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Sample records for plate integrated collector

  1. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  2. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  3. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  4. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  5. Bioinspired plate-based fog collectors.

    PubMed

    Heng, Xin; Luo, Cheng

    2014-09-24

    In a recent work, we explored the feeding mechanism of a shorebird to transport liquid drops by repeatedly opening and closing its beak. In this work, we apply the corresponding results to develop a new artificial fog collector. The collector includes two nonparallel plates. It has three advantages in comparison with existing artificial collectors: (i) easy fabrication, (ii) simple design to scale up, and (iii) active transport of condensed water drops. Two collectors have been built. A small one with dimensions of 4.2 × 2.1 × 0.05 cm(3) (length × width × thickness) was first built and tested to examine (i) the time evolution of condensed drop sizes and (ii) the collection processes and efficiencies on the glass, SiO2, and SU-8 plates. Under similar experimental conditions, the amount of water collected per unit area on the small collector is about 9.0, 4.7, and 3.7 times, respectively, as much as the ones reported for beetles, grasses, and metal wires, and the total amount of water collected is around 33, 18, and 15 times. On the basis of the understanding gained from the tests on the small collector, a large collector with dimensions of 26 × 10 × 0.2 cm(3) was further built and tested, which was capable of collecting 15.8 mL of water during a period of 36 min. The amount of water collected, when it is scaled from 36 to 120 min, is about 878, 479, or 405 times more than what was collected by individual beetles, grasses, or metal wires. PMID:25192549

  6. Development of flat-plate solar plate collector: Evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

    1981-11-01

    In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g., solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

  7. Integrated solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  8. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  9. Installation package for air flat plate collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

  10. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  11. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  12. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  13. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  14. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.; Zabriskie, Jr., John E.; Neutzler, Jay K.; Fuchs, Michel; Gustafson, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  15. Experimental study on flat plate air solar collector using a thin sand layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lati, Moukhtar; Boughali, Slimane; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Mennouche, Djamel; Bechki, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    A flat plate air solar collector was constructed in the laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Arid Zones LENREZA, Ouargla University-South East Algeria. The absorber of the flat plate air solar collector was laminated with a thin layer of local sand. This acted as a thermal storage system (packed bed) with a collecting area of 2.15 m2 (0.86 m × 2.5 m). It was noticed that the solar heater integrated with the thermal storage material delivered comparatively higher temperatures; thus, giving a better efficiency than the air heater without the thermal storage system.

  16. Certification and verification for Calmac flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector is presented. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, installation, operation, and maintenance manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  17. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  18. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  19. Advanced solar box and flat plate collector cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Bergler, H.

    1992-12-31

    Several new solar cooker systems have been developed at Synopsis during the last years: advanced box type cookers, featuring an optimized heat transfer from the absorber into the cooking vessel; flat plate cookers, based on a particular two-way collector with air as transfer fluid; flat plate cookers with heat-pipe transfer; specialized cookers for the baking of bread and flat bread. The working principle of these cookers is described, the structure of a thermal simulation model and results of thermal tests are presented. The results of the first year of local production and use of advanced boxes in India are reported.

  20. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gurau, Vladimir; Barbir, Frano; Neutzler, Jay K.

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  1. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  2. Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The information used in evaluating the design of a liquid flat plate solar collector is reported. Included in this package are subsystem performance specification, installation, operation and maintenance manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

  3. Flat-plate collector performance evaluation. The case for a solar simulation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Harlamert, P.

    1973-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining the performance of flat-plate solar collector using a simulated sun. Collector test variables that will help establish the basis for the indoor test facility at the Lewis Research Center are discussed. The use of the indoor testing should permit a standard test for the convenient and accurate determination of collector performance. Preliminary test results are reported as an example of the type of collector performance data to be expected from the simulation approach.

  4. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An efficient, low cost, flat-plate solar collector was developed. Computer aided mathematical models of the heat process in the collector were used in defining absorber panel configuration; determining insulation thickness; and in selecting the number, spacing, and material of the covers. Prototypes were built and performance tested. Data from simulated operation of the collector are compared with predicted loads from a number of locations to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  5. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. Preliminary design review package on air flat plate collector for solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines to be used in the development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet (10-4 ft x 8 ft panels) of collector area are presented. Topics discussed include: (1) verification plan; (2) thermal analysis; (3) safety hazard analysis; (4) drawing list; (5) special handling, installation and maintenance tools; (6) structural analysis; and (7) selected drawings.

  7. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  8. Evaluation of the flat-plate solar collector system for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athey, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    This evaluation of the flat-plate collector system was designed to determine the number of flat-plate collectors required to generate a given amount of electricity with optimum efficiency. Variable parameters are the temperature of the heat-transport fluid, both to and from the collector field. In the analysis, the efficiency of the flat-plate collectors was coupled to the efficiency of the thermal cycle to calculate optimal overall system efficiencies. Overall system efficiencies for the system are on the order of 3.5 per cent or less. Over two million 4 ft-by-4 ft collectors would be required to produce 100,000 kW(e). Based on the results, it can be shown that the limiting factor in the use of the flat-plate collector system for electric power generation is the efficiency of the collectors. An increase in the overall system efficiency can occur only if the collector efficiency can be increased at higher surface temperatures.

  9. A graphical approach to the efficiency of flat-plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A nomogram is described which can be used to determine the thermal performance of flat plate solar collectors, resulting in two performance factors: the net absorptance and the net heat loss coefficient. The nomogram takes into account angle of incidence, collector slope, absorber plate design, insulating materials, thicknesses, optical properties of absorbing surfaces and glazing materials, and flow factors. A case example is given to illustrate the use of the nomogram.

  10. Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collector performance

    SciTech Connect

    Raghuraman, P.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate one-dimensional analyses have been developed for the prediction of the thermal and electrical performance of both liquid and air flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. The analyses account for the temperature difference between the primary insolation absorber (the photovoltaic cells) and the secondary absorber (a thermal absorber flat plate). The results of the analyses are compared with test measurements, and therefrom, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  11. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  12. Experiments and simulations on a thermosyphon solar collector with integrated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, P.; Mariani, A.; Del, D., Col

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the thermal behaviour of a new type of flat solar collector that integrates the fluid storage tank. Often the main limitation of the solar thermosyphon installations is the prohibition to adopt external storage tanks due to their impact, especially for historical centres of particular architectural significance. To avoid this issue, a new system, that includes the collector and the storage, has been developed. This new apparatus works as a thermosyphon: it is possible to take advantage of the natural convection to avoid using a pump. Experimental tests have been conducted in such a collector with and without the absorbing plate. Furthermore, CFD simulations are reported to analyze in detail the dynamic thermal performance of the innovative solar collector and a good-agreement with the experimental tests has been found. Finally, both in numerical simulations and in experimental data the thermosyphon effect has been verified, obtaining the desired water temperature for domestic applications.

  13. Thermal performance predictions of flat-plate solar collector air heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, T. C.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was written that models heat exchanges occurring within flat plate solar air collectors and which computes the incoming solar flux and heat losses to the environment. Internal collector temperatures and thermal efficiencies are predicted for either steady state or transient cases from finite difference solutions to a set of energy balance equations. These relations are written for thermal modes that are generated and linked together by the internal deck logic. The program was utilized in a study of three types of air collectors. The first two configurations employed crossflow impingement along the backside of their absorbers to augment heat transfer coefficients developed at those surfaces, while the third used a rock matrix absorber to expand its surface area for heat transfer. In addition, the first collector replaced the conventional stationary plate absorber of the second design by a traveling belt.

  14. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  15. Flat-plate solar-collector performance data base and user's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, D. L.; Kolar, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    The reader is provided with a thorough understanding on the type of collector thermal performance information which is required in active system design and analysis. Thermal performance test data on 109 commercially available solar collectors which were evaluated in a single, uniform test program, the Interim Solar Collector Test (ISCT) Program are given. In addition to recounting the ISCT program and its results, the an introduction is given on the engineering and physics of a flat-plate solar collector operation. A step-by-step analysis of heat gains and losses is provided to help the reader understand both the source and applicability of the parameters used to describe collector thermal performance. A brief description of the engineering basis for the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test procedure and the method are included. To demonstrate the sensitivity to variations of collector performance parameters of the annual output of representative solar heating systems, three sets of F-Chart (4.0) system performance predictions are given. Finally, a sensitivity analysis study is presented which considers the heat loss and optical gain parameters of flat-plate collectors, in terms of how they affect the overall solar heating system solar fraction.

  16. Building-integrated fluorescent solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Neuroth, N.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a building wall wherein the building wall includes windows, window parapets and areas below the window parapets. The window parapets include overhanging lips defining slots with the areas beneath the parapets. Fluorescent solar collectors are received in the slots to form an exterior facing over the area beneath the parapets. A photoelectric cell means is arranged with the fluorescent panels and has leads thereon for conducting electric current therefrom, the photoelectric cell means being positioned within the slots so as to be protected thereby.

  17. Potential of size reduction of flat-plate solar collectors when applying MWCNT nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, M.; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, S.

    2013-06-01

    Flat-plate solar collector is the most popular type of collector for hot water system to replace gas or electric heater. Solar thermal energy source is clean and infinite to replace fossil fuel source that is declining and harmful to the environment. However, current solar technology is still expensive, low in efficiency and takes up a lot of space. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by applying high conductivity fluid as nanofluid. This paper analyzes the potential of size reduction of solar collector when MWCNT nanofluid is used as absorbing medium. The analysis is based on different mass flow rate, nanoparticles mass fraction, and presence of surfactant in the fluid. For the same output temperature, it can be observed that the collector's size can be reduced up to 37% of its original size when applying MWCNT nanofluid as the working fluid and thus can reduce the overall cost of the system.

  18. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  19. Hot-air flat-plate solar collector-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains design data, performance specifications, and drawings for hot-air flat-plate solar-energy collector. Evaluation consists of tests on thermal performance time constance, and incidence angle modifier test. Results are presented in table and graph form and are analyzed in detail.

  20. Investigation of the flow field inside flat-plate collector tube using PIV technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sookdeo, Steven; Siddiqui, Kamran

    2010-06-15

    The thermofluid process inside the tube of flat-plate collectors is complex because the non-uniform heating of the tube results in the formation of stably and unstably stratified layers of fluid that interact with each other. The measurement and investigation of the flow behaviour inside the collector tube is very challenging. We report on a novel application of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to remotely measure the velocity field inside the collector tube. The two-dimensional velocity fields were measured in the midplane of a collector tube for the Reynolds number range of 150-900 at unheated and four different heating conditions. We have presented and discussed in detail the technique implementation and the associated challenges. The results have shown that the collector heating significantly alters the structure and magnitude of the mean velocity field and influences the heat transfer to the fluid. It is observed that the collector heating causes a significant asymmetry in the mean velocity profiles over the given range of Reynolds numbers and heating conditions. (author)

  1. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  2. Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, M. A.

