the biological evaluation in vitro (IC50) demonstrated that these molecular models were effective for the development of novel potent thrombin inhibitors. PMID:26690913

  15. Advanced properties of extended plasmas for efficient high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate the advanced properties of extended plasma plumes (5 mm) for efficient harmonic generation of laser radiation compared with the short lengths of plasmas (∼0.3–0.5 mm) used in previous studies. The harmonic conversion efficiency quadratically increased with the growth of plasma length. The studies of this process along the whole extreme ultraviolet range using the long plasma jets produced on various metal surfaces, particularly including the resonance-enhanced laser frequency conversion and two-color pump, are presented. Such plasmas could be used for the quasi-phase matching experiments by proper modulation of the spatial characteristics of extended ablating area and formation of separated plasma jets.

  16. Time Resolved Temperature Measurement of Hypervelocity Impact Generated Plasma Using a Global Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hew, Y. M.; Linscott, I.; Close, S.

    2015-12-01

    Meteoroids and orbital debris, collectively referred to as hypervelocity impactors, travel between 7 and 72 km/s in free space. Upon their impact onto the spacecraft, the energy conversion from kinetic to ionization/vaporization occurs within a very brief timescale and results in a small and dense expanding plasma with a very strong optical flash. The radio frequency (RF) emission produced by this plasma can potentially lead to electrical anomalies within the spacecraft. In addition, space weather, such as solar activity and background plasma, can establish spacecraft conditions which can exaggerate the damages done by these impacts. During the impact, a very strong impact flash will be generated. Through the studying of this emission spectrum of the impact, we hope to study the impact generated gas cloud/plasma properties. The impact flash emitted from a ground-based hypervelocity impact test is long expected by many scientists to contain the characteristics of the impact generated plasma, such as plasma temperature and density. This paper presents a method for the time-resolved plasma temperature estimation using three-color visible band photometry data with a global pattern search optimization method. The equilibrium temperature of the plasma can be estimated using an optical model which accounts for both the line emission and continuum emission from the plasma. Using a global pattern search based optimizer, the model can isolate the contribution of the continuum emission versus the line emission from the plasma. The plasma temperature can thus be estimated. Prior to the optimization step, a Gaussian process is also applied to extract the optical emission signal out of the noisy background. The resultant temperature and line-to-continuum emission weighting factor are consistent with the spectrum of the impactor material and current literature.

  17. Thrombomodulin Binding Selects the Catalytically Active Form of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Handley, Lindsey D; Treuheit, Nicholas A; Venkatesh, Varun J; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Human α-thrombin is a serine protease with dual functions. Thrombin acts as a procoagulant, cleaving fibrinogen to make the fibrin clot, but when bound to thrombomodulin (TM), it acts as an anticoagulant, cleaving protein C. A minimal TM fragment consisting of the fourth, fifth, and most of the sixth EGF-like domain (TM456m) that has been prepared has much improved solubility, thrombin binding capacity, and anticoagulant activity versus those of previous TM456 constructs. In this work, we compare backbone amide exchange of human α-thrombin in three states: apo, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK)-bound, and TM456m-bound. Beyond causing a decreased level of amide exchange at their binding sites, TM and PPACK both cause a decreased level of amide exchange in other regions including the γ-loop and the adjacent N-terminus of the heavy chain. The decreased level of amide exchange in the N-terminus of the heavy chain is consistent with the historic model of activation of serine proteases, which involves insertion of this region into the β-barrel promoting the correct conformation of the catalytic residues. Contrary to crystal structures of thrombin, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results suggest that the conformation of apo-thrombin does not yet have the N-terminus of the heavy chain properly inserted for optimal catalytic activity, and that binding of TM allosterically promotes the catalytically active conformation. PMID:26468766

  18. Ultra-intense single attosecond pulse generated from circularly polarized laser interacting with overdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Liangliang; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wen, Meng; Xia, Changquan; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Zhizhan

    2011-08-01

    Few-cycle relativistic circularly polarized (CP) laser pulse reflected from overdense plasma is investigated by analysis and particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that through the laser-induced one-time drastic oscillation of the plasma boundary, an ultra-intense single attosecond light pulse can be generated naturally. An analytical model is proposed to describe the interaction and it agrees well with simulation results. They both indicate that peak intensity of the generated attosecond pulse is higher when the plasma density is closer to the relativistic transparency threshold and/or the pulse duration is closer to plasma oscillating period. Two dimensional simulation shows that a two-cycle 1021 W/cm2 CP laser can generate a single 230 attosecond 2 × 1021 W/cm2 pulse of light at a conversion efficiency greater than 10-2.

  19. Ultra-intense single attosecond pulse generated from circularly polarized laser interacting with overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Liangliang; Shen Baifei; Zhang Xiaomei; Wen Meng; Xia Changquan; Wang Wenpeng; Xu Jiancai; Yu Yahong; Xu Zhizhan; Yu Mingyang

    2011-08-15

    Few-cycle relativistic circularly polarized (CP) laser pulse reflected from overdense plasma is investigated by analysis and particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that through the laser-induced one-time drastic oscillation of the plasma boundary, an ultra-intense single attosecond light pulse can be generated naturally. An analytical model is proposed to describe the interaction and it agrees well with simulation results. They both indicate that peak intensity of the generated attosecond pulse is higher when the plasma density is closer to the relativistic transparency threshold and/or the pulse duration is closer to plasma oscillating period. Two dimensional simulation shows that a two-cycle 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} CP laser can generate a single 230 attosecond 2 x 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} pulse of light at a conversion efficiency greater than 10{sup -2}.

  20. trans-Resveratrol inhibits calcium influx in thrombin-stimulated human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Dobrydneva, Yuliya; Williams, Roy L; Blackmore, Peter F

    1999-01-01

    The phytoestrogenic compound trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is found in appreciable quantities in grape skins and wine. It has been shown that both products rich in trans-resveratrol and pure trans-resveratrol inhibit platelet aggregation both in vivo and in vitro. However the mechanism of this action still remains unknown. An essential component of the aggregation process in platelets is an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+ must enter the cell from the external media through specific and tightly regulated Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane. The objective of this study was to characterize what effect trans-resveratrol had on the Ca2+ channels in thrombin stimulated platelets. In this study we showed that trans-resveratrol immediately inhibited Ca2+ influx in thrombin-stimulated platelets with an IC50 of 0.5 μM. trans-Resveratrol at 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μM produced 20±6, 37±6 and 57±4% inhibition respectively of the effect of thrombin (0.01 u  ml−1) to increase [Ca2+]i. trans-Resveratrol also inhibited spontaneous Ba2+ entry into Fura-2 loaded platelets, with 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μM trans-resveratrol producing 10±5, 30±5 and 50±7% inhibition respectively. This indicated that trans-resveratrol directly inhibited Ca2+ channel activity in the platelets in the absence of agonist stimulation. trans-Resveratrol also inhibited thapsigargin-mediated Ca2+ influx into platelets. This suggests that the store-operated Ca2+ channels are one of the possible targets of trans-resveratrol. These channels rely on the emptying of the internal Ca2+ stores to initiate influx of Ca2+ into the cell. The phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, apigenin and genistein-glucoside (genistin) produced inhibitory effects against thrombin similar to those seen with trans-resveratrol. We conclude that trans-resveratrol is an inhibitor of store-operated Ca2+ channels in human platelets. This accounts for the ability of trans-resveratrol to

  1. Plasma convection and ion beam generation in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C.K.; Smith, R.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Because of the dawn-dusk ekectric field E{sub dd}, plasma in the magnetotail convects from the lobe toward the central plasma sheet (CPS). In the absence of space or velocity diffusion due to plasma turbulence, convection would yield a steady state distribution function f = V{sup {minus}2/3}g(v{sup 2}V{sup 2/3}), where V is the flux tube volume. Starting with such a distribution function and a plasma beta which varies from {beta} > 1 in the CPS to {beta} {much lt} 1 in the lobe, the authors study evolution of the ion distribution function considering the combined effects of ion diffusion by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in the ULF frequency range (1-10 mHz) and convection due to E{sub dd} {times} B drift in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and outer central plasma sheet (OCPS). The results show that during the early stages after launching the KAWs a beamlike ion distribution forms in the PSBL and at the same time the plasma density and temperature decrease in the OCPS. Following this stage, ions in the beams convect toward the CPS resulting in an increase of the plasma temperature in the OCPS. They also discuss the effects on the polytropic index {gamma} by simultaneous convection and wave-induced diffusion, both in the PSBL and CPS. They find that {gamma} is less than the adiabatic value ({gamma}{sub ad} = 5/3) in the OCPS but approaches the adiabatic value in the CPS and in the PSBL.

  2. Effect of electron extraction from a grid plasma cathode on the generation of emission plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devyatkov, V. N.; Koval, N. N.

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes the operating mode of a plasma electron source based on a low- pressure arc discharge with grid stabilization of the plasma emission boundary which provides a considerable (up to twofold) increase in discharge and beam currents at an Ar pressure in the vacuum chamber p = 0.02-0.05 Pa, accelerating voltages of up to U = 10 kV, and longitudinal magnetic field of up to Bz = 0.1 T. The discharge and beam currents are increased on electron extraction from the emission plasma through meshes of a fine metal grid due to the energy of a high-voltage power supply which ensures electron emission and acceleration. The electron emission from the plasma cathode and arrival of ions from the acceleration gap in the discharge changes the discharge plasma parameters near the emission grid, thus changing the potential of the emission grid electrode with respect to the discharge cathode. The load is not typical and changes the voltage polarity of the electrode gap connected to the discharge power supply, which is to be taken into account in its calculation and design. The effect of electron emission from the plasma cathode on the discharge system can not only change the discharge and beam current pulse shapes but can also lead to a breakdown of the acceleration gap and failure of semiconductor elements in the discharge power supply unit.

  3. Generation of dusty plasmas in supercritical carbon dioxide using surface dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, Yasuhito; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Dusty plasmas are a class of plasmas that not only have repercussions for many branches of plasma science and technology, but also thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. However, in ground-based experiments, gravity influences the dynamics and formation of plasma crystals, and the realization of zero-gravity dusty plasmas in space is very costly and time-consuming. To overcome some of these limitations, we propose dusty plasmas in supercritical fluids as a means for realizing ground-based experiments under pseudo-microgravity conditions, to study the formation and self-organization of plasma crystals. Dusty plasmas were realized by using surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) generated in supercritical carbon dioxide (\\text{scC}{{\\text{O}}2} ), and the motion of fine particles above the electrode surface was studied by high-speed imaging. The plasmas deposited charge on the particles, and the particles formed a self-organized structure above the surface DBD reactor. The particle charge estimated from the analysis of particle motion was on the order of  -104 to -105 e C, and the estimation of the Coulomb coupling parameter of the charged particles with a value of 102 to 104 confirmed the formation of strongly coupled plasmas.

  4. High kinetic energy plasma jet generation and its injection into the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Gusev, V. K.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Sakharov, N. V.; Abramova, K. B.; Sklyarova, E. M.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.

