Science.gov

Sample records for plate integrated collector

  1. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  2. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  3. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  4. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  5. Bioinspired plate-based fog collectors.

    PubMed

    Heng, Xin; Luo, Cheng

    2014-09-24

    In a recent work, we explored the feeding mechanism of a shorebird to transport liquid drops by repeatedly opening and closing its beak. In this work, we apply the corresponding results to develop a new artificial fog collector. The collector includes two nonparallel plates. It has three advantages in comparison with existing artificial collectors: (i) easy fabrication, (ii) simple design to scale up, and (iii) active transport of condensed water drops. Two collectors have been built. A small one with dimensions of 4.2 × 2.1 × 0.05 cm(3) (length × width × thickness) was first built and tested to examine (i) the time evolution of condensed drop sizes and (ii) the collection processes and efficiencies on the glass, SiO2, and SU-8 plates. Under similar experimental conditions, the amount of water collected per unit area on the small collector is about 9.0, 4.7, and 3.7 times, respectively, as much as the ones reported for beetles, grasses, and metal wires, and the total amount of water collected is around 33, 18, and 15 times. On the basis of the understanding gained from the tests on the small collector, a large collector with dimensions of 26 × 10 × 0.2 cm(3) was further built and tested, which was capable of collecting 15.8 mL of water during a period of 36 min. The amount of water collected, when it is scaled from 36 to 120 min, is about 878, 479, or 405 times more than what was collected by individual beetles, grasses, or metal wires. PMID:25192549

  6. Development of flat-plate solar plate collector: Evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

    1981-11-01

    In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g., solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

  7. Integrated solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  8. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  9. Installation package for air flat plate collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

  10. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  11. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  12. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  13. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  14. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Braun, James C.; Zabriskie, Jr., John E.; Neutzler, Jay K.; Fuchs, Michel; Gustafson, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  15. Experimental study on flat plate air solar collector using a thin sand layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lati, Moukhtar; Boughali, Slimane; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Mennouche, Djamel; Bechki, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    A flat plate air solar collector was constructed in the laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Arid Zones LENREZA, Ouargla University-South East Algeria. The absorber of the flat plate air solar collector was laminated with a thin layer of local sand. This acted as a thermal storage system (packed bed) with a collecting area of 2.15 m2 (0.86 m × 2.5 m). It was noticed that the solar heater integrated with the thermal storage material delivered comparatively higher temperatures; thus, giving a better efficiency than the air heater without the thermal storage system.

  16. Certification and verification for Calmac flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector is presented. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, installation, operation, and maintenance manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  17. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  18. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  19. Advanced solar box and flat plate collector cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Bergler, H.

    1992-12-31

    Several new solar cooker systems have been developed at Synopsis during the last years: advanced box type cookers, featuring an optimized heat transfer from the absorber into the cooking vessel; flat plate cookers, based on a particular two-way collector with air as transfer fluid; flat plate cookers with heat-pipe transfer; specialized cookers for the baking of bread and flat bread. The working principle of these cookers is described, the structure of a thermal simulation model and results of thermal tests are presented. The results of the first year of local production and use of advanced boxes in India are reported.

  20. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gurau, Vladimir; Barbir, Frano; Neutzler, Jay K.

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  1. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  2. Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The information used in evaluating the design of a liquid flat plate solar collector is reported. Included in this package are subsystem performance specification, installation, operation and maintenance manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

  3. Flat-plate collector performance evaluation. The case for a solar simulation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Harlamert, P.

    1973-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining the performance of flat-plate solar collector using a simulated sun. Collector test variables that will help establish the basis for the indoor test facility at the Lewis Research Center are discussed. The use of the indoor testing should permit a standard test for the convenient and accurate determination of collector performance. Preliminary test results are reported as an example of the type of collector performance data to be expected from the simulation approach.

  4. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An efficient, low cost, flat-plate solar collector was developed. Computer aided mathematical models of the heat process in the collector were used in defining absorber panel configuration; determining insulation thickness; and in selecting the number, spacing, and material of the covers. Prototypes were built and performance tested. Data from simulated operation of the collector are compared with predicted loads from a number of locations to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  5. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. Preliminary design review package on air flat plate collector for solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines to be used in the development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet (10-4 ft x 8 ft panels) of collector area are presented. Topics discussed include: (1) verification plan; (2) thermal analysis; (3) safety hazard analysis; (4) drawing list; (5) special handling, installation and maintenance tools; (6) structural analysis; and (7) selected drawings.

  7. Evaluation of the flat-plate solar collector system for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athey, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    This evaluation of the flat-plate collector system was designed to determine the number of flat-plate collectors required to generate a given amount of electricity with optimum efficiency. Variable parameters are the temperature of the heat-transport fluid, both to and from the collector field. In the analysis, the efficiency of the flat-plate collectors was coupled to the efficiency of the thermal cycle to calculate optimal overall system efficiencies. Overall system efficiencies for the system are on the order of 3.5 per cent or less. Over two million 4 ft-by-4 ft collectors would be required to produce 100,000 kW(e). Based on the results, it can be shown that the limiting factor in the use of the flat-plate collector system for electric power generation is the efficiency of the collectors. An increase in the overall system efficiency can occur only if the collector efficiency can be increased at higher surface temperatures.

  8. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  9. A graphical approach to the efficiency of flat-plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A nomogram is described which can be used to determine the thermal performance of flat plate solar collectors, resulting in two performance factors: the net absorptance and the net heat loss coefficient. The nomogram takes into account angle of incidence, collector slope, absorber plate design, insulating materials, thicknesses, optical properties of absorbing surfaces and glazing materials, and flow factors. A case example is given to illustrate the use of the nomogram.

  10. Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collector performance

    SciTech Connect

    Raghuraman, P.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate one-dimensional analyses have been developed for the prediction of the thermal and electrical performance of both liquid and air flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. The analyses account for the temperature difference between the primary insolation absorber (the photovoltaic cells) and the secondary absorber (a thermal absorber flat plate). The results of the analyses are compared with test measurements, and therefrom, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  11. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  12. Experiments and simulations on a thermosyphon solar collector with integrated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, P.; Mariani, A.; Del, D., Col

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the thermal behaviour of a new type of flat solar collector that integrates the fluid storage tank. Often the main limitation of the solar thermosyphon installations is the prohibition to adopt external storage tanks due to their impact, especially for historical centres of particular architectural significance. To avoid this issue, a new system, that includes the collector and the storage, has been developed. This new apparatus works as a thermosyphon: it is possible to take advantage of the natural convection to avoid using a pump. Experimental tests have been conducted in such a collector with and without the absorbing plate. Furthermore, CFD simulations are reported to analyze in detail the dynamic thermal performance of the innovative solar collector and a good-agreement with the experimental tests has been found. Finally, both in numerical simulations and in experimental data the thermosyphon effect has been verified, obtaining the desired water temperature for domestic applications.

  13. Thermal performance predictions of flat-plate solar collector air heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, T. C.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was written that models heat exchanges occurring within flat plate solar air collectors and which computes the incoming solar flux and heat losses to the environment. Internal collector temperatures and thermal efficiencies are predicted for either steady state or transient cases from finite difference solutions to a set of energy balance equations. These relations are written for thermal modes that are generated and linked together by the internal deck logic. The program was utilized in a study of three types of air collectors. The first two configurations employed crossflow impingement along the backside of their absorbers to augment heat transfer coefficients developed at those surfaces, while the third used a rock matrix absorber to expand its surface area for heat transfer. In addition, the first collector replaced the conventional stationary plate absorber of the second design by a traveling belt.

  14. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  15. Flat-plate solar-collector performance data base and user's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, D. L.; Kolar, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    The reader is provided with a thorough understanding on the type of collector thermal performance information which is required in active system design and analysis. Thermal performance test data on 109 commercially available solar collectors which were evaluated in a single, uniform test program, the Interim Solar Collector Test (ISCT) Program are given. In addition to recounting the ISCT program and its results, the an introduction is given on the engineering and physics of a flat-plate solar collector operation. A step-by-step analysis of heat gains and losses is provided to help the reader understand both the source and applicability of the parameters used to describe collector thermal performance. A brief description of the engineering basis for the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test procedure and the method are included. To demonstrate the sensitivity to variations of collector performance parameters of the annual output of representative solar heating systems, three sets of F-Chart (4.0) system performance predictions are given. Finally, a sensitivity analysis study is presented which considers the heat loss and optical gain parameters of flat-plate collectors, in terms of how they affect the overall solar heating system solar fraction.

  16. Building-integrated fluorescent solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Neuroth, N.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a building wall wherein the building wall includes windows, window parapets and areas below the window parapets. The window parapets include overhanging lips defining slots with the areas beneath the parapets. Fluorescent solar collectors are received in the slots to form an exterior facing over the area beneath the parapets. A photoelectric cell means is arranged with the fluorescent panels and has leads thereon for conducting electric current therefrom, the photoelectric cell means being positioned within the slots so as to be protected thereby.

  17. Potential of size reduction of flat-plate solar collectors when applying MWCNT nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, M.; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, S.

    2013-06-01

    Flat-plate solar collector is the most popular type of collector for hot water system to replace gas or electric heater. Solar thermal energy source is clean and infinite to replace fossil fuel source that is declining and harmful to the environment. However, current solar technology is still expensive, low in efficiency and takes up a lot of space. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by applying high conductivity fluid as nanofluid. This paper analyzes the potential of size reduction of solar collector when MWCNT nanofluid is used as absorbing medium. The analysis is based on different mass flow rate, nanoparticles mass fraction, and presence of surfactant in the fluid. For the same output temperature, it can be observed that the collector's size can be reduced up to 37% of its original size when applying MWCNT nanofluid as the working fluid and thus can reduce the overall cost of the system.

  18. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  19. Hot-air flat-plate solar collector-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains design data, performance specifications, and drawings for hot-air flat-plate solar-energy collector. Evaluation consists of tests on thermal performance time constance, and incidence angle modifier test. Results are presented in table and graph form and are analyzed in detail.

  20. Investigation of the flow field inside flat-plate collector tube using PIV technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sookdeo, Steven; Siddiqui, Kamran

    2010-06-15

    The thermofluid process inside the tube of flat-plate collectors is complex because the non-uniform heating of the tube results in the formation of stably and unstably stratified layers of fluid that interact with each other. The measurement and investigation of the flow behaviour inside the collector tube is very challenging. We report on a novel application of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to remotely measure the velocity field inside the collector tube. The two-dimensional velocity fields were measured in the midplane of a collector tube for the Reynolds number range of 150-900 at unheated and four different heating conditions. We have presented and discussed in detail the technique implementation and the associated challenges. The results have shown that the collector heating significantly alters the structure and magnitude of the mean velocity field and influences the heat transfer to the fluid. It is observed that the collector heating causes a significant asymmetry in the mean velocity profiles over the given range of Reynolds numbers and heating conditions. (author)

  1. Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, M. A.

    For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for the US and its territories. The data in the manual were modeled using hourly values of direct beam and diffuse horizontal solar radiation from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990.

  2. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  3. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  4. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  5. Solar cells having integral collector grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device is described, comprising a conductive base metal layer. A back surface field region was formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device. A metal alloy grid network was included. An insulating layer prevented electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer.

  6. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric-corrosion-monitoring project is to assess the materials used for battens and enclosures for flat-plate solar collectors. Sensors at nine test sites have provided atmospheric data. Other data have been obtained by analyzing corrosion samples that were exposed for varying periods of time. This interim report summarizes the results of the first test period.

  7. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, Lawrence J.

    1985-10-22

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  8. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Bregoli, L.J.

    1984-10-17

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  9. Flat-plate collector research area: Silicon material task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1982-01-01

    Silane decomposition in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) process development unit (PDU) to make semiconductor-grade Si is reviewed. The PDU was modified by installation of a new heating system to provide the required temperature profile and better control, and testing was resumed. A process for making trichlorosilane by the hydrochlorination of metallurgical-grade Si and silicon tetrachloride is reported. Fabrication and installation of the test system employing a new 2-in.-dia reactor was completed. A process that converts trichlorosilane to dichlorosilane (DCS), which is reduced by hydrogen to make Si by a chemical vapor deposition step in a Siemens-type reactor is described. Testing of the DCS PDU integraled with Si deposition reactors continued. Experiments in a 2-in.-dia reactor to define the operating window and to investigate the Si deposition kinetics were completed.

  10. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  11. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. A new solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

    1994-06-01

    A new solar radiation data manual is nearing completion by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project and the Photovoltaic Solar Radiation Research Task. These tasks are funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. For designers and engineers of solar energy related systems, it gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The data in the manual are modeled using diffuse horizontal and direct beam solar radiation values from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990. This paper describes what is contained in the new data manual and how it was developed.

  14. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found. PMID:25607321

  15. Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Wiesław; Dziewa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in the liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes. The proposed method considers the model of collector tube as one with distributed parameters. In the suggested method one tube of the collector is taken into consideration. In this model the boundary conditions can be time-dependent. The proposed model is based on solving the equation describing the energy conservation on the fluid side. The temperature of the collector tube wall is determined from the equation of transient heat conduction. The derived differential equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method of iterative character. All thermo-physical properties of the operating fluid and the material of the tube wall can be computed in real time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient at the working fluid side can be also computed on-line. The proposed model is suitable for collectors working in a parallel or serpentine tube arrangement. As an illustration of accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested method the computational verification was carried out. It consists in comparing the results found using the presented method with results of available analytic solutions for transient operating conditions. Two numerical analyses were performed: for the tube with temperature step function of the fluid at the inlet and for the tube with heat flux step function on the outer surface. In both cases the conformity of results was very good. It should be noted, that in real conditions such rapid changes of the fluid temperature and the heat flux of solar radiation, as it was assumed in the presented computational verification, do not occur. The paper presents the first part of the study, which aim is to develop a mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in liquid flat-plate solar collectors. The experimental verification of the method is a second part of the study and

  16. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  17. Ion sputter textured graphite. [anode collector plates in electron tube devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.; Forman, R.; Curren, A. N.; Wintucky, E. G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A specially textured surface of pyrolytic graphite exhibits extremely low yields of secondary electrons and reduced numbers of reflected primary electrons after impingement of high energy primary electrons. An ion flux having an energy between 500 eV and 1000 eV and a current density between 1.0 mA/sq cm and 6.0 mA/sq cm produces surface roughening or texturing which is in the form of needles or spines. Such textured surfaces are especially useful as anode collector plates in high efficiency electron tube devices.

  18. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  19. The effect of contact spacing on the efficiency of flat plate solar collector plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G. E.; Crha, S.

    1984-01-01

    Rather than use a continuous weld or solder for thermal contact in the attachment of an extended surface to an energy removal tube, attention is given to the use of discontinuous attachment through the uniform distribution of finite regions of contact. This scheme is applied to a solar energy collection system in which it was thought capable of yielding fabrication and reliability improvements. A nondimensional formulation and numerical solution of FEM modeling yields the sensitivity of collector thermal performance to weld-solder joint dimensions. The discontinuous weld is found to significantly degrade system performance in proportion to the fin surface Biot modulus, with the controlling parameter (with respect to weld dimensions) being the perimeter length at the weld location of contact.

  20. Integrated Design of Undepressed Collector for Low Power Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Goswami, Uttam K.; Poonia, Sunita; Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Alaria, M. K.; Bera, A.; Khatun, Hasina; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    A 42 GHz, 200 kW continuous wave (CW) gyrotron, operating at TE03 mode is under development for the electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating of the Indian TOKAMAK system. The gyrotron is made up of an undepressed collector. The undepressed collector is simple to design and cost effective. In this paper, a detailed design study of the undepressed collector for the 42 GHz gyrotron is presented. The EGUN code is used to analyze the spent electron beam trajectory for the maximum spread to reduce the power loading on the collector surface. To achieve wall loading ≤1 kW/cm2, a collector with a length of 800 mm and a radius of 42.5 mm is designed. The design also includes the three magnet systems around the collector for maximum and uniform beam spread. The thermal and the structural analyses are done using the ANSYS code to optimize the collector structure and dimensions with tolerance.

  1. Exergy efficiency analysis of a flat plate solar collector using graphene based nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Z.; Alim, M. A.; Janajreh, Isam

    2015-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector is largely affected by the thermal conductivity of the fluid used. In this paper, we theoretically analyzed the heat transfer performance, the entropy generation rate, and the exergy efficiency of the two different graphene based nanofluids (graphene/Acetone and graphene/water). From the analyses, it is revealed that by inserting a small amount of graphene nanoparticles in water, exergy efficiency could be enhanced by 21%, comparing to conventional fluids and entropy generation is decreased by 4%. However, the graphene/water nanofluid shows a lower entropy generation. This characteristic suggests that graphene/water nanofluid is a better candidate for flat solar thermal application.

  2. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  3. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  4. Normal incidence collector for LPP sources with integrated debris mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Andrea Z.; Dieterich, Franz; Henderson, Ian; Chokani, Ndaona; Abhari, Reza S.

    2010-04-01

    The leading candidate for the manufacture of next generation semi-conductor devices is extreme ultraviolet lithography, with laser-produced plasmas as a candidate 13.5nm light source. A primary challenge for continuous operation is elimination of the debris load on the collector, without compromising the radiation intensity at the intermediate focus. A novel combination of thermal management and debris mitigation is developed in order to reduce the deformation and degradation of collector optics. This patent-pending novel debris mitigation technique enables the continuous operation of the source. The paper shows atomic force microscope measurements of the collector surface deposition. The debris mitigation system run at 50% design operating condition gives 90% debris mitigation effectiveness. The average temperature of the cooled collector is 36.5°C at the design point, with a peak-to-peak difference of 0.8°C. The collector geometry, after being adapted to compensate the thermal deformation, yields a spot size of 30μm at IF. Computational simulations, using ETH's multi-scale computational tools, complement the presented experimental results.

  5. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  6. Solar Tests of Aperture Plate Materials for Solar Thermal Dish Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the Sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the Sun moves relative to the Earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  7. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  8. Performance of a combined photovoltaic/thermal, flat-plate, liquid collector

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, W.A.; Raghuraman, P.

    1981-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T), flatplate, liquid collector, where the liquid circulates both below and above the photovoltaic cells (the primary energy-absorbing surface), has been designed and tested according to ASHRAE 93-77 specifications to yield collector thermal and electrical efficiencies. A one-dimensional thermal analysis predicts the test results accurately. On the strength of the test and analytical results, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  9. Need for and evaluation of hail protection devices for solar flat plate collectors. Final report, June 1978-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P R; Cox, M; de Winter, F

    1980-03-01

    A brief summary of the hail risk work previously done under this contract is given, and a summary evaluation of hail impact resistance standards currently being developed is presented. Simulated hail impact test data, field data, and the impact resistance of commercially available glazings are discussed. The use of screens for protection against hail and the threat of vandalism to solar flat plate collectors are discussed. (WHK)

  10. Comparison of the effects of Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles on the performance of a solar flat-plate collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Madhavan, Venkata Ramanan; Mohan, Mukunthan

    2015-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of solar flat-plate collectors further, a study had been carried out wherein the conventional working fluid was replaced by nanofluids. A 25-L/day solar flat-plate water heater with collector area of 0.5 {m}^2 has been designed and fabricated. The thermosyphon system of the solar water heater was monitored at 15 locations using T-type thermocouples. Alumina and CuO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and X-ray diffraction techniques and dispersed using ultrasonic mechanism. To stabilize the system at an optimum level, the collector is operated with volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4% of synthesized Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles mixed with distilled water and used in the solar flat-plate collector. The temperature profile was compared with different volume fractions of the nanoparticles in the flowing medium. Enhanced heat transfer was observed in the solar flat-plate collector using nanoparticles, and hence, it is inferred that addition of nanoparticles improves the efficiency of the solar water heaters. This paper details the temperature profile observed in the collectors, variation of insolation over the day, and change in efficiency both on the primary side (collector) and on the secondary side (storage tank) of the solar water heater.

  11. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  12. Comparative performance of twenty-three types of flat plate solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    Report compares efficiencies of 23 solar collectors for four different purposes: operating a Rankine-cycle engine, heating or absorption air conditioning, heating hot water, and heating a swimming pool.

  13. Development of 400 F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors.

  14. Method for fabricating solar cells having integrated collector grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A heterojunction or Schottky barrier photovoltaic device comprising a conductive base metal layer compatible with and coating predominately the exposed surface of the p-type substrate of the device such that a back surface field region is formed at the interface between the device and the base metal layer, a transparent, conductive mixed metal oxide layer in integral contact with the n-type layer of the heterojunction or Schottky barrier device having a metal alloy grid network of the same metal elements of the oxide constituents of the mixed metal oxide layer embedded in the mixed metal oxide layer, an insulating layer which prevents electrical contact between the conductive metal base layer and the transparent, conductive metal oxide layer, and a metal contact means covering the insulating layer and in intimate contact with the metal grid network embedded in the transparent, conductive oxide layer for conducting electrons generated by the photovoltaic process from the device.

  15. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight is a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentrator to stop following the Sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/sq m. (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off Sun), and spillage (continuous on-Sun operation).

  16. Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

  17. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  18. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Flat-Plate Solar-Collector Performance Evaluation with a Solar Simulator as a Basis for Collector Selection and Performance Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a solar simulator for performance determination permits collector testing under standard conditions of wind, ambient temperature, flow rate and sun. The performance results determined with the simulator have been found to be in good agreement with outdoor performance results. The measured thermal efficiency and evaluation of 23 collectors are reported which differ according to absorber material (copper, aluminum, steel), absorber coating (nonselective black paint, selective copper oxide, selective black nickel, selective black chrome), type of glazing material (glass, Tedlar, Lexan, antireflection glass), the use of honeycomb material and the use of vacuum to prevent thermal convection losses. The collectors were given performance rankings based on noon-hour solar conditions and all-day solar conditions. The determination with the simulator of an all-day collector performance was made possible by tests at different incident angles. The solar performance rankings were made based on whether the collector is to be used for pool heating, hot water, absorption air conditioning, heating, or for a solar Rankine machine.

  20. A Collector Plate Mechanism-Based Classical Intergranular Precipitation Model for Al Alloys Sensitized at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gaosong; Derrick, Alexander T.; Zhu, Yakun; Free, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitization behavior of Al 5xxx alloys is mainly caused by the formation of Mg-rich precipitates at grain boundaries. In this study, a classical nucleation-growth-coarsening theory for the description of intergranular precipitation is formulated, which adopts a collector plate mechanism, an equivalent average Mg concentration at the grain boundary, and new coarsening mechanisms. Three coarsening mechanisms, the modified Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner, the Kirchner mechanism, and a combination of these two mechanisms, are compared. Modeling results reveal that the Kirchner mechanism will breakdown when continuity ( √ {Nπ R2 } ) is close to 1. According to the new model, the coarsening still accounts for a small fraction (only 10 pct) in the final growth rate after aging at 343 K (70 °C) for 40 months, which is confirmed by the precipitate size distribution data. Thickness and continuity results predicted by the new model agree well with the experimental results obtained from scanning transmission electron microscopy images of Al 5083 H131 alloys aged at 343 K (70 °C) for different times. In addition, the new model is also applied to a high-temperature [453 K (180 °C)] situation, where coarsening of precipitates is observed.

  1. General thermal analysis of serpentine-flow flat-plate solar collector absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    A thermal analysis is performed on an absorber which has general applicability to the serpentine-flow configuration. The heat conduction equation is rendered in nondimensional form for a typical panel-segment of the absorber, and shape factors are introduced for general application to various detailed flow-duct geometries. An analytical solution is obtained for the typical panel in terms of an Effectiveness-NTU relationship for that panel; the series combination of these relationships yields the overall E-NTU relationship for the entire absorber plate, for any number of panels, or serpentine-flow reversals. The results of the present analysis indicate the expected, axially varying, asymmetry of the temperature profile between the flow passes. Performance results are stated in terms of a serpentine relative performance factor, which permits direct comparison to the parallel configuration. The results indicate superior thermal performance of the serpentine-flow absorber, relative to the parallel-flow absorber, for the same number of transfer units.

  2. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  3. Enabling the 22nm node via grazing incidence collectors integrated into the DPP source for EUVL HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Bragheri, A.; Cassol, G. L.; Ghislanzoni, R.; Mazzoleni, R.; Zocchi, F. E.

    2011-04-01

    Media Lario Technologies (MLT) has enabled the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) roadmap with its grazing incidence collectors installed in all DPP sources since 2006. Furthermore, with several 100 WIF capable production grazing incidence collectors shipped in 2010, MLT is ready to support the start of High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). With a point-source collection efficiency of 25% and 6 kW power loading capability, the 9-shell collector design is capable of delivering 100 W in-band EUV power through the intermediate focus aperture. The customized reflective layer and the debris mitigation technology enable the 1-year lifetime objective under full production operating conditions. Integration of the grazing incidence collector in XTREME technologies' (XT) DPP source attached to ASML's NXE:3100 scanner has provided initial validation of the optical, thermal, and lifetime design objectives. In full HVM regime, we anticipate that the collector power loading will progressively reach 20 kW to enable 500 W inband EUV peak power at intermediate focus. We have started the development of a thermal management design maintaining the current optical stability with a collector power loading of 30 kW, thus meeting the aggressive HVM requirements.