    For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for the US and its territories. The data in the manual were modeled using hourly values of direct beam and diffuse horizontal solar radiation from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990.

  3. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  4. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  5. Solar cells having integral collector grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device is described, comprising a conductive base metal layer. A back surface field region was formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device. A metal alloy grid network was included. An insulating layer prevented electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer.

  6. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric-corrosion-monitoring project is to assess the materials used for battens and enclosures for flat-plate solar collectors. Sensors at nine test sites have provided atmospheric data. Other data have been obtained by analyzing corrosion samples that were exposed for varying periods of time. This interim report summarizes the results of the first test period.

  7. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, Lawrence J.

    1985-10-22

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  8. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, L.J.

    1984-10-17

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  9. Flat-plate collector research area: Silicon material task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1982-01-01

    Silane decomposition in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) process development unit (PDU) to make semiconductor-grade Si is reviewed. The PDU was modified by installation of a new heating system to provide the required temperature profile and better control, and testing was resumed. A process for making trichlorosilane by the hydrochlorination of metallurgical-grade Si and silicon tetrachloride is reported. Fabrication and installation of the test system employing a new 2-in.-dia reactor was completed. A process that converts trichlorosilane to dichlorosilane (DCS), which is reduced by hydrogen to make Si by a chemical vapor deposition step in a Siemens-type reactor is described. Testing of the DCS PDU integraled with Si deposition reactors continued. Experiments in a 2-in.-dia reactor to define the operating window and to investigate the Si deposition kinetics were completed.

  10. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  11. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found. PMID:25607321

  14. A new solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

    1994-06-01

    A new solar radiation data manual is nearing completion by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project and the Photovoltaic Solar Radiation Research Task. These tasks are funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. For designers and engineers of solar energy related systems, it gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The data in the manual are modeled using diffuse horizontal and direct beam solar radiation values from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990. This paper describes what is contained in the new data manual and how it was developed.

  15. Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Wiesław; Dziewa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in the liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes. The proposed method considers the model of collector tube as one with distributed parameters. In the suggested method one tube of the collector is taken into consideration. In this model the boundary conditions can be time-dependent. The proposed model is based on solving the equation describing the energy conservation on the fluid side. The temperature of the collector tube wall is determined from the equation of transient heat conduction. The derived differential equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method of iterative character. All thermo-physical properties of the operating fluid and the material of the tube wall can be computed in real time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient at the working fluid side can be also computed on-line. The proposed model is suitable for collectors working in a parallel or serpentine tube arrangement. As an illustration of accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested method the computational verification was carried out. It consists in comparing the results found using the presented method with results of available analytic solutions for transient operating conditions. Two numerical analyses were performed: for the tube with temperature step function of the fluid at the inlet and for the tube with heat flux step function on the outer surface. In both cases the conformity of results was very good. It should be noted, that in real conditions such rapid changes of the fluid temperature and the heat flux of solar radiation, as it was assumed in the presented computational verification, do not occur. The paper presents the first part of the study, which aim is to develop a mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in liquid flat-plate solar collectors. The experimental verification of the method is a second part of the study and

  16. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  17. Ion sputter textured graphite. [anode collector plates in electron tube devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Forman, R.; Curren, A. N.; Wintucky, E. G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A specially textured surface of pyrolytic graphite exhibits extremely low yields of secondary electrons and reduced numbers of reflected primary electrons after impingement of high energy primary electrons. An ion flux having an energy between 500 eV and 1000 eV and a current density between 1.0 mA/sq cm and 6.0 mA/sq cm produces surface roughening or texturing which is in the form of needles or spines. Such textured surfaces are especially useful as anode collector plates in high efficiency electron tube devices.

  18. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  19. The effect of contact spacing on the efficiency of flat plate solar collector plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G. E.; Crha, S.

    1984-01-01

    Rather than use a continuous weld or solder for thermal contact in the attachment of an extended surface to an energy removal tube, attention is given to the use of discontinuous attachment through the uniform distribution of finite regions of contact. This scheme is applied to a solar energy collection system in which it was thought capable of yielding fabrication and reliability improvements. A nondimensional formulation and numerical solution of FEM modeling yields the sensitivity of collector thermal performance to weld-solder joint dimensions. The discontinuous weld is found to significantly degrade system performance in proportion to the fin surface Biot modulus, with the controlling parameter (with respect to weld dimensions) being the perimeter length at the weld location of contact.

  20. Integrated Design of Undepressed Collector for Low Power Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Goswami, Uttam K.; Poonia, Sunita; Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Alaria, M. K.; Bera, A.; Khatun, Hasina; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    A 42 GHz, 200 kW continuous wave (CW) gyrotron, operating at TE03 mode is under development for the electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating of the Indian TOKAMAK system. The gyrotron is made up of an undepressed collector. The undepressed collector is simple to design and cost effective. In this paper, a detailed design study of the undepressed collector for the 42 GHz gyrotron is presented. The EGUN code is used to analyze the spent electron beam trajectory for the maximum spread to reduce the power loading on the collector surface. To achieve wall loading ≤1 kW/cm2, a collector with a length of 800 mm and a radius of 42.5 mm is designed. The design also includes the three magnet systems around the collector for maximum and uniform beam spread. The thermal and the structural analyses are done using the ANSYS code to optimize the collector structure and dimensions with tolerance.

  1. Exergy efficiency analysis of a flat plate solar collector using graphene based nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Z.; Alim, M. A.; Janajreh, Isam

    2015-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector is largely affected by the thermal conductivity of the fluid used. In this paper, we theoretically analyzed the heat transfer performance, the entropy generation rate, and the exergy efficiency of the two different graphene based nanofluids (graphene/Acetone and graphene/water). From the analyses, it is revealed that by inserting a small amount of graphene nanoparticles in water, exergy efficiency could be enhanced by 21%, comparing to conventional fluids and entropy generation is decreased by 4%. However, the graphene/water nanofluid shows a lower entropy generation. This characteristic suggests that graphene/water nanofluid is a better candidate for flat solar thermal application.

  2. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  3. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  4. Normal incidence collector for LPP sources with integrated debris mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Andrea Z.; Dieterich, Franz; Henderson, Ian; Chokani, Ndaona; Abhari, Reza S.

    2010-04-01

    The leading candidate for the manufacture of next generation semi-conductor devices is extreme ultraviolet lithography, with laser-produced plasmas as a candidate 13.5nm light source. A primary challenge for continuous operation is elimination of the debris load on the collector, without compromising the radiation intensity at the intermediate focus. A novel combination of thermal management and debris mitigation is developed in order to reduce the deformation and degradation of collector optics. This patent-pending novel debris mitigation technique enables the continuous operation of the source. The paper shows atomic force microscope measurements of the collector surface deposition. The debris mitigation system run at 50% design operating condition gives 90% debris mitigation effectiveness. The average temperature of the cooled collector is 36.5°C at the design point, with a peak-to-peak difference of 0.8°C. The collector geometry, after being adapted to compensate the thermal deformation, yields a spot size of 30μm at IF. Computational simulations, using ETH's multi-scale computational tools, complement the presented experimental results.

  5. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  6. Solar Tests of Aperture Plate Materials for Solar Thermal Dish Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the Sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the Sun moves relative to the Earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  7. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  8. Performance of a combined photovoltaic/thermal, flat-plate, liquid collector

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, W.A.; Raghuraman, P.

    1981-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T), flatplate, liquid collector, where the liquid circulates both below and above the photovoltaic cells (the primary energy-absorbing surface), has been designed and tested according to ASHRAE 93-77 specifications to yield collector thermal and electrical efficiencies. A one-dimensional thermal analysis predicts the test results accurately. On the strength of the test and analytical results, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  9. Need for and evaluation of hail protection devices for solar flat plate collectors. Final report, June 1978-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P R; Cox, M; de Winter, F

    1980-03-01

    A brief summary of the hail risk work previously done under this contract is given, and a summary evaluation of hail impact resistance standards currently being developed is presented. Simulated hail impact test data, field data, and the impact resistance of commercially available glazings are discussed. The use of screens for protection against hail and the threat of vandalism to solar flat plate collectors are discussed. (WHK)

  10. Comparison of the effects of Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles on the performance of a solar flat-plate collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Madhavan, Venkata Ramanan; Mohan, Mukunthan

    2015-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of solar flat-plate collectors further, a study had been carried out wherein the conventional working fluid was replaced by nanofluids. A 25-L/day solar flat-plate water heater with collector area of 0.5 {m}^2 has been designed and fabricated. The thermosyphon system of the solar water heater was monitored at 15 locations using T-type thermocouples. Alumina and CuO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and X-ray diffraction techniques and dispersed using ultrasonic mechanism. To stabilize the system at an optimum level, the collector is operated with volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4% of synthesized Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles mixed with distilled water and used in the solar flat-plate collector. The temperature profile was compared with different volume fractions of the nanoparticles in the flowing medium. Enhanced heat transfer was observed in the solar flat-plate collector using nanoparticles, and hence, it is inferred that addition of nanoparticles improves the efficiency of the solar water heaters. This paper details the temperature profile observed in the collectors, variation of insolation over the day, and change in efficiency both on the primary side (collector) and on the secondary side (storage tank) of the solar water heater.

  11. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  12. Comparative performance of twenty-three types of flat plate solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    Report compares efficiencies of 23 solar collectors for four different purposes: operating a Rankine-cycle engine, heating or absorption air conditioning, heating hot water, and heating a swimming pool.

  13. Development of 400 F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors.

  14. Method for fabricating solar cells having integrated collector grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device comprising a conductive base metal layer compatible with and coating predominately the exposed surface of the p-type substrate of the device such that a back surface field region is formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device having a metal alloy grid network of the same metal elements of the oxide constituents of the mixed metal oxide layer embedded in the mixed metal oxide layer, an insulating layer which prevents electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer, and a metal contact means covering the insulating layer and in intimate contact with the metal grid network embedded in the transparent, conductive oxide layer for conducting electrons generated by the photovoltaic process from the device.

  15. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight is a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentrator to stop following the Sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/sq m. (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off Sun), and spillage (continuous on-Sun operation).