    2005-09-01

    Progress in the theoretical and experimental development of the plasma jet source and injection of hydrogen plasma and neutral gas jets into the Globus-M spherical tokamak is discussed. An experimental test bed is described for investigation of intense plasma jets that are generated by a double-stage plasma gun consisting of an intense source for neutral gas production and a conventional pulsed coaxial accelerator. A procedure for optimizing the accelerator parameters so as to achieve the maximum possible flow velocity with a limited discharge current and a reasonable length of the coaxial electrodes is presented. The calculations are compared with experiment. Plasma jet parameters, among them pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc, were measured. Plasma jets with densities of up to 1022 m-3, total numbers of accelerated particles (1-5) × 1019, and flow velocities of 50-100 km s-1 were successfully injected into the plasma column of the Globus-M tokamak. Interferometric and Thomson scattering measurements confirmed deep jet penetration and a fast density rise (<0.5 ms) at all spatial points up to a radius rap 0.3a. The plasma particle inventory increase by ~50% (from 0.65 × 1019 to 1 × 1019) did not result in plasma degradation.

  5. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-01

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H+/D+ ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H+/D+ beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and ±7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm2.

  6. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-15

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H{sup +}/D{sup +} beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and {+-}7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Electron beam generated whistler emissions in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Van Compernolle, B. Pribyl, P.; Gekelman, W.; An, X.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.

    2015-12-10

    Naturally occurring whistler mode emissions in the magnetosphere, are important since they are responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Recently, we reported on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced [1]. A beam of energetic electrons is launched into a cold plasma and excites both chirping whistler waves and broadband waves. Here we extend our previous analysis by comparing the properties of the broadband waves with linear theory.

  8. Differential proteolytic activation of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex by thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Hill-Eubanks, D.C.; Parker, C.G.; Lollar, P. )

    1989-09-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is a plasma protein that is decreased or absent in hemophilia A. It is isolated as a mixture of heterodimers that contain a variably sized heavy chain and a common light chain. Thrombin catalyzes the activation of fVIII in a reaction that is associated with cleavages in both types of chain. The authors isolated a serine protease from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that catalyzes thrombin-like heavy-chain cleavage but not light-chain cleavage in porcine fVIII as judged by NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE and N-terminal sequence analysis. Using a plasma-free assay of the ability of activated {sup 125}I-fVIII to function as a cofactor in the activation of factor X by factor IXa, they found that fVIII is activated by the venom enzyme. The venom enzyme-activated fVIII was isolated in stable form by cation-exchange HPLC. von Willebrand factor inhibited venom enzyme-activated fVIII but not thrombin-activated fVIII. These results suggest that the binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor depends on the presence of an intact light chain and that activated fVIII must dissociate from von Willebrand factor to exert its cofactor effect. Thus, proteolytic activation of fVIII-von Willebrand factor complex appears to be differentially regulated by light-chain cleavage to dissociate the complex and heavy-chain cleavage to activate the cofactor function.

  9. Thrombin-cleaved Fragments of Osteopontin Are Overexpressed in Malignant Glial Tumors and Provide a Molecular Niche with Survival Advantage*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yasuto; Shao, Zhifei; Sharif, Shadi; Du, Xiao-Yan; Myles, Timothy; Merchant, Milton; Harsh, Griffith; Glantz, Michael; Recht, Lawrence; Morser, John; Leung, Lawrence L. K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), which is highly expressed in malignant glioblastoma (GBM), possesses inflammatory activity modulated by proteolytic cleavage by thrombin and plasma carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2) at a highly conserved cleavage site. Full-length OPN (OPN-FL) was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from all cancer patients compared with noncancer patients. However, thrombin-cleaved OPN (OPN-R) and thrombin/CPB2-double-cleaved OPN (OPN-L) levels were markedly increased in GBM and non-GBM gliomas compared with systemic cancer and noncancer patients. Cleaved OPN constituted ∼23 and ∼31% of the total OPN in the GBM and non-GBM CSF samples, respectively. OPN-R was also elevated in GBM tissues. Thrombin-antithrombin levels were highly correlated with cleaved OPN, but not OPN-FL, suggesting that the cleaved OPN fragments resulted from increased thrombin and CPB2 in this extracellular compartment. Levels of VEGF and CCL4 were increased in CSF of GBM and correlated with the levels of cleaved OPN. GBM cell lines were more adherent to OPN-R and OPN-L than OPN-FL. Adhesion to OPN altered gene expression, in particular genes involved with cellular processes, cell cycle regulation, death, and inflammation. OPN and its cleaved forms promoted motility of U-87 MG cells and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Although functional mutation of the RGD motif in OPN largely abolished these functions, OPNRAA-R regained significant cell binding and signaling function, suggesting that the SVVYGLR motif in OPN-R may substitute for the RGD motif if the latter becomes inaccessible. OPN cleavage contributes to GBM development by allowing more cells to bind in niches where they acquire anti-apoptotic properties. PMID:23204518

  10. Collimated fast electron beam generation in critical density plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iwawaki, T. Habara, H.; Morita, K.; Tanaka, K. A.; Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Rousseaux, C.; Filippi, F.; Nazarov, W.

    2014-11-15

    Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is observed when an ultra-intense laser pulse (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 300 fs) irradiates a uniform critical density plasma. The uniform plasma is created through the ionization of an ultra-low density (5 mg/c.c.) plastic foam by X-ray burst from the interaction of intense laser (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 600 ps) with a thin Cu foil. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation well reproduces the collimated electron beam with a strong magnetic field in the region of the laser pulse propagation. To understand the physical mechanism of the collimation, we calculate energetic electron motion in the magnetic field obtained from the 2D PIC simulation. As the results, the strong magnetic field (300 MG) collimates electrons with energy over a few MeV. This collimation mechanism may attract attention in many applications such as electron acceleration, electron microscope and fast ignition of laser fusion.

  11. Semiconductor bridge: A plasma generator for the ignition of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. A.; Larsen, M. E.; Renlund, A. M.; Trott, W. M.; Bickes, R. W., Jr.

    1987-09-01

    Small metal bridgewires are commonly used to ignite energetic powders such as pyrotechnics, propellants, and primary or secondary explosives. In this paper we describe a new means for igniting explosive materials using a semiconductor bridge (SCB). When driven with a short (20 μs), low-energy pulse (less than 3.5 mJ), the SCB produces a hot plasma that ignites explosives. The SCB, a heavily n-doped silicon film, typically 100 μm long by 380 μm wide by 2 μm thick, is 30 times smaller in volume than a conventional bridgewire. SCB devices produce a usable explosive output in a few tens of microseconds and operate at one-tenth the input energy of metal bridgewires. In spite of the low energies for ignition, SCB devices are explosively safe. We describe SCB processing and experiments evaluating SCB operation. Also discussed are the SCB vaporization process, plasma formation, optical spectra from the discharge, heat transfer mechanisms from the SCB to the explosive powders, and SCB device applications.

  12. Polarization of terahertz radiation from laser generated plasma filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, Daniel; Darmo, Juraj; Roither, Stefan; Pugzlys, Audrius; Unterrainer, Karl; Heyman, James N.

    2009-11-15

    An analysis of the polarization of terahertz (THz) radiation from a laser-induced plasma source is presented. THz emission is achieved by mixing a laser pulse with its second harmonic after focusing through a {beta}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} ({beta}-BBO) crystal. Numerical calculations, based on the nonlinear four-wave mixing model and the microscopic polarization model, are compared with experimental results. The main focus lies on the study of the dependence of THz polarization on the polarization and relative phase of the incident fundamental and second-harmonic pulses. We show that the modulation of the fundamental pulse by the BBO crystal has to be taken into account in order to describe experimental observations. By including the finite extension of the plasma and considering cross- and self-phase modulation of the two-color pump pulse, we are able to explain the observed ellipticity of the THz pulse as well as the orientation of the polarization axis.

  13. Negative ion beam generation in laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jequier, Sophie; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis

    2013-10-01

    Detection of a large number of energetic negative ions and neutral atoms have been reported in recent intense laser plasma interaction experiments. These particles were produced from fast positive ions (proton, carbon, oxygen) accelerated from a laser produced plasma when they were passing through a cold spray of water or ethanol. The negative ions formation is strongly related to the fast positive ions, and it is explained by a process of a single electron capture - loss. Double charge exchange, elastic scattering and energy loss phenomena have been neglected since their cross sections are much smaller. Assuming independent atoms approximation, we study populations evolution through the interaction zone analytically and numerically by solving the rate equations using cross sections drawn from literature. Taking into account the energy distribution of the incident ions, the calculations give the final energy distribution for the different species that can be compared to experimental spectra. First results obtained for hydrogen in the water case indicate that this model can explain the main observed features. The results concerning the carbon and oxygen ions will be also presented as well as refinement of the cross sections since some cross sections are missing for these energies.

  14. Generation of Shock-Wave Disturbances at Plasma-Vapor Bubble Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, N. S.; Yudin, A. S.; Voitenko, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    The complex physical and mathematical model describing all steps of plasma-vapor bubble evolution in the system of the water-ground condensed media is presented. Discharge circuit operation, discharge plasma channel expansion, its transformation into the vapor-plasma bubble and its pulsation, pressure wave generation and propagation of the mechanical stress waves in the ground are self-consistently considered in the model. The model allows investigation of the basic laws of stored energy transformation into the discharge plasma channel, next to the plasma-vapor bubble and transformation of this energy to the energy of pressure wave compressing the surrounding ground. Power characteristics of wave disturbances generated by gas-vapor bubble oscillation in liquid depending on the circuit parameters are analyzed for the prediction of the ground boundary displacement. The dynamics of the shock-wave propagation in water-ground condensed media depending on the rate of the plasma channel energy release is investigated. Simulation of the shock-wave phenomena at a plasma-vapor bubble oscillation in condensed media consecutively describes the physical processes underlying technology for producing piles by electro-discharge stuffing. The quantitative model verified by physical experimental tests will allow optimization of pulse generator parameters and electrode system construction of high-voltage equipment.

  15. Resistive wall tearing mode generated finite net electromagnetic torque in a static plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, G. Z. Wang, A. K.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2014-01-15

    The MARS-F code [Y. Q. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] is applied to numerically investigate the effect of the plasma pressure on the tearing mode stability as well as the tearing mode-induced electromagnetic torque, in the presence of a resistive wall. The tearing mode with a complex eigenvalue, resulted from the favorable averaged curvature effect [A. H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], leads to a re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque with multiple peaking in the immediate vicinity of the resistive layer. The multiple peaking is often caused by the sound wave resonances. In the presence of a resistive wall surrounding the plasma, a rotating tearing mode can generate a finite net electromagnetic torque acting on the static plasma column. Meanwhile, an equal but opposite torque is generated in the resistive wall, thus conserving the total momentum of the whole plasma-wall system. The direction of the net torque on the plasma is always opposite to the real frequency of the mode, agreeing with the analytic result by Pustovitov [Nucl. Fusion 47, 1583 (2007)]. When the wall time is close to the oscillating time of the tearing mode, the finite net torque reaches its maximum. Without wall or with an ideal wall, no net torque on the static plasma is generated by the tearing mode. However, re-distribution of the torque density in the resistive layer still occurs.

  16. Resistive wall tearing mode generated finite net electromagnetic torque in a static plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, G. Z.; Liu, Y. Q.; Wang, A. K.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.