  4. An innovative system for heating and cooling a gymnasium using integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchiotti, A.; Herkel, S.; Laukamp, H.; Priolo, C.

    1996-11-01

    The paper describes a new solar energy based system to heat and cool a gymnasium and to generate electricity in the city of Palermo, Italy. The gymnasium will be built in 1996 as part of the structures that will host the Universiadi Games in 1997. Main objectives of the project are: (a) to grant better environmental conditions in the area occupied by the public, with limited use of fossil energy; (b) to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic elements, thus increasing their efficiency. The system consists of an array of 203 m{sup 2} integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar air collectors. In the winter mode of operation, the heated air is passed through the concrete benches where the public is seated. In the summer mode of operation outside air is evaporatively cooled, passed through the benches, then exhausted to the outside after passing through the collectors. The paper presents some of the results obtained by simulating the system at the design stage for winter conditions.

  5. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  6. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies. PMID:22878358

  7. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  8. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  9. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  10. Experimental Spin Testing of Integrally Damped Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John

    1998-01-01

    The experimental behavior of spinning laminated composite pretwisted plates (turbo-fan blade-like) with small (less than 10% by volume) integral viscoelastic damping patches was investigated at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Ten different plate sets were experimentally spin tested and the resulting data was analyzed. The first-four plate sets investigated tailoring patch locations and definitions to damp specific modes on spinning flat graphite/epoxy plates as a function of rotational speed. The remaining six plate sets investigated damping patch size and location on specific modes of pretwisted (30 degrees) graphite/epoxy plates. The results reveal that: (1) significant amount of damping can be added using a small amount of damping material, (2) the damped plates experienced no failures up to the tested 28,000 g's and 750,000 cycles, (3) centrifugal loads caused an increase in bending frequencies and corresponding reductions in bending damping levels that are proportional to the bending stiffness increase, and (4) the centrifugal loads caused a decrease in torsion natural frequency and increase in damping levels of pretwisted composite plates.

  11. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  12. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  13. Ferrocene‐Boronic Acid–Fructose Binding Based on Dual‐Plate Generator–Collector Voltammetry and Square‐Wave Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Xu, Su‐Ying; Gross, Andrew J.; Hammond, Jules L.; Estrela, Pedro; Weber, James; Lacina, Karel; James, Tony D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The interaction of ferrocene‐boronic acid with fructose is investigated in aqueous 0.1 m phosphate buffer at pH 7, 8 and 9. Two voltammetric methods, based on 1) a dual‐plate generator–collector micro‐trench electrode (steady state) and 2) a square‐wave voltammetry (transient) method, are applied and compared in terms of mechanistic resolution. A combination of experimental data is employed to obtain new insights into the binding rates and the cumulative binding constants for both the reduced ferrocene‐boronic acid (pH dependent and weakly binding) and for the oxidised ferrocene‐boronic acid (pH independent and strongly binding). PMID:27525210

  14. Tin DPP source collector module (SoCoMo) ready for integration into Beta scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Masaki; Teramoto, Yusuke; Jonkers, Jeroen; Schürmann, Max C.; Apetz, Rolf; Kilian, Volker; Corthout, Marc

    2011-04-01

    As the traditional techniques used in optical photolithography at 193 nm are running out of steam and are becoming prohibitively expensive, a new cost-effective, high power EUV (extreme ultra-violet) light source is needed to enable high volume manufacturing (HVM) of ever shrinking semiconductor devices. XTREME technologies GmbH and EUVA have jointly developed tin based LDP (Laser assisted Discharge Plasma) source systems during the last two years for the integration of such sources into scanners of the latest and future generations. The goals of the consortium are 1) to solve the wavelength gap - the growing gap between the printed critical dimensions (CD) driven by Moore's Law and the printing capability of lithographic exposure tools constrained by the wavelength of the light source - and 2) to enable the timely availability of EUV light sources for high volume manufacturing. A first Beta EUV Source Collector Module (SoCoMo) containing a tin based laser assisted discharge plasma source is in operation at XTREME technologies since September 2009. Alongside the power increase, the main focus of work emphasizes on the improvement of uptime and reliability of the system leveraging years of experience with the Alpha sources. Over the past period, a cumulated EUV dose of several hundreds of Mega Joules of EUV light has been generated at the intermediate focus, capable to expose more than a hundred thousand wafers with the right dose stability to create well-yielding transistors. During the last months, the entire system achieved an uptime - calculated according to the SEMI standards - of up to 80 %. This new SoCoMo has been successfully integrated and tested with a pre-production scanner and is now ready for first wafer exposures at a customer's site. In this paper we will emphasize what our innovative concept is against old type of Xe DPP and we will present the recent status of this system like power level, uptime and lifetime of components as well. In the second

  15. A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

  16. Multiwell cell culture plate format with integrated microfluidic perfusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domansky, Karel; Inman, Walker; Serdy, Jim; Griffith, Linda G.

    2006-01-01

    A new cell culture analog has been developed. It is based on the standard multiwell cell culture plate format but it provides perfused three-dimensional cell culture capability. The new capability is achieved by integrating microfluidic valves and pumps into the plate. The system provides a means to conduct high throughput assays for target validation and predictive toxicology in the drug discovery and development process. It can be also used for evaluation of long-term exposure to drugs or environmental agents or as a model to study viral hepatitis, cancer metastasis, and other diseases and pathological conditions.

  17. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  18. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  19. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  20. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  1. NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.

  2. Surface Micromachined Flexural Plate Wave Device Integrable on Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, P.G.; Dimos, D.; Garino, T.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Olson, W.R.; Ruffner, J.A.; Schubert, W.K.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Small, reliable chemical sensors are needed for a wide range of applications, such as weapon state-of-health monitoring, nonproliferation activities, and manufacturing emission monitoring. Significant improvements in present surface acoustic wave sensors could be achieved by developing a flexural plate-wave (FPW) architecture, in which acoustic waves are excited in a thin sensor membrane. Further enhancement of device performance could be realized by integrating a piezoelectric thin film on top of the membrane. These new FPW-piezoelectric thin film devices would improve sensitivity, reduce size, enhance ruggedness and reduce the operating frequency so that the FPW devices would be compatible with standard digital microelectronics. Development of these piezoelectric thin film // FPW devices requires integration of (1) acoustic sensor technology, (2) silicon rnicromachining techniques to fabricate thin membranes, and (3) piezoelectric thin films. Two piezoelectric thin film technologies were emphasized in this study: Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) and AlN. PZT thin films were of sufficient quality such that the first high frequency SAW measurements on PZT thin films were measured during the course of this study. Further, reasonable ferroelectric properties were obtained from PZT films deposited on Si surface micromachined FPW device membranes. Fundamental understanding of the effect of nanodimension interfacial layers on AlN thin film domain configurations and piezoelectric response was developed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. MAO NAS of Ukraine Plate Archives: Towards the WFPDB Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Golovnya, V. V.; Yizhakevych, E. M.; Kizyun, L. N.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Tsvetkov, M. K.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Sergeev, A. V.

    2006-04-01

    The plate archives of the Main Astronomical Observatory (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which were taken for various astronomical projects in the period 1950-2005. Among them there are more than 60 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra and more than 20 000 of direct northern sky area plates (mostly with wide-field). The catalogues of these direct wide-field plates have been prepared in computer-readable form. Now they are reduced in the WFPDB format and included into the database.

  4. Indoor thermal performance evaluation of Daystar solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used and results obtained from a test program to obtain thermal performance data on a Daystar Model 21B, S/N 02210, Unit 2, liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are described. The test article is a flat plate solar collector using liquid as a heat transfer medium. The absorber plate is copper and coated with black paint. Between the tempered low iron glass and absorber plate is a polycarbonate trap used to suppress convective heat loss. The collector incorporates a convector heat dump panel to limit temperature excursions during stagnation. The following tests were conducted: (1) collector thermal efficiency; (2) collector time constant; (3) collector incident angle modifier; (4) collector heat loss coefficient; and (5) collector stagnation.

  5. A dual-plate ITO-ITO generator-collector microtrench sensor: surface activation, spatial separation and suppression of irreversible oxygen and ascorbate interference.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Mohammad A; Gross, Andrew J; Dale, Sara E C; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Generator-collector electrode systems are based on two independent working electrodes with overlapping diffusion fields where chemically reversible redox processes (oxidation and reduction) are coupled to give amplified current signals. A generator-collector trench electrode system prepared from two tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes placed vis-à-vis with a 22 μm inter-electrode gap is employed here as a sensor in aqueous media. The reversible 2-electron anthraquinone-2-sulfonate redox system is demonstrated to give well-defined collector responses even in the presence of oxygen due to the irreversible nature of the oxygen reduction. For the oxidation of dopamine on ITO, novel "Piranha-activation" effects are observed and chemically reversible generator-collector feedback conditions are achieved at pH 7, by selecting a more negative collector potential, again eliminating possible oxygen interference. Finally, dopamine oxidation in the presence of ascorbate is demonstrated with the irreversible oxidation of ascorbate at the "mouth" of the trench electrode and chemically reversible oxidation of dopamine in the trench "interior". This spatial separation of chemically reversible and irreversible processes within and outside the trench is discussed as a potential in situ microscale sensing and separation tool. PMID:24317451

  6. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1996-04-02

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  7. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1996-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  8. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, C. J.; Merrigan, T.

    2001-10-19

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

  9. Integrated titer plate-injector head for microdrop array preparation, storage and transfer

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.

  10. Development, testing, and certification of life sciences engineering solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudle, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for the development of an air flat plate collector for use with solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water systems. The contract was for final development, testing, and certification of the collector, and for delivery of a 320 square feet collector panel.

  11. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  12. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Development of 400/sup 0/F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors. These include Dow Corning 90-006-02 and 3120, General Electric 1200, and PR-1939 from Products Research and Chemical Corporation.

  15. Elastic Buckling Under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F; Levin, L Ross; Troutman, John L

    1954-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45 degree waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  16. Elastic Buckling under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-Like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F.; Levin, L. Ross; Troutman, John L.

    1953-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic Buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45deg waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  17. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates. PMID:25746272

  18. Analytical modeling and experimental validation of a structurally integrated piezoelectric energy harvester on a thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridogan, U.; Basdogan, I.; Erturk, A.

    2014-04-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers has been extensively studied over the past decade. As an alternative to cantilevered harvesters, piezoelectric patch harvesters integrated to thin plates can be more convenient for use in marine, aerospace and automotive applications since these systems are often composed of thin plate-like structures with various boundary conditions. In this paper, we present analytical electroelastic modeling of a piezoelectric energy harvester structurally integrated to a thin plate along with experimental validations. The distributed-parameter electroelastic model of the thin plate with the piezoceramic patch harvester is developed based on Kirchhoff’s plate theory for all-four-edges clamped (CCCC) boundary conditions. Closed-form steady-state response expressions for coupled electrical output and structural vibration are obtained under transverse point force excitation. Analytical electroelastic frequency response functions (FRFs) relating the voltage output and vibration response to force input are derived and generalized for different boundary conditions. Experimental validation and extensive theoretical analysis efforts are then presented with a case study employing a thin PZT-5A piezoceramic patch attached on the surface of a rectangular aluminum CCCC plate. The importance of positioning of the piezoceramic patch harvester is discussed through an analysis of dynamic strain distribution on the overall plate surface. The electroelastic model is validated by a comparison of analytical and experimental FRFs for a wide range of resistive electrical boundary conditions. Finally, power generation performance of the structurally integrated piezoceramic patch harvester from multiple vibration modes is investigated analytically and experimentally.

  19. Design, fabrication, testing and delivery of a solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Ballheim, R. W.; Bartley, S. M.; Smith, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A two phase program encompassing the redesign and fabrication of a solar collector which is low in cost and aesthetically appealing is described. Phase one work reviewed the current collector design and developed a low-cost design based on specific design/performance/cost requirements. Throughout this phase selected collector component materials were evaluated by testing and by considering cost, installation, maintainability and durability. The resultant collector design was composed of an absorber plate, insulation, frame, cover, desiccant and sealant. In Phase two, three collector prototypes were fabricated and evaluated for both nonthermal and thermal characteristics. Tests included static load tests of covers, burst pressure tests of absorber plates, and tests for optical characteristics of selective absorber plate coatings. The three prototype collectors were shipped to Marshall Space Flight Center for use in their solar heating and cooling test facility.

  20. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  1. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  2. Terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology trend

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, K.; Costogue, E.

    1984-08-01

    Following the path of space PV collector development in its early stages, terrestrial PV technologies based upon single-crystal silicon have matured rapidly. Currently, terrestrial PV cells with efficiencies approaching space cell efficiencies are being fabricated into modules at a fraction of the space PV module cost. New materials, including CuInSe/sub 2/ and amorphous silicon, are being developed for lowering the cost, and multijunction materials for achieving higher efficiency. Large grid-interactive, tracking flat-plate power systems and concentrator PV systems totaling about 10 MW, are already in operation. Collector technology development both flat-plate and concentrator, will continue under an extensive government and private industry partnership.

  3. Dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.T.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a dust collector comprising: (a) a housing having inlet means for receiving air to be cleaned; (b) a plurality of filter units within the housing; (c) a first centrifugal fan arranged for drawing air through the units for removing dust from the air; (d) a plurality of ducts each connected to a corresponding one of the units at one end and to the first fan at the other end to provide passages for air from the units to the first fan, the ducts through a portion of their length being arranged in side-by-side relationship; (e) a second centrifugal fan for providing reverse flow of air through the ducts to the units, the second fan providing a high volume of air at low pressure; (f) a transverse duct connected to the second fan and extending transversely of the portion of the plurality of ducts and adjacent thereto: (g) a plurality of openings providing communication between the transverse duct and each of the plurality of ducts; (i) rotatable means engaging the vanes for sequentially moving the vanes between the first and second positions.

  4. Outdoor performance results for NBS Round Robin collector no. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of a PPG flat-plate solar collector was evaluated utilizing an outdoor solar collector test facility at the NASA-Lewis Research Center, as part of the National Bureau of Standards 'round robin' collector test program. The correlation equation for collector thermal efficiency Eta curve fit of the data was: Eta = 0.666 - 1.003(Btu/hr-sq ft-F) Theta, where the parameter Theta is the difference between the average fluid temperature and the ambient temperature, all divided by the total flux impinging on the collector.

  5. Laser soldering of Sn plated brass integrator assembly housings

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.; Poulter, G.A.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1993-09-01

    The high conductivity provided by solder closure joints of component housings is sometimes required to ensure electrical shielding of the components contained within. However, using a soldering iron to produce the solder joints can lead to charring of the insulating materials within the housing. To overcome this problem, the localized heating characteristics of laser soldering can be exploited. Feasibility of laser soldering Sn plated brass housings with a CW Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. It has been determined that laser soldering of these housings using a low solids solder flux is a viable technique and will minimize the amount of heat input to the enclosed electronic components. Metallographic analysis has shown good wetting of the solder on the housing components. Accelerated aging experiments indicate that no significant corrosion potential due to solder flux residues exists. Although a low solids flux was used to make the joints, initial results indicate that a fluxless technique can be developed to eliminate fluxes completely.

  6. Laser soldering of Sn plated brass integrator assembly housings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keicher, D. M.; Poulter, G. A.; Sorensen, N. R.

    1993-09-01

    The high conductivity provided by solder closure joints of component housings is sometimes required to ensure electrical shielding of the components contained within. However, using a soldering iron to produce the solder joints can lead to charring of the insulating materials within the housing. To overcome this problem, the localized heating characteristics of laser soldering can be exploited. The feasibility of laser soldering Sn plated brass housings with a CW Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. It has been determined that laser soldering of these housings using a low solids solder flux is a viable technique and will minimize the amount of heat input to the enclosed electronic components. Metallographic analysis has shown good wetting of the solder on the housing components. Accelerated aging experiments indicate that no significant corrosion potential due to solder flux residues exists. Although a low solids flux was used to make the joints, initial results indicate that a fluxless technique can be developed to eliminate fluxes completely.

  7. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  8. Formulas for the elastic constants of plates with integral waffle-like stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris R; Libove, Charles; Hubka, Ralph E

    1954-01-01

    Formulas are derived for the fifteen elastic constants associated with bending, stretching, twisting, and shearing of plates with closely spaced integral ribbing in a variety of configurations and proportions. In the derivation the plates are considered, conceptually, as more uniform orthotropic plates somewhat on the order of plywood. The constants, which include the effectiveness of the ribs for resisting deformations other than bending and stretching in their longitudinal directions, are defined in terms of four coefficients, and theoretical and experimental methods for the evaluation of these coefficients are discussed. Four of the more important elastic constants are predicted by these formulas and are compared with test results. Good correlation is obtained. (author)

  9. A mobile apparatus for solar collector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a mobile apparatus for solar collector testing (MASCOT) is described. The MASCOT is a self-contained test unit costing about $10,000 whose only external requirement for operation is electrical power and which is capable of testing two water-cooled flat-plate solar collectors simultaneously. The MASCOT is small enough and light enough to be transported to any geographical site for outdoor tests at the location of collector usage. It has been used in both indoor solar simulator tests and outdoor tests.

  10. Light absorption by airborne aerosols: comparison of integrating plate and spectrophone techniques.

    PubMed

    Szkarlat, A C; Japar, S M

    1981-04-01

    An excellent correlation between the integrating plate (IP) and the photoacoustic methods for measuring aerosol light absorption has been found for airborne graphitic carbon in diesel vehicle exhaust. However, the regression coefficient depends on the orientation of the Teflon membrane filter during the IP analysis. With the collected particulates between the filter and the integrating plate, the IP response is 1.85 times that for the filter reversed. In either case the response ratio of the IP method to the photoacoustic method is >1.0, i.e., 2.43 vs 1.30. The IP calibration is also probably dependent on the nature of the filter medium. PMID:20309278

  11. Integrated high-temperature piezoelectric plate acoustic wave transducers using mode conversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Ting; Kobayashi, Makiko; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2009-06-01

    Piezoelectric thick (>66 microm) films have been directly coated onto aluminum (Al) substrates using a sol-gel spray technique. With top electrode, these films serve as integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUT), which normally operate as thickness longitudinal wave transducers. When such IUT are located at the edges of the metallic plates, they can excite and detect symmetrical, antisymmetric and shear horizontal types of plate acoustic waves (PAW) using mode conversion methods. In 2 mm thick Al plates, 2 line defects of 1 mm width and 1 mm depth were clearly detected at temperatures up to 150 degrees C in pulse-echo mode. Results indicated that, for 2 mm thick aluminum plates, shear horizontal PAW were the best for the line defect detection. Also, the experimental results agree well with those obtained by a finite-difference-based method. PMID:19574129

  12. Evaluation of a Line-Concentrating Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    45-page report contains results of performance evaluation of line-concentrating solar collector. Collector employs parabolic trough to direct Sunlight to line along its focal axis, along which lies a black-chrome plated receiver tube covered by a glass tube containing still air. Reflective trough has aluminum-mirror surface covered with metallized acrylic film. Array of four collectors, positioned end to end was used for evaluation. Array was driven by single drive mechanism which was controlled by electronic tracking device.

  13. Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

  14. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties. PMID:27612711

  15. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOEpatents

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin; Mikkor, Mati

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  16. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  17. Recent progress in terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Photovoltaic Research and Development Program has the objective to develop the technology necessary to foster widespread grid-competitive electric power generation by the late 1980s. The flat-plate and the concentrator collector activities form the nucleus of the program. The project is concerned with the refining of silicon, silicon sheet production, solar cell processing and fabrication, encapsulation materials development, and collector design and production. The Large-Area Silicon Sheet Task has the objective to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of several methods for producing large area silicon sheet material suitable for fabricating low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. It is expected that a variety of economic flat-plate and concentrator collectors will become commercially available for grid-connected applications.

  18. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOEpatents

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  19. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour by hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations were used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types; flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single and dual axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first and second order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour by hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators.

  20. Integrating Plate Tectonic Reconstruction and Mantle Dynamics: A valuable Aid in Frontier Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafkenscheid, Edith; Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; van Oosterhout, Cees; Bergman, Steve; Davies, J. Huw; Govers, Rob; Hochard, Cyril; Kennan, Lorcan; Ross, Malcolm; Stampfli, Gérard M.; Vérard, Christan; Webb, Peter; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    Effective hydrocarbon exploration in frontier regions requires an understanding of the tectonic and thermal evolution of basins, among other parameters or conditions. This is especially challenging when high-resolution local data are lacking, requiring reasonable interpolation and extrapolation of more regional knowledge. Some of the key first-order parameters influencing the presence and preservation of an economic petroleum system are the basin's vertical motion history and its thermal and stress evolution. To quantify these parameters in a physically consistent manner over several hundred million years, an integrated lithosphere-mantle dynamics modeling approach is needed. To this purpose, we embarked on developing a 3D dynamic model for the whole earth that links surface phenomena to mantle convection and lithosphere dynamics. The project involved a close collaboration between Shell and three universities, and integration of many disciplines and techniques. University of Lausanne developed 600-0 Ma global plate reconstructions with consistently evolving plate boundaries. The 300-0 Ma period was then adapted to be used as surface boundary condition for forward mantle convection modeling by Cardiff University, producing global predictions of base lithosphere temperatures, heat flow and mantle induced vertical surface motion through time. As a last step, Utrecht University developed a method to predict the lithospheric stress field through time based on integration of these mantle modeling results with the plate reconstruction model. This approach offers predictive scenarios and grids relevant to petroleum exploration that can be validated with local geological and geophysical data.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of monolithically integrated microchannel plates based on amorphous silicon

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Andrea; Geissbühler, Jonas; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Microchannel plates are vacuum-based electron multipliers for particle—in particular, photon— detection, with applications ranging from image intensifiers to single-photon detectors. Their key strengths are large signal amplification, large active area, micrometric spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Here, we present the first microchannel plate made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) instead of lead glass. The breakthrough lies in the possibility of realizing amorphous silicon-based microchannel plates (AMCPs) on any kind of substrate. This achievement is based on mastering the deposition of an ultra-thick (80–120 μm) stress-controlled a-Si:H layer from the gas phase at temperatures of about 200°C and micromachining the channels by dry etching. We fabricated AMCPs that are vertically integrated on metallic anodes of test structures, proving the feasibility of monolithic integration of, for instance, AMCPs on application-specific integrated circuits for signal processing. We show an electron multiplication factor exceeding 30 for an aspect ratio, namely channel length over aperture, of 12.5:1. This result was achieved for input photoelectron currents up to 100 pA, in the continuous illumination regime, which provides a first evidence of the a-Si:H effectiveness in replenishing the electrons dispensed in the multiplication process. PMID:24698955

  2. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  3. Integrating photo-stimulable phosphor plates into dental and dental hygiene radiography curricula.

    PubMed

    Tax, Cara L; Robb, Christine L; Brillant, Martha G S; Doucette, Heather J

    2013-11-01

    It is not known whether the integration of photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP) plates into dental and dental hygiene curricula creates unique learning challenges for students. The purpose of this two-year study was to determine if dental hygiene students had more and/or different types of errors when using PSP plates compared to film and whether the PSP imaging plates had any particular characteristics that needed to be addressed in the learning process. Fifty-nine first-year dental hygiene students at one Canadian dental school were randomly assigned to two groups (PSP or film) before exposing their initial full mouth series on a teaching manikin using the parallel technique. The principal investigator determined the number and types of errors based on a specific set of performance criteria. The two groups (PSP vs. film) were compared for total number and type of errors made. Results of the study indicated the difference in the total number of errors made using PSP or film was not statistically significant; however, there was a difference in the types of errors made, with the PSP group having more horizontal errors than the film group. In addition, the study identified a number of unique characteristics of the PSP plates that required special consideration for teaching this technology. PMID:24192410

  4. Thermal performance of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) with a storage tank equipped with radial fins of rectangular profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaabane, Monia; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The thermal behavior of an integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is numerically studied using the package Fluent 6.3. Based on the good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data of Chaouachi and Gabsi (Renew Energy Revue 9(2):75-82, 2006), an attempt to improve this solar system operating was made by equipping the storage tank with radial fins of rectangular profile. A second 3D CFD model was developed and a series of numerical simulations were conducted for various SWH designs which differ in the depth of this extended surface for heat exchange. As the modified surface presents a higher characteristic length for convective heat transfer from the storage tank to the water, the fins equipped storage tank based SWH is determined to have a higher water temperature and a reduced thermal losses coefficient during the day-time period. Regarding the night operating of this water heater, the results suggest that the modified system presents higher thermal losses.