  16. Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

  17. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  18. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Flat-Plate Solar-Collector Performance Evaluation with a Solar Simulator as a Basis for Collector Selection and Performance Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a solar simulator for performance determination permits collector testing under standard conditions of wind, ambient temperature, flow rate and sun. The performance results determined with the simulator have been found to be in good agreement with outdoor performance results. The measured thermal efficiency and evaluation of 23 collectors are reported which differ according to absorber material (copper, aluminum, steel), absorber coating (nonselective black paint, selective copper oxide, selective black nickel, selective black chrome), type of glazing material (glass, Tedlar, Lexan, antireflection glass), the use of honeycomb material and the use of vacuum to prevent thermal convection losses. The collectors were given performance rankings based on noon-hour solar conditions and all-day solar conditions. The determination with the simulator of an all-day collector performance was made possible by tests at different incident angles. The solar performance rankings were made based on whether the collector is to be used for pool heating, hot water, absorption air conditioning, heating, or for a solar Rankine machine.

  20. A Collector Plate Mechanism-Based Classical Intergranular Precipitation Model for Al Alloys Sensitized at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gaosong; Derrick, Alexander T.; Zhu, Yakun; Free, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitization behavior of Al 5xxx alloys is mainly caused by the formation of Mg-rich precipitates at grain boundaries. In this study, a classical nucleation-growth-coarsening theory for the description of intergranular precipitation is formulated, which adopts a collector plate mechanism, an equivalent average Mg concentration at the grain boundary, and new coarsening mechanisms. Three coarsening mechanisms, the modified Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner, the Kirchner mechanism, and a combination of these two mechanisms, are compared. Modeling results reveal that the Kirchner mechanism will breakdown when continuity ( √ {Nπ R2 } ) is close to 1. According to the new model, the coarsening still accounts for a small fraction (only 10 pct) in the final growth rate after aging at 343 K (70 °C) for 40 months, which is confirmed by the precipitate size distribution data. Thickness and continuity results predicted by the new model agree well with the experimental results obtained from scanning transmission electron microscopy images of Al 5083 H131 alloys aged at 343 K (70 °C) for different times. In addition, the new model is also applied to a high-temperature [453 K (180 °C)] situation, where coarsening of precipitates is observed.

  1. General thermal analysis of serpentine-flow flat-plate solar collector absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    A thermal analysis is performed on an absorber which has general applicability to the serpentine-flow configuration. The heat conduction equation is rendered in nondimensional form for a typical panel-segment of the absorber, and shape factors are introduced for general application to various detailed flow-duct geometries. An analytical solution is obtained for the typical panel in terms of an Effectiveness-NTU relationship for that panel; the series combination of these relationships yields the overall E-NTU relationship for the entire absorber plate, for any number of panels, or serpentine-flow reversals. The results of the present analysis indicate the expected, axially varying, asymmetry of the temperature profile between the flow passes. Performance results are stated in terms of a serpentine relative performance factor, which permits direct comparison to the parallel configuration. The results indicate superior thermal performance of the serpentine-flow absorber, relative to the parallel-flow absorber, for the same number of transfer units.

  2. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  3. Enabling the 22nm node via grazing incidence collectors integrated into the DPP source for EUVL HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Bragheri, A.; Cassol, G. L.; Ghislanzoni, R.; Mazzoleni, R.; Zocchi, F. E.

    2011-04-01

    Media Lario Technologies (MLT) has enabled the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) roadmap with its grazing incidence collectors installed in all DPP sources since 2006. Furthermore, with several 100 WIF capable production grazing incidence collectors shipped in 2010, MLT is ready to support the start of High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). With a point-source collection efficiency of 25% and 6 kW power loading capability, the 9-shell collector design is capable of delivering 100 W in-band EUV power through the intermediate focus aperture. The customized reflective layer and the debris mitigation technology enable the 1-year lifetime objective under full production operating conditions. Integration of the grazing incidence collector in XTREME technologies' (XT) DPP source attached to ASML's NXE:3100 scanner has provided initial validation of the optical, thermal, and lifetime design objectives. In full HVM regime, we anticipate that the collector power loading will progressively reach 20 kW to enable 500 W inband EUV peak power at intermediate focus. We have started the development of a thermal management design maintaining the current optical stability with a collector power loading of 30 kW, thus meeting the aggressive HVM requirements.

  4. An innovative system for heating and cooling a gymnasium using integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchiotti, A.; Herkel, S.; Laukamp, H.; Priolo, C.

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes a new solar energy based system to heat and cool a gymnasium and to generate electricity in the city of Palermo, Italy. The gymnasium will be built in 1996 as part of the structures that will host the Universiadi Games in 1997. Main objectives of the project are: (a) to grant better environmental conditions in the area occupied by the public, with limited use of fossil energy; (b) to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic elements, thus increasing their efficiency. The system consists of an array of 203 m{sup 2} integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar air collectors. In the winter mode of operation, the heated air is passed through the concrete benches where the public is seated. In the summer mode of operation outside air is evaporatively cooled, passed through the benches, then exhausted to the outside after passing through the collectors. The paper presents some of the results obtained by simulating the system at the design stage for winter conditions.

  5. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  6. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  7. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  8. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  9. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  10. Experimental Spin Testing of Integrally Damped Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John

    1998-01-01

    The experimental behavior of spinning laminated composite pretwisted plates (turbo-fan blade-like) with small (less than 10% by volume) integral viscoelastic damping patches was investigated at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Ten different plate sets were experimentally spin tested and the resulting data was analyzed. The first-four plate sets investigated tailoring patch locations and definitions to damp specific modes on spinning flat graphite/epoxy plates as a function of rotational speed. The remaining six plate sets investigated damping patch size and location on specific modes of pretwisted (30 degrees) graphite/epoxy plates. The results reveal that: (1) significant amount of damping can be added using a small amount of damping material, (2) the damped plates experienced no failures up to the tested 28,000 g's and 750,000 cycles, (3) centrifugal loads caused an increase in bending frequencies and corresponding reductions in bending damping levels that are proportional to the bending stiffness increase, and (4) the centrifugal loads caused a decrease in torsion natural frequency and increase in damping levels of pretwisted composite plates.

  11. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  12. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  13. Ferrocene‐Boronic Acid–Fructose Binding Based on Dual‐Plate Generator–Collector Voltammetry and Square‐Wave Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Xu, Su‐Ying; Gross, Andrew J.; Hammond, Jules L.; Estrela, Pedro; Weber, James; Lacina, Karel; James, Tony D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The interaction of ferrocene‐boronic acid with fructose is investigated in aqueous 0.1 m phosphate buffer at pH 7, 8 and 9. Two voltammetric methods, based on 1) a dual‐plate generator–collector micro‐trench electrode (steady state) and 2) a square‐wave voltammetry (transient) method, are applied and compared in terms of mechanistic resolution. A combination of experimental data is employed to obtain new insights into the binding rates and the cumulative binding constants for both the reduced ferrocene‐boronic acid (pH dependent and weakly binding) and for the oxidised ferrocene‐boronic acid (pH independent and strongly binding). PMID:27525210

  14. Tin DPP source collector module (SoCoMo) ready for integration into Beta scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Masaki; Teramoto, Yusuke; Jonkers, Jeroen; Schürmann, Max C.; Apetz, Rolf; Kilian, Volker; Corthout, Marc

    2011-04-01

    As the traditional techniques used in optical photolithography at 193 nm are running out of steam and are becoming prohibitively expensive, a new cost-effective, high power EUV (extreme ultra-violet) light source is needed to enable high volume manufacturing (HVM) of ever shrinking semiconductor devices. XTREME technologies GmbH and EUVA have jointly developed tin based LDP (Laser assisted Discharge Plasma) source systems during the last two years for the integration of such sources into scanners of the latest and future generations. The goals of the consortium are 1) to solve the wavelength gap - the growing gap between the printed critical dimensions (CD) driven by Moore's Law and the printing capability of lithographic exposure tools constrained by the wavelength of the light source - and 2) to enable the timely availability of EUV light sources for high volume manufacturing. A first Beta EUV Source Collector Module (SoCoMo) containing a tin based laser assisted discharge plasma source is in operation at XTREME technologies since September 2009. Alongside the power increase, the main focus of work emphasizes on the improvement of uptime and reliability of the system leveraging years of experience with the Alpha sources. Over the past period, a cumulated EUV dose of several hundreds of Mega Joules of EUV light has been generated at the intermediate focus, capable to expose more than a hundred thousand wafers with the right dose stability to create well-yielding transistors. During the last months, the entire system achieved an uptime - calculated according to the SEMI standards - of up to 80 %. This new SoCoMo has been successfully integrated and tested with a pre-production scanner and is now ready for first wafer exposures at a customer's site. In this paper we will emphasize what our innovative concept is against old type of Xe DPP and we will present the recent status of this system like power level, uptime and lifetime of components as well. In the second

  15. A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

  16. Multiwell cell culture plate format with integrated microfluidic perfusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domansky, Karel; Inman, Walker; Serdy, Jim; Griffith, Linda G.

    2006-01-01

    A new cell culture analog has been developed. It is based on the standard multiwell cell culture plate format but it provides perfused three-dimensional cell culture capability. The new capability is achieved by integrating microfluidic valves and pumps into the plate. The system provides a means to conduct high throughput assays for target validation and predictive toxicology in the drug discovery and development process. It can be also used for evaluation of long-term exposure to drugs or environmental agents or as a model to study viral hepatitis, cancer metastasis, and other diseases and pathological conditions.

  17. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  18. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  19. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  20. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  1. NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.

  2. Surface Micromachined Flexural Plate Wave Device Integrable on Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, P.G.; Dimos, D.; Garino, T.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Olson, W.R.; Ruffner, J.A.; Schubert, W.K.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Small, reliable chemical sensors are needed for a wide range of applications, such as weapon state-of-health monitoring, nonproliferation activities, and manufacturing emission monitoring. Significant improvements in present surface acoustic wave sensors could be achieved by developing a flexural plate-wave (FPW) architecture, in which acoustic waves are excited in a thin sensor membrane. Further enhancement of device performance could be realized by integrating a piezoelectric thin film on top of the membrane. These new FPW-piezoelectric thin film devices would improve sensitivity, reduce size, enhance ruggedness and reduce the operating frequency so that the FPW devices would be compatible with standard digital microelectronics. Development of these piezoelectric thin film // FPW devices requires integration of (1) acoustic sensor technology, (2) silicon rnicromachining techniques to fabricate thin membranes, and (3) piezoelectric thin films. Two piezoelectric thin film technologies were emphasized in this study: Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) and AlN. PZT thin films were of sufficient quality such that the first high frequency SAW measurements on PZT thin films were measured during the course of this study. Further, reasonable ferroelectric properties were obtained from PZT films deposited on Si surface micromachined FPW device membranes. Fundamental understanding of the effect of nanodimension interfacial layers on AlN thin film domain configurations and piezoelectric response was developed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. MAO NAS of Ukraine Plate Archives: Towards the WFPDB Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Golovnya, V. V.; Yizhakevych, E. M.; Kizyun, L. N.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Tsvetkov, M. K.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Sergeev, A. V.