    2014-01-01

    The MARS-F code [Y. Q. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] is applied to numerically investigate the effect of the plasma pressure on the tearing mode stability as well as the tearing mode-induced electromagnetic torque, in the presence of a resistive wall. The tearing mode with a complex eigenvalue, resulted from the favorable averaged curvature effect [A. H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], leads to a re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque with multiple peaking in the immediate vicinity of the resistive layer. The multiple peaking is often caused by the sound wave resonances. In the presence of a resistive wall surrounding the plasma, a rotating tearing mode can generate a finite net electromagnetic torque acting on the static plasma column. Meanwhile, an equal but opposite torque is generated in the resistive wall, thus conserving the total momentum of the whole plasma-wall system. The direction of the net torque on the plasma is always opposite to the real frequency of the mode, agreeing with the analytic result by Pustovitov [Nucl. Fusion 47, 1583 (2007)]. When the wall time is close to the oscillating time of the tearing mode, the finite net torque reaches its maximum. Without wall or with an ideal wall, no net torque on the static plasma is generated by the tearing mode. However, re-distribution of the torque density in the resistive layer still occurs.

  17. Characterization of stable brush-shaped large-volume plasma generated at ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jie; Cao Wenqing; Zhao Wei; Wang Yishan; Duan Yixiang

    2012-01-15

    A brush-shaped, large-volume plasma was generated at ambient pressure with a dc power supply and flowing argon gas, as well as a narrow outlet slit. Based on the V-I curve and emission profiles obtained in our experiment, the plasma shows some typical glow discharge characteristics. The electron density in the positive column close to the anode is about 1.4x10{sup 14}cm{sup -3} high, which is desirable for generating abundant amounts of reactive species in the plasma. Emission spectroscopy diagnosis indicates that many reactive species, such as excited argon atoms, excited oxygen atoms, excited nitrogen molecules, OH and C{sub 2} radicals, etc., generated within the plasma are distributed symmetrically and uniformly, which is preferable to some chemical reactions in practical applications. Spectral measurement also shows that the concentration of some excited argon atoms increases with the argon flow rate when the applied voltage is unvaried, while that of these excited argon atoms declines with the discharge current in the normal/subnormal glow discharge mode with the argon flow rate fixed. The plasma size is about 15 mm x 1 mm x 19 mm (L, W, H), when 38-W of discharge power is used. Such a laminar brush-shaped large-volume plasma device ensures not only efficient utilization of the plasma gas, but also effective processing of objects with large volume and complicated structure that are susceptible to high temperatures.

  18. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 1×10{sup 17}m{sup −3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 1×10{sup 16}m{sup −3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the Hα emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  19. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator.

    PubMed

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Hajdu, P; Pálinkás, J

    2014-02-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the "big" ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper. PMID:24593430

  20. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.

    2014-02-15

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  1. Self-consistent modeling of radio-frequency plasma generation in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, V. E. Stadnik, Yu. S.; Lysoivan, A. I.; Korovin, V. B.

    2013-11-15

    A self-consistent model of radio-frequency (RF) plasma generation in stellarators in the ion cyclotron frequency range is described. The model includes equations for the particle and energy balance and boundary conditions for Maxwell’s equations. The equation of charged particle balance takes into account the influx of particles due to ionization and their loss via diffusion and convection. The equation of electron energy balance takes into account the RF heating power source, as well as energy losses due to the excitation and electron-impact ionization of gas atoms, energy exchange via Coulomb collisions, and plasma heat conduction. The deposited RF power is calculated by solving the boundary problem for Maxwell’s equations. When describing the dissipation of the energy of the RF field, collisional absorption and Landau damping are taken into account. At each time step, Maxwell’s equations are solved for the current profiles of the plasma density and plasma temperature. The calculations are performed for a cylindrical plasma. The plasma is assumed to be axisymmetric and homogeneous along the plasma column. The system of balance equations is solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Maxwell’s equations are solved in a one-dimensional approximation by using the Fourier transformation along the azimuthal and longitudinal coordinates. Results of simulations of RF plasma generation in the Uragan-2M stellarator by using a frame antenna operating at frequencies lower than the ion cyclotron frequency are presented. The calculations show that the slow wave generated by the antenna is efficiently absorbed at the periphery of the plasma column, due to which only a small fraction of the input power reaches the confinement region. As a result, the temperature on the axis of the plasma column remains low, whereas at the periphery it is substantially higher. This leads to strong absorption of the RF field at the periphery via the Landau mechanism.

  2. Intense terahertz-pulse generation by four-wave mixing process in induced gas plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we have numerically investigated an intense terahertz (THz) pulses generation in gaseous plasma based on the third-order nonlinear effect, four-wave mixing rectification (FWMR). We have proposed that the fundamental fields and second-harmonic field of ultra-short pulse lasers are combined and focused into a very small gas chamber to induce a gaseous plasma, which intense THz pulse is produced. To understand the THz generation process, the first-order multiple-scale perturbation method (MSPM) has been utilized to derive a set of nonlinear coupled-mode equations for interacting fields such as two fundamental fields, a second-harmonic field, and a THz field. Then, we have simulate the intense THz-pulse generation by using split step-beam propagation method (SS-BPM) and calculated output THz intensities. Finally, the output THz intensities generated from induced air, nitrogen, and argon plasma have been compared.

  3. Upgrade of a Theta Pinch Plasma Source for Energetic Plasma Flow Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soonwook; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David; CenterPlasma-Material Interactions Team

    2011-10-01

    DEVeX is a theta pinch device used to investigate fusion-related material interaction such as vapor shielding and ICRF antenna interactions with plasma-pulses in a laboratory setting. However, recent upgrades of the device indicate that guiding magnet and crowbar operation hinder plasma flow to the target when the magnetic field at the theta coil is reversed from that of the guiding magnet. This reversal occurs mainly due to finite inductance and resistance at the crowbar switch. Therefore, an upgrade for more suitable fusion-related material study is required. In this study, several upgrades to produce higher-temperature plasma have been carried out. Major modification of theta coil is carried out and its effects on plasma parameters are theoretically predicted with simulation. The results will be compared with experiments including voltage/current measurement at the coil, plasma parameter measurement with triple Langmuir probe and time of flight technique, and incident energy measurement with thermocouples. The research reported in this paper was performed in support of Contract number DE-FG02-04ER54765 with the U.S. Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy of the Linac4 and superconducting proton Linac plasma generators.

    PubMed

    Lettry, J; Fantz, U; Kronberger, M; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Komppula, J; Mahner, E; Schmitzer, C; Sanchez, J; Scrivens, R; Midttun, O; Myllyperkiö, P; O'Neil, M; Pereira, H; Paoluzzi, M; Tarvainen, O; Wünderlich, D

    2012-02-01

    CERN's superconducting proton Linac (SPL) study investigates a 50 Hz high-energy, high-power Linac for H(-) ions. The SPL plasma generator is an evolution of the DESY ion source plasma generator currently operated at CERN's Linac4 test stand. The plasma generator is a step towards a particle source for the SPL, it is designed to handle 100 kW peak RF-power at a 6% duty factor. While the acquisition of an integrated hydrogen plasma optical spectrum is straightforward, the measurement of a time-resolved spectrum requires dedicated amplification schemes. The experimental setup for visible light based on photomultipliers and narrow bandwidth filters and the UV spectrometer setup are described. The H(α), H(β), and H(γ) Balmer line intensities, the Lyman band and alpha transition were measured. A parametric study of the optical emission from the Linac4 ion source and the SPL plasma generator as a function of RF-power and gas pressure is presented. The potential of optical emission spectrometry coupled to RF-power coupling measurements for on-line monitoring of short RF heated hydrogen plasma pulses is discussed. PMID:22380238

  5. Influence of plasma impurities on the deuterium retention in tungsten exposed in the linear plasma generator PSI-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, M.; Kreter, A.; Buzi, L.; Rasinski, M.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Unterberg, B.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2015-08-01

    The hydrogen retention in fusion reactors can be significantly influenced by the presence of plasma impurities. Earlier studies showed that helium can reduce the retention in tungsten wall materials. This paper gives the results of experiments on this topic in the linear plasma generator PSI-2. Exposures of polycrystalline tungsten samples to a deuterium plasma were performed at low temperatures (380 K) under the variation of the impurity species (He, Ar) and concentration (0-5%). For the experiments with He, the total deuterium fluence was varied between 2 ṡ 1024 m-2 and 2 ṡ 1026 m-2. Subsequently, the surface morphology and deuterium retention were investigated. The results show a reduction of the deuterium retention by a factor of 3 for helium, and an increase by up to 30% for argon. A diffusion model for the helium case was developed, in which a shallow layer of porous helium nanobubble structures reduces the total deuterium content.

  6. A 2D-DIGE-based proteomic analysis reveals differences in the platelet releasate composition when comparing thrombin and collagen stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Paula; Izquierdo, Irene; Rosa, Isaac; García, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Upon stimulation, platelets release a high number of proteins (the releasate). There are clear indications that these proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In the present study we compared the platelet releasate following platelet activation with two major endogenous agonists: thrombin and collagen. Proteome analysis was based on 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. Firstly, we showed the primary role of thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet secretion by these agonists; moreover, we demonstrated that GPVI is the primary responsible for collagen-induced platelet activation/aggregation. Proteomic analysis allowed the detection of 122 protein spots differentially regulated between both conditions. After excluding fibrinogen spots, down-regulated in the releasate of thrombin-activated platelets, 84 differences remained. From those, we successfully identified 42, corresponding to 37 open-reading frames. Many of the differences identified correspond to post-translational modifications, primarily, proteolysis induced by thrombin. Among others, we show vitamin K-dependent protein S, an anticoagulant plasma protein, is up-regulated in thrombin samples. Our results could have pathological implications given that platelets might be playing a differential role in various diseases and biological processes through the secretion of different subsets of granule proteins and microvesicles following a predominant activation of certain receptors. PMID:25645904

  7. Plasma characterization of the superconducting proton linear accelerator plasma generator using a 2 MHz compensated Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitzer, C.; Kronberger, M.; Lettry, J.; Sanchez-Arias, J.; Stoeri, H.

    2012-02-15

    The CERN study for a superconducting proton Linac (SPL) investigates the design of a pulsed 5 GeV Linac operating at 50 Hz. As a first step towards a future SPL H{sup -} volume ion source, a plasma generator capable of operating at Linac4 or nominal SPL settings has been developed and operated at a dedicated test stand. The hydrogen plasma is heated by an inductively coupled RF discharge e{sup -} and ions are confined by a magnetic multipole cusp field similar to the currently commissioned Linac4 H{sup -} ion source. Time-resolved measurements of the plasma potential, temperature, and electron energy distribution function obtained by means of a RF compensated Langmuir probe along the axis of the plasma generator are presented. The influence of the main tuning parameters, such as RF power and frequency and the timing scheme is discussed with the aim to correlate them to optimum H{sup -} ion beam parameters measured on an ion source test stand. The effects of hydrogen injection settings which allow operation at 50 Hz repetition rate are discussed.

  8. Plasma characterization of the superconducting proton linear accelerator plasma generator using a 2 MHz compensated Langmuir probea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kronberger, M.; Lettry, J.; Sanchez-Arias, J.; Störi, H.