  5. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1980-04-01

    Solar absorber metal foils are discussed in terms of materials and basic processing science. Also included is the use of finished heavy sheet stock for direct fabrication of solar collector panels. Both the adhesives and bonding methods for foils and sheet are surveyed. Developmental and representative commercial foils are used as illustrative examples. As a result it was found that foils can compete economically with batch plating but are limited by adhesive temperature stability. Also absorber foils are very versatile and direct collector fabrication from heavy foils appears very promising.

  6. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  7. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  8. Inflatable solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1980-05-20

    A solar collector using air as its heat transfer medium having a top member containing a plurality of transparent sealed air pockets allowing passage of radiant energy but preventing conductive and convective heat losses generated inside the collector; a central black-coated absorbent plastic member divides the center of the collector into a plurality of interconnected inflatable upper and lower chambers connected to air pumps at one end and to a constriction valve outlet at the other. The lower end of the lower chambers consists of a cover containing a multiplicity of insulative sealed air channels. The collector can be mounted on a turntable frame having adjustable reflective panels mounted above and below the collector. The heated air after it has given up its calories to a storage unit is recirculated to the inflatable chambers.

  9. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  10. Thermal performance evaluation of the Semco (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained during the evaluation test program on a flat plate collector which uses water as the working fluid are discussed. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8 in. x 120.8 in. x 4.1 in. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test.

  11. Ceramic materials for solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankeny, A.E.

    1982-09-29

    The purpose of this project was to identify ceramic materials which exhibit solar absorption properties which are appropriate for flat plate solar collectors. To accomplish this, various glaze formulations and clay combinations were produced and evaluated for their potential as solar absorbers. For purposes of comparison a black coated copper sheet was also tested concurrently with the ceramic materials. Thirty-five different coatings were prepared on fifty-six tiles. Two different clays, a porcelain and a stoneware clay, were used to make the tiles. From the tiles prepared, thirty of the most promising coatings were chosen for evaluation. The test apparatus consisted of a wooden frame which enclosed four mini-collectors. Each mini-collector was a rectangular ceramic heat exchanger on which a test tile could be mounted. The working fluid, water, was circulated into the collector, passed under the test tile where it gained heat, and then was discharged out of the collector. Thermometers were installed in the inlet and discharge areas to indicate the temperature increase of the water. The quantity of heat absorbed was determined by measuring the water flow (pounds per minute) and multiplying it by the temperature increase (/sup 0/F). The control sample, a copper wheet painted flat black, provided a base by which to compare the performance of the test tiles installed in the other three mini-collectors. Testing was conducted on various days during August and September, 1982. The test results indicate that coatings with very satisfactory solar absorbing properties can be made with ceramic materials. The results suggest that an economically viable ceramic solar collector could be constructed if engineered to minimize the effects of relatively low thermal conductivity of clay.

  12. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  13. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  14. State-of-the-art review of low-cost collector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, W. A.

    1981-06-01

    This report provides a brief but concise review of low-cost solar collector technologies and their potential for application within the military. The report covers low-cost, light-weight concepts for flat-plate collectors, parabolic trough collectors, heliostats and parabolic dish collectors. In addition, several criteria were evaluated with respect to low-cost collector technologies. These included reliability, maintainability, survivability, mobility/erectibility, environmental impact and economics. Research and development requirements and ongoing activities were also summarized. This report documents one of several ongoing state-of-the-art reviews of solar technologies performed by an Air Force liaison office with the Department of Energy.

  15. Stereomicroscope Inspection of Polished Aluminum Collector 50684.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Genesis polished aluminum "kidney" collector was damaged during the hard landing of the capsule on September 8, 2004 in the Utah desert. The kidney was introduced into the Genesis (ISO class 4) cleanroom laboratory on November 4, 2004 and stored under nitrogen cover gas. The collector is currently fastened to a highly polished stainless steel plate for secure handling. Curatorial work at JSC has made successful subdivision and subsequent allocation of samples from the kidney.

  16. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-08-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic theory. In particular, our aim is to observe which scientific practices preservice teachers use while teaching an earth science unit, how do they integrate these practices into their lessons, and what challenges do they face during their first time teaching of an earth science content area integrated with scientific practices. The study is designed as a qualitative, exploratory case study of seven preservice teachers while they were learning to teach plate tectonic theory to a group of middle school students. The data were driven from the video records and artifacts of the preservice teachers' learning and teaching processes as well as written reflections on the teaching. Intertextual discourse analysis was used to understand what scientific practices preservice teachers choose to integrate into their teaching experience. Our results showed that preservice teachers chose to focus on four aspects of scientific practices: (1) employing historical understanding of how the theory emerged, (2) encouraging the use of evidence to build up a theory, (3) observation and interpretation of data maps, and (4) collaborative practices in making up the theory. For each of these practices, we also looked at the common challenges faced by preservice teachers by using constant comparative analysis. We observed the practices that preservice teachers decided to use and the challenges they faced, which were determined by what might have come as in their personal history as learners. Therefore, in order to strengthen preservice teachers' background, college courses should be arranged to teach important scientific ideas through scientific practices

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  18. The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of biomimetic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jiandong; Gu, Yueyan; Zhao, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The influence mechanism of processing holes on the flexural properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates (FIHPs) was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), and the results were compared with experimental data, yielding the following findings: 1) Processing holes under tensile stress have a significant impact on the mechanical properties of FIHPs, which is particularly obvious when initial imperfections are formed during sample preparation. 2) A proposed design technique based on changing the shape of the processing holes from circular to elliptical effectively reduces the stress concentration when such holes must exist in skin or components under tension, and this method motivates a design concept for experimental tests of FIHPs bearing dynamic or fatigue loads. 3) The flexural failure modes of FIHPs were confirmed via FEM analysis, and the mechanism by which trabeculae in FIHPs can effectively prevent cracks from emerging and cause cracks to develop along certain paths was ascertained. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of processing holes in bionic honeycomb plates and other similar components in practical engineering applications. PMID:27612774

  19. Theory of the geyser-pump solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.

    1985-01-01

    The geyser-pump solar collector is a self-controlling, self-pumping active collector having no moving or electronic parts, drawing its mechanical pump energy from boiling in the collector's risers. The only use of the geyser-pump principle reported in patents and the open literature is only for circulating the fluid in the collector plate. Computer simulations show that most design and algorithm parameters have only negligible impact on solar fraction, F. The only parameter which affects F is the length of the storage heat exchanger. Episodic cloud cover does not hamper the geyser-pump collector's ability to restart. Daylong simulations show that the energy cost of geyser-pumping is only about 3% of the absorbed insolation. The geyser-pump collector is found to be as efficient as an electrically pumped collector. Initial costs are estimated to be about the same for the geyser-pump and conventional collectors, but lifetime costs of the geyser-pump are substantially lower, perhaps only half, because of low maintenance.

  20. Comparison of Proportional and On/Off Solar Collector Loop Control Strategies Using a Dynamic Collector Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, S. R.; Warren, M. L.; Auslander, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Common control strategies used to regulate the flow of liquid through flat-plate solar collectors are discussed and evaluated using a dynamic collector model. Performance of all strategies is compared using different set points, flow rates, insolation levels and patterns (clear and cloudy days), and ambient temperature conditions. The unique characteristic of the dynamic collector model is that it includes effects of collector capacitance. In general, capacitance has a minimal effect on long term collector performance; however, short term temperature response and the energy =storage capability of collector capacitance are shown to play significant roles in comparing on/off and proportional controllers. Inclusion of these effects has produced considerably more realistic simulations than any generated by steady-state models. Simulations indicate relative advantages and disadvantages of both types of controllers, conditions under which each performs better, and the importance of pump cycling and controller set points on total energy collection. Results show that the turn-on set point is not always a critical factor in energy collection since collectors store energy while they warm up and during cycling; and, that proportional flow controllers provide improved energy collection only during periods of interrupted or very low insolation when the maximum possible energy collection is rela= tively low. Although proportional controllers initiate flow ·at lower insolation levels than on/off controllers, proportional controllers produce lower flow rates and higher average collector temperatures resulting in slightly lower instantaneous collection efficiencies.

  1. Integrating research infrastructures for solid Earth science in Europe: the European Plate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocco, M.; Giardini, D.; EPOS-PP Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) coordinates and integrates the research infrastructures in the European-Mediterranean region, to promote innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The EPOS 30-year plan aims at integrating the currently scattered, but highly advanced European facilities into one distributed, coherent multidisciplinary Research Infrastructure allowing sustainable long-term Earth science research strategies and an effective coordinated European-scale monitoring facility for solid Earth dynamics taking full advantage of new e-science opportunities. EPOS has been approved by ESFRI (the European Scientific Forum for Research Infrastructures) as one of the critical European Research Infrastructures, and the EPOS Preparatory Phase is supported by the European Commission FP7 program. The cooperation between EPOS and similar US infrastructures (i.e. Earthscope) will be ensured by dedicated NSF-EC funding. EPOS is integrating data from permanent national and regional geophysical monitoring networks (seismological, GPS), with the observations from "in-situ" observatories (volcano observatories, in-situ fault zone test sites) and temporary-monitoring and laboratory experiments through a cyber-infrastructure for data mining and processing, and facilities for data integration, archiving and exchange. The vision is to integrate these existing research infrastructures in order to increase the accessibility and usability of multidisciplinary data from monitoring networks, laboratory experiments and computational simulations enhancing worldwide interoperability in Earth Science by establishing a leading integrated European infrastructure and services. More recently the EPOS and the satellite Earth Observation communities are collaborating in order to promote the integration of data from in-situ monitoring

  2. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  3. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Lennox/Honeywell (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Lennox/Honeywell double covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Lennox/Honeywell collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is steel with copper tubes bonded on the upper surface, and is coated with black chrome. Visual inspection of the collector indicated slight discoloration of the absorber plate. Results indicate that performance degradation had occurred. Absorptivity and/or transmissivity decreased as a result of the weathering.

  4. Artists and collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    1995-02-01

    `Where can I buy holograms?' `Where can I exhibit, there is no more gallery to show me?' These are the two complaints I have heard these past two years, first from the collectors and museum curators, second from the artists, Trained as a psycho-sociologist, I have been the curator and research associate of the Museum of Holography in Washington, D.C. for 7 years, at a time when holography was coming out of the laboratory, creating a real 3-D novelty in people's minds. I saw the mass production growing and the applications multiplying. Meanwhile the artists appeared and started to deal with gallery managers. After the renting period of artworks for exhibits, price went up. The general recession affected the art and the dialogue between collectors and artists became harder. Having my husband as an artist, I know pretty well both sides. My paper tries to analyze the situation to facilitate the communication between artists and collectors.

  5. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  6. Thermal performance evaluation of Solar Energy Products Company (SEPCO) 'Soloron' collector tested outdoors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiou, J., Sr.

    1977-01-01

    The test article, Model EF-212, Serial Nr. 002, is a single glazed collector with a nonselective absorber plate, using flowing air as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate and box frame are aluminum and the insulation is one inch isocyanurate foam board with thermal conductivity of 0.11 (BTU/sq ft Hr0/ft.) The tests included the following. (1) time constant test, (2) collector efficiency test, (3) collector stagnation test, (4) incident angle modifier test, (5) load test, (6) weathering test, and (7) absorber plate optical properties test. The results of these tests are tabulated, graphed, or otherwise recorded.

  7. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of Sunworks (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K.

    1977-01-01

    Test procedures used and test results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted on a single covered liquid solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The test article was a flat plate solar collector using water as the heat transfer medium. The absorber plate was copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder. The plate was coated with Enthone selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 approximately .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 approximately .20. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector.

  8. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  9. Collector/collector guard ring balancing circuit eliminates edge effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit in which an emitter is maintained opposite a concentric collector and guard structure is achieved by matching the temperature and potential of the guard with that of the collector over the operating range. This control system is capable of handling up to 100 amperes in the guard circuit and 200 amperes in the collectors circuit.

  10. Wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  11. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  12. Design and fabrication considerations of EUVL collectors for HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Kools, J.; Prea, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F. E.; Bolshukhin, D.; Schürmann, M.; Schriever, G.; Mader, A.; Zink, P.

    2009-03-01

    The power roadmap for EUVL high volume manufacturing (HVM) exceeds the 200W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus, thus posing more demanding requirements on HVM sources, debris suppression systems and collectors. Starting from the lessons learned in the design and fabrication of the grazing incidence collectors for the Alpha EUVL scanners, Media Lario Technologies is developing HVM optical solutions that enable designed-in lifetime improvements, such as larger source-collector distances, optimized collection efficiency through larger collected solid angles, and customized EUV reflective layers. The optical design of an HVM collector is described together with the selection of the sacrificial ruthenium reflective layer. The water cooling layout of the collector is evolved from the integrated cooling technology developed at Alpha level into an innovative cooling layout that minimizes the thermal gradients across the mirrors and allows controlling the optical performance at the far-field plane. Finally, the evolution of the collector's manufacturing technologies for HVM is discussed. XTREME technologies and Philips Extreme UV support this work by integrating the collector in the complete source collector module (SoCoMo). At system level, each component of the SoCoMo is part of a development and improvement plan leading to a comprehensive system that will fulfill the 200+ W EUV in-band power at intermediate focus.

  13. AN INTERCOMPARISON CF THE INTEGRATING PLATE AND THE LASER TRANSMISSION METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AEROSOL ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, M.; Charlson, R.J.; Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.

    1980-07-01

    The absorption coefficients determined by the integrating plate method and the laser transmission method are found to be comparable and highly correlated. Furthermore, a high correlation is found between these absorption coefficients and the carbon content of the aerosol in urbanized regions.

  14. Sheldon Jackson the Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Rosemary

    Missionary, educator, humanitarian, and collector, the Reverend Sheldon Jackson came to Alaska in 1877 to assimilate Native populations into the dominant White culture, but his collecting efforts between 1877 and 1902 represent a significant effort to preserve the legacy of Alaska Natives during a period of tumultuous change. A zealous missionary,…

  15. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  16. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  17. Variable-node plate and shell elements with assumed natural strain and smoothed integration methods for nonmatching meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dongwoo; Im, Seyoung

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, novel finite elements that include an arbitrary number of additional nodes on each edge of a quadrilateral element are proposed to achieve compatible connection of neighboring nonmatching meshes in plate and shell analyses. The elements, termed variable-node plate elements, are based on two-dimensional variable-node elements with point interpolation and on the Mindlin-Reissner plate theory. Subsequently the flat shell elements, termed variable-node shell elements, are formulated by further extending the plate elements. To eliminate a transverse shear locking phenomenon, the assumed natural strain method is used for plate and shell analyses. Since the variable-node plate and shell elements allow an arbitrary number of additional nodes and overcome locking problems, they make it possible to connect two nonmatching meshes and to provide accurate solutions in local mesh refinement. In addition, the curvature and strain smoothing methods through smoothed integration are adopted to improve the element performance. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elements in terms of the accuracy and efficiency of the analyses.

  18. Performance equations of a collector cum storage system using phase change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, N.K. ); Buddhi, D. )

    1992-01-01

    A thermal analysis has been developed for a collector cum system for quasi-steady-state conditions using phase change materials. Performance equations of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss type for flat-plate collector cum storage system have been obtained. Calculations have been performed for a wide range of parameters to investigate the applicability of the developed mathematical model.

  19. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  20. Thermal performance evaluation of the Calmac (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, H.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the S. N. 1, (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is aluminum with plastic tubes coated with urethane black. The glazing consists of .040 in fiberglass reinforced polyester. The collector weight is 78.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 50.3in. x 98.3in. x 3.8in. The following information is given: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static loading, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  1. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  2. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  3. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of a solar energy collector system for residential heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, T. H.; Borzoni, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A low cost flat plate solar energy collector was designed for the heating and cooling of residential buildings. The system meets specified performance requirements, at the desired system operating levels, for a useful life of 15 to 20 years, at minimum cost and uses state-of-the-art materials and technology. The rationale for the design method was based on identifying possible material candidates for various collector components and then selecting the components which best meet the solar collector design requirements. The criteria used to eliminate certain materials were: performance and durability test results, cost analysis, and prior solar collector fabrication experience.

  4. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K. N.

    1985-06-11

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a self-defined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  5. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K.N.

    1984-09-25

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a selfdefined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  6. Performance analysis of innovative collector fields for solar-electric plants, using air as heat transfer medium

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi Desenzani, P.; Gaia, M.

    1984-08-01

    The production of electricity by thermodynamic conversion of the heat supplied by flat plate collectors has been tried many times. The use of air as heat transfer medium could allow a dramatic simplification of the collector field and a relevant reduction of thermal inertia. The paper discusses the characteristics of a system based on air collectors and ORC engine. Both multilayer inflated plastic sheet collectors and vacuum tubes collectors are proposed as suitable solutions. The field fan power consumption is optimized jointly with the power cycle evaporator design. Both the envisaged solutions are investigated on the point of view of overall cost/performance ratio.

  7. Integrating seismological and tectonic studies to constrain lithospheric evolution at complex plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin Peter

    The relative motion of tectonic plates across their boundaries generates deformation in the surrounding lithosphere. How this deformation is expressed reflects both present-day plate configurations and how plate boundaries evolve. To understand the behavior of plate boundaries, we must study how they have developed. The advances made in seismology over the past fifty years---both in observation and application---provide tools ideal for such analysis. Here, I use these tools to investigate the tectonic evolution of complex plate boundaries. I focus on two areas that have experienced geologically recent plate tectonic variations---the Mendocino triple junction in northern California, and the Australia:Pacific plate boundary south of New Zealand. In northern California, the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction over the past ˜10Ma has driven a synchronous pattern of thickening and thinning of North American crust. In studying this deformation I find major thinning is localized to a narrow region of crust in the Redwood Valley area. This thinning is accompanied by a steeply dipping Moho (>15°), and by high Poisson's Ratio's in the lower crust, characteristic of layers of melt. These melts may link to shallow (˜10km) dike injections that drive a migrating sequence of seismicity in the shallow crust near Lake Pillsbury. The limited data sets available led me to develop new tools in receiver function and crustal velocity ratio analyses that significantly improve our ability to resolve spatial changes in crustal properties. The application of these techniques forms a second major aspect of this thesis. Finally, I analyze the deformation of Australian lithosphere adjacent to the plate boundary south of New Zealand. I perform earthquake relocations on the distribution of intra- and inter-plate seismicity, and combined with plate reconstructions since the late Oligocene show that deformation occurs over a ˜150km wide area west of the current plate boundary

  8. Contoured insulation window for evacuated solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Coppola, F. T.; Lentz, W. P.; Vandewoestine, R. V.

    1980-02-05

    An insulating contoured window is provided for use with an enclosed chamber such as an evacuated flat plate solar heat collector with the contoured solar window being of minimum thickness and supported solely about its peripheral edge portions. The window is contoured in both its longitudinal and transverse directions, such that in its longitudinal direction the window is composed of a plurality of sinusoidal corrugations whereas in its transverse direction the peaks of such corrugations are contoured in the form of paraboloids so that the structure may withstand the forces generated thereon by the atmosphere.

  9. An analytical investigation of the performance of solar collectors as nighttime heat radiators in airconditioning cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that if the upper and lower ends of a collector were opened, large free convention currents may be set up between the collector surface and the cover glass(es) which can result in appreciable heat rejection. If the collector is so designed that both plates surfaces are exposed to convection currents when the upper and lower ends of the collector enclosure are opened, the heat rejection rate is 300 watts sq m when the plate is 13 C above ambient. This is sufficient to permit a collector array designed to provide 100 percent of the heating needs of a home to reject the accumulated daily air conditioning load during the course of a summer night. This also permits the overall energy requirements for cooling to be reduced by at least 15 percent and shift the load on the utility entirely to the nighttime hours.

  10. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  11. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center Solar test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures and the results obtained during the evaluation of a single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions for a total of approximately ten months. The solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  12. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  13. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  14. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  15. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar facilities design integration: collector-field optimization report (RADL item 2-25)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Appropriate cost and performance models and computer codes have been developed to carry out the collector field optimization, as well as additional computer codes to define the actual heliostat locations in the optimized field and to compute in detail the performance to be expected of the defined field. The range of capabilities of the available optimization and performance codes is described. The role of the optimization code in the definition of the pilot plant is specified, and a complete description of the optimization process itself is given. The detailed cost model used by the optimizer for the commercial system optimization is presented in the form of equations relating the cost element to each of the factors that determine it. The design basis for the commercial system is presented together with the rationale for its selection. The development of the individual heliostat performance code is presented. Use of the individual heliostat code in a completed study of receiver panel power under sunrise startup conditions is described. The procedure whereby performance and heliostat spacing data from the representative commercial-scale system are converted into coefficients of use in the layout processor is described, and the actual procedure used in the layout processor is described. Numerous special studies in support of the pilot plant design are described. (LEW)

  16. Depressed collector for electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A depressed collector for recovery of spent beam energy from electromagnetic sources emitting sheet or large aspect ration annular electron beams operating aver a broad range of beam voltages and currents. The collector incorporates a trap for capturing and preventing the return of reflected and secondary electrons.

  17. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  18. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  19. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic…

  20. Towards an Integrated Model of Earth's Thermo-Chemical Evolution and Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Xie, S.

    2001-05-01

    It has long been a challenge for geodynamicists, who have typically modeled homogeneous mantles, to explain the geochemical evidence for the existence of several distinct chemical reservoirs, in terms of a dynamically and chemically self-consistent model. While the mixing behavior of generalized tracers has received much attention in the modeling community, a recent trend has been towards mantle convection models that track the evolution of specific chemical species, both major and minor, and can thus be related to geochemical observations. However, obtaining realistic chemical evolution in such models is dependent on their having a reasonable representation of plate tectonic behavior since the recycling of oceanic crust and complementary depleted residuum is a key process in Earth that other terrestrial planets may lack. In general, this has required inserting plate motions by hand in models. In recent years, however, we have learned how to perform numerical simulations of mantle convection in which plate tectonic behavior is introduced self-consistently through plastic yielding of the lithosphere. In this presentation, models of mantle convection that combine a treatment of geochemical evolution with self-consistently generated plate tectonics, will be presented. Preliminary results indicate that the system can self-consistently evolve regions which have a HIMU-like signature as well as regions with a high He3/He4 ratio.

  1. MSFC hot air collectors. Phase 1: Test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    A development test program of 3 hot air flat plate solar collectors is described in detail. The pressure drop versus flow rate performance characteristics for these collectors, mounted in series, was determined under 14 different test conditions each of which was characterized by a unique combination of inlet air temperature and air flow rate. Characteristics of inlet, exit and transfer ducts of these collectors were also determined during this testing. The test results indicate that significant pressure drop occurs at air flow rates greater than 150 standard cubic feet per minute and this drop is not heavily dependent upon inlet air temperature; and inlet, exit and transfer duct characteristics differ sufficiently to suggest that system performance may be enhanced through careful design of each type of duct individually.

  2. Experimental and modal verification of an integral equation solution for a thin-walled dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L. W.; Stanton, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    In order to add the capability of an X-band uplink onto the 70-m antenna, a new dichroic plate is needed to replace the Pyle-guide-shaped dichroic plate currently in use. The replacement dichroic plate must exhibit an additional passband at the new uplink frequency of 7.165 GHz, while still maintaining a passband at the existing downlink frequency of 8.425 GHz. Because of the wide frequency separation of these two passbands, conventional methods of designing air-filled dichroic plates exhibit grating lobe problems. A new method of solving this problem by using a dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes is presented and verified experimentally. Two checks of the integral equation solution are described. One is the comparison to a modal analysis for the limiting cross shape of a square hole. As a final check, a prototype dichroic plate with cross-shaped holes was built and measured.

  3. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  4. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  5. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  6. Integrating Geochemical and Geodynamic Numerical Models of Mantle Evolution and Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Xie, S.

    2001-12-01

    The thermal and chemical evolution of Earth's mantle and plates are inextricably coupled by the plate tectonic - mantle convective system. Convection causes chemical differentiation, recycling and mixing, while chemical variations affect the convection through physical properties such as density and viscosity which depend on composition. It is now possible to construct numerical mantle convection models that track the thermo-chemical evolution of major and minor elements, and which can be used to test prospective models and hypotheses regarding Earth's chemical and thermal evolution. Model thermal and chemical structures can be compared to results from seismic tomography, while geochemical signatures (e.g., trace element ratios) can be compared to geochemical observations. The presented, two-dimensional model combines a simplified 2-component major element model with tracking of the most important trace elements, using a tracer method. Melting is self-consistently treated using a solidus, with melt placed on the surface as crust. Partitioning of trace elements occurs between melt and residue. Decaying heat-producing elements and secular cooling of the mantle and core provide the driving heat sources. Pseudo-plastic yielding of the lithosphere gives a first-order approximation of plate tectonics, and also allows planets with a rigid lid or intermittent plate tectonics to be modeled simply by increasing the yield strength. Preliminary models with an initially homogeneous mantle show that regions with a HIMU-like signature can be generated by crustal recycling, and regions with high 3He/4He ratios can be generated by residuum recycling. Outgassing of Argon is within the observed range. Models with initially layered mantles will also be investigated. In future it will be important to include a more realistic bulk compositional model that allows continental crust as well as oceanic crust to form, and to extend the model to three dimensions since toroidal flow may alter

  7. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:27113558

  8. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion.