    2006-04-01

    The plate archives of the Main Astronomical Observatory (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which were taken for various astronomical projects in the period 1950-2005. Among them there are more than 60 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra and more than 20 000 of direct northern sky area plates (mostly with wide-field). The catalogues of these direct wide-field plates have been prepared in computer-readable form. Now they are reduced in the WFPDB format and included into the database.

  4. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of Daystar solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and results obtained from a test program to obtain thermal performance data on a Daystar Model 21B, S/N 02210, Unit 2, liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are described. The test article is a flat plate solar collector using liquid as a heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and coated with black paint. Between the tempered low iron glass and absorber plate is a polycarbonate trap used to suppress convective heat loss. The collector incorporates a convector heat dump panel to limit temperature excursions during stagnation. The following tests were conducted: (1) collector thermal efficiency; (2) collector time constant; (3) collector incident angle modifier; (4) collector heat loss coefficient; and (5) collector stagnation.

  5. A dual-plate ITO-ITO generator-collector microtrench sensor: surface activation, spatial separation and suppression of irreversible oxygen and ascorbate interference.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Mohammad A; Gross, Andrew J; Dale, Sara E C; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Generator-collector electrode systems are based on two independent working electrodes with overlapping diffusion fields where chemically reversible redox processes (oxidation and reduction) are coupled to give amplified current signals. A generator-collector trench electrode system prepared from two tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes placed vis-à-vis with a 22 μm inter-electrode gap is employed here as a sensor in aqueous media. The reversible 2-electron anthraquinone-2-sulfonate redox system is demonstrated to give well-defined collector responses even in the presence of oxygen due to the irreversible nature of the oxygen reduction. For the oxidation of dopamine on ITO, novel "Piranha-activation" effects are observed and chemically reversible generator-collector feedback conditions are achieved at pH 7, by selecting a more negative collector potential, again eliminating possible oxygen interference. Finally, dopamine oxidation in the presence of ascorbate is demonstrated with the irreversible oxidation of ascorbate at the "mouth" of the trench electrode and chemically reversible oxidation of dopamine in the trench "interior". This spatial separation of chemically reversible and irreversible processes within and outside the trench is discussed as a potential in situ microscale sensing and separation tool. PMID:24317451

  6. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1996-04-02

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  7. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1996-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  8. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, C. J.; Merrigan, T.

    2001-10-19

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

  9. Integrated titer plate-injector head for microdrop array preparation, storage and transfer

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.

  10. Development, testing, and certification of life sciences engineering solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for the development of an air flat plate collector for use with solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water systems. The contract was for final development, testing, and certification of the collector, and for delivery of a 320 square feet collector panel.

  11. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  12. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Development of 400/sup 0/F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors. These include Dow Corning 90-006-02 and 3120, General Electric 1200, and PR-1939 from Products Research and Chemical Corporation.

  15. Elastic Buckling Under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F; Levin, L Ross; Troutman, John L

    1954-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45 degree waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  16. Elastic Buckling under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-Like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F.; Levin, L. Ross; Troutman, John L.

    1953-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic Buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45deg waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  17. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. PMID:25746272

  18. Analytical modeling and experimental validation of a structurally integrated piezoelectric energy harvester on a thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridogan, U.; Basdogan, I.; Erturk, A.

    2014-04-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers has been extensively studied over the past decade. As an alternative to cantilevered harvesters, piezoelectric patch harvesters integrated to thin plates can be more convenient for use in marine, aerospace and automotive applications since these systems are often composed of thin plate-like structures with various boundary conditions. In this paper, we present analytical electroelastic modeling of a piezoelectric energy harvester structurally integrated to a thin plate along with experimental validations. The distributed-parameter electroelastic model of the thin plate with the piezoceramic patch harvester is developed based on Kirchhoff’s plate theory for all-four-edges clamped (CCCC) boundary conditions. Closed-form steady-state response expressions for coupled electrical output and structural vibration are obtained under transverse point force excitation. Analytical electroelastic frequency response functions (FRFs) relating the voltage output and vibration response to force input are derived and generalized for different boundary conditions. Experimental validation and extensive theoretical analysis efforts are then presented with a case study employing a thin PZT-5A piezoceramic patch attached on the surface of a rectangular aluminum CCCC plate. The importance of positioning of the piezoceramic patch harvester is discussed through an analysis of dynamic strain distribution on the overall plate surface. The electroelastic model is validated by a comparison of analytical and experimental FRFs for a wide range of resistive electrical boundary conditions. Finally, power generation performance of the structurally integrated piezoceramic patch harvester from multiple vibration modes is investigated analytically and experimentally.

  19. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  20. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  1. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  2. Terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology trend

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, K.; Costogue, E.

    1984-08-01

    Following the path of space PV collector development in its early stages, terrestrial PV technologies based upon single-crystal silicon have matured rapidly. Currently, terrestrial PV cells with efficiencies approaching space cell efficiencies are being fabricated into modules at a fraction of the space PV module cost. New materials, including CuInSe/sub 2/ and amorphous silicon, are being developed for lowering the cost, and multijunction materials for achieving higher efficiency. Large grid-interactive, tracking flat-plate power systems and concentrator PV systems totaling about 10 MW, are already in operation. Collector technology development both flat-plate and concentrator, will continue under an extensive government and private industry partnership.

  3. Dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.T.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a dust collector comprising: (a) a housing having inlet means for receiving air to be cleaned; (b) a plurality of filter units within the housing; (c) a first centrifugal fan arranged for drawing air through the units for removing dust from the air; (d) a plurality of ducts each connected to a corresponding one of the units at one end and to the first fan at the other end to provide passages for air from the units to the first fan, the ducts through a portion of their length being arranged in side-by-side relationship; (e) a second centrifugal fan for providing reverse flow of air through the ducts to the units, the second fan providing a high volume of air at low pressure; (f) a transverse duct connected to the second fan and extending transversely of the portion of the plurality of ducts and adjacent thereto: (g) a plurality of openings providing communication between the transverse duct and each of the plurality of ducts; (i) rotatable means engaging the vanes for sequentially moving the vanes between the first and second positions.

  4. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  5. Laser soldering of Sn plated brass integrator assembly housings

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.; Poulter, G.A.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1993-09-01

    The high conductivity provided by solder closure joints of component housings is sometimes required to ensure electrical shielding of the components contained within. However, using a soldering iron to produce the solder joints can lead to charring of the insulating materials within the housing. To overcome this problem, the localized heating characteristics of laser soldering can be exploited. Feasibility of laser soldering Sn plated brass housings with a CW Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. It has been determined that laser soldering of these housings using a low solids solder flux is a viable technique and will minimize the amount of heat input to the enclosed electronic components. Metallographic analysis has shown good wetting of the solder on the housing components. Accelerated aging experiments indicate that no significant corrosion potential due to solder flux residues exists. Although a low solids flux was used to make the joints, initial results indicate that a fluxless technique can be developed to eliminate fluxes completely.

  6. Laser soldering of Sn plated brass integrator assembly housings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keicher, D. M.; Poulter, G. A.; Sorensen, N. R.

    1993-09-01

    The high conductivity provided by solder closure joints of component housings is sometimes required to ensure electrical shielding of the components contained within. However, using a soldering iron to produce the solder joints can lead to charring of the insulating materials within the housing. To overcome this problem, the localized heating characteristics of laser soldering can be exploited. The feasibility of laser soldering Sn plated brass housings with a CW Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. It has been determined that laser soldering of these housings using a low solids solder flux is a viable technique and will minimize the amount of heat input to the enclosed electronic components. Metallographic analysis has shown good wetting of the solder on the housing components. Accelerated aging experiments indicate that no significant corrosion potential due to solder flux residues exists. Although a low solids flux was used to make the joints, initial results indicate that a fluxless technique can be developed to eliminate fluxes completely.

  7. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  8. Formulas for the elastic constants of plates with integral waffle-like stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris R; Libove, Charles; Hubka, Ralph E

    1954-01-01

    Formulas are derived for the fifteen elastic constants associated with bending, stretching, twisting, and shearing of plates with closely spaced integral ribbing in a variety of configurations and proportions. In the derivation the plates are considered, conceptually, as more uniform orthotropic plates somewhat on the order of plywood. The constants, which include the effectiveness of the ribs for resisting deformations other than bending and stretching in their longitudinal directions, are defined in terms of four coefficients, and theoretical and experimental methods for the evaluation of these coefficients are discussed. Four of the more important elastic constants are predicted by these formulas and are compared with test results. Good correlation is obtained. (author)

  9. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  10. Light absorption by airborne aerosols: comparison of integrating plate and spectrophone techniques.

    PubMed

    Szkarlat, A C; Japar, S M

    1981-04-01

    An excellent correlation between the integrating plate (IP) and the photoacoustic methods for measuring aerosol light absorption has been found for airborne graphitic carbon in diesel vehicle exhaust. However, the regression coefficient depends on the orientation of the Teflon membrane filter during the IP analysis. With the collected particulates between the filter and the integrating plate, the IP response is 1.85 times that for the filter reversed. In either case the response ratio of the IP method to the photoacoustic method is >1.0, i.e., 2.43 vs 1.30. The IP calibration is also probably dependent on the nature of the filter medium. PMID:20309278

  11. Integrated high-temperature piezoelectric plate acoustic wave transducers using mode conversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Ting; Kobayashi, Makiko; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2009-06-01

    Piezoelectric thick (>66 microm) films have been directly coated onto aluminum (Al) substrates using a sol-gel spray technique. With top electrode, these films serve as integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUT), which normally operate as thickness longitudinal wave transducers. When such IUT are located at the edges of the metallic plates, they can excite and detect symmetrical, antisymmetric and shear horizontal types of plate acoustic waves (PAW) using mode conversion methods. In 2 mm thick Al plates, 2 line defects of 1 mm width and 1 mm depth were clearly detected at temperatures up to 150 degrees C in pulse-echo mode. Results indicated that, for 2 mm thick aluminum plates, shear horizontal PAW were the best for the line defect detection. Also, the experimental results agree well with those obtained by a finite-difference-based method. PMID:19574129

  12. Evaluation of a Line-Concentrating Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    45-page report contains results of performance evaluation of line-concentrating solar collector. Collector employs parabolic trough to direct Sunlight to line along its focal axis, along which lies a black-chrome plated receiver tube covered by a glass tube containing still air. Reflective trough has aluminum-mirror surface covered with metallized acrylic film. Array of four collectors, positioned end to end was used for evaluation. Array was driven by single drive mechanism which was controlled by electronic tracking device.