    2012-02-01

    The CERN study for a superconducting proton Linac (SPL) investigates the design of a pulsed 5 GeV Linac operating at 50 Hz. As a first step towards a future SPL H- volume ion source, a plasma generator capable of operating at Linac4 or nominal SPL settings has been developed and operated at a dedicated test stand. The hydrogen plasma is heated by an inductively coupled RF discharge e- and ions are confined by a magnetic multipole cusp field similar to the currently commissioned Linac4 H- ion source. Time-resolved measurements of the plasma potential, temperature, and electron energy distribution function obtained by means of a RF compensated Langmuir probe along the axis of the plasma generator are presented. The influence of the main tuning parameters, such as RF power and frequency and the timing scheme is discussed with the aim to correlate them to optimum H- ion beam parameters measured on an ion source test stand. The effects of hydrogen injection settings which allow operation at 50 Hz repetition rate are discussed.

  9. Plasma characterization of the superconducting proton linear accelerator plasma generator using a 2 MHz compensated Langmuir probe.

    PubMed

    Schmitzer, C; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Sanchez-Arias, J; Störi, H

    2012-02-01

    The CERN study for a superconducting proton Linac (SPL) investigates the design of a pulsed 5 GeV Linac operating at 50 Hz. As a first step towards a future SPL H(-) volume ion source, a plasma generator capable of operating at Linac4 or nominal SPL settings has been developed and operated at a dedicated test stand. The hydrogen plasma is heated by an inductively coupled RF discharge e(-) and ions are confined by a magnetic multipole cusp field similar to the currently commissioned Linac4 H(-) ion source. Time-resolved measurements of the plasma potential, temperature, and electron energy distribution function obtained by means of a RF compensated Langmuir probe along the axis of the plasma generator are presented. The influence of the main tuning parameters, such as RF power and frequency and the timing scheme is discussed with the aim to correlate them to optimum H(-) ion beam parameters measured on an ion source test stand. The effects of hydrogen injection settings which allow operation at 50 Hz repetition rate are discussed. PMID:22380224

  10. Trapping of electrons in troughs of self generated electromagnetic standing waves in a bounded plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Sahu, Debaprasad; Pandey, Shail; Chatterjee, Sanghomitro; Dey, Indranuj; Roy Chowdhury, Krishanu

    2014-01-15

    Observations and measurements are reported on electron trapping in troughs of self-generated electromagnetic standing waves in a bounded plasma column confined in a minimum-B field. The boundaries are smaller than the free space wavelength of the waves. Earlier work of researchers primarily focused upon electron localization effects induced by purely electrostatic perturbation. We demonstrate the possibility in the presence of electromagnetic standing waves generated in the bounded plasma column. The electron trapping is verified with electrostatic measurements of the plasma floating potential, electromagnetic measurements of the wave field profile, and optical intensity measurements of Argon ionic line at 488 nm. The experimental results show a reasonably good agreement with predictions of a Monte Carlo simulation code that takes into account all kinematical and dynamical effects in the plasma in the presence of bounded waves and external fields.

  11. Characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma generated with positive applied potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.; Richardson, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental observations were made during steady-state operation of a bumpy-torus plasma at input powers up to 150 kW in deuterium and helium gas and with positive potentials applied to the midplane electrodes. In this steady-state ion heating method a modified Penning discharge is operated such that the plasma is acted upon by a combination of strong electric and magnetic fields. Experimental investigation of a deuterium plasma revealed electron temperatures from 14 to 140 eV and ion kinetic temperatures from 160 to 1785 eV. At least two distinct modes of operation exist. Experimental data shows that the average ion residence time in the plasma is virtually independent of the magnetic field strength. Data was taken when all 12 anode rings were at high voltage, and in other symmetric configurations in which the toroidal plasma was generated by applying positive potentials to six anode rings, three anode rings, and a single anode ring.

  12. Generation of two-column helicon plasma on KAIST-TOKAMAK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, S. J.; Huh, S. W.; Kim, J.; Lee, T. S.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.; Choi, D. I.

    2000-10-01

    Industrial plasma application studies reveal that helicon waves provide high ionization rate even at modest rf input power. This suggests that helicon waves be effectively used for plasma pre-ionization/startup, and plasma heating in a tokamak. The two-column helicon plasma was produced with a Nagoya type ¥2 antenna which was modified for toroidal geometry of KAIST-TOKAMAK. The observed two columns locate at the same major radius and they move outward as toroidal magnetic field increases. In addition to the 2D image captured by a CCD camera, an 8-channel Langmuir probe array is used to measure the density profile. Parallel wave number is measured by magnetic pickup probes and a phase detector in order to study wave generation and propagation inside the plasma.

  13. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by NO-plasma treatment modulates osteoprogenitor cells early differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Subramanian, Gayathri; Ayan, Halim; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) generated using a non-thermal plasma system can mediate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells without creating toxicity. Our objective was to create an NO delivery mechanism using NO-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma that can generate and transport NO with controlled concentration to the area of interest to regulate osteoprogenitor cell activity. We built a non-thermal atmospheric pressure DBD plasma nozzle system based on our previously published design and similar designs in the literature. The electrical and spectral analyses demonstrated that N2 dissociated into NO under typical DBD voltage-current characteristics. We treated osteoprogenitor cells (MC3T3-E1) using NO-plasma treatment system. Our results demonstrated that we could control NO concentration within cell culture media and could introduce NO into the intracellular space using NO-plasma treatment with various treatment times. We confirmed that NO-plasma treatment maintained cell viability and did not create any toxicity even with prolonged treatment durations. Finally, we demonstrated that NO-plasma treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation in the absence of pro-osteogenic growth factors/proteins. These findings suggest that through the NO-plasma treatment system we are able to generate and transport tissue-specific amounts of NO to an area of interest to mediate osteoprogenitor cell activity without subsequent toxicity. This opens up the possibility to develop DBD plasma-assisted tissue-specific NO delivery strategies for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of bone diseases.

  14. Modelling Of Generation And Growth Of Nanoparticles In Low-Pressure Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gordiets, B. F.

    2008-09-07

    Theoretical kinetic models of generation and growth of clusters and nanoparticles in low-pressure plasma are briefly rewired. The relatively simple kinetic model is discussed more detail. Simple formulas and equations are given for monomer density; cluster dimension distribution; critical cluster dimension; rate of particle production; particle density and average dimension as well as plasma characteristics. The analytical formula is also obtained for the time delay of the measured LIPEE signal in the 'Laser Induced Particle Explosive Evaporation' experimental method.

  15. Improvement of the lifetime of radio frequency antenna for plasma generation

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.; Eardley, M.; Gough, R.; Keller, R.; Leung, K.; Thomae, R.; Pickard, D.; Williams, M. D.

    2000-02-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory different antenna protection schemes have been investigated for the radio frequency-driven multicusp ion source. It was found that the antenna lifetime can be greatly enhanced by an additional shielding, which consists of porcelain, quartz or boron nitride. Different antenna configurations and their influence on the plasma generation will be discussed. Antenna life time greater than 500 hours continuous wave operation has been demonstrated in hydrogen plasma using a novel quartz antenna design. (c)

  16. Simulation of terahertz generation in corrugated plasma waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Palastro, John; Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2011-05-15

    We simulate the response of a corrugated plasma channel to an ultrashort laser pulse in two dimensions with the goal of demonstrating the production of terahertz frequency electromagnetic modes. Corrugated channels support electromagnetic modes that have a Floquet-type dispersion relation and thus consist of a sum of spatial harmonics with subluminal phase velocities. This allows the possibility of phase matching between the ponderomotive potential associated with the laser pulse and the electromagnetic modes of the channel. Since the bandwidth of an ultrashort pulse includes terahertz frequencies, significant excitation of terahertz radiation is possible. Here we consider realistic density profiles to obtain predictions of the terahertz power output and mode structure for a channel with periodic boundary conditions. We then estimate pulse depletion effects from our simulation results. The fraction of laser energy converted to terahertz is independent of laser pulse energy in the linear regime, and we find it to be around 1%. Extrapolating to a pulse energy of 0.5 J gives a terahertz power output of 6 mJ with a pulse depletion length of less than 20 cm.

  17. NEXT-GENERATION PLASMA CONTROL IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, ML; FERRON, JR; HUMPHREYS, DA; JOHNSON, RD; LEUER, JA; PENAFLOR, BG; PIGLOWSKI, DA; ARIOLA, M; PIRONTI, A; SCHUSTER, E

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 NEXT-GENERATION PLASMA CONTROL IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. The advanced tokamak (AT) operating mode which is the principal focus of the DIII-D tokamak requires highly integrated and complex plasma control. Simultaneous high performance regulation of the plasma boundary and internal profiles requires multivariable control techniques to account for the highly coupled influences of equilibrium shape, profile, and stability control. This paper describes progress towards the DIII-D At mission goal through both significantly improved real-time computational hardware and control algorithm capability.

  18. Optical Analysis Of The Vacuum Arc Plasma Generated In Cup-Shape Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Pavelescu, G.; Gherendi, F.; Pavelescu, D.; Dumitrescu, G.; Anghelita, P.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper are presented the results of the optical analysis on the rotating arc plasma, generated in the vacuum low voltage circuit breaker with cup-shaped contacts. An adequate experimental setup was used for single shot time and spatial resolved spectroscopy in order to analyze the evolution of the vacuum arc plasma. Different current interruption situations are correlated with plasma spectral diagnosis. The study is aimed to contribute to a better understanding of the complex phenomena that take place in the interruption process of high currents that appears in the short-circuit regime of electrical networks.

  19. Generating vorticity and magnetic fields in plasmas in general relativity: Spacetime curvature drive

    SciTech Connect

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Qadir, Asghar

    2013-02-15

    Using the generally covariant magnetofluid formalism for a hot plasma, a spacetime curvature driven mechanism for generating seed vorticity/magnetic field is presented. The 'battery' owes its origin to the interaction between the gravity modified Lorentz factor of the fluid element and the inhomogeneous plasma thermodynamics. The general relativistic drive is evaluated for two simple cases: seed formation in a simplified model of a hot plasma accreting in stable orbits around a Schwarzschild black hole and for particles in free fall near the horizon. Some astrophysical applications are suggested.

  20. Characteristic measurements of silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas generated in a Planckian radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Quanli; Wang Shoujun; Li Yutong; Zhang Yi; Zhao Jing; Wei Huigang; Shi Jianrong; Zhao Gang; Zhang Jiyan; Gu Yuqiu; Ding Yongkun; Wen Tianshu; Zhang Wenhai; Hu Xin; Liu Shenye; Zhang Lin; Tang Yongjian; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2010-01-15

    The temporally and spatially resolved characteristics of silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas were studied using x-ray spectroscopy. The plasma was generated in the near-Planckian radiation environment within gold hohlraum targets irradiated by laser pulses with a total energy of 2.4 kJ in 1 ns. The contributions of silicon ions at different charge states to the specific components of the measured absorption spectra were also investigated. It was found that each main feature in the absorption spectra of the measured silicon dioxide aerogel plasmas was contributed by two neighboring silicon ionic species.