  9. Efficiently-cooled plasmonic amorphous silicon solar cells integrated with a nano-coated heat-pipe plate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Du, Yanping; Shum, Clifford; Cai, Boyuan; Le, Nam Cao Hoai; Chen, Xi; Duck, Benjamin; Fell, Christopher; Zhu, Yonggang; Gu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) are emerging as a major alternative energy source. The cost of PV electricity depends on the efficiency of conversion of light to electricity. Despite of steady growth in the efficiency for several decades, little has been achieved to reduce the impact of real-world operating temperatures on this efficiency. Here we demonstrate a highly efficient cooling solution to the recently emerging high performance plasmonic solar cell technology by integrating an advanced nano-coated heat-pipe plate. This thermal cooling technology, efficient for both summer and winter time, demonstrates the heat transportation capability up to ten times higher than those of the metal plate and the conventional wickless heat-pipe plates. The reduction in temperature rise of the plasmonic solar cells operating under one sun condition can be as high as 46%, leading to an approximate 56% recovery in efficiency, which dramatically increases the energy yield of the plasmonic solar cells. This newly-developed, thermally-managed plasmonic solar cell device significantly extends the application scope of PV for highly efficient solar energy conversion. PMID:27113558

  10. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  11. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  12. Analysis of heat-pipe absorbers in evacuated-tube solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.

    1986-02-01

    Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or nonevacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.

  13. Charge collectors for the omega upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakobi, B.

    1993-08-01

    Charge collectors placed at several distances from the target measure the current of ions resulting from target disassembly and expansion, as a function of arrival time at the detector. Since the expanding plasma is neutral, comprising both electrons and ions moving together, the role of the charge collector is to separate out the electrons, so that the net ion current can be measured. The time-integrated current, or the total charge, can yield the total mass ablated from the target, provided the ionic charge Z is known. From the total ablated mass, the mass ablation rate during the target implosion can be estimated. This quantity provides a useful gauge of the combined effects of absorption, heat conduction, and hydrodynamic efficiency in target interactions. In principle, one charge collector can yield useful results because we assume spherical symmetry of the expansion (this question is addressed directly by the plasma calorimeters of which there are many around the target). In practice there will be four charge collectors, two at the tank wall (distance R from the target) and two in an extension tube, at a distance of about 2R from the target. The reason for the two different distances is to check that complete charge separation within the detector has been achieved. A signature of such separation will be to verify that the current falls off as I/R{sup 2} with distance from the target. Since the separation can be inadequate due to space charges within the detector, the farther detector, having smaller charge density, will be more reliable. The two pairs will be oriented at about 90{degrees} with respect to each other (say, east and north) to give a rough idea on the isotropy.

  14. Ray-tracing software comparison for linear focusing solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Tiago; Horta, Pedro; Larcher, Marco; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón; Hertel, Julian; van Rooyen, De Wet; Heimsath, Anna; Schneider, Simon; Benitez, Daniel; Frein, Antoine; Denarie, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Ray-Tracing software tools have been widely used in the optical design of solar concentrating collectors. In spite of the ability of these tools to assess the geometrical and material aspects impacting the optical performance of concentrators, their use in combination with experimental measurements in the framework of collector testing procedures as not been implemented, to the date, in none of the current solar collector testing standards. In the latest revision of ISO9806 an effort was made to include linear focusing concentrating collectors but some practical and theoretical difficulties emerged. A Ray-Tracing analysis could provide important contributions to overcome these issues, complementing the experimental results obtained through thermal testing and allowing the achievement of more thorough testing outputs with lower experimental requirements. In order to evaluate different available software tools a comparison study was conducted. Taking as representative technologies for line-focus concentrators the Parabolic Trough Collector and the Linear Fresnel Reflector Collector, two exemplary cases with predefined conditions - geometry, sun model and material properties - were simulated with different software tools. This work was carried out within IEA/SHC Task 49 "Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes".

  15. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  16. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  18. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  19. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  20. Solar collector with an absorbent surface in the form of a venetian blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowski, A.; Derczynski, M.; Machizaud, F.; Flechon, J.

    1984-11-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of flat plate air collectors, we propose the use of absorbing areas in the form of a venetian blind and composed of two planes of discontinuous and parallel lamellae. The theoretical analysis confirmed by the experimental results reveals that the energy parameters resulting from this structure are better than those obtained in the case of collectors using a single plane continuous absorbing surface.

  1. Performance analysis of wick-assisted heat pipe solar collector and comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, E.

    2009-03-01

    The performance of heat pipe solar collector is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The system employs wick-assisted heat pipe for the heat transfer from the absorber (evaporator) to a heat exchanger (condenser). The heat pipe is made with a copper tube and the evaporator section is finned with aluminium plate. Theoretical model predicts the outlet water from heat exchanger, heat pipe temperature and also the thermal efficiency of solar collector. The results are compared with experimental data.

  2. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  3. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-07-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  4. Solar collector parameter identification from unsteady data by a discrete-gradient optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Burmeister, L. C.; Bishop, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-gradient optimization algorithm is used to identify the parameters in a one-node and a two-node capacitance model of a flat-plate collector. Collector parameters are first obtained by a linear-least-squares fit to steady state data. These parameters, together with the collector heat capacitances, are then determined from unsteady data by use of the discrete-gradient optimization algorithm with less than 10 percent deviation from the steady state determination. All data were obtained in the indoor solar simulator at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  5. Integral resistors and capacitors for mixed-signal packages using electroless plating and polymer-ceramic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, Premjeet

    In this work, new approaches to achieving integral resistors and capacitors on large area substrates at low temperatures in a high density wiring (HDW) environment using non-vacuum deposition techniques are introduced. This includes the use of polymer-ceramic nanocomposites for integral capacitors and electroless plating for integral resistors. From the literature review it is believed that resistors in the range of 5--50 ohm/square and capacitors in the range of 1--20 nF/cm2 can satisfy most of the mixed-signal application needs. The proposed materials can satisfy this need as demonstrated in this work. Several test vehicles were fabricated and measured to characterize the material properties, and demonstrate conventional and novel circuits for mixed-signal applications. To begin with, several polymer-ceramic combinations were analyzed under varying conditions to gain a fundamental understanding of the material system. Experimental advances have been made to achieve high dielectric constant values for both epoxy-ceramic and polyimide-ceramic systems. These material systems in general can satisfy specific capacitances in the range of 1--22 nF/cm2. These materials were found to be stable into the GHz range and have low loss-tangent. For electroless resistors, several plating baths were studied and a combination of Ni-P/Ni-W-P was found to produce the best results. Uniform plating was achieved through better nucleation of PdCl2 catalyst through the use of organosilane surface treatment. The Ni-P/Ni-W-P films produced sheet resistance in the range of 5--50 ohm/square and TCR below 50 ppm/°C. The material is stable into the GHz range. Upon optimizing the electrical properties and processing of capacitors and resistors, several test vehicles were fabricated to demonstrate some conventional and novel passive structures for RF and mixed-signal applications (e.g., filters, delay lines, etc.). Some of the structures were modeled using MDS and PSPICE and a good correlation

  6. Assessment of the integrity of compounds stored in assay-ready plates using a kinase sentinel assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ada; Zhao, Xiaoning; Mercer, Laina; Su, Cheng; Zalameda, Leeanne; Liu, Yichin; Lembke, Amanda; Eastwood, Heather; Dang, Son; Oung, Thim; Xia, Xiaoyang; Young, Stephen W; Xiao, Shouhua; McCarter, John D

    2013-09-01

    Sentinel assays are a convenient adjunct to LC-MS purity assessment to monitor the integrity of compounds in pharmaceutical screening collections over time. To assess the stability of compounds stored both at room temperature and at -20°C in assay-ready plates that were either vacuum pack-sealed using a convenient industrial vacuum sealing method or individually sealed using conventional foil seals, a diverse collection of ~ 5,000 compounds was assayed using a robust biochemical kinase assay at intervals over a one year period. Assay results at each time point were compared to those of initial assay using a series of correlations of compound Percent of Control (POC) values as well as IC50 values of a subset of compounds in 200 nL or 500 nL plates. The fraction of hits in common between initial assays and assays at later time points ranged from 82% to 95% over one year and remained relatively constant over time with all storage temperatures or sealing methods tested. A majority of the hits that exhibited a consistent gradual trend to lower potency over one year storage were shifted to lower potency upon the rapid removal of DMSO solvent. Compound precipitation rather than compound decomposition is the likely reason for trends to lower potency for most such compounds over the storage period. Plates stored at room temperature featured a significantly higher fraction of hits that exhibited a trend to lower apparent potency than those stored at -20°C suggesting that this lower temperature is preferable for longer-term storage. PMID:23651141

  7. Gas heat conduction in an evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Goldemund, G.; Benz, N.

    1996-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction in an evacuated plate-in-tube solar collector. A stationary heat loss experiment was built up with an electrically heated real-size collector model. The gas pressure was varied from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 4} Pa, the temperatures of the absorber and the casing were held at 150{degree}C (electrical heaters) and 30{degree}C (water cooling), respectively. Losses by radiation and solid conduction were determined experimentally at pressures below 0.1 Pa. At higher pressures these background losses were subtracted from the total heat losses, to receive the heat losses by gas heat conduction. The experimental results were compared with approximate theoretical models. The onset of convection is in agreement with the usual theories for parallel plates taking the largest distance between the absorber and the gas tube as the plate distance. As a first approximation the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction is described by the usual theory for parallel plates, taking the smallest distance between the absorber and the glass tube as the plate distance. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Core-log integration for rock mechanics using borehole breakouts and rock strength experiments: Recent results from plate subduction margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Lin, W.

    2014-12-01

    Core-log integration has been applied for rock mechanics studies in scientific ocean drilling since 2007 in plate subduction margins such as Nankai Trough, Costa Rica margin, and Japan Trench. State of stress in subduction wedge is essential for controlling dynamics of plate boundary fault. One of the common methods to estimate stress state is analysis of borehole breakouts (drilling induced borehole wall compressive failures) recorded in borehole image logs to determine the maximum horizontal principal stress orientation. Borehole breakouts can also yield possible range of stress magnitude based on a rock compressive strength criterion. In this study, we constrained the stress magnitudes based on two different rock failure criteria, the Mohr-Coulomb (MC) criteria and the modified Wiebols-Cook (mWC) criteria. As the MC criterion is the same as that under unconfined compression state, only one rock parameter, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is needed to constrain stress magnitudes. The mWC criterion needs the UCS, Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient determined by triaxial compression experiments to take the intermediate principal stress effects on rock strength into consideration. We conducted various strength experiments on samples taken during IODP Expeditions 334/344 (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project) to evaluate reliable method to estimate stress magnitudes. Our results show that the effects of the intermediate principal stress on the rock compressive failure occurred on a borehole wall is not negligible.

  9. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  10. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  11. Free vibration analysis of laminated plate/shell structures based on FSDT with a stabilized nodal-integrated quadrilateral element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen-Van, H.; Mai-Duy, N.; Tran-Cong, T.

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports numerical analyses of free vibration of laminated composite plate/shell structures of various shapes, span-to-thickness ratios, boundary conditions and lay-up sequences. The method is based on a novel four-node quadrilateral element, namely MISQ20, within the framework of the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The element is built by incorporating a strain smoothing method into the bilinear four-node quadrilateral finite element where the strain smoothing operation is based on mesh-free conforming nodal integration. The bending and membrane stiffness matrices are based on the boundaries of smoothing cells while the shear term is evaluated by 2×2 Gauss quadrature. Through several numerical examples, the capability, efficiency and simplicity of the element are demonstrated. Convergence studies and comparison with other existing solutions in the literature suggest that the present element is robust, computationally inexpensive and free of locking.

  12. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  13. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-08-01

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  14. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  15. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center solar facilities. The Elcam fin-tube (liquid) solar collectors each consist of an absorber plate 5.9 inches wide by 83 inches long and a type M copper tube of 0.569 inch nominal inside diameter. No cover plate was used with any of the specimens. The uniqueness of each of the seven configurations is described, and tests were performed on each separate configuration.

  16. New concepts for chip-supported multi-well-plates: realization of a 24-well-plate with integrated impedance-sensors for functional cellular screening applications and automated microscope aided cell-based assays.

    PubMed

    Ressler, J; Grothe, H; Motrescu, E; Wolf, B

    2004-01-01

    Based on the experience with multiparametric bioelectronic sensor chips for the monitoring of living cells, we have combined the established multi-well-format with the advantages of microelectronic sensors. The result is a 24-well-plate where the bottom of the wells is replaced by glass-based chips with integrated IDES (interdigital electrode structure). By using IDES it is possible to detect adhesion and morphological changes of adherent growing cell cultures. Up to now these measurements were inaccessible in conjunction with multi-well-plates, especially in high throughput applications. If microscopic monitoring of the cell culture is required, the IDES can be fabricated using transparent conductor materials like ITO (indium tin oxide). Both the transparent material for the sensors and the sensor-carrier make the multi-well-plate also applicable for all kinds of fluorescence and luminescence biological tests. In addition to the impedance-sensors optical read-out sensor layers for pH and pO2 can be integrated. For this reason there are many possible fields of application in biological and biomedical areas such as drug screening, chemosensitive testing and environmental toxicology as well as in biosensing for biological and chemical warfare. Especially the possibility of using this multi-well-plate together with automated imaging-systems has the great advantage of combining optical and sensory monitoring accessible to high-throughput-applications. PMID:17272129

  17. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  18. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  19. Research of micro-prism distribution on the bottom surface of the small-size integrated light guide plate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Huang, Yanyan; Su, Zhijie; Zhang, Xulin; Luo, Tongzheng; Peng, Wenda

    2015-02-23

    The luminance uniformity of the backlight module (BLM) importantly depends on the microstructure distribution on the bottom surface of the light guide plate (LGP). Based on the small-size integrated LGP (ILGP) proposed, we put forward a distribution expression of micro-prisms on the bottom surface of the ILGP, and present the relational expressions between the coefficients of the analytical expression and the structural parameters of the ILGP, such as the light guide length L, width of the ILGP W, thickness of the ILGP H, and space between light emitting diodes (LEDs) d. Then, the research results above are applied to the design of the small-size ILGPs. Not only can the micro-structure distributions on the bottom surface of the ILGPs be directly given, but also the simulation results show that the luminance uniformities of the integrated BLMs are higher than 85%. The research indicates that the expressions proposed in this paper are correct and effective, and have important guiding significances and referential value. PMID:25836524

  20. Performance verification of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.; Romaker, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and results of battery of qualification tests performed by independent certification agency on commercial solar collector are presented in report. Reported results were used as basis in judging collector suitable for field installation in residential and commerical buildings.

  1. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  2. Near Fault Observatories (NFO) services and integration plan for European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Implementation Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2016-04-01

    Coherently with the EPOS vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth Sciences supporting research for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of NFOs and services implementation facilitating their data and products discovery and usage. NFOs are National Research Infrastructures (NRI) consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying Earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. These infrastructures will enable advancements in understanding of earthquakes generation processes and associated ground shaking due to their high-quality near-source multidisciplinary data. In EPOS-IP seven NFOs are going to be linked: 1) the Altotiberina and 2) Irpinia Observatories in Italy, 3) Corinth in Greece, 4) South-Iceland Seismic Zone, 5) Valais in Switzerland, 6) Marmara Sea (GEO Supersite) in Turkey and 7) Vrancea in Romania. EPOS-IP aims to implement integrated services from a technical, legal, governance and financial point of view. Accordingly, our first effort within this first core group of NFOs will be establishing legal governance for such a young community to ensure a long-term sustainability of the envisaged services including the full adoption of the EPOS data policy. The establishment of a Board including representatives of each NFO formally appointed by the Institutions supporting the NRI is a basic requirement to provide and validate a stable governance mechanism supporting the initiatives finalised to the services provision. Extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserve an extraordinary work on data quality control and description. We will work on linking all the NFOs in a single distributed network of observatories with instrumental and monitoring standards based on common protocols for observation, analysis, and data access and distributed channels. We will rely on

  3. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector on the other side producing a self shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on the martian surface for the location of Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  4. Selective coating for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schardein, D.J.

    1983-03-15

    A selective solar coating for solar collectors is disclosed. The coating is characterized by its high absorptance and low emittance. The coating comprises an organic compound or substance having a high molecular weight and a high carbon content, such as a petroleum, vegetable or animal oil, fat or wax, which is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black pigmented varnish.

  5. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17 Section... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  6. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  7. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17 Section... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  8. Installation package for Sunpak solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A subsystem (air/liquid vacuum collector) was developed for use with solar combined heating and cooling subsystems. The collector is modular in design, is approximately twelve-feet-three-inches wide and is eight-feet-seven-inches high. The module contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds.

  9. Shape control of solar collectors using torsional shape memory alloy actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Lobitz, D.W.; Rice, T.M.; Grossman, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun`s rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper will be principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a small amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. In order to accommodate the large, nonlinear deformations required in the solar collector plate to obtain desired focal lengths, a torsional shape memory alloy actuator was developed that produces a stroke of 0.5 inches. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems.

  10. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, M. S. M.; Othman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Majid, Z. A. A.; Fudholi, A.; Yasin, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70-75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  11. Thermal performance evaluation of the Suncatcher SH-11 (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solar Unlimited, Inc., Suncatcher SH-11 (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat-plate collector case assembly is made of .08 inch aluminum 3003 H14 riveted with fiberglass board insulation. The absorber consists of collared aluminum fins mechanically bonded to 3/8 inch copper tubing and coated with 3M Nextel black. Water is used as the working fluid. The glazing is made of a single glass, 1/8 inch water white, tempered and antireflective. The collector weight is 85 pounds with overall external dimensions of about 35.4 in x 82.0 in x 4.0 in. Thermal performance data on the Solar Unlimited Suncatcher SH-11 solar collector under simulated conditions were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  12. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of the Solaron (air) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program, conducted to obtain thermal performance data on a Solaron double glazed air solar collector under simulated conditions in a solar simulator are described. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were also conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. These results and the results of the collector load test are also discussed. The Solaron collector absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of 1/8-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 5/8-inch fiberglass batting.

  13. Ion sputter textured graphite electrode plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N.; Forman, R.; Sovey, J. S.; Wintucky, E. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A specially textured surface of pyrolytic graphite exhibits extremely low yields of secondary electrons and reduced numbers of reflected primary electrons after impingement of high energy primary electrons. Electrode plates of this material are used in multistage depressed collectors. An ion flux having an energy between 500 iV and 1000 iV and a current density between 1.0 mA/sq cm and 6.0 mA/sq cm produces surface roughening or texturing which is in the form of needles or spires. Such textured surfaces are especially useful as anode collector plates in high tube devices.

  14. Wind heat transfer coefficient in solar collectors in outdoor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Suresh; Mullick, S.C.

    2010-06-15

    Knowledge of wind heat transfer coefficient, h{sub w}, is required for estimation of upward losses from the outer surface of flat plate solar collectors/solar cookers. In present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the wind induced convective heat transfer coefficient by employing unglazed test plate (of size about 0.9 m square) in outdoor conditions. Experiments, for measurement of h{sub w}, have been conducted on rooftop of a building in the Institute campus in summer season for 2 years. The estimated wind heat transfer coefficient has been correlated against wind speed by linear regression and power regression. Experimental values of wind heat transfer coefficient estimated in present work have been compared with studies of other researchers after normalizing for plate length. (author)

  15. Large area focusing collector for the observation of cosmic X rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Decaprio, A.; Chase, R.; Harris, B.

    1973-01-01

    A large area focusing X-ray collector constructed for a sounding rocket is described. The instrument consists of nested reflecting plates that are curved slightly in one dimension to form a set of parabolas with a common focus. An array of plates such as the one in the sounding rocket focuses a parallel beam of X-rays to a line. The reflecting surfaces are commercial float glass with an evaporated metallic coating such as gold or nickel. With a gold coating, the effective area of the rocket collector is about 250 sq cm for 0.3 keV X rays and about 150 sq cm at 1.2 keV. Its angular resolution is a few arc minutes and field of view is about plus or minus .75 deg (full width at half maximum). The collector performed successfully during a sounding rocket flight.

  16. Cosmic Dust Catalog. Volume 15; Particles from Collectors L2036 and L2021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, J.; Watts, L.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Wentworth , S.; Dodson , A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially designed dust collectors are prepared for flight and processed after flight in an ultraclean (Class-100) laboratory constructed for this purpose at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Particles are individually retrieved from the collectors, examined and cataloged, and then made available to the scientific community for research. Cosmic dust thereby joins lunar samples and meteorites as an additional source of extraterrestrial materials for scientific study. This catalog summarizes preliminary observations on 468 particles retrieved from collection surfaces L2021 and L2036. These surfaces were flat plate Large Area Collectors (with a 300 cm2 surface area each) which was coated with silicone oil (dimethyl siloxane) and then flown aboard a NASA ER-2 aircraft during a series of flights that were made during January and February of 1994 (L2021) and June 7 through July 5 of 1994 (L2036). Collector L2021 was flown across the entire southern margin of the US (California to Florida), and collector L2036 was flown from California to Wallops Island, VA and on to New England. These collectors were installed in a specially constructed wing pylon which ensured that the necessary level of cleanliness was maintained between periods of active sampling. During successive periods of high altitude (20 km) cruise, the collectors were exposed in the stratosphere by barometric controls and then retracted into sealed storage container-s prior to descent. In this manner, a total of 35.8 hours of stratospheric exposure was accumulated for collector L2021, and 26 hours for collector L2036.

  17. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-11-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy in cooperation with the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy. The report presents data on producer shipments and end uses obtained from manufacturers and importers of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules. It provides annual data necessary for the Department of Energy to execute its responsibility to: (1) monitor activities and trends in the solar collector manufacturing industry, (2) prepare the national energy strategy, and (3) provide information on the size and status of the industry to interested groups such as the U.S. Congress, government agencies, the Solar Energy Research institute, solar energy specialists, manufacturers, and the general public.

  18. The Whitfield Solar CPV Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Roger; Anstey, Ben; Callear, Jason; Chonavel, Sylvain; Clark, Ian; Collins, Ian; Ramallo, Alfonso; Scanlon, Hamilton; Weatherby, Clive

    2010-10-01

    Whitfield Solar is now in production with a point-focus Fresnel lens 70x PV concentrator that uses LGBC silicon cells. The design builds on initial research carried out under a number of EU-funded R&D projects. Each collector has twenty-four V-troughs 1.2 m long by 110 mm wide by 110 mm deep, and each trough carries 12 cells. Tracking is closed-loop, in a 2-axis tilt & roll system. Initial prototypes were installed in Spain in 2006, and subsequent production-version collectors have been on-sun since September 2008. In-field normalised d.c. system efficiency is 13.5%. Volume-manufactured sales price—including support frame and mark-up—is €2.40/Wp,dc, with scope for further significant cost reduction identified.

  19. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  20. Qualification and durability tests - Applications for thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesch, G.

    Accelerated and abbreviated durability tests for characterizing the long-term reliability of solar thermal and photovoltaic modules are described. The tests have been designed to provoke behaviors which would normally require years to become manifest, thereby allowing lifetime predictions to be made over a short testing period. Increasing the intensity of the potentially damaging agent, e.g., UV radiation, humidity, a combination of both, is one method, and cycling the specimen through exposures and out of them in repetitive rapid succession, such as in thermal cycling, is another. The two techniques can also be combined. Solar flat plate collectors are presently tested for overpressure resistance of the absorber, leak tests, rain penetration, load carrying capacity, resistance to hail impact, and durability under thermal shock. Trials are also run involving exposure to a dry atmosphere, UV radiation, ozone-contaminatead atmosphere, sulfur dioxide, cyclic damp heat, and salt mist. Photovoltaic modules are tested for thermal strength, in mounting twist tests, for insulation integrity, for ice loading, for humidity freezing, temperature cycling, long exposure to high temperatures, in damp heat in long storage, and to the same atmospheric factors as flat plates.

  1. Integration of the Plate Boundary Observatory and Existing GPS Networks in Southern California: A Multi Use Geodetic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C.; Arnitz, E.; Lawrence, S.; Miller, S.; Bradley, W.; Jackson, M.; Feaux, K.