  13. Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

  14. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties. PMID:27612711

  15. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOEpatents

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin; Mikkor, Mati

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  16. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  17. Recent progress in terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Photovoltaic Research and Development Program has the objective to develop the technology necessary to foster widespread grid-competitive electric power generation by the late 1980s. The flat-plate and the concentrator collector activities form the nucleus of the program. The project is concerned with the refining of silicon, silicon sheet production, solar cell processing and fabrication, encapsulation materials development, and collector design and production. The Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task has the objective to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of several methods for producing large area silicon sheet material suitable for fabricating low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. It is expected that a variety of economic flat-plate and concentrator collectors will become commercially available for grid-connected applications.

  18. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOEpatents

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  19. Integrating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction and Mantle Dynamics: A valuable Aid in Frontier Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafkenscheid, Edith; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; van Oosterhout, Cees; Bergman, Steve; Davies, J. Huw; Govers, Rob; Hochard, Cyril; Kennan, Lorcan; Ross, Malcolm; Stampfli, Gérard M.; Vérard, Christan; Webb, Peter; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    Effective hydrocarbon exploration in frontier regions requires an understanding of the tectonic and thermal evolution of basins, among other parameters or conditions. This is especially challenging when high-resolution local data are lacking, requiring reasonable interpolation and extrapolation of more regional knowledge. Some of the key first-order parameters influencing the presence and preservation of an economic petroleum system are the basin's vertical motion history and its thermal and stress evolution. To quantify these parameters in a physically consistent manner over several hundred million years, an integrated lithosphere-mantle dynamics modeling approach is needed. To this purpose, we embarked on developing a 3D dynamic model for the whole earth that links surface phenomena to mantle convection and lithosphere dynamics. The project involved a close collaboration between Shell and three universities, and integration of many disciplines and techniques. University of Lausanne developed 600-0 Ma global plate reconstructions with consistently evolving plate boundaries. The 300-0 Ma period was then adapted to be used as surface boundary condition for forward mantle convection modeling by Cardiff University, producing global predictions of base lithosphere temperatures, heat flow and mantle induced vertical surface motion through time. As a last step, Utrecht University developed a method to predict the lithospheric stress field through time based on integration of these mantle modeling results with the plate reconstruction model. This approach offers predictive scenarios and grids relevant to petroleum exploration that can be validated with local geological and geophysical data.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of monolithically integrated microchannel plates based on amorphous silicon

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Andrea; Geissbühler, Jonas; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Microchannel plates are vacuum-based electron multipliers for particle—in particular, photon— detection, with applications ranging from image intensifiers to single-photon detectors. Their key strengths are large signal amplification, large active area, micrometric spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Here, we present the first microchannel plate made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) instead of lead glass. The breakthrough lies in the possibility of realizing amorphous silicon-based microchannel plates (AMCPs) on any kind of substrate. This achievement is based on mastering the deposition of an ultra-thick (80–120 μm) stress-controlled a-Si:H layer from the gas phase at temperatures of about 200°C and micromachining the channels by dry etching. We fabricated AMCPs that are vertically integrated on metallic anodes of test structures, proving the feasibility of monolithic integration of, for instance, AMCPs on application-specific integrated circuits for signal processing. We show an electron multiplication factor exceeding 30 for an aspect ratio, namely channel length over aperture, of 12.5:1. This result was achieved for input photoelectron currents up to 100 pA, in the continuous illumination regime, which provides a first evidence of the a-Si:H effectiveness in replenishing the electrons dispensed in the multiplication process. PMID:24698955

  1. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour by hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations were used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types; flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single and dual axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first and second order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour by hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators.

  2. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  3. Integrating photo-stimulable phosphor plates into dental and dental hygiene radiography curricula.

    PubMed

    Tax, Cara L; Robb, Christine L; Brillant, Martha G S; Doucette, Heather J

    2013-11-01

    It is not known whether the integration of photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP) plates into dental and dental hygiene curricula creates unique learning challenges for students. The purpose of this two-year study was to determine if dental hygiene students had more and/or different types of errors when using PSP plates compared to film and whether the PSP imaging plates had any particular characteristics that needed to be addressed in the learning process. Fifty-nine first-year dental hygiene students at one Canadian dental school were randomly assigned to two groups (PSP or film) before exposing their initial full mouth series on a teaching manikin using the parallel technique. The principal investigator determined the number and types of errors based on a specific set of performance criteria. The two groups (PSP vs. film) were compared for total number and type of errors made. Results of the study indicated the difference in the total number of errors made using PSP or film was not statistically significant; however, there was a difference in the types of errors made, with the PSP group having more horizontal errors than the film group. In addition, the study identified a number of unique characteristics of the PSP plates that required special consideration for teaching this technology. PMID:24192410

  4. Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

  5. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1980-04-01

    Solar absorber metal foils are discussed in terms of materials and basic processing science. Also included is the use of finished heavy sheet stock for direct fabrication of solar collector panels. Both the adhesives and bonding methods for foils and sheet are surveyed. Developmental and representative commercial foils are used as illustrative examples. As a result it was found that foils can compete economically with batch plating but are limited by adhesive temperature stability. Also absorber foils are very versatile and direct collector fabrication from heavy foils appears very promising.

  6. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  7. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  8. Inflatable solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1980-05-20

    A solar collector using air as its heat transfer medium having a top member containing a plurality of transparent sealed air pockets allowing passage of radiant energy but preventing conductive and convective heat losses generated inside the collector; a central black-coated absorbent plastic member divides the center of the collector into a plurality of interconnected inflatable upper and lower chambers connected to air pumps at one end and to a constriction valve outlet at the other. The lower end of the lower chambers consists of a cover containing a multiplicity of insulative sealed air channels. The collector can be mounted on a turntable frame having adjustable reflective panels mounted above and below the collector. The heated air after it has given up its calories to a storage unit is recirculated to the inflatable chambers.

  9. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  10. Thermal performance evaluation of the Semco (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained during the evaluation test program on a flat plate collector which uses water as the working fluid are discussed. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8 in. x 120.8 in. x 4.1 in. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test.

  11. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  12. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  13. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  14. State-of-the-art review of low-cost collector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, W. A.

    1981-06-01

    This report provides a brief but concise review of low-cost solar collector technologies and their potential for application within the military. The report covers low-cost, light-weight concepts for flat-plate collectors, parabolic trough collectors, heliostats and parabolic dish collectors. In addition, several criteria were evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies. These included reliability, maintainability, survivability, mobility/erectibility, environmental impact and economics. Research and development requirements and ongoing activities were also summarized. This report documents one of several ongoing state-of-the-art reviews of solar technologies performed by an Air Force liaison office with the Department of Energy.

  15. Stereomicroscope Inspection of Polished Aluminum Collector 50684.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Genesis polished aluminum "kidney" collector was damaged during the hard landing of the capsule on September 8, 2004 in the Utah desert. The kidney was introduced into the Genesis (ISO class 4) cleanroom laboratory on November 4, 2004 and stored under nitrogen cover gas. The collector is currently fastened to a highly polished stainless steel plate for secure handling. Curatorial work at JSC has made successful subdivision and subsequent allocation of samples from the kidney.

  16. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-08-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic theory. In particular, our aim is to observe which scientific practices preservice teachers use while teaching an earth science unit, how do they integrate these practices into their lessons, and what challenges do they face during their first time teaching of an earth science content area integrated with scientific practices. The study is designed as a qualitative, exploratory case study of seven preservice teachers while they were learning to teach plate tectonic theory to a group of middle school students. The data were driven from the video records and artifacts of the preservice teachers' learning and teaching processes as well as written reflections on the teaching. Intertextual discourse analysis was used to understand what scientific practices preservice teachers choose to integrate into their teaching experience. Our results showed that preservice teachers chose to focus on four aspects of scientific practices: (1) employing historical understanding of how the theory emerged, (2) encouraging the use of evidence to build up a theory, (3) observation and interpretation of data maps, and (4) collaborative practices in making up the theory. For each of these practices, we also looked at the common challenges faced by preservice teachers by using constant comparative analysis. We observed the practices that preservice teachers decided to use and the challenges they faced, which were determined by what might have come as in their personal history as learners. Therefore, in order to strengthen preservice teachers' background, college courses should be arranged to teach important scientific ideas through scientific practices

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  18. The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of biomimetic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jiandong; Gu, Yueyan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates (FIHPs) was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and the results were compared with experimental data, yielding the following findings: 1) Processing holes under tensile stress have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of FIHPs, which is particularly obvious when initial imperfections are formed during sample preparation. 2) A proposed design technique based on changing the shape of the processing holes from circular to elliptical effectively reduces the stress concentration when such holes must exist in skin or components under tension, and this method motivates a design concept for experimental tests of FIHPs bearing dynamic or fatigue loads. 3) The flexural failure modes of FIHPs were confirmed via FEM analysis, and the mechanism by which trabeculae in FIHPs can effectively prevent cracks from emerging and cause cracks to develop along certain paths was ascertained. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of processing holes in bionic honeycomb plates and other similar components in practical engineering applications. PMID:27612774

  19. Theory of the geyser-pump solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.

    1985-01-01

    The geyser-pump solar collector is a self-controlling, self-pumping active collector having no moving or electronic parts, drawing its mechanical pump energy from boiling in the collector's risers. The only use of the geyser-pump principle reported in patents and the open literature is only for circulating the fluid in the collector plate. Computer simulations show that most design and algorithm parameters have only negligible impact on solar fraction, F. The only parameter which affects F is the length of the storage heat exchanger. Episodic cloud cover does not hamper the geyser-pump collector's ability to restart. Daylong simulations show that the energy cost of geyser-pumping is only about 3% of the absorbed insolation. The geyser-pump collector is found to be as efficient as an electrically pumped collector. Initial costs are estimated to be about the same for the geyser-pump and conventional collectors, but lifetime costs of the geyser-pump are substantially lower, perhaps only half, because of low maintenance.