  1. Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

  2. Generation of extended plasma channels in air using femtosecond Bessel beams.

    PubMed

    Polynkin, Pavel; Kolesik, Miroslav; Roberts, Adam; Faccio, Daniele; Di Trapani, Paolo; Moloney, Jerome

    2008-09-29

    Extending the longitudinal range of plasma channels created by ultrashort laser pulses in atmosphere is important in practical applications of laser-induced plasma such as remote spectroscopy and lightning control. Weakly focused femtosecond Gaussian beams that are commonly used for generating plasma channels offer only a limited control of filamentation. Increasing the pulse energy in this case typically results in creation of multiple filaments and does not appreciably extend the longitudinal range of filamentation. Bessel beams with their extended linear foci intuitively appear to be better suited for generation of long plasma channels. We report experimental results on creating extended filaments in air using femtosecond Bessel beams. By probing the linear plasma density along the filament, we show that apertured Bessel beams produce stable single plasma channels that span the entire extent of the linear focus of the beam. We further show that by temporally chirping the pulse, the plasma channel can be longitudinally shifted beyond the linear-focus zone, an important effect that may potentially offer additional means of controlling filament formation. PMID:18825212

  3. Aptamer functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolith with gold nanoparticles modification for the sensitive detection of human α-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanbo; Deng, Nan; Wu, Ci; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-07-01

    Low abundant proteins of body fluids participate nearly all physiological processes and indicate various kinds of diseases. The development of specific enrichment techniques is the key to identify and quantify the low abundant proteins. Herein, a novel kind of aptamer functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolith was developed for the specific enrichment and detection of human α-thrombin from the human plasma. Human α-thrombin aptamer, with thiol group modified at the 5' terminal, was immobilized on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) monolithic column, with the binding capacity of 277.1μmol/L. Due to the hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) as the cross-linking monomer, the detection recovery of the aptamer-functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolithic column could reach to 92.6±5.2% (n=3) and the dynamic range could reach 0.5-300ng/μL (S/N>10) with on-line UV detection. Meanwhile, the column could run over 100 times, because the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) stability structure and the AuNPs improved the stability of the matrix material. Furthermore, this column could even capture the target α-thrombin, which was spiked in 1000 folds of original human plasma. All these results demonstrated the great potential of the prepared aptamer functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolith for the recognition of the trace proteins in the biological samples. PMID:27154714

  4. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser-plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser-plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  5. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser–plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser–plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  6. High-order harmonic generation from laser plasma produced by pulses of different duration

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Baba, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2007-08-15

    The high-order harmonic generation was analyzed by interaction of the femtosecond pulses with the laser plasma produced on the surfaces of various targets. The plasma formation was accomplished by the interaction of the prepulse radiation of different pulse duration (160 fs, 1.5 ps, 210 ps, and 20 ns) with the low-Z (lithium, boron, carbon), medium-Z (manganese, zinc, nickel), and high-Z (silver, barium) targets. We showed that plasma formation conditions play a crucial role in harmonic generation and the optimization of this process mostly depends on the energy of prepulse rather than its intensity at the target surface. These studies also demonstrated that the delay between the prepulse and femtosecond pulse is another important parameter, which distinguishes harmonic generation in the cases of the low- and high-Z targets.

  7. A study of increasing radical density and etch rate using remote plasma generator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Kyunghyun; Cho, Sung-Won; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-09-01

    To improve radical density without changing electron temperature, remote plasma generator (RPG) is applied. Multistep dissociation of the polyatomic molecule was performed using RPG system. RPG is installed to inductively coupled type processing reactor; electrons, positive ions, radicals and polyatomic molecule generated in RPG and they diffused to processing reactor. The processing reactor dissociates the polyatomic molecules with inductively coupled power. The polyatomic molecules are dissociated by the processing reactor that is operated by inductively coupled power. Therefore, the multistep dissociation system generates more radicals than single-step system. The RPG was composed with two cylinder type inductively coupled plasma (ICP) using 400 kHz RF power and nitrogen gas. The processing reactor composed with two turn antenna with 13.56 MHz RF power. Plasma density, electron temperature and radical density were measured with electrical probe and optical methods.

  8. Investigation on plasma generated during hypervelocity impact at different impact velocities and angles

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Weidong Lv, Yangtao; Wang, Cheng; Li, Jianqiao

    2015-12-15

    A 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code was developed to investigate plasma generation by considering a chemical reaction process in hypervelocity impacts of an aluminum projectile on an aluminum target. The chemical reaction process was described by the reaction rate based on the Arrhenius equation and used to calculate the plasma generation during the impact simulation. The predicted result was verified by empirical formulas and a new empirical formula was proposed based on the comparisons and analyses. The influence of the impact angle was discussed for different impact velocities. Then, the application of both the new and original empirical formulas for protection design from plasma generated by hypervelocity impact was discussed, which demonstrated that the code and model were useful in the prediction of hypervelocity impacts on spacecraft.

  9. Investigation on plasma generated during hypervelocity impact at different impact velocities and angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Weidong; Lv, Yangtao; Wang, Cheng; Li, Jianqiao

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code was developed to investigate plasma generation by considering a chemical reaction process in hypervelocity impacts of an aluminum projectile on an aluminum target. The chemical reaction process was described by the reaction rate based on the Arrhenius equation and used to calculate the plasma generation during the impact simulation. The predicted result was verified by empirical formulas and a new empirical formula was proposed based on the comparisons and analyses. The influence of the impact angle was discussed for different impact velocities. Then, the application of both the new and original empirical formulas for protection design from plasma generated by hypervelocity impact was discussed, which demonstrated that the code and model were useful in the prediction of hypervelocity impacts on spacecraft.

  10. Measuring the electron density, temperature, and electronegativity in electron beam-generated plasmas produced in argon/SF6 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, D. R.; Fernsler, R. F.; Walton, S. G.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents measurements of electron density (ne0), electron temperature (Te), and electronegativity (α) in electron beam-generated plasmas produced in mixtures of argon and SF6 using Langmuir probes and plasma resonance spectroscopy. Langmuir probe measurements are analyzed using a model capable of handling multi-component plasmas with both positive and negative ions. Verification of the model is provided through plasma frequency resonance measurements of ne0. The results suggest a simple approach to ascertaining α in negative-ion-containing plasmas using Langmuir probes alone. In addition, modest amounts of SF6 are shown to produce sharp increases in both Te and α in electron beam generated plasmas.

  11. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiexia; Liu, Yifan; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates. PMID:26805846

  12. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexia; Liu, Yifan; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates. PMID:26805846

  13. Picosecond strain pulses generated by a supersonically expanding electron-hole plasma in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. S. K.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.; Gusev, V.

    2012-10-01

    Strain pulses with picosecond duration are generated directly in GaAs by optical excitation from a femtosecond laser. The photons are absorbed in a 15-nm layer near the surface, creating the electron-hole plasma, which diffusively expands into the bulk of the GaAs. At an early time, the drift velocity of the expanding plasma exceeds the speed of longitudinal sound, and the generated strain pulses cannot escape the plasma cloud. Such supersonic generation of strain pulses results in specific temporal and spatial shapes of the generated strain pulses, where the compression part has a much lower amplitude than the tensile part. This phenomenon is studied experimentally at low temperatures and analyzed theoretically based on the wave and diffusion equations for strain and plasma density, respectively. Two mechanisms, deformation potential and thermoelasticity, are responsible for the experimental observations. The relative contributions from these mechanisms are governed by the nonradiative recombination rate in the plasma and depend on the optical excitation density, inducing such nonlinear optoacoustic effects as shortening of the leading strain front and a superlinear/quadratic increase in its amplitude with the rise of pump laser fluence.

  14. Second harmonic generation by self-focusing of intense hollow Gaussian laser beam in collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Gunjan; Rawat, Priyanka; Gauniyal, Rakhi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of self focused hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) (carrying null intensity in center) on the excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been investigated in collisionless plasma, where relativistic-ponderomotive and only relativistic nonlinearities are operative. The relativistic change of electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity lead to self-focusing of HGLB in plasma. Paraxial ray theory has been used to derive coupled equations for the self focusing of HGLB in plasma, generation of EPW, and second harmonic. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, electric field associated with the excited EPW, and the power of SHG. Second harmonic emission is generated due to nonlinear coupling between incident HGLB and EPW satisfying the proper phase matching conditions. The results show that the effect of including the ponderomotive nonlinearity is significant on the generation of EPW and second harmonic. The electric field associated with EPW and the power of SHG are found to be highly sensitive to the order of the hollow Gaussian beam.

  15. Phase properties of laser high-order harmonics generated on plasma mirrors.

    PubMed

    Quéré, F; Thaury, C; Geindre, J-P; Bonnaud, G; Monot, P; Martin, Ph

    2008-03-01

    As a high-intensity laser-pulse reflects on a plasma mirror, high-order harmonics of the incident frequency can be generated in the reflected beam. We present a numerical study of the phase properties of these individual harmonics, and demonstrate experimentally that they can be coherently controlled through the phase of the driving laser field. The harmonic intrinsic phase, resulting from the generation process, is directly related to the coherent sub-laser-cycle dynamics of plasma electrons, and thus constitutes a new experimental probe of these dynamics. PMID:18352718

  16. Phase Properties of Laser High-Order Harmonics Generated on Plasma Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Quere, F.; Thaury, C.; Bonnaud, G.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.

    2008-03-07

    As a high-intensity laser-pulse reflects on a plasma mirror, high-order harmonics of the incident frequency can be generated in the reflected beam. We present a numerical study of the phase properties of these individual harmonics, and demonstrate experimentally that they can be coherently controlled through the phase of the driving laser field. The harmonic intrinsic phase, resulting from the generation process, is directly related to the coherent sub-laser-cycle dynamics of plasma electrons, and thus constitutes a new experimental probe of these dynamics.

  17. High-current lanthanum-hexaboride electron emitter for a quasi-stationary arc plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, V. I. Ivanov, A. A. Shul’zhenko, G. I.

    2015-11-15

    A high-current electron emitter on the basis of lanthanum hexaboride is developed for quasi-stationary arc plasma generators of ion sources. The emitter consists of a set of LaB{sub 6} washers interleaved with washers made of thermally extended graphite. The emitter is heated by the current flowing through the graphite washers. The thermal regime of emitter operation during plasma generation is considered. The emitter has been successfully used in the ion sources of the diagnostic injectors of fast hydrogen atomic beams.

  18. Scanning electrochemical microscopy for study of aptamer-thrombin interfacial interactions on gold disk microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Huei-Yu; del Campo, F Javier; Tsai, Yu-Chen

    2014-03-01

    A feasibility for the determination of thrombin on gold disk microelectrodes (GDMs) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is reported. The assembly process step-by-step of thrombin aptasensor on GDMs is monitored by SECM. SECM analysis reveals the immobilization of thrombin aptamers on GDMs. The interaction between thrombin aptamers and thrombin on GDMs is imaged by SECM with feedback mode using ferrocenemethanol as an electrochemical mediator. The formation of thrombin/thrombin aptamer complex on GDMs results in a decrease in the tip peak current on spatial SECM images. This method is able to linearly and selectively detect thrombin over a linear range from 10(-12) to 10(-5)M with a detection limit of 6.07 fM. PMID:24407695

  19. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulation of Experiments With Intense Lasers Generating Collisionless Interpenetrating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosskopf, Michael; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Park, H.; Kugland, N.; Pollaine, S.; Ross, J.; Remington, B.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Liang, E.; Woolsey, N.