    2007-12-01

    The ultra-stable GPS monument design developed by Southern California Geodetic Network (SCIGN) in the late 1990s demonstrates sub-millimeter errors on long time series where there are a high percentage of observations and low multipath. Following SCIGN, other networks such as PANGA and BARGEN have adopted the monument design for both deep drilled braced monuments (DDBM = 5 legs grouted 10.7 meters into bedrock/stratigraphy) and short drilled braced monuments (SDBM = 4 legs epoxied 2 meters into bedrock). A Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS station consists of a "SCIGN" style monument and state of the art NetRS receiver and IP based communications. Between the years 2003-2008 875 permanent PBO GPS stations are being built throughout the United States. Concomitant with construction of the PBO the majority of pre-existing GPS stations that meet stability specifications are being upgraded with Trimble NetRS and IP based communications to PBO standards under the EarthScope PBO Nucleus project. In 2008, with completed construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory, more than 1100 GPS stations will share common design specifications and have identical receivers with common communications making it the most homogenous geodetic network in the World. Of the 875 total Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations, 211 proposed sites are distributed throughout the Southern California region. As of August 2007 the production status is: 174 stations built (81 short braced monuments, 93 deep drilled braced monuments), 181 permits signed, 211 permits submitted and 211 station reconnaissance reports. The balance of 37 stations (19 SDBM and 18 DDBM) will be built over the next year from Long Valley to the Mexico border in order of priority as recommended by the PBO Transform, Extension and Magmatic working groups. Fifteen second data is archived for each station and 1 Hz as well as 5 Hz data is buffered to be triggered for download in the event of an earthquake. Communications

  2. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of Libbey-Owens-Ford solar collector. [using a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector that uses liquid as the heat transfer medium was investigated under simulated conditions. The test conditions and thermal performance data obtained during the tests are presented in tabular form, as well as in graphs. Data obtained from a time constant test and incident angle modifier test, conducted to determine transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector, are included.

  3. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Libbey-Owens-Ford (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Thermal performance tests were conducted on the Libbey-Owens-Ford liquid collector, following long term exposure to natural weathering conditions. Visual inspection of the collector, prior to the retest, indicated noticeable clouding of the inner cover glass, probably resulting from outgassing of the insulation. The absorber plate also showed some discoloration. The test results indicated that performance degradation had occurred at inlet temperatures significantly above ambient. The change in the slope of the efficiency curve, from the original data, is a direct indicator of an increase in the collector heat loss coefficient.

  4. Plane elasto-plastic analysis of v-notched plate under bending by boundary integral equation method. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rzasnicki, W.

    1973-01-01

    A method of solution is presented, which, when applied to the elasto-plastic analysis of plates having a v-notch on one edge and subjected to pure bending, will produce stress and strain fields in much greater detail than presently available. Application of the boundary integral equation method results in two coupled Fredholm-type integral equations, subject to prescribed boundary conditions. These equations are replaced by a system of simultaneous algebraic equations and solved by a successive approximation method employing Prandtl-Reuss incremental plasticity relations. The method is first applied to number of elasto-static problems and the results compared with available solutions. Good agreement is obtained in all cases. The elasto-plastic analysis provides detailed stress and strain distributions for several cases of plates with various notch angles and notch depths. A strain hardening material is assumed and both plane strain and plane stress conditions are considered.

  5. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Busick, Deanna N.

    2001-01-01

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  6. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. 30 CFR 33.11 - Approval plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval plates. 33.11 Section 33.11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  8. 30 CFR 33.11 - Approval plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval plates. 33.11 Section 33.11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  9. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    The earth sciences taught that due to the occurrence of water in three phases: gas, liquid and solid, solar energy keeps the hydrological cycle going, shaping the earth surface while regulating the climate and thus allowing smart technologies to interfere in the natural process by rerouting water and employing its yield for natural and human environments’ subsistence. This is the case of traditional fog collectors implemented by several researchers along the Atacama Desert since late ’50s such as vertical tensile mesh or macro-diamonds structures. Nevertheless, these basic prototypes require to be upgraded, mainly through new shapes, fabrics and frameworks’ types by following the principles of lightness, transformability, portability and polyvalence. The vertical canvas of conventional fog collectors contain too much stressed at each joints and as result it became vulnerable. Our study constitutes a research by design of two fog-trap devices along the Atacama Desert. Different climatic factors influence the efficiency of fog harvesting. In order to increase yield of collected fog water, we need to establish suitable placements that contain high rates of fog’s accumulation. As important as the location is also the building reliability of these collectors that will be installed. Their frames and skins have to be adjustable to the wind direction and resistant against strong winds and rust. Its fabric need to be more hydrophobic, elastic and with light colours to ease dripping/drainage and avoid ultra-violet deterioration. In addition, meshes should be well-tensed and frames well-embraced too. In doing so we have conceived two fog collectors: DropNet© (Höhler) and FogHive© (Suau). These designs explore climatic design parameters combined with the agile structural principles of Tensegrity and Geodesic widely developed by Bucky Fuller and Frei Otto. The research methods mainly consisted of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog

  10. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  11. Chemical Dealloying Derived 3D Porous Current Collector for Li Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Qinbai; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-08-01

    A 3D porous Cu current collector is fabricated through chemical dealloying from a commerial Cu-Zn alloy tape. The interlinked porous framework naturally integrated can accommodate Li deposition, suppressing dendrite growth and alleviating the huge volume change during cycling. The Li metal anode combined with such a porous Cu collector demonstrates excellent performance and commerial potentials in Li-based secondary batteries. PMID:27219349

  12. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  13. 1. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT TIPPLE, SEPARATOR AND DUST COLLECTOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT TIPPLE, SEPARATOR AND DUST COLLECTOR. Separator contains Pangborn Dust Collectors. - Allendale Coal Processing Plant, Tipple, Separator & Dust Collector, South of State Route 869, Beaverdale, Cambria County, PA

  14. An integral wall model for Large Eddy Simulation (iWMLES) and applications to developing boundary layers over smooth and rough plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    A new wall model for Large-Eddy-Simulations is proposed. It is based on an integral boundary layer method that assumes a functional form for the local mean velocity profile. The method, iWMLES, evaluates required unsteady and advective terms in the vertically integrated boundary layer equations analytically. The assumed profile contains a viscous or roughness sublayer, and a logarithmic layer with an additional linear term accounting for inertial and pressure gradient effects. The iWMLES method is tested in the context of a finite difference LES code. Test cases include developing turbulent boundary layers on a smooth flat plate at various Reynolds numbers, over flat plates with unresolved roughness, and a sample application to boundary layer flow over a plate that includes resolved roughness elements. The elements are truncated cones acting as idealized barnacle-like roughness elements that often occur in biofouling of marine surfaces. Comparisons with data show that iWMLES provides accurate predictions of near-wall velocity profiles in LES while, similarly to equilibrium wall models, its cost remains independent of Reynolds number and is thus significantly lower compared to standard zonal or hybrid wall models. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582 (Dr. R. Joslin, program manager).

  15. Development and testing of the Shenandoah collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinoshita, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    The test and development of the 7-meter Shenandoah parabolic dish collector incorporating an FEK-244 film reflective surface and cavity receiver are described. Four prototypes tested in the midtemperature Solar System Test Facility indicate, with changes incorporated from these development tests, that the improvements should lead to predicted performance levels in the production collectors.

  16. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from...

  17. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from...

  18. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from...

  19. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from...

  20. 49 CFR 229.77 - Current collectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current collectors. 229.77 Section 229.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....77 Current collectors. (a) Pantographs shall be so arranged that they can be operated from...

  1. Solar collector with improved thermal concentration

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

  2. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  3. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  4. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Lun; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Kozlov, Alexandr

    2015-08-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-M), Gas Technology Institute, and Dr. Eli Yablonovitch of University of California at Berkeley developed a novel hybrid concentrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record single-junction Gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV components integrated with particle laden gas as thermal transfer and storage media, to simultaneously generate electricity and high temperature dispatchable heat. The collector transforms a parabolic trough, commonly used in CSP plants, into an integrated spectrum-splitting device. This places a spectrum-sensitive topping element on a secondary reflector that is registered to the thermal collection loop. The secondary reflector transmits higher energy photons for PV topping while diverting the remaining lower energy photons to the thermal media, achieving temperatures of around 400°C even under partial utilization of the solar spectrum. The collector uses the spectral selectivity property of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells to maximize the exergy output of the system, resulting in an estimated exergy efficiency of 48%. The thermal media is composed of fine particles of high melting point material in an inert gas that increases heat transfer and effectively stores excess heat in hot particles for later on-demand use.

  5. Hypervelocity plate acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.P.; Tan, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Shock tubes have been used to accelerate 1.5-mm-thick stainless steel plates to high velocity while retaining their integrity. The fast shock tubes are 5.1-cm-diameter, 15.2-cm-long cylinders of PBX-9501 explosive containing a 1.1-cm-diameter cylindrical core of low-density polystyrene foam. The plates have been placed directly in contact with one face of the explosive system. Plane-wave detonation was initiated on the opposite face. A Mach disk was formed in the imploding styrofoam core, which provided the impulse required to accelerate the metal plate to high velocity. Parametric studies were made on this system to find the effect of varying plate metal, plate thickness, foam properties, and addition of a barrel. A maximum plate velocity of 9.0 km/s has been observed. 6 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Solar collector mounting and support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, J.A.

    1981-12-22

    A solar collector system is described of the type having a movable surface for receiving solar radiation having improved means for rotatably supporting the movable surface and for rotating the collector surface. A support axle for the collector includes a ball at one end which is carried within a cylindrical sleeve in the solar collector to support the weight of the collector. A torque transmitting arm comprising a flexible flat strip is connected at one end to the axle and at the other end to the collector surface. An improved rotational drive mechanism includes a first sprocket wheel carried on the axle and a second sprocket wheel supported on a support pylon with a drive chain engaging both sprockets. A double acting piston also supported by the pylon is coupled to the chain so that the chain may be driven by a hydraulic control system to rotate the collector surfaces as required. An improved receiver tube support ring is also provided for use with the improved mounting and support apparatus to improve overall efficiency by reducing thermal losses.

  7. Single-stage depressed collectors for gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Piosczyk, B.; Iatrou, C.T.; Dammertz, G.; Thumm, M. |

    1996-06-01

    Two 140 GHz gyrotrons with a single-step depressed collector have been operated. The different position of the isolating collector gap in the stray magnetic field causes the electron motion in the retarding region to be in one case adiabatic and in the other case nonadiabatic. The kind of motion within the retarding field influences strongly the behavior of the gyrotron with a depressed collector. In the case of nonadiabatic motion a significant amount of transverse momentum is given to the electrons reflected at the collector potential. This causes the reflected electrons to be trapped between the magnetic mirror and the collector. The electrons escape from the trap by diffusion across the magnetic field to the body of the tube thus contributing to the body current. Despite the high body current there is no observable influence of the collector voltage on the RF output power. In the case of adiabatic motion the reflected electrons do not gain a sufficient amount of transverse momentum to be trapped by the magnetic mirror. They pass the cavity toward the gun and they are trapped between the negative gun potential and the collector. The interaction with the RF field by electrons traveling through the cavity enhances the diffusion in the velocity space thus enabling the trapped electrons to overcome the potential barrier and escape toward the collector. Therefore the body current stays at low values since in this case the reflected electrons do not contribute to it. However, at higher collector voltages a reduction of RF power occurred and some noise in the electron beam was observed. The main motivation for the development of gyrotrons in the frequency range above 100 GHz with power levels in excess of several hundreds kW per tube, is the application in magnetic fusion devices for plasma heating and for electron current drive.

  8. Quantum efficiencies of imaging detectors with alkali halide photocathodes. I - Microchannel plates with separate and integral CsI photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and comparisons have been made of the quantum efficiencies of microchannel plate (MCP) detectors in the far-UV (below 2000-A) wavelength range using CsI photocathodes (a) deposited on the front surfaces of microchannel plates and (b) deposited on solid substrates as opaque photocathodes with the resulting photoelectrons input to microchannel plates. The efficiences were measured in both pulse-counting and photodiode modes of operation. Typical efficiencies are about 15 percent at 1216 A for a CsI-coated MCP compared with 65 percent for an opaque CsI photocathode MCP detector. Special processing has yielded an efficiency as high as 20 percent for a CsI-coated MCP. This may possibly be further improved by optimization of the tilt angle of the MCP channels relative to the front face of the MCP and incident radiation. However, at present there still remains a factor of at least 3 quantum efficiency advantage in the separate opaque CsI photocathode configuration.

  9. A novel integral membrane protein is differentially expressed in the chick growth plate and maps to chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Lester, D H; Farquharson, C; Paton, I R; Seawright, E; Jefferies, D; Whitehead, C C; Burt, D W; Houston, B

    1999-08-01

    The growth plate is a specialised region of cartilage located at the growing ends of long bones in higher vertebrates. It is responsible for longitudinal bone growth and is under the control of many local and systemic factors. The growth plate consists of an orderly arrangement of small proliferative and larger mature hypertrophic chondrocytes. This paper describes the isolation by differential display of a 988-bp cDNA fragment derived from a transcript that is more highly expressed in proliferating rather than hypertrophic chondrocytes of the chick growth plate. Using 3' RACE, a further 939 bp of cDNA sequence was obtained. The 1.9 kb sequence contains a 924-bp open reading frame encoding an unknown 308 amino acid protein. This protein has a putative transmembrane domain near its N-terminus and three dileucine motifs at its carboxy tail. This gene was expressed in all other tissues examined. A polymorphism was identified by SSCP analysis and the gene was mapped to the centromeric region of the short arm of chicken chromosome 1, close to the locus for autosomal dwarfism. PMID:10467705

  10. Experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in a low-profile, concentrated solar thermal collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiyuan; Zheng, Cheng; Mesgari, Sara; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha L.; Hjerrild, Natasha; Crisostomo, Felipe; Morrison, Karl; Woffenden, Albert; Rosengarten, Gary; Scott, Jason A.; Taylor, Robert A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies [1-3] have demonstrated that nanotechnology, in the form of nanoparticles suspended in water and organic liquids, can be employed to enhance solar collection via direct volumetric absorbers. However, current nanofluid solar collector experimental studies are either relevant to low-temperature flat plate solar collectors (<100 °C) [4] or higher temperature (>100 °C) indoor laboratory-scale concentrating solar collectors [1, 5]. Moreover, many of these studies involve in thermal properties of nanofluid (such as thermal conductivity) enhancement in solar collectors by using conventional selective coated steel/copper tube receivers [6], and no full-scale concentrating collector has been tested at outdoor condition by employing nanofluid absorber [2, 6]. Thus, there is a need of experimental researches to evaluate the exact performance of full-scale concentrating solar collector by employing nanofluids absorber at outdoor condition. As reported previously [7-9], a low profile (<10 cm height) solar thermal concentrating collector was designed and analysed which can potentially supply thermal energy in the 100-250 °C range (an application currently met by gas and electricity). The present study focuses on the design and experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in this newly designed collector. The nanofluid absorber consists of glass tubes used to contain chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in DI water. MWCNTs (average diameter of 6-13 nm and average length of 2.5-20 μm) were functionalized by potassium persulfate as an oxidant. The nanofluids were prepared with a MCWNT concentration of 50 +/- 0.1 mg/L to form a balance between solar absorption depth and viscosity (e.g. pumping power). Moreover, experimentally comparison of the thermal efficiency between two receivers (a black chrome-coated copper tube versus a MWCNT nanofluid contained within a glass tubetube) is investigated. Thermal

  11. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  12. CPV semi-dense array design for dish and tower collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Herb; Thomas, Paul; Fette, Nicholas; Farkas, Zoltan; Bading, Michael; Stone, Bradley; Miner, Mark; Stickroth, Oliver; Bagewadi, Nakul; Romero, Memo; Sonuparlak, Birol; Eichholz, Rainer; Ziegler, Michael; Pawlowski, Edgar

    2012-10-01

    SST is developing a new Dish CPV dense array system that overcomes the flux uniformity requirement of previous designs. The ability to operate without flux uniformity relaxes the precision requirements of primary collector optics and eliminates homogenizing optics previously required for dense array CPV. Array design can be configured for dish and tower/heliostat systems developed for thermal CSP applications. The design uses industry standard CPV cells and manufacturing materials and methods for minimum cost and high reliability. Nominal input flux to the array for full power is about 250 suns. Internal array optics increase flux to the cells to about 1200 suns. Linear optics provide additional concentration, permit novel use of commercial glass production methods and facilitate power collection design that is integrated with dynamic power conversion and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Efficient power hybrid packaging methods are used along with advanced liquid cooling "cold-plate" thermal management. Byproduct "waste heat" can be provided for on-site CHP use. We report on the design approach and status of development with the beginning of on-sun alpha testing of the first of 50 kW of CPV modules being produced.

  13. Potential collector surface materials for divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prebble, H. E.; Forty, C. B. A.; Butterworth, G. J.

    1992-09-01

    Twelve refractory materials have been investigated to assess their suitability for use as collector target materials for divertors. The steady state limiting heat flux to avoid melting of the collector material has been calculated as a function of thickness using a simple one-dimensional thermal-hydraulics model. Similarly, the limiting heat flux to avoid melting following a plasma disruption has been calculated as a function of collector surface temperature just prior to the disruption event. Finally, the resistance of each collector material to thermal shock was estimated. The calculations indicate diamond, graphite and tungsten as favourable materials, BN, AlN, TiN, V 2C and beryllium as unsuitable and BeO, SiC, TiC and TIB 2 as exhibiting combinations of favourable and unfavourable properties.

  14. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  15. Modern multistage depressed collectors - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) electrostatic collector and the associated passive permanent magnetic beam reconditioning (refocusing) are discussed and compared with numerous experimental results on wide- and narrow-band TWT and two klystron cases. Universal designs for efficient collectors for TV klystrons are presented. Collectors other than those based on the symmetric LeRC concept are reviewed only briefly, either because they have not been treated analytically or because only sporadic or incomplete experimental evaluation results are available. It is concluded that significant, a priori predictable performance improvements for TWTs have been demonstrated and that a substantial reduction in the dc power input to TV klystron transmitters could be effected by using well-designed multistage depressed collectors.

  16. Tax Examiners, Revenue Agents, and Collectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Kevin M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the nature of the work of tax examiners, revenue agents, and collectors. Includes employment outlook; benefits and drawbacks; qualifications, training, and advancement; and sources of additional information. (JOW)

  17. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  18. Subsystem design package for Solar II collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for the design and performance of the Solar 2 Collector Subsystem developed for use in solar heating of single family residences and mobile homes are presented. Installation drawings are included.

  19. Processing on high efficiency solar collector coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M.

    1977-01-01

    Wavelength selective coatings for solar collectors are considered. Substrates with good infrared reflectivity were examined along with their susceptibility to physical and environmental damage. Improvements of reflective surfaces were accomplished through buffing, chemical polishing and other surface processing methods.

  20. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  1. Modern multistage depressed collectors - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.

    1982-11-01

    The design and performance of the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) electrostatic collector and the associated passive permanent magnetic beam reconditioning (refocusing) are discussed and compared with numerous experimental results on wide- and narrow-band TWT and two klystron cases. Universal designs for efficient collectors for TV klystrons are presented. Collectors other than those based on the symmetric LeRC concept are reviewed only briefly, either because they have not been treated analytically or because only sporadic or incomplete experimental evaluation results are available. It is concluded that significant, a priori predictable performance improvements for TWTs have been demonstrated and that a substantial reduction in the dc power input to TV klystron transmitters could be effected by using well-designed multistage depressed collectors.

  2. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment.

    PubMed

    Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P K

    2015-08-01

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset "hold" time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the "non-neutrality" of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C. PMID:26329189

  3. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset "hold" time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the "non-neutrality" of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C.

  4. 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar energy collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballheim, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Chamberlain engineers designed a 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector for the subject contract. The collector is a completely housed, 105.75 x 44.75 x 10.23-inch, 240-pound unit with six each evacuated receiver assemblies, a center manifold and a one-piece glass cover. A truncated version of a CPC trough reflector system and the General Electric Company tubular evacuated receiver have been integrated with a mass producible collector design suitable for operation at 250 to 450/sup 0/F. The key criterion for optimization of the design was minimization of the cost per Btu collected annually at an operating temperature of 400/sup 0/F. The reflector is a 4.1X design truncated to a total height of 8.0 inches with a resulting actual concentration ratio of 2.6 to 1. The manifold is an insulated area housing the fluid lines which connect the six receivers in series with inlet and outlet tubes extending from one side of the collector at the center. The reflectors are polished, anodized aluminum which are shaped by the roll form process. The housing is painted, galvanized steel, and the cover glass is 3/16-inch thick tempered, low iron glass. The collector requires four slope adjustments per year for optimum effectiveness. Chamberlain produced ten 3X CPC collectors for the subject contract. Two collectors were used to evaluate assembly procedures, six were sent to the project officer in Albuquerque, New Mexico, one was sent to Argonne National Laboratory for performance testing and one remained with the Company. A manufacturing cost study was conducted to estimate limited mass production costs, explore cost reduction ideas and define tooling requirements. The final effort discussed shows the preliminary design for application of a 3X CPC solar collector system for use in the Iowa State Capitol complex.

  5. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2015-08-15

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset “hold” time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the “non-neutrality” of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C.

  6. Qualification test and analysis report: Solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Peformance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC, dated October 28, 1976. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-cooled solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

  7. Effects of High Temperature on Collector Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Report reveals electroplated black chrome is good coating for concentrating collectors in which temperatures are in the 650 degrees-800 degrees F (340 degrees - 430 degrees C) range. Black chrome thermal emittance is low and solar-absorption properties are not seriously degraded at high temperatures. Black coatings are used to increase absorption of solar energy by base metal while decreasing emission of infrared energy. Coatings are intended to improve efficiency of solar collectors.

  8. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  9. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  10. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  11. Insect Thin Films as Sun Blocks, Not Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Crawford, Andrew B.

    2000-05-01

    We measured the visible reflectance spectra of whole wing sections from three species of iridescent butterflies and moths, for normal incidence, integrated over all reflected angles. In this manner, we separated the optics of the thin films causing the iridescence from the optics of the rest of the scale. We found that iridescence reduces solar absorption by the wing in all cases, typically by approximately 20% or less, in contrast to claims by Miaoulis and Heilman Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91, 122 (1998) that the thin-film structures that produce iridescence act as solar collectors.

  12. Experimental evaluation of a fixed collector employing vee-trough concentrator and vacuum tube receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A test bed for experimental evaluation of a fixed solar collector which combines an evacuated glass tube solar receiver with a flat plate/black chrome plated copper absorber and an asymmetric vee-trough concentrator was designed and constructed. Earlier predictions of thermal performance were compared with test data acquired for a bare vacuum tube receiver; and receiver tubes with Alzak aluminum, aluminized FEP Teflon film laminated sheet metal and second surface ordinary mirror reflectors. Test results and system economics as well as objectives of an ongoing program to obtain long-term performance data are discussed.

  13. A detailed numerical model for flat-plate solar thermal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cadafalch, J.

    2009-12-15

    A one-dimensional transient numerical model for flat-plate solar thermal devices is here presented. The model permits the analysis of different configurations and components such as multiple-glazing, transparent insulation, air-gaps, surface coatings, opaque insulation and energy accumulation in water or PCM internal stores. In order to obtain information of practical interest, the solar thermal devices are modelled following virtual testing procedures in accordance to the experimental test methods described by European and International standards. This paper describes the basis of the model and shows some comparison of numerical and experimental data as an example of the validation process that has been carried out in order to assess the credibility of the numerical model. For simplicity, the explanation is restricted to standard multiple-glazed flat-plate collectors. The use of the model in other more complicated configurations as in transparently insulated covers or integrated collector storage devices with phase change materials will be presented in other separate papers. (author)

  14. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  15. Single collector attachment efficiency of colloid capture by a cylindrical collector in laminar overland flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little research has been conducted to investigate fate and transport of colloids in surface vegetation in overland flow under unfavorable chemical conditions. In this work, single collector attachment efficiency (a) of colloid capture by a simulated plant stem (i.e. cylindrical collector) in laminar...