  20. Comparison of Proportional and On/Off Solar Collector Loop Control Strategies Using a Dynamic Collector Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, S. R.; Warren, M. L.; Auslander, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Common control strategies used to regulate the flow of liquid through flat-plate solar collectors are discussed and evaluated using a dynamic collector model. Performance of all strategies is compared using different set points, flow rates, insolation levels and patterns (clear and cloudy days), and ambient temperature conditions. The unique characteristic of the dynamic collector model is that it includes effects of collector capacitance. In general, capacitance has a minimal effect on long term collector performance; however, short term temperature response and the energy =storage capability of collector capacitance are shown to play significant roles in comparing on/off and proportional controllers. Inclusion of these effects has produced considerably more realistic simulations than any generated by steady-state models. Simulations indicate relative advantages and disadvantages of both types of controllers, conditions under which each performs better, and the importance of pump cycling and controller set points on total energy collection. Results show that the turn-on set point is not always a critical factor in energy collection since collectors store energy while they warm up and during cycling; and, that proportional flow controllers provide improved energy collection only during periods of interrupted or very low insolation when the maximum possible energy collection is rela= tively low. Although proportional controllers initiate flow ·at lower insolation levels than on/off controllers, proportional controllers produce lower flow rates and higher average collector temperatures resulting in slightly lower instantaneous collection efficiencies.

  1. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  2. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  3. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Lennox/Honeywell (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Lennox/Honeywell double covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Lennox/Honeywell collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is steel with copper tubes bonded on the upper surface, and is coated with black chrome. Visual inspection of the collector indicated slight discoloration of the absorber plate. Results indicate that performance degradation had occurred. Absorptivity and/or transmissivity decreased as a result of the weathering.

  4. Artists and collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    1995-02-01

    `Where can I buy holograms?' `Where can I exhibit, there is no more gallery to show me?' These are the two complaints I have heard these past two years, first from the collectors and museum curators, second from the artists, Trained as a psycho-sociologist, I have been the curator and research associate of the Museum of Holography in Washington, D.C. for 7 years, at a time when holography was coming out of the laboratory, creating a real 3-D novelty in people's minds. I saw the mass production growing and the applications multiplying. Meanwhile the artists appeared and started to deal with gallery managers. After the renting period of artworks for exhibits, price went up. The general recession affected the art and the dialogue between collectors and artists became harder. Having my husband as an artist, I know pretty well both sides. My paper tries to analyze the situation to facilitate the communication between artists and collectors.

  5. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  6. Thermal performance evaluation of Solar Energy Products Company (SEPCO) 'Soloron' collector tested outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiou, J., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test article, Model EF-212, Serial Nr. 002, is a single glazed collector with a nonselective absorber plate, using flowing air as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate and box frame are aluminum and the insulation is one inch isocyanurate foam board with thermal conductivity of 0.11 (BTU/sq ft Hr0/ft.) The tests included the following. (1) time constant test, (2) collector efficiency test, (3) collector stagnation test, (4) incident angle modifier test, (5) load test, (6) weathering test, and (7) absorber plate optical properties test. The results of these tests are tabulated, graphed, or otherwise recorded.

  7. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of Sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K.

    1977-01-01

    Test procedures used and test results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted on a single covered liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The test article was a flat plate solar collector using water as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate was copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder. The plate was coated with Enthone selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 approximately .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 approximately .20. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector.

  8. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  9. Collector/collector guard ring balancing circuit eliminates edge effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit in which an emitter is maintained opposite a concentric collector and guard structure is achieved by matching the temperature and potential of the guard with that of the collector over the operating range. This control system is capable of handling up to 100 amperes in the guard circuit and 200 amperes in the collectors circuit.

  10. Wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  11. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  12. AN INTERCOMPARISON CF THE INTEGRATING PLATE AND THE LASER TRANSMISSION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AEROSOL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, M.; Charlson, R.J.; Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.

    1980-07-01

    The absorption coefficients determined by the integrating plate method and the laser transmission method are found to be comparable and highly correlated. Furthermore, a high correlation is found between these absorption coefficients and the carbon content of the aerosol in urbanized regions.

  13. Design and fabrication considerations of EUVL collectors for HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Kools, J.; Prea, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F. E.; Bolshukhin, D.; Schürmann, M.; Schriever, G.; Mader, A.; Zink, P.

    2009-03-01

    The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers. The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed. XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.

  14. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  15. Sheldon Jackson the Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Rosemary

    Missionary, educator, humanitarian, and collector, the Reverend Sheldon Jackson came to Alaska in 1877 to assimilate Native populations into the dominant White culture, but his collecting efforts between 1877 and 1902 represent a significant effort to preserve the legacy of Alaska Natives during a period of tumultuous change. A zealous missionary,…

  16. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  17. Variable-node plate and shell elements with assumed natural strain and smoothed integration methods for nonmatching meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dongwoo; Im, Seyoung

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, novel finite elements that include an arbitrary number of additional nodes on each edge of a quadrilateral element are proposed to achieve compatible connection of neighboring nonmatching meshes in plate and shell analyses. The elements, termed variable-node plate elements, are based on two-dimensional variable-node elements with point interpolation and on the Mindlin-Reissner plate theory. Subsequently the flat shell elements, termed variable-node shell elements, are formulated by further extending the plate elements. To eliminate a transverse shear locking phenomenon, the assumed natural strain method is used for plate and shell analyses. Since the variable-node plate and shell elements allow an arbitrary number of additional nodes and overcome locking problems, they make it possible to connect two nonmatching meshes and to provide accurate solutions in local mesh refinement. In addition, the curvature and strain smoothing methods through smoothed integration are adopted to improve the element performance. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elements in terms of the accuracy and efficiency of the analyses.

  18. Performance equations of a collector cum storage system using phase change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, N.K. ); Buddhi, D. )

    1992-01-01

    A thermal analysis has been developed for a collector cum system for quasi-steady-state conditions using phase change materials. Performance equations of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss type for flat-plate collector cum storage system have been obtained. Calculations have been performed for a wide range of parameters to investigate the applicability of the developed mathematical model.

  19. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  20. Thermal performance evaluation of the Calmac (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, H.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the S. N. 1, (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is aluminum with plastic tubes coated with urethane black. The glazing consists of .040 in fiberglass reinforced polyester. The collector weight is 78.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 50.3in. x 98.3in. x 3.8in. The following information is given: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static loading, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  1. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  2. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of a solar energy collector system for residential heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, T. H.; Borzoni, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A low cost flat plate solar energy collector was designed for the heating and cooling of residential buildings. The system meets specified performance requirements, at the desired system operating levels, for a useful life of 15 to 20 years, at minimum cost and uses state-of-the-art materials and technology. The rationale for the design method was based on identifying possible material candidates for various collector components and then selecting the components which best meet the solar collector design requirements. The criteria used to eliminate certain materials were: performance and durability test results, cost analysis, and prior solar collector fabrication experience.

  3. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  4. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K. N.

    1985-06-11

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a self-defined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  5. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K.N.

    1984-09-25

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a selfdefined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  6. Performance analysis of innovative collector fields for solar-electric plants, using air as heat transfer medium

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi Desenzani, P.; Gaia, M.

    1984-08-01

    The production of electricity by thermodynamic conversion of the heat supplied by flat plate collectors has been tried many times. The use of air as heat transfer medium could allow a dramatic simplification of the collector field and a relevant reduction of thermal inertia. The paper discusses the characteristics of a system based on air collectors and ORC engine. Both multilayer inflated plastic sheet collectors and vacuum tubes collectors are proposed as suitable solutions. The field fan power consumption is optimized jointly with the power cycle evaporator design. Both the envisaged solutions are investigated on the point of view of overall cost/performance ratio.

  7. Integrating seismological and tectonic studies to constrain lithospheric evolution at complex plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin Peter

    The relative motion of tectonic plates across their boundaries generates deformation in the surrounding lithosphere. How this deformation is expressed reflects both present-day plate configurations and how plate boundaries evolve. To understand the behavior of plate boundaries, we must study how they have developed. The advances made in seismology over the past fifty years---both in observation and application---provide tools ideal for such analysis. Here, I use these tools to investigate the tectonic evolution of complex plate boundaries. I focus on two areas that have experienced geologically recent plate tectonic variations---the Mendocino triple junction in northern California, and the Australia:Pacific plate boundary south of New Zealand. In northern California, the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction over the past ˜10Ma has driven a synchronous pattern of thickening and thinning of North American crust. In studying this deformation I find major thinning is localized to a narrow region of crust in the Redwood Valley area. This thinning is accompanied by a steeply dipping Moho (>15°), and by high Poisson's Ratio's in the lower crust, characteristic of layers of melt. These melts may link to shallow (˜10km) dike injections that drive a migrating sequence of seismicity in the shallow crust near Lake Pillsbury. The limited data sets available led me to develop new tools in receiver function and crustal velocity ratio analyses that significantly improve our ability to resolve spatial changes in crustal properties. The application of these techniques forms a second major aspect of this thesis. Finally, I analyze the deformation of Australian lithosphere adjacent to the plate boundary south of New Zealand. I perform earthquake relocations on the distribution of intra- and inter-plate seismicity, and combined with plate reconstructions since the late Oligocene show that deformation occurs over a ˜150km wide area west of the current plate boundary

  8. Contoured insulation window for evacuated solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Coppola, F. T.; Lentz, W. P.; Vandewoestine, R. V.

    1980-02-05

    An insulating contoured window is provided for use with an enclosed chamber such as an evacuated flat plate solar heat collector with the contoured solar window being of minimum thickness and supported solely about its peripheral edge portions. The window is contoured in both its longitudinal and transverse directions, such that in its longitudinal direction the window is composed of a plurality of sinusoidal corrugations whereas in its transverse direction the peaks of such corrugations are contoured in the form of paraboloids so that the structure may withstand the forces generated thereon by the atmosphere.

  9. An analytical investigation of the performance of solar collectors as nighttime heat radiators in airconditioning cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that if the upper and lower ends of a collector were opened, large free convention currents may be set up between the collector surface and the cover glass(es) which can result in appreciable heat rejection. If the collector is so designed that both plates surfaces are exposed to convection currents when the upper and lower ends of the collector enclosure are opened, the heat rejection rate is 300 watts sq m when the plate is 13 C above ambient. This is sufficient to permit a collector array designed to provide 100 percent of the heating needs of a home to reject the accumulated daily air conditioning load during the course of a summer night. This also permits the overall energy requirements for cooling to be reduced by at least 15 percent and shift the load on the utility entirely to the nighttime hours.