    2012-05-01

    Collisionless shocks, shocks generated by plasma wave interactions in regions where the collisional mean-free-path for ions is long compared to the length scale for instabilities that generate magnetic fields, are found in many astrophysical systems such as supernova remnants and planetary bow shocks. Generating conditions to investigate collisionless shock physics is difficult to achieve in a laboratory setting; however, high-energy-density physics facilities have made this a possibility. Experiments whose goal is to investigate the production and growth of magnetic fields in collisionless shocks in laboratory-scale systems are being carried out on intense lasers, several of which are measuring the plasma properties and magnetic field strength in counter-streaming, collisionless flows generated by laser ablation. This poster reports radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using the CRASH code to model the ablative flow of plasma generated in order to assess potential designs, as well as infer properties of collected data from previous experiments. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850.

  20. Thrombin A-Chain: Activation Remnant or Allosteric Effector?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Isis S. R.; Vanden Hoek, Amanda L.; Pryzdial, Edward L. G.; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Although prothrombin is one of the most widely studied enzymes in biology, the role of the thrombin A-chain has been neglected in comparison to the other domains. This paper summarizes the current data on the prothrombin catalytic domain A-chain region and the subsequent thrombin A-chain. Attention is given to biochemical characterization of naturally occurring prothrombin A-chain mutations and alanine scanning mutants in this region. While originally considered to be simply an activation remnant with little physiologic function, the thrombin A-chain is now thought to play a role as an allosteric effector in enzymatic reactions and may also be a structural scaffold to stabilize the protease domain. PMID:22084659

  1. Development and Optimization of a Thrombin Sandwich Aptamer Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Meneghello, Anna; Sosic, Alice; Antognoli, Agnese; Cretaio, Erica; Gatto, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    A sandwich microarray employing two distinct aptamers for human thrombin has been optimized for the detection of subnanomolar concentrations of the protein. The aptamer microarray demonstrates high specificity for thrombin, proving that a two-site binding assay with the TBA1 aptamer as capture layer and the TBA2 aptamer as detection layer can ensure great specificity at times and conditions compatible with standard routine analysis of biological samples. Aptamer microarray sensitivity was evaluated directly by fluorescent analysis employing Cy5-labeled TBA2 and indirectly by the use of TBA2-biotin followed by detection with fluorescent streptavidin. Sub-nanomolar LODs were reached in all cases and in the presence of serum, demonstrating that the optimized aptamer microarray can identify thrombin by a low-cost, sensitive and specific method.

  2. [Thrombin--a regulator of reparative processes in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S V; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Rumsh, L D; Zubov, V P; Gluza, E

    1998-04-01

    Thrombin, binding to receptors of the protease activated receptor (PAR) family, is involved in wound healing by inducing the reparation processes and regulating the activity of mast cells, which secrete mediators of inflammation. Using thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP-6) for the activation of rat mast cells, effect of several receptors, including PAR-1, on mast cells was demonstrated. It was shown that TRAP increases the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm of mast cells and regulates cell degranulation, while releasing nitrogen oxide. Thrombin encapsulated in poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL-Ca-Alg) hydrogel films promotes wound healing in rats as demonstrated by the acceleration of fibroblast proliferation and neovascularization. PMID:9612571

  3. Energetic neutron beams generated from femtosecond laser plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zulick, C.; Dollar, F.; Chvykov, V.; Kalinchenko, G.; Maksimchuk, A.; Raymond, A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Davis, J.; Petrov, G. M.

    2013-03-25

    Experiments at the HERCULES laser facility have produced directional neutron beams with energies up to 16.8({+-}0.3) MeV using {sub 1}{sup 2}d(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He,{sub 7}{sup 3}Li(p,n){sub 4}{sup 7}Be,and{sub 3}{sup 7}Li(d,n){sub 4}{sup 8}Be reactions. Efficient {sub 1}{sup 2}Li(d,n){sub 4}{sup 8}Be reactions required the selective acceleration of deuterons through the introduction of a deuterated plastic or cryogenically frozen D{sub 2}O layer on the surface of a thin film target. The measured neutron yield was {<=}1.0 ({+-}0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} neutrons/sr with a flux 6.2({+-}3.7) times higher in the forward direction than at 90{sup Degree-Sign }. This demonstrates that femtosecond lasers are capable of providing a time averaged neutron flux equivalent to commercial {sub 1}{sup 2}d(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He generators with the advantage of a directional beam with picosecond bunch duration.

  4. Detailed study of the plasma-activated catalytic generation of ammonia in N2-H2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, J. H.; Wagemans, W.; Yagci, G.; Zijlmans, R. A. B.; Schram, D. C.; Engeln, R.; Lombardi, G.; Stancu, G. D.; Röpcke, J.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the efficiency and formation mechanism of ammonia generation in recombining plasmas generated from mixtures of N2 and H2 under various plasma conditions. In contrast to the Haber-Bosch process, in which the molecules are dissociated on a catalytic surface, under these plasma conditions the precursor molecules, N2 and H2, are already dissociated in the gas phase. Surfaces are thus exposed to large fluxes of atomic N and H radicals. The ammonia production turns out to be strongly dependent on the fluxes of atomic N and H radicals to the surface. By optimizing the atomic N and H fluxes to the surface using an atomic nitrogen and hydrogen source ammonia can be formed efficiently, i.e., more than 10% of the total background pressure is measured to be ammonia. The results obtained show a strong similarity with results reported in literature, which were explained by the production of ammonia at the surface by stepwise addition reactions between adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen containing radicals at the surface and incoming N and H containing radicals. Furthermore, our results indicate that the ammonia production is independent of wall material. The high fluxes of N and H radicals in our experiments result in a passivated surface, and the actual chemistry, leading to the formation of ammonia, takes place in an additional layer on top of this passivated surface.

  5. Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2012-04-20

    Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength. PMID:22680725

  6. Collisionless shock generation in counter-streaming plasmas produced by a high-power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakawa, Youichi; Kuramitsu, Y.; Morita, T.; Aoki, H.; Tanji, H.; Shibata, S.; Ide, T.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Shiroshita, A.; Shigemori, K.; Sano, T.; Norimatsu, T.; Kato, T.; Takabe, H.; Waugh, J.; Woolsey, N.; Loupias, B.; Gregory, C.; Koenig, M.

    2009-11-01

    Laboratory experiments to study collisionless shock generation in counter-streaming plasmas have been investigated using Gekko XII HIPER laser system (352 nm (3φ), 500 ps, ˜100 J / beam, one or four beams, < 10^15 W/cm^2) at ILE. Two types of double-plane targets, Jet and Ablation types were used. In the Jet (Ablation) type, 10 μm (60 μm) and 60 μm thick CH planes were placed with the separation of 4.5 mm; beams were irradiated on the 1st CH and a rear-side (an ablation) plasma is formed, and the plasma from the 2nd CH is created by radiation and/or plasmas from the1st CH. The plasmas and shocks were diagnosed transverse to the main laser propagation direction; shadowgraphy and modified Nomarski interferometry using a probe laser with ICCD and streak cameras, and SOP and GOI using a visible (450 nm) self-emission. Counter-streaming plasmas were produced, and shock waves were observed. The width of the transition region is much shorter than ion-ion mean-free-path. A particle-in-cell simulation has predicted generation of an electrostatic shock.

  7. A Multiple Z-Pinch Configuration for the Generation of High-Density, Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.

    2015-11-01

    The z-pinch is arguably the most straightforward and economical approach for the generation and confinement of hot plasmas, with a long history of theoretical investigations and experimental developments. While most of the past studies were focused on countering the natural tendency of z-pinches to develop instabilities, this study attempts to take advantage of those unstable regimes to form a quasi-stable plasma, with higher density and temperature, possibly of interest for a fusion reactor concept. For this purpose, a configuration with four z-pinch discharges, with axis parallel to each other and symmetrically positioned, is considered. Electrodes for the generation of the discharges and magnetic coils are arranged to favor the formation of concave discharge patterns. The mutual attraction from the co-streaming discharge currents enhances this pattern, leading to bent plasma streams, all nearing towards the axis. This configuration is intended to excite and sustain a ``kink'' unstable mode for each z-pinch, eventually producing either plasmoid structures, detached from each discharge, or sustained kink patterns: both these cases appear to lead to plasmas merging in the central region. The feasibility of this approach in creating a higher density, hotter, meta-stable plasma regime is investigated computationally, addressing both the kink excitation phase and the dynamics of the converging plasma columns.

  8. Alfvén Waves Generated by Expanding Plasmas in the Laboratory and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W.; Vanzeeland, M.; Vincena, S.; Pribyl, P.

    2002-12-01

    There are many situations, which occur in space (coronal mass ejections, supernovas), or are man-made (upper atmospheric detonations) in which a dense plasma expands into a background magnetized plasma, that can support Alfvén waves. The LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) is a machine, at UCLA, in which Alfvén waves propagation in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas has been studied. These will be briefly reviewed. Then a new class of experiments which involve the expansion of a dense (initially, n/no>>1) laser-produced plasma into an ambient highly magnetized background plasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves will be presented. The 150 MW laser is pulsed at the same 1 Hz repetition rate as the plasma in a highly reproducible experiment. The laser beam impacts a solid target such that the initial plasma burst is directed either along or across the magnetic field. The interaction results in the production of intense shear and compressional Alfvén waves, as well as large density perturbations. The waves propagate away from the target and are observed to become plasma column resonances. The magnetic fields of the waves are obtained with a 3-axis inductive probe. Spatial patterns of the magnetic fields associated with the waves and density perturbations are measured at over {10}4 locations and will be shown in dramatic movies. These are used to estimate the coupling efficiency of the laser energy and kinetic energy of the dense plasma into wave energy. The wave generation mechanism is due to field aligned return currents, which replace fast electrons escaping the initial blast. Work supported by ONR, DOE, and NSF

  9. Participation of the hypophyseal-adrenal cortex system in thrombin clearance during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Uljanov, A. M.; Shapiro, F. B.; Bazazyan, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thrombin marked with I-131 resulted in a considerable increase of the thrombined clearance rate in healthy male rats during stress caused by an immobilization lasting 30 minutes, and in an increase of thrombin clearance occurred by a combination of immobilization and administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Contrary to ACTH, the thrombin clearance is not stimulated in healthy animals by hydrocortisone. The results of the examination are presented.

  10. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G. )

    1990-06-25

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes.

  11. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  12. Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  13. Generation and detection of whistler wave induced space plasma turbulence at Gakona, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooker, L. A.; Lee, M. C.; Pradipta, R.; Watkins, B. J.

    2013-07-01

    We report on high-frequency wave injection experiments using the beat wave technique to study the generation of very-low-frequency (VLF) whistler waves in the ionosphere above Gakona, Alaska. This work is aimed at investigating whistler wave interactions with ionospheric plasmas and radiation belts. The beat wave technique involves injecting two X-mode waves at a difference frequency in the VLF range using the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility. A sequence of beat wave-generated whistler waves at 2, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5, 11.5, 15.5, 22.5, 28.5 and 40.5 kHz were detected in our 2011 experiments. We present Modular Ultra-high-frequency Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) (446 MHz) measurements of ion lines as the primary diagnosis of ionospheric plasma effects caused by beat wave-generated whistler waves. A magnetometer and digisonde were used to monitor the background ionospheric plasma conditions throughout the experiments. Our theoretical and data analyses show that VLF whistler waves can effectively interact with ionospheric plasmas via two different four-wave interaction processes leading to energization of electrons and ions. These preliminary results support our Arecibo experiments to study NAU-launched 40.75 kHz whistler wave interactions with space plasmas.