  16. Multiple piezo-patch energy harvesters integrated to a thin plate with AC-DC conversion: analytical modeling and numerical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghakhani, Amirreza; Basdogan, Ipek; Erturk, Alper

    2016-04-01

    Plate-like components are widely used in numerous automotive, marine, and aerospace applications where they can be employed as host structures for vibration based energy harvesting. Piezoelectric patch harvesters can be easily attached to these structures to convert the vibrational energy to the electrical energy. Power output investigations of these harvesters require accurate models for energy harvesting performance evaluation and optimization. Equivalent circuit modeling of the cantilever-based vibration energy harvesters for estimation of electrical response has been proposed in recent years. However, equivalent circuit formulation and analytical modeling of multiple piezo-patch energy harvesters integrated to thin plates including nonlinear circuits has not been studied. In this study, equivalent circuit model of multiple parallel piezoelectric patch harvesters together with a resistive load is built in electronic circuit simulation software SPICE and voltage frequency response functions (FRFs) are validated using the analytical distributedparameter model. Analytical formulation of the piezoelectric patches in parallel configuration for the DC voltage output is derived while the patches are connected to a standard AC-DC circuit. The analytic model is based on the equivalent load impedance approach for piezoelectric capacitance and AC-DC circuit elements. The analytic results are validated numerically via SPICE simulations. Finally, DC power outputs of the harvesters are computed and compared with the peak power amplitudes in the AC output case.

  17. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  18. Fundamental Oscillation up to 1.42 THz in Resonant Tunneling Diodes by Optimized Collector Spacer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Hidetoshi; Sogabe, Riku; Maekawa, Takeru; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    We report an increase in the oscillation frequency of terahertz oscillators using AlAs/InGaAs double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) by optimizing the collector spacer thickness. For high-frequency oscillation of RTDs, the electron delay time, which is composed of the dwell time in the resonance region and the transit time in the collector depletion region, must be reduced. Although the transit time is reduced by a thin collector spacer, the capacitance increases. Thus, an optimum thickness of collector spacer layer exists. In this report, we investigate the dependence of oscillation frequency on the collector spacer thickness. The RTDs were integrated with 20-μm-long slot antennas, and oscillations up to 1.1, 1.42, and 1.29 THz were obtained for spacer thicknesses of 25, 12, and 6 nm, respectively. The optimum spacer thickness for high-frequency oscillation was around 12 nm. The highest frequency in this experiment was 1.42 THz oscillation, with an output power of ~1 μW. We also extracted the electron velocity in the collector depletion region and the dwell time from the dependence of the delay time on the collector spacer thickness.

  19. A numerical study of a vertical solar air collector with obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumeni, A.; Bouchekima, B.; Lati, M.

    2016-07-01

    Because of the lack of heat exchange obtained by a solar air between the fluid and the absorber, the introduction of obstacles arranged in rows overlapping in the ducts of these systems improves heat transfer. In this work, a numerical study using the finite volume methods is made to model the dynamic and thermal behavior of air flow in a vertical solar collector with baffles destined for integration in building. We search essentially to compare between three air collectors models with different inclined obstacles angle. The first kind with 90° shows a good performance energetic and turbulent.

  20. Power losses in liquid metal current collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Wallace, D. R.

    1980-05-01

    A numerical capability has been developed which will compute ohmic and viscous power losses in liquid metal current collectors. The present work extends previous analytical investigations in that semi-infinite collector geometries are no longer assumed. This new capability is based on the finite element method and makes use of electrical current densities computed by the heat transfer portion of the NASTRAN structural analysis program. Although some limitations and questions remain, a comparison between the new numerical capability and experiment shows very good agreement in the computation of the power losses.

  1. Economic analysis based on land costs of collector spacing in a collector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. O.

    1981-10-01

    Three collector fluid outlet average field temperatures were used: 200, 250, and 300 C. Land cost varied from $0.54/sq m to $215.20/sq m. and collector costs from $53.80/sq. m to $322.80/sq. m FOB factory. Costs of fees, controls, foundations, etc, are considered as separate items which are added to the land and collector costs to obtain the total cost of the systems. These studies were normalized to a 5,000,000 Btu/day requirement. Thus, the life-cycle costs of the various configurations are, in essence, the cost of energy.

  2. A Location Method Using Sensor Arrays for Continuous Gas Leakage in Integrally Stiffened Plates Based on the Acoustic Characteristics of the Stiffener

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xu; Li, Yibo; Feng, Hao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Qi, Lei; Jin, Shijiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a continuous leakage location method based on the ultrasonic array sensor, which is specific to continuous gas leakage in a pressure container with an integral stiffener. This method collects the ultrasonic signals generated from the leakage hole through the piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor array, and analyzes the space-time correlation of every collected signal in the array. Meanwhile, it combines with the method of frequency compensation and superposition in time domain (SITD), based on the acoustic characteristics of the stiffener, to obtain a high-accuracy location result on the stiffener wall. According to the experimental results, the method successfully solves the orientation problem concerning continuous ultrasonic signals generated from leakage sources, and acquires high accuracy location information on the leakage source using a combination of multiple sets of orienting results. The mean value of location absolute error is 13.51 mm on the one-square-meter plate with an integral stiffener (4 mm width; 20 mm height; 197 mm spacing), and the maximum location absolute error is generally within a ±25 mm interval. PMID:26404316

  3. A Location Method Using Sensor Arrays for Continuous Gas Leakage in Integrally Stiffened Plates Based on the Acoustic Characteristics of the Stiffener.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xu; Li, Yibo; Feng, Hao; Wang, Jiaqiang; Qi, Lei; Jin, Shijiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a continuous leakage location method based on the ultrasonic array sensor, which is specific to continuous gas leakage in a pressure container with an integral stiffener. This method collects the ultrasonic signals generated from the leakage hole through the piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor array, and analyzes the space-time correlation of every collected signal in the array. Meanwhile, it combines with the method of frequency compensation and superposition in time domain (SITD), based on the acoustic characteristics of the stiffener, to obtain a high-accuracy location result on the stiffener wall. According to the experimental results, the method successfully solves the orientation problem concerning continuous ultrasonic signals generated from leakage sources, and acquires high accuracy location information on the leakage source using a combination of multiple sets of orienting results. The mean value of location absolute error is 13.51 mm on the one-square-meter plate with an integral stiffener (4 mm width; 20 mm height; 197 mm spacing), and the maximum location absolute error is generally within a ±25 mm interval. PMID:26404316

  4. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  5. Circumferentially-segmented collector usable with a TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, II, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A TWT collector has axially-positioned collector stages in which at least one of the stages includes a plurality of annularly-arranged stage segments. The collector enhances electron beam velocity sorting by facilitating a combination of (a) selecting axial electric field distributions with application of selected voltages to the axially-positioned collector stages and (b) selecting radial electric field distributions with application of selected voltages to the annularly-arranged stage segments.

  6. Multivelocity electron beam as a source of microwave oscillations in the collector region of a traveling-wave tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubov, A. V.; Kalinin, Yu. A.

    2013-10-01

    The generation of noise-like broadband oscillations in the collector system region of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) is investigated experimentally. Analysis of experimental results shows that noise-like broad-band oscillations are generated in the collector region of the TWT due to the injection of a multivelocity electron beam into it. It is found that the maximal integrated power output from the collector region of the TWT is 12 W, and the maximal frequency and generation band are f max = 7 GHz and Δ f/ f ≈ 0.8, respectively. It is shown that a TWT with a collector-generator can simultaneously operate as an amplifier of an external signal and as a generator.

  7. Thermionic converter performance with oxide collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D.; Goodale, D.; Briere, T.; Balestra, C.

    1977-01-01

    Thermionic converters using a variety of metal oxide collector surfaces have been fabricated and tested. Both work function and power output data are presented and evaluated. Oxides of barium, strontium, zinc, tungsten and titanium have been incorporated into a variable spacing converter. Tungsten oxide was found to give the highest converter performance and to furnish oxygen for the emitter at the same time. Oxygenated emitters operate at reduced cesium pressure with an increase in electrode spacing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) performed on several tungsten oxide collectors showed cesium penetration of the oxide layer, possibly forming a cesium tungstate bronze. Titanium oxide showed high performance but did not furnish oxygen for the emitter; strontium oxide, in the form of a sprayed layer, appeared to dissociate in the presence of cesium. Sprayed coatings of barium and zinc oxides produced collector work functions of about 1.3 eV, but had excessive series resistance. Lanthanum hexaboride, in combination with oxygen introduced through a silver tube, and cesium produced a low work function collector and better than average performance.

  8. Hybrid collectors using thin-film technology

    SciTech Connect

    Platz, R.; Fischer, D.; Zufferey, M.A.; Selvan, J.A.A.; Shah, A.; Haller, A.

    1997-12-31

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) based solar cells are highly interesting in the context of hybrid (i.e., photovoltaic/thermal) solar energy conversion. First, their large area capability and the variety of possible substrate materials permit one to apply a-Si:H PV modules directly on the surface of conventional heat collectors at low cost. Further, the low temperature coefficient of a-Si:H cells (0.1%/K) allows operation of a-Si:H solar modules at temperatures as high as 100 C without substantial power loss. The authors focus on the thermal performance of such hybrid collectors based on a-Si:H cells, with emphasis on a ZnO coat on top of the solar cell. ZnO can be tuned to absorb the infrared part of the sunlight and, at the same time, its emission coefficient for heat-radiation is nearly as low as that of optimized selective surfaces used in thermal collectors. The authors propose a collector structure with a high potential for the thermal conversion efficiency while maintaining a high electrical conversion efficiency.

  9. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the depositary's reserve account for the amount reported on the AOC and credit that amount to Treasury's account. (b) Late delivery of AOC. If an AOC does not arrive at the TSC before the designated cutoff time on the...

  10. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  11. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  12. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  13. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  14. 27 CFR 479.25 - Collector's items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collector's items. 479.25 Section 479.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  15. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  16. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  17. Natural-oxide solar-collector coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupnick, A. C.; Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    Optically selective coatings for solar collectors are produced by thermally treating stainless steel in furnace after series of cleaning and soaking operations. Coatings have withstood 18-month exposure tests at 100 percent relative humidity and temperatures of 95 F. Room temperature coatings are valuable as they are inexpensive to produce, highly production oriented, and environmentally stable.

  18. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  19. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  20. 10 CFR 26.85 - Collector qualifications and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collector qualifications and responsibilities. 26.85 Section 26.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.85 Collector qualifications and responsibilities. (a) Urine collector qualifications....

  1. 10 CFR 26.85 - Collector qualifications and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collector qualifications and responsibilities. 26.85 Section 26.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.85 Collector qualifications and responsibilities. (a) Urine collector qualifications....

  2. 10 CFR 26.85 - Collector qualifications and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collector qualifications and responsibilities. 26.85 Section 26.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.85 Collector qualifications and responsibilities. (a) Urine collector qualifications....

  3. 10 CFR 26.85 - Collector qualifications and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collector qualifications and responsibilities. 26.85 Section 26.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.85 Collector qualifications and responsibilities. (a) Urine collector qualifications....

  4. 10 CFR 26.85 - Collector qualifications and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collector qualifications and responsibilities. 26.85 Section 26.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.85 Collector qualifications and responsibilities. (a) Urine collector qualifications....

  5. Peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babecki, A. J. (Inventor); Haehner, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    A process for metal plating which comprises spraying a mixture of metallic powder and small peening particles at high velocity against a surface is described. The velocity must be sufficient to impact and bond metallic powder onto the surface. In the case of metal surfaces, the process has as one of its advantages providing mechanical working (hardening) of the surface simultaneously with the metal plating.

  6. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  7. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  8. Comparative testing of U-tube convective collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Two identical U-tube convective solar collectors have been constructed and installed in south-facing windows. One collector was instrumented with 15 thermocouple sensors at various locations within the air flow path and the collector walls, and continuous readings were taken to analyze the daily performance cycle. The two collectors were then used for comparison tests of instantaneous heat output. Several alternative absorber materials were compared to the standard absorber of 5 layers of expanded metal lathe. The details of the collector design, some representative test data, and the conclusions are presented.

  9. Thermal performance of honeywell double covered liquid solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures and results obtained during an evaluation test program to determine the outdoor performance characteristics of the Honeywell liquid solar collector are presented. The program was based on the thermal evaluation of a Honeywell double covered liquid solar collection. Initial plans included the simultaneous testing of a single covered Honeywell collector. During the initial testing, the single covered collector failed due to leakage; thus, testing continued on the double covered collector only. To better define the operating characteristics of the collector, several additional data points were obtained beyond those requested.

  10. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  11. Forming Weld Lands On Metal Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Forming shoe pounds edge of newly inserted plate workpiece. After many passes of shoe and advances of plate, thick land builds up at edge. Workpiece heated to enable metal to flow without strain hardening. Proposed upset-forming process replaces relatively expensive, time-consuming, and wasteful process in which integral weld lands created by machining metal away from plates everywhere except at lands.

  12. Inferences of Integrated Lithospheric Strength from Plate-Scale Analyses of Deformation Observed in the Aegean-Anatolian Region and the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In the context of a comprehensive review of the rheology and strength of the lithosphere (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.05.008), Evgene Burov described the difficulty of extrapolating rock deformation laws derived from laboratory experiments to the time and length scales that apply when the Earth's lithosphere is deformed. Not only does the extrapolation introduce a large uncertainty, but even the relative importance of different possible mechanisms of deformation may be uncertain. Even though lithospheric deformation has a strong conceptual and theoretical basis, it is therefore essential, as Burov argued, that deformation laws for the lithosphere must be calibrated by using observations of deformation that occurs on a lithospheric length scale and at geological strain rates. The influence of regionally varying factors like crustal thickness, geothermal gradient and tectonic environment may induce large variations in how rapidly the lithosphere may deform in response to an applied load, not least in the contrast from continent to ocean. Plates may be deformed by different loading mechanisms but, when deformation is distributed over a broad region, the strain-rate field may be approximately constant with depth and we may integrate the in-plane stress components across the thickness of the lithosphere to derive a depth-averaged constitutive law for the deformation. This approximation is the basis for the thin viscous sheet formulation of lithospheric deformation and, in combination with appropriate observations, it allows us to calibrate the integrated resistance to processes like regional extension or convergence. In this talk I will summarise what we learn about effective lithospheric rheology from two recent studies of the distribution and rates of diffuse deformation of the lithosphere in, firstly the Anatolian-Aegean region, and secondly the Central Indian Ocean. In the first case the distribution of deformation is consistent

  13. Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Singh, Amarjit; Read, Michael; Borchard, Phillipp; Neilson, Jeff

    2009-05-20

    High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

  14. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  15. Introducing CFD in the optical simulation of linear Fresnel collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghimi, M. A.; Rungasamy, A.; Craig, K. J.; Meyer, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether the Finite Volume method within a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver (ANSYS Fluent) can model radiation with comparable accuracy to a Monte Carlo ray-tracing software package (SolTrace). A detailed investigation was performed into modeling techniques that can be used to significantly reduce the optical errors traditionally associated with CFD modeling of radiation false scattering and ray effect using a simple optical test case. The strategies formulated in the first part of this paper were used to model a variety of Linear Fresnel Collector Concentrating Solar Power Plants. This paper shows that commercial CFD packages yield accurate results for line focusing concentrating solar applications and simple geometries, validating its use in an integrated environment where both optical and thermal performance of these plants can be simulated and optimized.

  16. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the two sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  17. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  18. Indoor test and long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the solar energy system (liquid) solar collector. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility and solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on a liquid solar collector are presented. The narrow flat plate collector with reflective concentrating mirrors uses water as the working fluid. The double-covered collector weighs 137 pounds and has overall dimensions of about 35" by 77" by 6.75". The test program was conducted to obtain the following information: thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static load, and the effects of long term exposure to natural weathering.

  19. Multi-stage mountain building vs. relative plate motions in the Betic Cordillera deduced from integrated microstructural and petrological analysis of porphyroblast inclusion trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerden, D. G. A. M.; Bell, T. H.; Puga, E.; Sayab, M.; Lozano, J. A.; Diaz de Federico, A.

    2013-03-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Betic Cordillera has been investigated through integrated microstructural and petrological analysis of 93 samples of garnetiferous Grt ± Cld ± Plg ± Ky ± St phengite schists from its lowermost allochthon, the Nevado-Filabride Domain. Porphyroblast inclusion trails in these samples exhibit well-developed preferred vertical and horizontal orientations and truncational relationships. These features indicate a complex history of multiple crenulation cleavage development during alternating contractional and gravity-induced deformations. Associated Foliation-Intersection Axes preserved in porphyroblasts (FIA) were determined separately for 2 groups of samples using the "asymmetry technique" (Bell et al., 1995) and the "FitPitch" method (Aerden, 2003), respectively. Broadly consistent results establish a succession of 4 FIA sets with specific trends, which from the oldest to the youngest FIA set are: NE-SW (FIA set 1), NW-SE (FIA set 2), W-E (FIA set 3) and NNW-SSE (FIA set 4). This trend sequence is also reflected in the orientations of successive fold generations and associated lineations. More remarkably, the FIA-trend sequence mimics known changes in the plate motions of Africa and Adria relative to Iberia in the 50-10 Ma interval. This is also the time span indicated by published radiometric ages. Garnet-isopleth thermobarometry applied to selected samples and compositional zoning of garnets indicate that the earliest 3 FIA sets formed along a prograde metamorphic path from ca. 5 kb/500 °C to 10 kb/550 °C, whereas the latest stages of FIA set 3 and FIA set 4 developed during exhumation. Exhumation involved a period of heterogeneous reheating that was spatially and temporally linked to emplacement of the overlying Alpujarride Complex.

  20. Solar swimming pool heating -- A copper collector after 26 years

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, F. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a progress report and a technology overview for a do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater built by the author. Since March 1973 the heater has operated successfully day in day out for over 26 years, as a simple component in the pool circulation system, for three successive homeowners. The heater project was sponsored by the Copper Development Association (CDA), and used a copper flat plate collector design mounted on a small building, which provided both the roofing and the solar collection function. The heater was built in Pasadena, California, at 34.2 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude. A do-it-yourself manual was written so others could build such heaters, and about 100,000 copies of this manual have been distributed. The manual has helped many to get a better understanding of solar energy, has allowed many around the world to build similar swimming pool heater, and caused this author to get into the solar energy field.

  1. Initial Subdivision of Genesis Early Science Polished Aluminum Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.; Meshik, A.; See, T. H.; Bastien, R.

    2005-01-01

    A large surface, about 245 square centimeters, of highly polished aluminum 6061 T6 alloy was attached to the science canister thermal panel for the purpose of collecting solar wind noble gases. The analysis of this collector will be part of the Genesis Early Science results. The pre-launch configuration of the collector is shown. The collector sustained some damage during the recovery impact in Utah, September 8, 2004.

  2. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  3. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, N. P. F.; Farrell, T.; Goodwin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13×61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  4. Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

  5. Performance of industrial mist collectors over time.

    PubMed

    Boundy, M; Leith, D; Hands, D; Gressel, M; Burroughs, G E

    2000-12-01

    Effective, economical control of metalworking fluid mists at the source is important, because exposure to these mists may cause adverse health effects. This study investigated performance changes over time for industrial collectors that removed metalworking fluid mist in the laboratory and in a transmission plant. Aerosizers were used to measure the efficiency of each stage in several multistage collectors as a function of mist droplet diameter, for up to one year of continuous operation. Metal-mesh, first-stage filters operated at low pressure drops and were effective at removing droplets larger than 3 to 5 microns in diameter. Some second-stage filters worked better than others. Both "65 percent" and "95 percent" cartridge filters failed after only a few weeks; their efficiencies decreased substantially over that time. Pocket filters and cylindrical cartridges used as second-stage filters also decreased in efficiency for submicron droplets. Whereas filters for solid particles load continuously to form a dust cake that increases efficiency, mist filters form no cake and load only to the point where collection equals drainage. As a mist filter loads, the interstitial gas velocity increases, so that efficiency decreases for small droplets that collect by diffusion. Although a third-stage 95 percent DOP filter showed important decreases in efficiency over time for submicron droplets, third-stage HEPA filters operated with efficiencies that consistently approaches 100 percent for droplets of all sizes, even after one year of operation. These results suggest that the performance of second-stage filters can be improved if they can be made to drain collected liquid more effectively. For high efficiency, mist collectors should use a HEPA filter as a final stage. PMID:11141605

  6. Self-sealing solar collector shield

    SciTech Connect

    Katona, J.W.

    1980-03-25

    Window structure for a solar collector shield or the like having a frame defining a row of separate window openings. A selfcontained window unit is installed in each opening. Each window unit comprises a pair of rectangular glass panes held in laterally spaced parallel relation by a peripheral window frame. A mounting frame is provided for mounting each window unit in its window opening. Each mounting frame has overlapping frame members. Adjacent side frame members of adjacent window units also overlap. The overlap is for the purpose of excluding moisture and preventing heat loss. A peripheral window seal is provided for the same purpose.

  7. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  8. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  9. Improvement of black nickel coatings. [product development for use in solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. E.; Lin, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Selectively absorbing black nickel coatings are among the most optically efficient low cost coatings for use on flat plate solar collectors. However, a current Ni-Zn-S-O coating in use is quite susceptible to a humid environment, degrading badly in less than ten days at 38 C (100 F) at 95 percent relative humidity. Therefore, a black nickel formula was developed which can withstand such exposures with no loss of optical efficiency, solar absorption of 0.92 and an infrared emittance (at 100 C) of 1.00 were still present after 14 days of humidity exposure. This compares to a solar absorptance of only 0.72 for the previous formula after a similar time period. The electroplating bath and conditions were changed to obtain the more stable coating configuration. The effect of bath composition, temperature, pH, and plating current density and time on the coating composition, spectral optical properties and durability were investigated systematically.

  10. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-09-30

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the

  11. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOEpatents

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  12. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOEpatents

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  13. Predicting collector well yields with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Vic

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow models are commonly used to design new wells and wellfields. As the spatial scale of the problem is large and much local-scale detail is not needed, modelers often utilize two-dimensional (2D) or quasi three-dimensional models based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption. Dupuit models offer a robust set of tools for simulating regional groundwater flow including interactions with surface waters, the potential for well interference, and varying aquifer properties and recharge rates. However, given an assumed operating water level or drawdown at a well screen, Dupuit models systematically overpredict well yields. For design purposes, this discrepancy is unacceptable, and a method for predicting accurate well yields is needed. While published methods exist for vertical wells, little guidance is available for predicting yields in horizontal screens or collector wells. In plan view, a horizontal screen has a linear geometry, and will likely extend over several neighboring cells that may not align with rows or columns in a numerical model. Furthermore, the model must account for the effects of converging three-dimensional (3D) flow to the well screens and hydraulic interference among the well screens; these all depend on the design of a specific well. This paper presents a new method for simulating the yield of angled or horizontal well screens in numerical groundwater flow models, specifically using the USGS code MODFLOW. The new method is compared to a detailed, 3D analytic element model of a collector well in a field of uniform flow. PMID:22339406

  14. Impact of gravity, collector surface roughness and fracture orientation on colloid retention kinetics in an artificial fracture.

    PubMed

    Stoll, M; Huber, F M; Darbha, G K; Schill, E; Schäfer, T

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of monodisperse fluorescent carboxylated polystyrene colloids (25nm and 1000nm diameter) with a cut granodiorite surface (Grimsel granodiorite; Switzerland) and with acrylic glass is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Colloid transport experiments are conducted in a parallel plate type fracture flow cell with an aperture of 0.75mm at pH5 under low ionic strength (1mM NaCl) and under laminar flow (7mL/h) conditions. The study focuses on the effect of residence time, colloid size, collector material and fracture orientation on colloid retention. Long colloid residence times are achieved by stop-flow experiments. Using atomic force microscopy and, more specifically, the colloid probe technique surface roughness and force distance information of the collector material (granodiorite or acrylic glass) as a function of probe size (cantilever) are obtained. The experiments are modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics® (2-D numerical simulations). The experimental and the modeled results lead to the conclusion that large colloids (1000nm diameter) undergo sedimentation and deposition on the surface during stop-flow. Collector interaction is not affected by the surface roughness variation. Contrariwise, for the investigated 25nm colloids sedimentation does not play a role under the experimental conditions and collector interaction is triggered by surface inhomogeneities such as surface roughness. PMID:27174623

  15. Flow distribution in unglazed transpired plate solar air heaters of large area

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnewiek, L.H.; Brundrett, E.; Hollands, K.G.T.

    1996-10-01

    Unglazed transpired plate solar air heaters have proven to be effective in heating outside air on a once-through basis for ventilation and drying applications. Outside air is sucked through unglazed plates having uniformly distributed perforations. The air is drawn into a plenum behind the plate and then supplied to the application by fans. Large collectors have been built that cover the sides of sizable buildings, and the problem of designing the system so that the air is sucked uniformly everywhere (or nearly so) has proven to be a challenging one. This article describes an analytical tool that has been developed to predict the flow distribution over the collector. It is based on modelling the flow-field in the plenum by means of a commercial CFD (computational fluid mechanics) code, incorporating a special set of boundary conditions to model the plate and the ambient air. The article presents the 2D version of the code, and applies it to the problem of predicting the flow distribution in still air (no wind) conditions, a situation well treated by a 2D code. Results are presented for a wide range of conditions, and design implications are discussed. An interesting finding of the study is that the heat transfer at the back of the plate can play an important role, and because of this heat transfer, the efficiency of a collector in nonuniform flow can actually be greater than that of the same collector in uniform flow. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector....