  10. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  11. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center Solar test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation of a single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions for a total of approximately ten months. The solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  12. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  13. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  14. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  15. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar facilities design integration: collector-field optimization report (RADL item 2-25)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Appropriate cost and performance models and computer codes have been developed to carry out the collector field optimization, as well as additional computer codes to define the actual heliostat locations in the optimized field and to compute in detail the performance to be expected of the defined field. The range of capabilities of the available optimization and performance codes is described. The role of the optimization code in the definition of the pilot plant is specified, and a complete description of the optimization process itself is given. The detailed cost model used by the optimizer for the commercial system optimization is presented in the form of equations relating the cost element to each of the factors that determine it. The design basis for the commercial system is presented together with the rationale for its selection. The development of the individual heliostat performance code is presented. Use of the individual heliostat code in a completed study of receiver panel power under sunrise startup conditions is described. The procedure whereby performance and heliostat spacing data from the representative commercial-scale system are converted into coefficients of use in the layout processor is described, and the actual procedure used in the layout processor is described. Numerous special studies in support of the pilot plant design are described. (LEW)

  16. Depressed collector for electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A depressed collector for recovery of spent beam energy from electromagnetic sources emitting sheet or large aspect ration annular electron beams operating aver a broad range of beam voltages and currents. The collector incorporates a trap for capturing and preventing the return of reflected and secondary electrons.

  17. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  19. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic…

  20. Towards an Integrated Model of Earth's Thermo-Chemical Evolution and Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Xie, S.

    2001-05-01

    It has long been a challenge for geodynamicists, who have typically modeled homogeneous mantles, to explain the geochemical evidence for the existence of several distinct chemical reservoirs, in terms of a dynamically and chemically self-consistent model. While the mixing behavior of generalized tracers has received much attention in the modeling community, a recent trend has been towards mantle convection models that track the evolution of specific chemical species, both major and minor, and can thus be related to geochemical observations. However, obtaining realistic chemical evolution in such models is dependent on their having a reasonable representation of plate tectonic behavior since the recycling of oceanic crust and complementary depleted residuum is a key process in Earth that other terrestrial planets may lack. In general, this has required inserting plate motions by hand in models. In recent years, however, we have learned how to perform numerical simulations of mantle convection in which plate tectonic behavior is introduced self-consistently through plastic yielding of the lithosphere. In this presentation, models of mantle convection that combine a treatment of geochemical evolution with self-consistently generated plate tectonics, will be presented. Preliminary results indicate that the system can self-consistently evolve regions which have a HIMU-like signature as well as regions with a high He3/He4 ratio.

  1. Experimental and modal verification of an integral equation solution for a thin-walled dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L. W.; Stanton, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    In order to add the capability of an X-band uplink onto the 70-m antenna, a new dichroic plate is needed to replace the Pyle-guide-shaped dichroic plate currently in use. The replacement dichroic plate must exhibit an additional passband at the new uplink frequency of 7.165 GHz, while still maintaining a passband at the existing downlink frequency of 8.425 GHz. Because of the wide frequency separation of these two passbands, conventional methods of designing air-filled dichroic plates exhibit grating lobe problems. A new method of solving this problem by using a dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes is presented and verified experimentally. Two checks of the integral equation solution are described. One is the comparison to a modal analysis for the limiting cross shape of a square hole. As a final check, a prototype dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes was built and measured.

  2. MSFC hot air collectors. Phase 1: Test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    A development test program of 3 hot air flat plate solar collectors is described in detail. The pressure drop versus flow rate performance characteristics for these collectors, mounted in series, was determined under 14 different test conditions each of which was characterized by a unique combination of inlet air temperature and air flow rate. Characteristics of inlet, exit and transfer ducts of these collectors were also determined during this testing. The test results indicate that significant pressure drop occurs at air flow rates greater than 150 standard cubic feet per minute and this drop is not heavily dependent upon inlet air temperature; and inlet, exit and transfer duct characteristics differ sufficiently to suggest that system performance may be enhanced through careful design of each type of duct individually.

  3. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  4. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  5. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  6. Integrating Geochemical and Geodynamic Numerical Models of Mantle Evolution and Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Xie, S.

    2001-12-01

    The thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's mantle and plates are inextricably coupled by the plate tectonic - mantle convective system. Convection causes chemical differentiation, recycling and mixing, while chemical variations affect the convection through physical properties such as density and viscosity which depend on composition. It is now possible to construct numerical mantle convection models that track the thermo-chemical evolution of major and minor elements, and which can be used to test prospective models and hypotheses regarding Earth's chemical and thermal evolution. Model thermal and chemical structures can be compared to results from seismic tomography, while geochemical signatures (e.g., trace element ratios) can be compared to geochemical observations. The presented, two-dimensional model combines a simplified 2-component major element model with tracking of the most important trace elements, using a tracer method. Melting is self-consistently treated using a solidus, with melt placed on the surface as crust. Partitioning of trace elements occurs between melt and residue. Decaying heat-producing elements and secular cooling of the mantle and core provide the driving heat sources. Pseudo-plastic yielding of the lithosphere gives a first-order approximation of plate tectonics, and also allows planets with a rigid lid or intermittent plate tectonics to be modeled simply by increasing the yield strength. Preliminary models with an initially homogeneous mantle show that regions with a HIMU-like signature can be generated by crustal recycling, and regions with high 3He/4He ratios can be generated by residuum recycling. Outgassing of Argon is within the observed range. Models with initially layered mantles will also be investigated. In future it will be important to include a more realistic bulk compositional model that allows continental crust as well as oceanic crust to form, and to extend the model to three dimensions since toroidal flow may alter

  7. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:27113558

  8. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:27113558

  9. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  10. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  11. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  12. Analysis of heat-pipe absorbers in evacuated-tube solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.

    1986-02-01

    Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or nonevacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.

  13. Charge collectors for the omega upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakobi, B.

    1993-08-01

    Charge collectors placed at several distances from the target measure the current of ions resulting from target disassembly and expansion, as a function of arrival time at the detector. Since the expanding plasma is neutral, comprising both electrons and ions moving together, the role of the charge collector is to separate out the electrons, so that the net ion current can be measured. The time-integrated current, or the total charge, can yield the total mass ablated from the target, provided the ionic charge Z is known. From the total ablated mass, the mass ablation rate during the target implosion can be estimated. This quantity provides a useful gauge of the combined effects of absorption, heat conduction, and hydrodynamic efficiency in target interactions. In principle, one charge collector can yield useful results because we assume spherical symmetry of the expansion (this question is addressed directly by the plasma calorimeters of which there are many around the target). In practice there will be four charge collectors, two at the tank wall (distance R from the target) and two in an extension tube, at a distance of about 2R from the target. The reason for the two different distances is to check that complete charge separation within the detector has been achieved. A signature of such separation will be to verify that the current falls off as I/R{sup 2} with distance from the target. Since the separation can be inadequate due to space charges within the detector, the farther detector, having smaller charge density, will be more reliable. The two pairs will be oriented at about 90{degrees} with respect to each other (say, east and north) to give a rough idea on the isotropy.

  14. Ray-tracing software comparison for linear focusing solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Tiago; Horta, Pedro; Larcher, Marco; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón; Hertel, Julian; van Rooyen, De Wet; Heimsath, Anna; Schneider, Simon; Benitez, Daniel; Frein, Antoine; Denarie, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Ray-Tracing software tools have been widely used in the optical design of solar concentrating collectors. In spite of the ability of these tools to assess the geometrical and material aspects impacting the optical performance of concentrators, their use in combination with experimental measurements in the framework of collector testing procedures as not been implemented, to the date, in none of the current solar collector testing standards. In the latest revision of ISO9806 an effort was made to include linear focusing concentrating collectors but some practical and theoretical difficulties emerged. A Ray-Tracing analysis could provide important contributions to overcome these issues, complementing the experimental results obtained through thermal testing and allowing the achievement of more thorough testing outputs with lower experimental requirements. In order to evaluate different available software tools a comparison study was conducted. Taking as representative technologies for line-focus concentrators the Parabolic Trough Collector and the Linear Fresnel Reflector Collector, two exemplary cases with predefined conditions - geometry, sun model and material properties - were simulated with different software tools. This work was carried out within IEA/SHC Task 49 "Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes".

  15. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  16. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  17. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  19. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  20. Performance analysis of wick-assisted heat pipe solar collector and comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, E.

    2009-03-01

    The performance of heat pipe solar collector is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The system employs wick-assisted heat pipe for the heat transfer from the absorber (evaporator) to a heat exchanger (condenser). The heat pipe is made with a copper tube and the evaporator section is finned with aluminium plate. Theoretical model predicts the outlet water from heat exchanger, heat pipe temperature and also the thermal efficiency of solar collector. The results are compared with experimental data.

  1. Solar collector with an absorbent surface in the form of a venetian blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowski, A.; Derczynski, M.; Machizaud, F.; Flechon, J.

    1984-11-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of flat plate air collectors, we propose the use of absorbing areas in the form of a venetian blind and composed of two planes of discontinuous and parallel lamellae. The theoretical analysis confirmed by the experimental results reveals that the energy parameters resulting from this structure are better than those obtained in the case of collectors using a single plane continuous absorbing surface.

  2. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  3. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-07-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  4. Solar collector parameter identification from unsteady data by a discrete-gradient optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Burmeister, L. C.; Bishop, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-gradient optimization algorithm is used to identify the parameters in a one-node and a two-node capacitance model of a flat-plate collector. Collector parameters are first obtained by a linear-least-squares fit to steady state data. These parameters, together with the collector heat capacitances, are then determined from unsteady data by use of the discrete-gradient optimization algorithm with less than 10 percent deviation from the steady state determination. All data were obtained in the indoor solar simulator at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  5. Integral resistors and capacitors for mixed-signal packages using electroless plating and polymer-ceramic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, Premjeet

    In this work, new approaches to achieving integral resistors and capacitors on large area substrates at low temperatures in a high density wiring (HDW) environment using non-vacuum deposition techniques are introduced. This includes the use of polymer-ceramic nanocomposites for integral capacitors and electroless plating for integral resistors. From the literature review it is believed that resistors in the range of 5--50 ohm/square and capacitors in the range of 1--20 nF/cm2 can satisfy most of the mixed-signal application needs. The proposed materials can satisfy this need as demonstrated in this work. Several test vehicles were fabricated and measured to characterize the material properties, and demonstrate conventional and novel circuits for mixed-signal applications. To begin with, several polymer-ceramic combinations were analyzed under varying conditions to gain a fundamental understanding of the material system. Experimental advances have been made to achieve high dielectric constant values for both epoxy-ceramic and polyimide-ceramic systems. These material systems in general can satisfy specific capacitances in the range of 1--22 nF/cm2. These materials were found to be stable into the GHz range and have low loss-tangent. For electroless resistors, several plating baths were studied and a combination of Ni-P/Ni-W-P was found to produce the best results. Uniform plating was achieved through better nucleation of PdCl2 catalyst through the use of organosilane surface treatment. The Ni-P/Ni-W-P films produced sheet resistance in the range of 5--50 ohm/square and TCR below 50 ppm/°C. The material is stable into the GHz range. Upon optimizing the electrical properties and processing of capacitors and resistors, several test vehicles were fabricated to demonstrate some conventional and novel passive structures for RF and mixed-signal applications (e.g., filters, delay lines, etc.). Some of the structures were modeled using MDS and PSPICE and a good correlation