  14. Finite toroidal flow generated by unstable tearing mode in a toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, G. Z. Wang, A. K.; Xu, Y. H.; He, H. D.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Sun, Y.; Cui, S. Y.

    2014-12-15

    The neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity torque and electromagnetic torque, generated by tearing mode (TM) in a toroidal plasma, are numerically investigated using the MARS-Q code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042503 (2013)]. It is found that an initially unstable tearing mode can intrinsically drive a toroidal plasma flow resulting in a steady state solution, in the absence of the external momentum input and external magnetic field perturbation. The saturated flow is in the order of 0.5%ω{sub A} at the q=2 rational surface in the considered case, with q and ω{sub A} being the safety factor and the Alfven frequency at the magnetic axis, respectively. The generation of the toroidal flow is robust, being insensitive to the given amplitude of the perturbation at initial state. On the other hand, the flow amplitude increases with increasing the plasma resistivity. Furthermore, the initially unstable tearing mode is fully stabilized by non-linear interaction with the self-generated toroidal flow.

  15. Ion beam generation at the plasma sheet boundary layer by kinetic Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C.K.; Smith, R.A. )

    1989-08-01

    The kinetic Alfven wave, an Alfven wave with a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the ion gyroradius, can diffuse ions both in velocity and coordinate spaces with comparable transport rates. This may lead to the generation of ion beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). To investigate the ion beam generation process numerically, a two-dimensional quasi-linear code was constructed. Assuming that the plasma {beta} (the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) varies from {beta} = 1 to {beta} << 1 across the magnetic field, the dynamics of the ion beam generation in the PSBL was studied. It was found that if your start with an ion distribution function which monotonically decreases with velocity along the magnetic field and a density gradient across the magnetic field, ions diffuse in velocity-coordinate space until nearly a plateau is established along the diffusion path. Depending on the topology of the magnetic field at the lobe side of the simulation system, i.e., open or closed field lines, the ion distribution function may or may not reach a steady state. If the field lines are open there, i.e., if the diffusion extends into the lobe, the double diffusion process may provide a mechanism for continuously transferring the ions from the central plasma sheet to the lobe. The authors comment on the effect of the particle loss on the establishment of the pressure balance in the plasma sheet.

  16. A spectral study of a radio-frequency plasma-generated flux of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, Carmen E.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Lewis, Beverley W.

    1994-01-01

    The active environment of a radio-frequency (RF) plasma generator, with and without low-pressure oxygen, has been characterized through the identification of emission lines in the spectral region from 250 to 900 nm. The environment is shown to be dependent on the partial pressure of oxygen and the power applied to the RF generator. Atomic oxygen has been found in significant amounts as well as atomic hydrogen and the molecular oxygen species O2((sup 1)Sigma). The only charged species observed was the singly charged molecular ion O2(+). With a polymer specimen in the plasma chamber, carbon monoxide was also observed. The significance of these observations with respect to previous studies using this type of generator to stimulate material degradation in space is discussed. The possibility of using these generators as atomic oxygen sources in the development of oxygen atom fluorescence sensors is explored.

  17. Efficient second- and third-harmonic radiation generation from relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.

    2015-06-15

    We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case.

  18. Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoneking, W.R.

    1994-05-01

    The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a{approximately}0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a{approximately}0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST.

  19. Generation of Alfven waves by high power pulse at the electron plasma frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Compernolle, Bart Gilbert

    The physics of the interaction between plasmas and high power waves with frequencies in the electron plasma frequency range is of importance in many areas of space and plasma physics. A great deal of laboratory research has been done on the interaction of microwaves in a density gradient when o = ope in unmagnetized plasmas. [SWK74, WS78, KSW74]. Extensive studies of HF-ionospheric modifications have been performed [Fej79] as evidenced by experiments at Arecibo [HMD92, BHK86, CDF92, FGI85], at the HAARP facility [RKK98] in Alaska, at the EISCAT observatory in Norway [IHR99], and at SURA in Russia [FKS99]. This dissertation focusses on the interaction with a fully magnetized plasma, capable of supporting Alfven waves. The experiment is performed in the upgraded LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA [GPL91] (Helium, n = 1012 cm-3, B = 1 kG - 2.5 kG). A number of experiments have been done at LAPD using antennas, skin depth scale currents and laser produced plasmas to generate Alfven waves [LGM99, GVL97a, GVL97b, VGV01]. In this work a high power pulse 6th, frequency in the electron plasma frequency range is launched into the radial density gradient, perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The microwave pulses last on the order of one ion gyro period and has a maximum power of |E|2/ nT ≃ .5 in the afterglow. The absorption of these waves leads to a pulse of field aligned suprathermal electrons. This electron current pulse then launches with Alfven wave with o ≤ o ci. The experiment was performed bath in ordinary node (O-mode) and extraordinary (X-mode), for different background magnetic fields B0, different temperatures (afterglow vs discharge) and different power levels of the incoming microwaves. It was found that the Alfven wave generation can be explained by Cherenkov radiation of Alfven waves by the suprathermal electron pulse. Theoretical solutions for the perturbed magnetic field due to a pulse of field aligned electrons were obtained, and shown to be

  20. Design, implementation, and applications of devices for generation of ultra high frequency miniature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghioskoui, Mazdak

    The main objectives of this research are: (1) to develop novel and application-specific sources for generation of ultra-high frequency miniature plasmas that operate in a wide pressure range (˜1 to 760 Torr) with power requirement of less than 10 W, (2) to investigate the active species of such miniature plasma sources using mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy, and (3) to explore novel applications of such miniature plasma sources with an emphasis on their application in chemical analysis for identification of gaseous species and volatile organic compounds. First, a miniature inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources was developed, operating at a pressure of 1 to 10 Torr and a power requirement of 2--8 W with carbon dioxide, helium and argon as the plasma gas. The plasma impedance was measured using Smith chart. Furthermore, the background emission of the miniature ICP sources was monitored to investigate the species in the carbon dioxide, argon, and helium miniature ICPs. Ethylene, neon, and hydrogen were introduced separately into the miniature carbon dioxide ICP for qualitative identification. Distinguishable peaks were observed at approximately 431, 585, and 656 nm for ethylene, neon, and hydrogen, respectively. Second, a miniature ICP operating under conditions mimicking the Martian atmosphere was investigated. The miniature ICP source was able to generate a stable plasma, operating at a pressure range of 4 to 16 Torr and a power requirement of less than 3.5 W. The quantitative analysis of trace amounts of methane sample was performed by interfacing the miniature ICP with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The effects of pressure, plasma power, and skimmer voltage were investigated and optimized for obtaining analytical results. Excellent calibration curves were obtained for CH3+ at m/z of 15. A detection limit of 0.15 ppm for CH3 + at 16 Torr was achieved using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In addition, a magnetic loop antenna was used to

  1. Low-impedance plasma systems for generation of high-current low-energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    The results of experimental investigation and numerical modeling of the generation of low-energy (tens of keV) high-current (up to tens of kA) electron beams in a low-impedance system consisting of a plasma-filled diode with a long plasma anode, an auxiliary hot cathode, and an explosive emission cathode. The low-current low-voltage beam from the auxiliary cathode in an external longitudinal magnetic field is used to produce a long plasma anode, which is simultaneously the channel of beam transportation by residual gas ionization. The high-current electron beam is formed from the explosive emission cathode placed in the preliminarily formed plasma. Numerical modeling is performed using the KARAT PIC code.

  2. Dynamics of a pulsed laser generated tin plasma expanding in an oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, F.; Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Barletta, E.; Trusso, S.; Fazio, B.

    2005-10-01

    Semiconducting tin oxide can be successfully deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. In particular by ablating metallic tin in a controlled oxygen atmosphere, thin films of SnOx have been deposited. The partial oxygen pressure at which the films are deposited strongly influences both the stoichiometry and the structural properties of the films. In this work, we present a study of the expansion dynamics of the plasma generated by ablating a tin target by means of a pulsed laser using time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and fast photography imaging of the expanding plasma. Both Sn I and Sn II optical emission lines have been observed from the time-integrated spectroscopy. Time resolved-measurements revealed the dynamics of the expanding plasma in the ambient oxygen atmosphere. Stoichiometry of the films has been determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and correlated to the expansion dynamics of the plasma.

  3. Monochromatic imaging of scattered laser light from in situ generated particles in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hareland, W.A.; Buss, R.J.; Brown, D.A.; Collins, S.M.

    1996-02-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in the behavior of particles in plasmas because of the negative economic impact of contamination during processing of silicon for microelectronics manufacture. Here, spatially resolved images of particle distributions are measured in steady-state plasmas in a GEC (gaseous electronics conference) plasma reactor. Images are obtained by monochromatic imaging of scattered laser light using a microchannel plate (MCP) image intensifier and a high-speed video camera. The observed distributions of particulates generated by adding small quantities of CHF{sub 3} to an argon plasma are extremely complex and diverse. The patterns observed are temporally varying, and rarely as simple as domes and rings observed in other reactors. The forces acting on the particles are sufficiently complex that reproducing specific spatial patterns by controlling processing parameters if often impossible.

  4. A reference protocol for comparing the biocidal properties of gas plasma generating devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Seri, P.; Borghi, C. A.; Shama, G.; Iza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Growing interest in the use of non-thermal, atmospheric pressure gas plasmas for decontamination purposes has resulted in a multiplicity of plasma-generating devices. There is currently no universally approved method of comparing the biocidal performance of such devices and in the work described here spores of the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) are proposed as a suitable reference biological agent. In order to achieve consistency in the form in which the biological agent in question is presented to the plasma, a polycarbonate membrane loaded with a monolayer of spores is proposed. The advantages of the proposed protocol are evaluated by comparing inactivation tests in which an alternative microorganism (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus—MRSA) and the widely-used sample preparation technique of directly pipetting cell suspensions onto membranes are employed. In all cases, inactivation tests with either UV irradiation or plasma exposure were more reproducible when the proposed protocol was followed.

  5. Generation of narrow divergence electron beams in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Vranic, M.; Silva, L. O.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Kar, Satya; Sarri, G.; Heathcote, R.; Scott, R.; Trines, R.; Guillaume, E.; Higson, E.; Swain, J.; Tang, K.; Weston, J.; Zak, P.; Tanaka, K. A.; Amano, Y.; Habara, H.; Skramic, M.; Bingham, B.; Norreys, P. A.

    2013-10-01

    The evacuation of plasma from channels formed during the interaction of intense laser pulses with under-dense plasma is attractive for a number of applications, particularly fast ignition inertial fusion. We investigated the channel formation using proton radiography as the diagnostic tool. We observed the interactions of ultra-intense laser pulse (120 J/ 15 ps/ 1053 nm) with a large scale-length plasma which was formed by the expansion of a plastic foil target by preheating with a laser pulse comprising 200 J/ 1 ns/ 527 nm, focused to 400-diameter. This experiment was set-up to mimic the coronal plasma experienced during the compression phase of a directly driven implosion. The results showed that laser-induced electron beam were guided by self-generated magnetic field. JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad.