  17. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector....

  18. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector....

  19. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector....

  20. 21 CFR 874.4800 - Bone particle collector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone particle collector. 874.4800 Section 874.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4800 Bone particle collector....

  1. Current collectors for rechargeable Li-Air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the negative influence of porous nickel foam for use as current collectors in rechargeable Li-air batteries. Uncoated nickel foam promotes the decomposition of LiPF6-organic carbonate electrolytes under normal charging conditions reported for rechargeable Li-air cells. We have identified Ni free porous carbon supports as more appropriate cathode current collectors.

  2. 2. VIEW LOOKING WEST. TIPPLE, SEPARATOR AND DUST COLLECTOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING WEST. TIPPLE, SEPARATOR AND DUST COLLECTOR ON SOUTH SIDE OF RTE 869, PARTIAL VIEW OF TIPPLE AND CONVEYOR (HAER No. PA-181-B) TO THE NORTH - Allendale Coal Processing Plant, Tipple, Separator & Dust Collector, South of State Route 869, Beaverdale, Cambria County, PA

  3. Design and performance verification of advanced multistage depressed collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Ramins, P.

    1975-01-01

    Design and performance of a small size, 4 stage depressed collector are discussed. The collector and a spent beam refocusing section preceding it are intended for efficiency enhancement of octave bandwidth, high CW power traveling wave tubes for use in ECM.

  4. Functional Lymphatic Collectors in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema Arm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-shun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The pathophysiology of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is poorly understood. The present study evaluated the lymphatic collectors in the arms of patients with BCRL. Methods and Results: In total, 123 patients with ipsilateral BCRL who had undergone magnetic resonance lymphangiography using gadobenate dimeglumine as a contrast agent were enrolled in this study. Morphological changes and the numbers of collecting lymphatic vessels were recorded. Associations between the number of visualized lymphatic collectors and edema accumulation, subcutis thickness, and the BCRL duration and latency were analyzed. Tortuous and significantly dilated lymphatic collectors were visualized in the lymphedematous arms of 104 patients (85%). The median number of visualized lymphatic collectors was four. The duration of BCRL was weakly but significantly correlated with the number of lymphatic collectors (rs=0.2054, p=0.0226). The differences in the tissue water content and thickness of the subcutis between the bilateral arms demonstrated moderate correlations with the number of collecting lymphatics (rs=0.31 and 0.35, respectively; p<0.01). More lymphatic collectors tended to be seen in more advanced cases. There was no statistical difference in the amount of lymphatic vessels among different breast cancer treatment methods. Conclusions: The number of functional remaining lymphatic collectors increases with the prolongation and severity of BCRL. This may imply persistent reactions of lymphatic collectors in response to lymphostasis. PMID:25495381

  5. Low CoO grazing incidence collectors for EUVL HVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, G.; Cassol, G. L.; Ceglio, N. M.; Valsecchi, G.; Zocchi, F.

    2012-03-01

    Media Lario Technologies (MLT) uses its proprietary replication by electroforming technology to manufacture grazing incidence collectors in support of the EUVL technology roadmap. With the experience of more than 20 alpha and preproduction collectors installed to date, and with the development results of the Advanced Cooling Architecture (ACA) for High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) collector generation, we present optical, lifetime, and thermo-optical performance of the grazing incidence collectors, meeting the requirements of HVM scanners for a throughput target of more than 100 wafers per hour. The ruthenium reflective layer of the grazing incidence collector is very forgiving to the hostile environment of the plasma sources, as proven by the installed base with 1-year lifetime expectancy. On the contrary, the multilayer-based collector is vulnerable to Sn deposition and ion bombardment, and the need to mitigate this issue has led to a steady increase of the complexity of the LPP source architecture. With the awareness that the source and collector module is the major risk against the timely adoption of EUVL in HVM, we propose a new paradigm that, by using the field-proven design simplicity and robustness of the grazing incidence collector in both LDP and LPP sources, effectively reduces the risk of both source architectures and improves their reliability.

  6. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  7. Preliminary design package for solar collector and solar pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A solar-operated pump using an existing solar collector, for use on solar heating and cooling and hot water systems is described. Preliminary design criteria of the collector and solar-powered pump is given including: design drawings, verification plans, and hazard analysis.

  8. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section 876.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  11. Physically absorbable reagents-collectors in elementary flotation

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Kondrat'ev; I.G. Bochkarev

    2007-09-15

    Based on the reviewed researches held at the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, the effect of physically absorbable reagents-collectors on formation of a flotation complex and its stability in turbulent pulp flows in flotation machines of basic types is considered. The basic requirements for physically absorbable reagents-collectors at different flotation stages are established.

  12. Performance of a double pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ramani, B.M.; Gupta, Akhilesh; Kumar, Ravi

    2010-11-15

    Double pass counter flow solar air collector with porous material in the second air passage is one of the important and attractive design improvement that has been proposed to improve the thermal performance. This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of double pass solar air collector with and without porous material. A mathematical model has been developed based on volumetric heat transfer coefficient. Effects of various parameters on the thermal performance and pressure drop characteristics have been discussed. Comparison of results reveals that the thermal efficiency of double pass solar air collector with porous absorbing material is 20-25% and 30-35% higher than that of double pass solar air collector without porous absorbing material and single pass collector respectively. (author)

  13. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  14. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  15. Parabolic trough collector power plant performance simulation for an interactive solar energy Atlas of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Mercedes; Frasquet, Miguel; Al Rished, Abdulaziz; Tuomiranta, Arttu; Gasim, Sami; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-01

    The collaboration between the Research Center for Renewable Energy Mapping and Assessment (ReCREMA) at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and the King Abdullah City for Atomic & Renewable Energy (KACARE) aims to create an interactive web tool integrated in the Renewable Resource Atlas where different solar thermal electricity (STE) utility-scale technologies will be simulated. In this paper, a methodology is presented for sizing and performance simulation of the solar field of parabolic trough collector (PTC) plants. The model is used for a case study analysis of the potential of STE in three sites located in the central, western, and eastern parts of Saudi Arabia. The plant located in the north (Tayma) has the lowest number of collectors with the best production along the year.

  16. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  17. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  18. Genesis: Removing Contamination from Sample Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V.; McNamara, K. M.; Westphal, Andrew; Butterworth, A. L.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A.; Woolum, D.; Allton, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry. The parachutes which were supposed to slow and stabilize the capsule throughout the return failed to deploy, causing the capsule to impact the desert floor at a speed of nearly 200 MPH. Both the science canister and the major components of the SRC were returned before nightfall on September 8 to the prestaged cleanroom at UTTR , avoiding prolonged exposure or pending weather changes which might further contaminate the samples. The majority of the contaminants introduced as a result of the anomalous landing were in the form of particulates, including UTTR dust and soil, carbon-carbon heat shield material, and shattered collector dust (primarily silicon and germanium). Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  19. Antireflection Pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollister, H. L.; Pettit, R. B.

    1983-11-01

    Antireflective (AR) coatings, applied to the glass envelopes used in parabolic trough solar collectors around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses, can increase solar transmittance by 7 percent. An AR surface has been formed on Pyrex by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation, removing a surface layer after heat treatment through the use of a preetching solution, and finally etching in a solution that contains hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acids. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values of more than 0.97, by comparison to an untreated sample value of 0.91, have been obtained for the 560-630 C range of heat treatment temperatures. Optimum values have also been determined for the other processing parameters.

  20. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  1. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  2. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  3. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  4. Draining of the SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Y.K.

    1980-05-01

    A program has been completed which demonstrates the capability of draining the present liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector. The benefits which are derived include the avoidance of potential problems associated with liquid boil-out during system failure and the avoidance of collector freeze up. Additional benefits derived from a fully drained collector are the avoidance of significant heat losses during overnight periods, safe access to the collector for maintenance at any time and ability to dissipate excess heat through dry stagnation of the collector during shut down periods. A simple modification to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector module arrangement was developed and demonstrated through the full scale testing of a two bank-six module arrangement. The necessary changes can be implemented at a minimum expenditure of time and cost. The extensive field service experience which has been accumulated with the liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector is directly applicable to the drainable configuration. The program included the investigation of an alternate approach to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ solution. The intra module parallel flow concept was demonstrated through the proof of concept phase of effort. The solution investigated incorporated a batch flow rather than a continuous flow mode of the cooling fluid. The solution required an extensive design modification of the existing SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector manifold. During the redesign effort, other desired mechanical features of the manifold were incorporated to improve the physical characteristics, to improve safety and reliability and to reduce the potential cost of future SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector arrays.

  5. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A novel integration system of magnetically immobilized cells and a pair of graphite plate-stainless iron mesh electrodes for the bioremediation of coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bei; Tan, Liang; Ning, Shuxiang; Shi, Shengnan

    2016-09-01

    Magnetically immobilized cells of Comamonas sp. JB coupling with electrode reaction was developed to enhance the treatment efficiency of coking wastewater containing phenol, carbazole (CA), dibenzofuran (DBF), and dibenzothiophene (DBT). The pair of graphite plate-stainless iron mesh electrodes was chosen as the most suitable electrodes. Magnetically immobilized cells coupling with graphite plate-stainless iron mesh electrodes (coupling system) exhibited high degradation activity for all the compounds, which were significantly higher than the sum by single magnetically immobilized cells and electrode reaction at the optimal voltage. Recycling experiments demonstrated that the degradation activity of coupling system increased gradually during eight recycles, indicating that there was a coupling effect between the biodegradation and electrode reaction. Phenol hydroxylase and qPCR assays confirmed that appropriate electrical stimulation could improve phenol hydroxylase activity and promote cells growth. Toxicity assessment suggested the treatment of the coking wastewater by coupling system led to less toxicity than untreated wastewater. PMID:27289060

  7. Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wittkopf, Stephen; Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David; Compagnon, Raphael; Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)

  8. Detailed balance method for ideal single-stage fluorescent collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markvart, T.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that fluorescent collectors where radiation is confined with the use of selective reflectors can be modeled as converters of blackbody radiation. By decreasing the temperature and frequency of the radiation, the effective étendue of the emitted beam can be reduced substantially in the conversion process without violating the second law of thermodynamics. This type of collector can, in principle, achieve surprisingly high efficiencies: the output from a silicon solar cell operating with an ideal collector can exceed 90% of the output from a directly illuminated solar cell.

  9. Mitigating project risk by use of high performance collector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Timo; Riffelmann, Klaus-Jürgen; Nava, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Collectors with a high optical quality are generally valued for their additional performance, i.e. the expected additional output due to the performance gain compared to a lower quality reference collector. However, high-performance collectors additionally have a lower sensitivity to additional optical errors and, thus not only perform better nominally, but are also more likely to reach their nominal performance even when project uncertainties (e.g. increased sun-shape) or quality issues (e.g. increased component optical error) degrade their performance. This has physical reasons, whose cause and effect will be described and quantified within this paper.

  10. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, Raphael A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  11. Survey of coatings for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    Optimum solar selective properties of black chrome require some tailoring of current and time for plating solution being used. Black zinc is produced from high zinc electroplate by subsequent conversion with chromate dip. Measurements have also been made of reflectance of previously known solar selective coatings of black copper and electroplated black nickel.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Charge Collectors in Doped Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, Zane; Haroldson, Ross; Mielczarek, Kamil; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid organo-metallic solar cells based on perovskite crystals have had steadily improved power conversion efficiencies over the past two years, and within this period have achieved efficiencies over 19%. We show that additions of Metal-Halide dopants, such as Cobalt (II) Iodide or Indium and Bismuth materials, can cause substitutional doping at the Lead atom. This may result in structural distortions (as in isovalent Co-doping) within the lattice causing change in the spatial distribution of charge carriers. We show that Co-doping results in an increased open circuit voltage upon light soaking due to possible higher charge accumulation. We also have investigated effects of p-doping the hole transport layer. We also incorporate composite sheets of MW carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires as charge collectors. These sheets provide a transparent and flexible electrode with lower sheet resistance due to integration of Ag nanowires. This has an effect on the work function of the sheet, making it more versatile as an electrode for use in a variety of device structures. This allows us a semi-transparent perovskite device, where incident light can be absorbed from either side of the device. This is beneficial towards achieving multi-junction perovskite solar cells. Undergraduate Research Assistant

  13. Performance of a double-effect absorption chiller driven by ICPC solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquam, J.B.; Duff, W.S.; Brezner, J.M.; Henkel, E.T.; Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Sethi, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analytical results describing the performance of a 70 kW (20 ton), water-fired, double-effect absorption chiller. The chiller is driven by a 106 m{sup 2} array of integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC) solar collectors. For this project, an existing gas-fired chiller was modified to operate on hot water. The water was heated by an array of 336 evacuated ICPC tubes. Each tube has an effective area of 0.317 m{sup 2}. The chiller and collector array are part of a complete solar HVAC system that provides air conditioning and space heating for a 743 m{sup 2} (8,000 ft{sup 2}) commercial building in Sacramento, CA. The other components of the HVAC system are a high temperature storage tank, a cooling tower, a gas-fired back-up boiler and five 14 kW (4 ton) cooling/heating fan coil units. The experimental data are used to determine; (1) the efficiency of the collectors; (2) the coefficient of performance of the chiller; and (3) the overall energy balance on the system. Computer models have also been developed to predict the performance and to optimize the design and operating characteristics of the HVAC system.

  14. Development of a new flat stationary evacuated CPC-collector for process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Buttinger, Frank; Beikircher, Thomas; Proell, Markus; Schoelkopf, Wolfgang

    2010-07-15

    For the economical supply of solar process heat at temperatures between 120 and 150 C a new non-tracking, flat, low-concentrating collector has been developed. The new collector is an edge ray collector with a concentration of 1.8 and inert gas filling, existing of parallel mounted absorber-reflector units, aligned in east-west direction. The basic concept is the integration of an absorber tube and reflectors inside a low pressure enclosure. Asymmetrical reflectors below the headers with a concentration of 0.6X provide extra radiation and prevent longitudinal radiation losses. To suppress heat losses due to gas-convection inside, air or inert gas like krypton at a pressure below 10 mbar is used. A prototype, with an aperture area of 2.0 m{sup 2}, was tested in Munich and showed efficiencies of about 50% for krypton at 0.01 bar at a temperature of 150 C with a radiation of 1000 W/m{sup 2} (900 W/m{sup 2} direct, ambient temperature 20 C). (author)

  15. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    F of the elastomer-on-coating couples to less than 50% of the elastomer-on-steel couples in all conditions. These consolidated results indicate that general improvements in maintenance of seal integrity and functional lifetimes for other sliding joints exposed to potentially abrasive biofouling media can be obtained by coating the more-rigid seal-plate surfaces with low-CST, hydrophobic, wear-resistant materials such as the silicone-epoxy system characterized here.

  16. Current global plate kinematics from GPS (1995-2007) with the plate-consistent reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Mikhail G.; Steblov, Grigory M.

    2008-04-01

    We present the vectors of rotation of 10 major lithospheric plates, estimated from continuous GPS observations at 192 globally distributed stations; 71 stations were selected as representing stable plate regions. All days for the period 1995.0-2007.0 were included in the analysis. In contrast to previous GPS plate models, our model is independent of international terrestrial reference frames (ITRF). The origin of our plate-consistent reference frame is the center of plate rotation (CP) rather than the center of mass of the entire Earth's system (CM) as in recent versions of ITRF. We estimate plate rotations and CP by minimizing the misfit between the horizontal velocities predicted by the plate model and the observed GPS velocities. If any version of ITRF is used as the reference frame, the drift of the ITRF origin relative to CP cannot be neglected in estimation of plate rotation vectors and plate-residual station velocities. The model of the plate kinematics presented here addresses the problem debated since the beginning of the space geodesy: how big are disagreements between the current plate motions and the motions averaged over several million years? We compare the vectors of relative plate rotations estimated here with the published vectors from GPS and geologic models. We also discuss the integrity of individual plates as exhibited by plate-residual station velocities. For seven largest plates, the RMS value of plate-residual station velocities in stable plate interiors is 0.5-0.9 mm/a; this value is an upper bound on deviation of real plates from infinite stiffness.

  17. Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The subsystem design of the SEC-601 solar collector was evaluated. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet three inches wide and eight feet seven inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the subsystem performance specifications and the assembly and installation drawings of the solar collectors and manifold.

  18. Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: application of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS).

    PubMed

    Amin, M T; Han, M Y

    2009-12-01

    The efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS), recommended by the World Health Organization, has been determined for rainwater disinfection, and potential benefits and limitations discussed. The limitations of SODIS have now been overcome by the use of solar collector disinfection (SOCO-DIS), for potential use of rainwater as a small-scale potable water supply, especially in developing countries. Rainwater samples collected from the underground storage tanks of a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system were exposed to different conditions of sunlight radiation in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles in a solar collector with rectangular base and reflective open wings. Total and fecal coliforms were used, together with Escherichia coli and heterotrophic plate counts, as basic microbial and indicator organisms of water quality for disinfection efficiency evaluation. In the SOCO-DIS system, disinfection improved by 20-30% compared with the SODIS system, and rainwater was fully disinfected even under moderate weather conditions, due to the effects of concentrated sunlight radiation and the synergistic effects of thermal and optical inactivation. The SOCO-DIS system was optimized based on the collector configuration and the reflective base: an inclined position led to an increased disinfection efficiency of 10-15%. Microbial inactivation increased by 10-20% simply by reducing the initial pH value of the rainwater to 5. High turbidities also affected the SOCO-DIS system; the disinfection efficiency decreased by 10-15%, which indicated that rainwater needed to be filtered before treatment. The problem of microbial regrowth was significantly reduced in the SOCO-DIS system compared with the SODIS system because of residual sunlight effects. Only total coliform regrowth was detected at higher turbidities. The SOCO-DIS system was ineffective only under poor weather conditions, when longer exposure times or other practical means of reducing the pH were required for the

  19. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  20. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOEpatents

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  1. 5. View of north elevation, including saw dust collector and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of north elevation, including saw dust collector and brick addition, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, Joiner & Sheet Metal Shops, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  2. Outdoor tests of the concentric-tube collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Seventy two element, air-filled version of concentric-tube solar collector recently underwent 2 month performance evaluation at Marshall Space Flight Center solar house. Summary of results, along with other relevant data, is presented in 27 page report.

  3. Indoor tests of the concentric-tube solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes performance tests on 12-tube, liquid-filled collector. Thermal efficiency, change in efficiency with sun position, and time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut are described.

  4. Owens-Illinois liquid solar collector materials assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    From the beginning, it was noted that the baseline drawings for the liquid solar collector exhibited a distinct weakness concerning materials specification where elastomers, plastics, and foam insulation materials were utilized. A relatively small effort by a competent design organization would alleviate this deficiency. Based on results obtained from boilout and stagnation tests on the solar simulator, it was concluded that proof testing of the collector tubes prior to use helps to predict their performance for limited service life. Fracture mechanics data are desirable for predicting extended service life and establishing a minimum proof pressure level requirement. The temperature capability of this collector system was increased as the design matured and the coating efficiency improved. This higher temperature demands the use of higher temperature materials at critical locations in the collector.

  5. Thermal Performance of an Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Hornacek, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    A solar collector having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity is needed for applications where solar energy is to be absorbed and transported for use in minisatellites. Such a solar collector may be used with a low temperature differential heat engine to provide power or with a thermal bus for thermal switching applications. One concept being considered for the solar collector is an Al2O3 cermet coating applied to a thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum substrate. The cermet coating provides high solar absorptance and the polished aluminum provides low infrared emittance. Annealed pyrolytic graphite embedded in the aluminum substrate provides enhanced thermal conductivity. The as-measured thermal performance of an annealed pyrolytic graphite thermal conductivity enhanced polished aluminum solar collector, coated with a cermet coating, will be presented.

  6. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  7. Impact on multilayered composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, B. S.; Moon, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Stress wave propagation in a multilayer composite plate due to impact was examined by means of the anisotropic elasticity theory. The plate was modelled as a number of identical anisotropic layers and the approximate plate theory of Mindlin was then applied to each layer to obtain a set of difference-differential equations of motion. Dispersion relations for harmonic waves and correction factors were found. The governing equations were reduced to difference equations via integral transforms. With given impact boundary conditions these equations were solved for an arbitrary number of layers in the plate and the transient propagation of waves was calculated by means of a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The multilayered plate problem was extended to examine the effect of damping layers present between two elastic layers. A reduction of the interlaminar normal stress was significant when the thickness of damping layer was increased but the effect was mostly due to the softness of the damping layer. Finally, the problem of a composite plate with a crack on the interlaminar boundary was formulated.

  8. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  9. Size Distribution of Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Fragments Recovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    Genesis launched in 2001 with 271 whole and 30 half hexagonally-shaped collectors mounted on 5 arrays, comprised of 9 materials described in [1]. The array collectors were damaged during re-entry impact in Utah in 2004 [2], breaking into many smaller pieces and dust. A compilation of the number and approximate size of the fragments recovered was compiled from notes made during the field packaging performed in the Class 10,000 cleanroom at Utah Test and Training Range [3].

  10. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  11. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2000-10-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. In Phase II, a 2.5-MW-scale AHPC was designed, constructed, installed, and tested at the Big Stone power station. For Phase III, further testing of an improved version of the 2.5-MW-scale AHPC at the Big Stone power station is being conducted to facilitate commercialization of the AHPC technology.

  13. Conceptual design of an orbital debris collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Peter (Editor); Brenton, Brian; Chambers, Ernest; Schwind, Thomas; Swanhart, Christopher; Williams, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The current Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) environment has become overly crowded with space debris. An evaluation of types of debris is presented in order to determine which debris poses the greatest threat to operation in space, and would therefore provide a feasible target for removal. A target meeting these functional requirements was found in the Cosmos C-1B Rocket Body. These launchers are spent space transporters which constitute a very grave risk of collision and fragmentation in LEO. The motion and physical characteristics of these rocket bodies have determined the most feasible method of removal. The proposed Orbital Debris Collector (ODC) device is designed to attach to the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), which provides all propulsion, tracking, and power systems. The OMV/ODC combination, the Rocket Body Retrieval Vehicle (RBRV), will match orbits with the rocket body, use a spin table to match the rotational motion of the debris, capture it, despin it, and remove it from orbit by allowing it to fall into the Earth's atmosphere. A disposal analysis is presented to show how the debris will be deorbited into the Earth's atmosphere. The conceptual means of operation of a sample mission is described.

  14. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    The scientific hypothesis of this work is that modulation of the properties of hard materials to exhibit abrasion-reducing and low-energy surfaces will extend the functional lifetimes of elastomeric seals pressed against them in abrasive underwater systems. The initial motivation of this work was to correct a problem noted in the leaking of seals at major hydropower generating facilities subject to fouling by abrasive zebra mussel shells and extensive corrosion. Similar biofouling-influenced problems can develop at seals in medical devices and appliances from regulators in anesthetic machines and SCUBA diving oxygen supply units to autoclave door seals, injection syringe gaskets, medical pumps, drug delivery components, and feeding devices, as well as in food handling equipment like pasteurizers and transfer lines. Maritime and many other heavy industrial seal interfaces could also benefit from this coating system. Little prior work has been done to elucidate the relationship of seal plate surface properties to the friction and wear of elastomeric seals during sliding contacts of these articulating materials, or to examine the secondary influence of mineralized debris within the contacting interfaces. This investigation utilized the seal materials relevant to the hydropower application---neoprene elastomer against carbon steel---with and without the application of a silicone-epoxy coating (WearlonRTM 2020.98) selected for its wear-resistance, hydrophobicity, and "easy-release" capabilities against biological fouling debris present in actual field use. Analytical techniques applied to these materials before and after wear-producing processes included comprehensive Contact Angle measurements for Critical Surface Tension (CA-CST) determination, Scanning Electron Microscopic inspections, together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements for determination of surface texture and inorganic composition, Multiple

  15. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

  16. Multilayer analytic element modeling of radial collector wells.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A; Luther, Kenneth H

    2005-01-01

    A new multilayer approach is presented for the modeling of ground water flow to radial collector wells. The approach allows for the inclusion of all aspects of the unique boundary condition along the lateral arms of a collector well, including skin effect and internal friction losses due to flow in the arms. The hydraulic conductivity may differ between horizontal layers within the aquifer, and vertical anisotropy can be taken into account. The approach is based on the multilayer analytic element method, such that regional flow and local three-dimensional detail may be simulated simultaneously and accurately within one regional model. Horizontal flow inside a layer is computed analytically, while vertical flow is approximated with a standard finite-difference scheme. Results obtained with the proposed approach compare well to results obtained with three-dimensional analytic element solutions for flow in unconfined aquifers. The presented approach may be applied to predict the yield of a collector well in a regional setting and to compute the origin and residence time, and thus the quality, of water pumped by the collector well. As an example, the addition of three lateral arms to a collector well that already has three laterals is investigated. The new arms are added at an elevation of 2 m above the existing laterals. The yield increase of the collector well is computed as a function of the lengths of the three new arms. PMID:16324013

  17. Thermographic techniques applied to solar collector systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.

    1980-02-01

    The use of thermography to analyze large solar collector array systems under dynamic operating conditions is discussed. The research at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in this area has focused on thermographic techniques and equipment to determine temperature distributions, flow patterns, and air blockages in solar collectors. The results of this extensive study, covering many sites and types of collectors, illustrate the capabilities of infrared (IR) analysis as a qualitative analysis tool and operation and maintenance procedure when applied to large arrays. Thermographic analysis of most collector systems qualitatively showed relative temperature distributions that indicated balanced flow patterns. In three significant cases, blocked or broken collector arrays, which previously had gone undetected, were discovered. Using this analysis, validation studies of large computer codes could examine collector arrays for flow patterns or blockages that could cause disagreement between actual and predicted performance. Initial operation and balancing of large systems could be accomplished without complicated sensor systems not needed for normal operations. Maintenance personnel could quickly check their systems without climbing onto the roof and without complicated sensor systems.