  6. Assessment of the integrity of compounds stored in assay-ready plates using a kinase sentinel assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ada; Zhao, Xiaoning; Mercer, Laina; Su, Cheng; Zalameda, Leeanne; Liu, Yichin; Lembke, Amanda; Eastwood, Heather; Dang, Son; Oung, Thim; Xia, Xiaoyang; Young, Stephen W; Xiao, Shouhua; McCarter, John D

    2013-09-01

    Sentinel assays are a convenient adjunct to LC-MS purity assessment to monitor the integrity of compounds in pharmaceutical screening collections over time. To assess the stability of compounds stored both at room temperature and at -20°C in assay-ready plates that were either vacuum pack-sealed using a convenient industrial vacuum sealing method or individually sealed using conventional foil seals, a diverse collection of ~ 5,000 compounds was assayed using a robust biochemical kinase assay at intervals over a one year period. Assay results at each time point were compared to those of initial assay using a series of correlations of compound Percent of Control (POC) values as well as IC50 values of a subset of compounds in 200 nL or 500 nL plates. The fraction of hits in common between initial assays and assays at later time points ranged from 82% to 95% over one year and remained relatively constant over time with all storage temperatures or sealing methods tested. A majority of the hits that exhibited a consistent gradual trend to lower potency over one year storage were shifted to lower potency upon the rapid removal of DMSO solvent. Compound precipitation rather than compound decomposition is the likely reason for trends to lower potency for most such compounds over the storage period. Plates stored at room temperature featured a significantly higher fraction of hits that exhibited a trend to lower apparent potency than those stored at -20°C suggesting that this lower temperature is preferable for longer-term storage. PMID:23651141

  7. Gas heat conduction in an evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Goldemund, G.; Benz, N.

    1996-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction in an evacuated plate-in-tube solar collector. A stationary heat loss experiment was built up with an electrically heated real-size collector model. The gas pressure was varied from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 4} Pa, the temperatures of the absorber and the casing were held at 150{degree}C (electrical heaters) and 30{degree}C (water cooling), respectively. Losses by radiation and solid conduction were determined experimentally at pressures below 0.1 Pa. At higher pressures these background losses were subtracted from the total heat losses, to receive the heat losses by gas heat conduction. The experimental results were compared with approximate theoretical models. The onset of convection is in agreement with the usual theories for parallel plates taking the largest distance between the absorber and the gas tube as the plate distance. As a first approximation the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction is described by the usual theory for parallel plates, taking the smallest distance between the absorber and the glass tube as the plate distance. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Core-log integration for rock mechanics using borehole breakouts and rock strength experiments: Recent results from plate subduction margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Lin, W.

    2014-12-01

    Core-log integration has been applied for rock mechanics studies in scientific ocean drilling since 2007 in plate subduction margins such as Nankai Trough, Costa Rica margin, and Japan Trench. State of stress in subduction wedge is essential for controlling dynamics of plate boundary fault. One of the common methods to estimate stress state is analysis of borehole breakouts (drilling induced borehole wall compressive failures) recorded in borehole image logs to determine the maximum horizontal principal stress orientation. Borehole breakouts can also yield possible range of stress magnitude based on a rock compressive strength criterion. In this study, we constrained the stress magnitudes based on two different rock failure criteria, the Mohr-Coulomb (MC) criteria and the modified Wiebols-Cook (mWC) criteria. As the MC criterion is the same as that under unconfined compression state, only one rock parameter, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is needed to constrain stress magnitudes. The mWC criterion needs the UCS, Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient determined by triaxial compression experiments to take the intermediate principal stress effects on rock strength into consideration. We conducted various strength experiments on samples taken during IODP Expeditions 334/344 (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project) to evaluate reliable method to estimate stress magnitudes. Our results show that the effects of the intermediate principal stress on the rock compressive failure occurred on a borehole wall is not negligible.

  9. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  10. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  11. Free vibration analysis of laminated plate/shell structures based on FSDT with a stabilized nodal-integrated quadrilateral element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Van, H.; Mai-Duy, N.; Tran-Cong, T.

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports numerical analyses of free vibration of laminated composite plate/shell structures of various shapes, span-to-thickness ratios, boundary conditions and lay-up sequences. The method is based on a novel four-node quadrilateral element, namely MISQ20, within the framework of the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The element is built by incorporating a strain smoothing method into the bilinear four-node quadrilateral finite element where the strain smoothing operation is based on mesh-free conforming nodal integration. The bending and membrane stiffness matrices are based on the boundaries of smoothing cells while the shear term is evaluated by 2×2 Gauss quadrature. Through several numerical examples, the capability, efficiency and simplicity of the element are demonstrated. Convergence studies and comparison with other existing solutions in the literature suggest that the present element is robust, computationally inexpensive and free of locking.

  12. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  13. New concepts for chip-supported multi-well-plates: realization of a 24-well-plate with integrated impedance-sensors for functional cellular screening applications and automated microscope aided cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Ressler, J; Grothe, H; Motrescu, E; Wolf, B

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experience with multiparametric bioelectronic sensor chips for the monitoring of living cells, we have combined the established multi-well-format with the advantages of microelectronic sensors. The result is a 24-well-plate where the bottom of the wells is replaced by glass-based chips with integrated IDES (interdigital electrode structure). By using IDES it is possible to detect adhesion and morphological changes of adherent growing cell cultures. Up to now these measurements were inaccessible in conjunction with multi-well-plates, especially in high throughput applications. If microscopic monitoring of the cell culture is required, the IDES can be fabricated using transparent conductor materials like ITO (indium tin oxide). Both the transparent material for the sensors and the sensor-carrier make the multi-well-plate also applicable for all kinds of fluorescence and luminescence biological tests. In addition to the impedance-sensors optical read-out sensor layers for pH and pO2 can be integrated. For this reason there are many possible fields of application in biological and biomedical areas such as drug screening, chemosensitive testing and environmental toxicology as well as in biosensing for biological and chemical warfare. Especially the possibility of using this multi-well-plate together with automated imaging-systems has the great advantage of combining optical and sensory monitoring accessible to high-throughput-applications. PMID:17272129

  14. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-08-01

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  15. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  16. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center solar facilities. The Elcam fin-tube (liquid) solar collectors each consist of an absorber plate 5.9 inches wide by 83 inches long and a type M copper tube of 0.569 inch nominal inside diameter. No cover plate was used with any of the specimens. The uniqueness of each of the seven configurations is described, and tests were performed on each separate configuration.

  17. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  18. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  19. Research of micro-prism distribution on the bottom surface of the small-size integrated light guide plate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Huang, Yanyan; Su, Zhijie; Zhang, Xulin; Luo, Tongzheng; Peng, Wenda

    2015-02-23

    The luminance uniformity of the backlight module (BLM) importantly depends on the microstructure distribution on the bottom surface of the light guide plate (LGP). Based on the small-size integrated LGP (ILGP) proposed, we put forward a distribution expression of micro-prisms on the bottom surface of the ILGP, and present the relational expressions between the coefficients of the analytical expression and the structural parameters of the ILGP, such as the light guide length L, width of the ILGP W, thickness of the ILGP H, and space between light emitting diodes (LEDs) d. Then, the research results above are applied to the design of the small-size ILGPs. Not only can the micro-structure distributions on the bottom surface of the ILGPs be directly given, but also the simulation results show that the luminance uniformities of the integrated BLMs are higher than 85%. The research indicates that the expressions proposed in this paper are correct and effective, and have important guiding significances and referential value. PMID:25836524

  20. Near Fault Observatories (NFO) services and integration plan for European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Implementation Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2016-04-01

    Coherently with the EPOS vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth Sciences supporting research for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of NFOs and services implementation facilitating their data and products discovery and usage. NFOs are National Research Infrastructures (NRI) consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying Earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. These infrastructures will enable advancements in understanding of earthquakes generation processes and associated ground shaking due to their high-quality near-source multidisciplinary data. In EPOS-IP seven NFOs are going to be linked: 1) the Altotiberina and 2) Irpinia Observatories in Italy, 3) Corinth in Greece, 4) South-Iceland Seismic Zone, 5) Valais in Switzerland, 6) Marmara Sea (GEO Supersite) in Turkey and 7) Vrancea in Romania. EPOS-IP aims to implement integrated services from a technical, legal, governance and financial point of view. Accordingly, our first effort within this first core group of NFOs will be establishing legal governance for such a young community to ensure a long-term sustainability of the envisaged services including the full adoption of the EPOS data policy. The establishment of a Board including representatives of each NFO formally appointed by the Institutions supporting the NRI is a basic requirement to provide and validate a stable governance mechanism supporting the initiatives finalised to the services provision. Extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserve an extraordinary work on data quality control and description. We will work on linking all the NFOs in a single distributed network of observatories with instrumental and monitoring standards based on common protocols for observation, analysis, and data access and distributed channels. We will rely on

  1. Performance verification of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.; Romaker, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and results of battery of qualification tests performed by independent certification agency on commercial solar collector are presented in report. Reported results were used as basis in judging collector suitable for field installation in residential and commerical buildings.

  2. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  3. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector on the other side producing a self shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on the martian surface for the location of Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  4. Selective coating for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schardein, D.J.

    1983-03-15

    A selective solar coating for solar collectors is disclosed. The coating is characterized by its high absorptance and low emittance. The coating comprises an organic compound or substance having a high molecular weight and a high carbon content, such as a petroleum, vegetable or animal oil, fat or wax, which is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black pigmented varnish.

  5. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17 Section... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  6. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  7. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17 Section... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  8. Installation package for Sunpak solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A subsystem (air/liquid vacuum collector) was developed for use with solar combined heating and cooling subsystems. The collector is modular in design, is approximately twelve-feet-three-inches wide and is eight-feet-seven-inches high. The module contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds.

  9. Shape control of solar collectors using torsional shape memory alloy actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, D.W.; Rice, T.M.; Grossman, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun`s rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper will be principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a small amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. In order to accommodate the large, nonlinear deformations required in the solar collector plate to obtain desired focal lengths, a torsional shape memory alloy actuator was developed that produces a stroke of 0.5 inches. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems.

  10. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. S. M.; Othman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Majid, Z. A. A.; Fudholi, A.; Yasin, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70-75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.