  6. Facile fabrication of an aptasensor for thrombin based on graphitic carbon nitride/TiO2 with high visible-light photoelectrochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dawei; Guo, Cuijuan; Ma, Hongmin; Zhao, Di; Li, Yina; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    A novel aptasensor for thrombin with high visible-light activity was facilely fabricated based on graphitic carbon nitride/TiO2 (g-C3N4/TiO2) photoelectrochemical (PEC) composite. Crystallization of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and their strong interaction with g-C3N4 sheet were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), both of which contributed to the high photocurrent intensity under visible-light irradiation. Carboxyl functionalized thrombin aptamers were first successfully bound to the g-C3N4/TiO2 modified electrode as proven by photoelectrochemical test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Ascorbic acid was utilized as the electron donor for scavenging photo-generated holes and inhibiting light driven electron-hole pair recombination. The specific recognition between thrombin aptamer and thrombin led to the linear decrease of photocurrent with the increase of logarithm of thrombin concentration in the range of 5.0×10(-13)molL(-1) to 5.0×10(-9)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.2×10(-13)molL(-1). This proposed low-cost, convenient and sensitive aptasensor showed promising applications in biosensor and photoelectrochemical analysis. PMID:26301999

  7. Numerical Modeling on Plasma Gases in an Explosively-Driven Magnetohydrodynamic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Deok-Kyu; Seo, Min Su; Kim, Inho

    2002-11-01

    A time-dependent one-dimensional simulation has been carried out on the argon and air plasmas in an explosively-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generator. To compute the thermodynamic properties of the plasma gases during the shock compression and jet extraction, we utilize the equation-of-state data calculated from a detailed physical model. The plasma conductivities are given by the mixing rule that compromises the weakly-ionized and fully-ionized limits. The effects of initial gas pressure and applied magnetic field strength are investigated for optimal design of the MHD power generator. For the case of the initial channel pressure of 400 torr and the magnetic field 0.3 T, the maximum output power is estimated up to 0.1 GW with the pulse duration 20 ms, which shows a good agreement with the measured profile.

  8. Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-08-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.

  9. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim P.

    2003-06-26

    Transition radiation generated by an electron beam, produced by a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the self-modulated regime, crossing the plasma-vacuum boundary is considered. The angular distributions and spectra are calculated for both the incoherent and coherent radiation. The effects of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions on the differential energy spectra are examined. Diffraction radiation from the finite transverse extent of the plasma is considered and shown to strongly modify the spectra and energy radiated for long wavelength radiation. This method of transition radiation generation has the capability of producing high peak power THz radiation, of order 100 (mu)J/pulse at the plasma-vacuum interface, which is several orders of magnitude beyond current state-of-the-art THz sources.

  10. Strong terahertz radiation generation by beating of two spatial-triangular beams in collisional magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hematizadeh, Ayoob; Bakhtiari, Farhad; Jazayeri, Seyed Masud; Ghafary, Bijan

    2016-05-01

    A scheme of terahertz (THz) radiation generation is proposed by beating of two spatial-triangular laser beams in plasma with a spatially periodic density when electron-neutral collisions have taken into account. In this process, the laser beams exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons of the plasma and impart the oscillatory velocity at the difference frequency in the presence of a static magnetic field which is applied parallel to the direction of the lasers. We show that higher efficiency and stronger THz radiation are achieved when the parallel magnetic field is used to compare the perpendicular magnetic field. The effects of beam width of lasers, collision frequency, periodicity of density ripples, and magnetic field strength are analyzed for strong THz radiation generation. The THz field of the emitted radiations is found to be highly sensitive to collision frequency and magnetic field strength. In this scheme with the optimization of plasma parameters, the efficiency of order 21% is achieved.

  11. Understanding the plasma and power characteristics of a self-generated steam bubble discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Maria C.; Gucker, Sarah N.; Foster, John E.

    2015-09-01

    Plasma formation in a self-generated steam bubble is studied using a coaxial discharge tube with an axial powered electrode (nominal peak operating voltage 2000 V) and an external ground lead without any gas flow. The discharge is potentially attractive for water purification applications in that the production of reactive nitrogen species and the associated water acidification is avoided. The discharge was found to form after a finite delay, which is attributed to the vapor bubble formation necessary for plasma ignition. Steam bubble composition was confirmed using emission spectra. Plasma properties and power dissipated in the self-generated steam bubble were characterized using emission spectroscopy and Lissajous methods. Discharge density and gas temperature were found to vary significantly over the applied ac voltage cycle. The power dissipated as inferred from the Lissajous method was found to scale inversely with frequency over the low frequency range investigated (4 kHz and 5 kHz).

  12. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C B; Esarey, E; Van Tilborg, J; Leemans, W P

    2004-01-01

    Transition radiation generated by an electron beam, produced by a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the self-modulated regime, crossing the plasma-vacuum boundary is considered. The angular distributions and spectra are calculated for both the incoherent and the coherent radiation. The effects of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions on the differential energy spectra are examined. Diffraction radiation from the finite transverse extent of the plasma is considered and shown to strongly modify the spectra and energy radiated for long-wavelength radiation. This method of transition radiation generation has the capability of producing high peak power terahertz radiation, of order 100 microJ/pulse at the plasma-vacuum interface, which is several orders of magnitude beyond current state-of-the-art terahertz sources. PMID:14995729

  13. Generation of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from cattle plasma using plant and fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    Bah, Clara S F; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; McConnell, Michelle A; Carne, Alan

    2016-12-15

    Four protease preparations from plant and fungal sources (papain, bromelain, FP400 and FPII) were used to hydrolyse plasma which was separated from slaughterhouse cattle blood. The o-phthaldialdehyde assay was used to follow the release of TCA-soluble peptides over a 24h period. Hydrolysis profiles were displayed using SDS-PAGE. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the hydrolysates were determined. The results showed that hydrolysates of cattle plasma generated with fungal protease FPII had higher antioxidant activities. Overall than hydrolysates generated with papain, bromelain and FP400. None of the hydrolysates demonstrated antimicrobial activity. The FPII peptide hydrolysate was fractionated using gel permeation chromatography, OFFGEL isoelectric focusing and RP-HPLC. The RP-HPLC fraction with highest antioxidant activity contained 15 novel peptide sequences. The use of protease FPII to hydrolyse cattle plasma resulted in a hydrolysate with high antioxidant properties and unique peptide sequences. PMID:27451160

  14. Plasma Processing of SRF Cavities for the next Generation Of Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2015-11-23

    The cost-effective production of high frequency accelerating fields are the foundation for the next generation of particle accelerators. The Ar/Cl2 plasma etching technology holds the promise to yield a major reduction in cavity preparation costs. Plasma-based dry niobium surface treatment provides an excellent opportunity to remove bulk niobium, eliminate surface imperfections, increase cavity quality factor, and bring accelerating fields to higher levels. At the same time, the developed technology will be more environmentally friendly than the hydrogen fluoride-based wet etching technology. Plasma etching of inner surfaces of standard multi-cell SRF cavities is the main goal of this research in order to eliminate contaminants, including niobium oxides, in the penetration depth region. Successful plasma processing of multi-cell cavities will establish this method as a viable technique in the quest for more efficient components of next generation particle accelerators. In this project the single-cell pill box cavity plasma etching system is developed and etching conditions are determined. An actual single cell SRF cavity (1497 MHz) is plasma etched based on the pill box cavity results. The first RF test of this plasma etched cavity at cryogenic temperature is obtained. The system can also be used for other surface modifications, including tailoring niobium surface properties, surface passivation or nitriding for better performance of SRF cavities. The results of this plasma processing technology may be applied to most of the current SRF cavity fabrication projects. In the course of this project it has been demonstrated that a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge can be successfully used for etching curved niobium surfaces, in particular the inner walls of SRF cavities. The results could also be applicable to the inner or concave surfaces of any 3D structure other than an SRF cavity.

  15. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T. D.; Shad, M.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift waves and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  16. Aptamer-based turn-on detection of thrombin in biological fluids based on efficient phosphorescence energy transfer from Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots to carbon nanodots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Baocheng; Gao, Feng

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the first example of a sensitive, selective, and stable phosphorescent sensor based on phosphorescence energy transfer (PET) for thrombin that functions through thrombin-aptamer recognition events. In this work, an efficient PET donor-acceptor pair using Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots labeled with thrombin-binding aptamers (TBA QDs) as donors, and carbon nanodots (CNDs) as acceptors has been constructed. Due to the π-π stacking interaction between aptamer and CNDs, the energy donor and acceptor are taken into close proximity, leading to the phosphorescence quenching of donors, TBA QDs. A maximum phosphorescence quenching efficiency as high as 95.9% is acquired. With the introduction of thrombin to the "off state" of the TBA-QDs-CNDs system, the phosphorescence is "turned on" due to the formation of quadruplex-thrombin complexes, which releases the energy acceptor CNDs from the energy donors. Based on the restored phosphorescence, an aptamer-based turn-on thrombin biosensor has been demonstrated by using the phosphorescence as a signal transduction method. The sensor displays a linear range of 0-40 nM for thrombin, with a detection limit as low as 0.013 nM in pure buffers. The proposed aptasensor has also been used to monitor thrombin in complex biological fluids, including serum and plasma, with satisfactory recovery ranging from 96.8 to 104.3%. This is the first time that Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots and CNDs have been employed as a donor-acceptor pair to construct PET-based biosensors, which combines both the photophysical merits of phosphorescence QDs and the superquenching ability of CNDs and thus affords excellent analytical performance. We believe this proposed method could pave the way to a new design of biosensors using PET systems. PMID:23712510

  17. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world. PMID:18979066

  18. A plasma aerodynamic actuator supplied by a multilevel generator operating with different voltage waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Carlo A.; Cristofolini, Andrea; Grandi, Gabriele; Neretti, Gabriele; Seri, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    In this work a high voltage—high frequency generator for the power supply of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for the aerodynamic control obtained by the electro-hydro-dynamic (EHD) interaction is described and tested. The generator can produce different voltage waveforms. The operating frequency is independent of the load characteristics and does not require impedance matching. The peak-to-peak voltage is 30 kV at a frequency up to 20 kHz and time variation rates up to 60 kV μs-1. The performance of the actuator when supplied by several voltage waveforms is investigated. The tests have been performed in still air at atmospheric pressure. Voltage and current time behaviors have been measured. The evaluation of the energy delivered to the actuator allowed the estimation of the periods in which the plasma was ignited. Vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma have been estimated through spectroscopic acquisitions. The flow field induced in the region above the surface of the DBD actuator has been studied and the EHD conversion efficiency has been evaluated for the voltage waveforms investigated. The nearly sinusoidal multilevel voltage of the proposed generator and the sinusoidal voltage waveform of a conventional ac generator obtain comparable plasma features, EHD effects, and efficiencies. Inverse saw tooth waveform presents the highest effects and efficiency. The rectangular waveform generates suitable EHD effects but with the lowest efficiency. The voltage waveforms that induce plasmas with higher rotational temperatures are less efficient for the conversion of the electric into kinetic energy.

  19. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S.; Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  20. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, H.; Bussiahn, R.; Hammer, M. U.; Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100-400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10-200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH2O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.