  18. Analysis of solar collector array systems using thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of thermography to analyze large solar collector array systems under dynamic operating conditions is discussed. The research has focused on thermographic techniques and equipment to determine temperature distributions, flow patterns, and air blockages in solar collectors. The results of this extensive study, covering many sites and types of collectors, illustrate the capabilities of infrared analysis as an analysis tool and operation and maintenance procedure when applied to large arrays. Thermographic analysis of most collector systems showed temperature distributions that indicated balanced flow patterns with both the thermographs and the hand-held unit. In three significant cases, blocked or broken collector arrays, which previously had gone undetected, were discovered. Using this analysis, validation studies of large computer codes could examine collector arrays for flow patterns or blockages that could cause disagreement between actual and predicted performance. Initial operation and balancing of large systems could be accomplished without complicated sensor systems not needed for normal operations. Maintenance personnel could quickly check their systems without climbing onto the roof and without complicated sensor systems.

  19. Free-Standing Copper Nanowire Network Current Collector for Improving Lithium Anode Performance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei-Lei; Ge, Jin; Yang, Jun-Nan; Chen, Si-Ming; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Fei; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-07-13

    Lithium metal is one of the most attractive anode materials for next-generation lithium batteries due to its high specific capacity and low electrochemical potential. However, the poor cycling performance and serious safety hazards, caused by the growth of dendritic and mossy lithium, has long hindered the application of lithium metal based batteries. Herein, we reported a rational design of free-standing Cu nanowire (CuNW) network to suppress the growth of dendritic lithium via accommodating the lithium metal in three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. We demonstrated that as high as 7.5 mA h cm(-2) of lithium can be plated into the free-standing copper nanowire (CuNW) current collector without the growth of dendritic lithium. The lithium metal anode based on the CuNW exhibited high Coulombic efficiency (average 98.6% during 200 cycles) and outstanding rate performance owing to the suppression of lithium dendrite growth and high conductivity of CuNW network. Our results demonstrate that the rational nanostructural design of current collector could be a promising strategy to improve the performance of lithium metal anode enabling its application in next-generation lithium-metal based batteries. PMID:27253417

  20. Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

  1. Optimized Selective Coatings for Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.; Curtis, H. B.

    1967-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of black nickel electroplated over stainless steel and of black copper produced by oxidation of copper sheet were measured for various plating times of black nickel and for various lengths of time of oxidation of the copper sheet, and compared to black chrome over nickel and to converted zinc. It was determined that there was an optimum time for both plating of black nickel and for the oxidation of copper black. At this time the solar selective properties show high absorptance in the solar spectrum and low emittance in the infrared. The conditions are compared for production of optimum optical properties for black nickel, black copper, black chrome, and two black zinc conversions which at the same conditions had absorptances of 0.84, 0.90, 0.95, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively, and emittances of 0.18, 0.08, 0.09, 0.10, and 0.08, respectively.

  2. Mitigation of soiling losses in solar collectors: Removal of surface-adhered dust particles using an electrodynamic screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Arash

    Particulate contamination of the optical surfaces of solar collectors, often called "soiling", can have a significant deteriorating impact on energy yield due to the absorption and scattering of incident light. Soiling has more destructive effect on concentrated solar systems than on flat-plate photovoltaic panels, as the former are incapable of converting scattered sunlight. The first part of this thesis deals with the soiling losses of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems in operation in several regions of the world. Influential parameters in dust accumulation losses, as well as different cleaning mechanisms in pursuit of restoring the efficiency of soiled systems, have been thoroughly investigated. In lieu of the most commonly-practiced manual cleaning method of using high-pressure water jets, the concept of automatic dust removal using the electrostatic forces of electrodynamic screen (EDS) technology is in a developmental stage and on its way toward commercialization. This thesis provides comprehensive analytical solutions for the electric potential and electric field distribution in EDS devices having different configurations. Numerical simulations developed using finite element analysis (FEA) software have corroborated the analytical solutions which can easily be embedded into software programs for particle trajectory simulations while also providing flexibility and generality in the study on the effect of different parameters of the EDS on the electric field and ensuing dust-removal performance. Evaluation and comparison of different repelling and attracting forces exerted on dust particles is of utmost importance to a detailed analysis of EDS performance in dust removal. Hence, the balance of electrostatic and adhesion forces, including van der Waals and capillary forces, have received significant attention in this dissertation. Furthermore, different numerical analyses have been

  3. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  4. Analysis of collector-emitter offset voltage of InGaP/GaAs composite collector double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, K. L.; Yoon, S. F.

    2002-04-01

    The Ebers-Moll-like terminal current expressions of a composite collector double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT), which takes the recombination effect into account, have been formulated and an expression for collector-emitter offset voltage [VCE(offset)] has been derived. Factors affecting the VCE(offset) of a composite collector DHBT are investigated and good agreement between the calculated and reported experimental results is shown. Analytical results showed that the transmission coefficient of the base-collector (B-C) junction does not have a considerable effect on the VCE(offset), provided that the B-C junction is of good quality. Thus, despite its asymmetric structure, the VCE(offset) of an optimally designed composite collector DHBT could be as low as that of a conventional DHBT. Hence a composite collector DHBT with low saturation voltage and negligible VCE(offset) is possible if the two conditions: (i) good quality B-C junction, (ii) base transport factor, α≈1, are fulfilled.

  5. 49 CFR 40.43 - What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Collectors and operators of collection sites must take the steps listed in this section to prevent unauthorized access that could compromise the integrity of collections. (b) As a collector, you must do the... or hospital examining room, you must, as a collector, also ensure before the collection that:...

  6. 49 CFR 40.43 - What steps must operators of collection sites take to protect the security and integrity of urine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Collectors and operators of collection sites must take the steps listed in this section to prevent unauthorized access that could compromise the integrity of collections. (b) As a collector, you must do the... or hospital examining room, you must, as a collector, also ensure before the collection that:...

  7. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  8. Antireflection pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    McCollister, H.L.; Pettit, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Parabolic trough solar collectors utilize glass envelopes around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses. Antireflective (AR) coatings applied to the envelope can potentially increase the solar transmittance by 0.07. An excellent AR surface can be formed on Pyrex (Corning Code 7740 glass) by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation. After heat treating, a surface layer is removed using a pre-etch solution of aqueous ammonium bifluoride. Finally the AR layer is formed by etching in a solution containing hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acid. Processing parameters studied included the phase separation temperature and heat treatment time, the pre-etch time, and the etching bath temperature and time. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values >0.97, as compared to a value of 0.91 in untreated samples, were obtained for a range of heat treatment temperatures from 560 to 630/sup 0/C. The phase separation time and temperature interact so that at 630/sup 0/C short times are required (3 hours) while at 560/sup 0/C longer times are necessary (24 hours). Optimum values for the other processing parameters are 12 to 18 minutes in the pre-etching bath, and 5 to 10 minutes in the film forming bath when maintained between 35 and 45/sup 0/C. Application of this process to full scale 3 m long x 6 cm diameter Pyrex envelopes was successful in producing solar transmittance values greater than or equal to 0.97.

  9. Antireflection Pyrex envelopes for parabolic solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    McCollister, H.L.; Pettit, R.B.

    1983-11-01

    Parabolic trough solar collectors utilize glass envelopes around the receiver tube in order to reduce thermal losses. Antireflective (AR) coatings applied to the envelope can potentially increase the solar transmittance by 7 percent. An excellent AR surface can be formed on Pyrex (Corning Code 7740 glass) by first heat treating the glass to cause a compositional phase separation. After heat treating, a surface layer is removed using a pre-etch solution of aqueous ammonium bifluoride. Finally, the AR layer is formed by etching in a solution containing hydrofluorosilic and ammonium bifluoride acid. Processing parameters studied included the phase separation temperature and heat treatment time, the pre-etch time, and the etching bath temperature and time. AR-coated samples with solar transmittance values > 0.97, as compared to a value of 0.91 in untreated samples, were obtained for a range of heat treatment temperatures from 560-630/sup 0/C. The phase separation time and temperature interact so that at 630/sup 0/C short times are required (3 hrs) while at 560/sup 0/C longer times are necessary (24 hrs). Optimum values for the other processing parameters are 12-18 min in the pre-etching bath, and 5-10 min in the film forming bath when maintained between 35-45/sup 0/C. Application of this process to full scale 3-m-long X 6-cm dia Pyrex envelopes was successful in producing solar transmittance values greater than or equal to 0.97.

  10. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  11. Solar energy collector/storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  12. Collector optic cleaning by in-situ hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elg, Daniel T.; Panici, Gianluca A.; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography sources produce EUV photons by means of a hot, dense, highly-ionized Sn plasma. This plasma expels high-energy Sn ions and neutrals, which deposit on the collector optic used to focus the EUV light. This Sn deposition lowers the reflectivity of the collector optic, necessitating downtime for collector cleaning and replacement. A method is being developed to clean the collector with an in-situ hydrogen plasma, which provides hydrogen radicals that etch the Sn by forming gaseous SnH4. This method has the potential to significantly reduce collector-related source downtime. EUV reflectivity restoration and Sn cleaning have been demonstrated on multilayer mirror samples attached to a Sn-coated 300mm-diameter steel dummy collector driven at 300W RF power with 500sccm H2 and a pressure of 260mTorr. Use of the in-situ cleaning method is also being studied at industriallyapplicable high pressure (1.3 Torr). Plasma creation across the dummy collector surface has been demonstrated at 1.3 Torr with 1000sccm H2 flow, and etch rates have been measured. Additionally, etching has been demonstrated at higher flow rates up to 3200sccm. A catalytic probe has been used to measure radical density at various pressures and flows. The results lend further credence to the hypothesis that Sn removal is limited not by radical creation but by the removal of SnH4 from the plasma. Additionally, further progress has been made in an attempt to model the physical processes behind Sn removal.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.F.

    1983-04-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric corrosion of candidate batten and enclosure materials were tested on outdoor racks parallel to the tilted solar-collected panels at nine National Solar Data Network (NSDN) sites, loceated in mild marine, mild industrial, and rural environments. The candidate materials evaluated include galvanized steel (G-90), aluminized steel (Type 2), aluminum (6061), and white polyester painted steel. Data analyses predicted that all the first three materials will last more than 20 years in the nine sites tested. However, repainting of the painted steel is probably needed within five years in a mild marine environment and five to ten years in a mild industrial or rural environment.

  14. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Sensors at nine test sites provided atmospheric data. Other data were obtained by analyzing corrosion samples that were exposed for varying periods of time. The results of the first test period are summarized.

  15. Lee plate equations for electroded quartz crystal plates with the consideration of electrode density and stiffness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Chen, Guojun; Du, Jianke

    2008-02-01

    Lee plate equations for high-frequency vibrations of piezoelectric plates have been established and improved over the last decades with the sole objective of obtaining the accurate prediction of frequency and mode shapes to aid crystal resonator design. The latest improvement includes extra terms related to derivatives of the flexural displacement to adjust the accuracy and consider electrodes for practical applications. As part of the efforts to make the equations applicable for resonator design with the improved frequency accuracy and consideration of electrodes, we derived Lee plate equations for electroded plates by changing the integration limits in the dimension reduction procedure to signify the dominant role of the crystal plate. By modifying the density terms in plate equations to include the contribution of both electrode stiffness and density, the accuracy of the thickness-shear vibration frequency of electroded plates is improved for commonly used electrode materials. PMID:18334357

  16. Identification of RFPL3 Protein as a Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Modulating the Integration Activity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Type 1 Preintegration Complex Using a Microtiter Plate-based Assay*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Beng Hui; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Ying, Pamela Ho Rui; Takahashi, Chikako; Han, Qi'En; Chin, Wei Xin; Chao, Sheng-Hao; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Integration, one of the hallmarks of retrovirus replication, is mediated by a nucleoprotein complex called the preintegration complex (PIC), in which viral DNA is associated with many protein components that are required for completion of the early phase of infection. A striking feature of the PIC is its powerful integration activity in vitro. The PICs from a freshly isolated cytoplasmic extract of infected cells are able to insert viral DNA into exogenously added target DNA in vitro. Therefore, a PIC-based in vitro assay is a reliable system for assessing protein factors influencing retroviral integration. In this study, we applied a microtiter plate-based in vitro assay to a screening study using a protein library that was produced by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system. Using a library of human E3 ubiquitin ligases, we identified RFPL3 as a potential stimulator of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) PIC integration activity in vitro. This enhancement of PIC activity by RFPL3 was likely to be attributed to its N-terminal RING domain. To further understand the functional role of RFPL3 in HIV infection, we created a human cell line overexpressing RFPL3. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that RFPL3 was associated with the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 PICs in infected cells. More importantly, single-round HIV-1 infection was enhanced significantly by RFPL3 expression. Our proteomic approach displays an advantage in the identification of new cellular proteins affecting the integration activity of the PIC and, therefore, contributes to the understanding of functional interaction between retroviral integration complexes and host factors. PMID:25107902

  17. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOEpatents

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  18. Atmospheric Ionic Deposition in Tropical Sites of Central Sulawesi Determined by Ion Exchange Resin Collectors and Bulk Water Collector.

    PubMed

    Köhler, S; Jungkunst, H F; Gutzler, C; Herrera, R; Gerold, G

    2012-09-01

    In the light of global change, the necessity to monitor atmospheric depositions that have relevant effects on ecosystems is ever increasing particularly for tropical sites. For this study, atmospheric ionic depositions were measured on tropical Central Sulawesi at remote sites with both a conventional bulk water collector system (BWS collector) and with a passive ion exchange resin collector system (IER collector). The principle of IER collector to fix all ionic depositions, i.e. anions and cations, has certain advantages referring to (1) post-deposition transformation processes, (2) low ionic concentrations and (3) low rainfall and associated particulate inputs, e.g. dust or sand. The ionic concentrations to be measured for BWS collectors may easily fall below detection limits under low deposition conditions which are common for tropical sites of low land use intensity. Additionally, BWS collections are not as independent from the amount of rain fallen as are IER collections. For this study, the significant differences between both collectors found for nearly all measured elements were partly correlated to the rainfall pattern, i.e. for calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. However, the significant differences were, in most cases, not highly relevant. More relevant differences between the systems were found for aluminium and nitrate (434-484 %). Almost five times higher values for nitrate clarified the advantage of the IER system particularly for low deposition rate which is one particularity of atmospheric ionic deposition in tropical sites of extensive land use. The monthly resolution of the IER data offers new insights into the temporal distribution of annual ionic depositions. Here, it did not follow the tropical rain pattern of a drier season within generally wet conditions. PMID:22865942

  19. Solar internal lighting using optical collectors and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francini, F.; Fontani, D.; Jafrancesco, D.; Mercatelli, L.; Sansoni, P.

    2006-08-01

    A system exploiting solar energy, by means of optical collectors and fibres, has been applied for indoor illumination. The project has been called "The Sunflowers" for the property of solar collectors to track solar position during the day. Every "sunflower" contains several solar collectors, each of which is coupled to an optical fibre. The "Sunflower" is provided of mechanical systems and electric accessories for solar tracking. The light focused by the solar collector can be used in two possible ways: for internal illumination with direct solar light; otherwise it can be accumulated for lighting when the sun is not present. The first function is obtained coupling the optical collector to an optical fibre, which transports the solar light in selected points within the showcases. The second one consists in focusing solar light on a photovoltaic cell of the last generation type with high efficiency. In this configuration the photovoltaic cell converts the focused light into electric energy to be used for illumination in case of sun absence. A demonstrative installation has been realised applying this solar illumination system to museum lighting: a prototype has been tested in a prestigious museum in Florence.

  20. Commissioning a Megawatt-class Gyrotron with Collector Potential Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, J.; Cengher, M.; Gorelov, Y. A.; Ponce, D.; Prater, R.

    2013-10-01

    A 110 GHz depressed collector gyrotron has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. The commissioning process rapidly achieved operation at full parameters, 45 A and 94 kV total voltage, with 29 kV depression. Although short pulse, 2 ms, factory testing demonstrated 1.2 MW at 41% electrical efficiency, long pulse testing at DIII-D achieved only 33% efficiency at full power parameters, for pulse lengths up to 10 s. Maximum generated power was ~950 kW, considerably below the 1.2 MW target. During attempts to increase the power at 5 s pulse length, it was noted that the collector cooling water was boiling. This led to the discovery that 14 of the 160 cooling channels in the collector had been blocked by braze material during manufacture of the tube. The locations of blocked channels were identified using infrared imaging of the outside of the collector during rapid changes in the cooling water temperature. Despite these difficulties, the rf beam itself was of very high quality and the stray rf found calorimetrically in the Matching Optics Unit, which couples the Gaussian rf beam to the waveguide, was only 2% of the generated power, about half that of our previous best quality high power beam. Details of the power measurements and collector observations will be presented. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  1. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  2. Optimization of solar air collector using genetic algorithm and artificial bee colony algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şencan Şahin, Arzu

    2012-11-01

    Thermal performance of solar air collector depends on many parameters as inlet air temperature, air velocity, collector slope and properties related to collector. In this study, the effect of the different parameters which affect the performance of the solar air collector are investigated. In order to maximize the thermal performance of a solar air collector genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) have been used. The results obtained indicate that GA and ABC algorithms can be applied successfully for the optimization of the thermal performance of solar air collector.

  3. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  4. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Jensen, R. N.; Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. A 1,180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row were calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every five minutes using a minicomputer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  5. Analysis of Molecular Contamination on Genesis Collectors Through Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, Eileen K.

    2005-01-01

    Before the spacecraft returned to Earth in September, the Genesis mission had a preliminary assessment plan in place for the purpose of providing information on the condition and availability of collector materials to the science community as a basis for allocation requests. One important component of that plan was the evaluation of collector surfaces for molecular contamination. Sources of molecular contamination might be the on-orbit outgassing of spacecraft and science canister components, the condensation of thruster by-products during spacecraft maneuvers, or the condensation of volatile species associated with reentry. Although the non-nominal return of the Genesis spacecraft introduced particulate contamination to the collectors, such as dust and heatshield carbon-carbon, it is unlikely to have caused any molecular deposition. The contingency team's quick action in returning the damaged payload the UTTR cleanroom by 6 PM the evening of recovery help to ensure that exposure to weather conditions and the environment were kept to a minimum.

  6. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  7. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Heck, P. R.; Jillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Hudson, B.; Huss, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  8. Wind effects in solar fields with various collector designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, Joachim; Cochard, Steve; Fletcher, David F.; Vassallo, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic trough power plants are often located in areas that are subjected to high wind speeds, as an open terrain without any obstructions is beneficial for the plant performance. The wind impacts both the structural requirements and the performance of the plant. The aerodynamic loads from the wind impose strong requirements on the support structure of the reflectors, and they also impact the tracking accuracy. On a thermal level the airflow around the glass envelope of the receiver tube cools its outer surface through forced convection, thereby contributing to the heat loss. Based on previous studies at the level of an individual row of collectors, this study analyses the wind effects in a full-scale solar field of different continuous and staggered trough designs. The airflow around several rows of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is simulated at full scale in steady state simulations in an atmospheric boundary layer flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software ANSYSO® CFX 15.0. The effect of the wake of a collector row on the following collectors is analysed, and the aerodynamic loads are compared between the different geometries. The outermost collectors of a solar field experience the highest wind forces, as the rows in the interior of the solar field are protected from high wind speeds. While the aerodynamic forces in the interior of the solar field are almost independent of the collector shape, the deeper troughs (with large rim angles) tested in this study show a lower heat loss due to forced convection on the outer surface of the receiver tube than the shallower ones (with small rim angles) in most of the solar field.

  9. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  10. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  11. Analytic Modeling of Collector Current and Delay Time in Hbts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hee-Bum

    1992-01-01

    Collector current in abrupt Al_ {0.48}In_{0.52} As/In_{0.53}Ga _{0.47}As HBTs is investigated. Because tunneling plays an important role for abrupt heterojunctions, thermionic field emission (TF) mechanism is included, as a part of the model, in addition to thermionic emission (TE) theory. To model the modulation of the effective barrier height correctly, non-ideal doping profile across the heterojunction is considered. Calculations showed that under nominal operating conditions, TF is dominant over TE in determining the collector current. Furthermore, modulation of the effective barrier height manifests itself in the collector ideality factor that is greater than unity. It is shown that, by calculating the above mentioned transport mechanisms and including the barrier height modulation, the collector current and its temperature dependence in abrupt AlInAs/InGaAs HBTs can be predicted correctly. The detailed calculation is reduced to an analytical closed -form model by assuming a Gaussian energy spectrum for TF current. The model is determined to be accurate over a wide range of bias and temperatures. A simple TE/TF Ebers -Moll model for abrupt HBTs is derived. The classical expression for collector small signal delay time is inadequate for vertically scaled transistors where transient velocity effects can no longer be ignored. Analytical expressions for collector transit time and small signal delay time are proposed for circuit simulation. These models use a general non-uniform velocity profile described entirely in terms of five physical parameters: momentum and energy relaxation times, and initial, peak, and saturated velocities. A C_infty-continuous function approximation for the transit time is used to obtain analytical closed-form expressions for collector small signal delay time in terms of physically meaningful transport parameters. An accurate empirical two-piece model is also proposed. As the collector thickness is scaled down, the ratio of small signal

  12. Current collector geometry and mixing in liquid metal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Rakan; Kelley, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Liquid metal batteries are emerging as an efficient and cost effective technology for large-scale energy storage on electrical grids. In these batteries, critical performance related factors such as the limiting current density and life cycle are strongly influenced by fluid mixing and transport of electrochemical species to and from the electrode-electrolyte interface. In this work, ultrasound velocimetry is used to investigate the role of negative current collector location on the induced velocity, flow pattern, and mixing time in liquid metal electrodes. Ultrasound velocity measurements are obtained at a range of operating current densities. Furthermore, a comparison between velocity profiles produced by current collectors with different sizes is also presented.

  13. Retrofitting residences with photovoltaic/thermal collector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, D. B.; Frank, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that photovoltaic/thermal collector areas as low as 10 m/sup 2/ are favorably matched to the operation of a conventional warm-air heating system. This was done by simulating the performances of three combined-collector heating systems which were designed to operate primarily in the boosting mode. Comparison of the annual performances of these systems permits determination of which components should be included in a retrofit system. The additional components considered are a thermal storage tank and a heat pump.

  14. Two hundred passage three-way valve: Fraction collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keffer, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fraction collector used to direct flow of separated biological materials from 197 capillary tubes to either a collection tray or to a waste tank. This mechanism uses a 28-volt dc gear motor driving twin cams to force 197 needles through a self-sealing silicone rubber septum, where they inject the material in 197 separate pockets in a collection tray. The position of the collector tray is sensed by two optical limit switches. The time sequences are controlled automatically by an electronics control monitoring module.

  15. ASSEMBLY OF PARALLEL PLATES

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Lennox, D.H.

    1963-04-23

    This invention is concerned with a rigid assembly of parallel plates in which keyways are stamped out along the edges of the plates and a self-retaining key is inserted into aligned keyways. Spacers having similar keyways are included between adjacent plates. The entire assembly is locked into a rigid structure by fastening only the outermost plates to the ends of the keys. (AEC)

  16. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence. PMID:17799689

  17. Plating Tank Control Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  18. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  19. Performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector is reported. Collector descriptions, summary, test conditions, test equipment, test requirements and procedures, and an analysis of the various tests performed are described.

  20. Design and development of high efficiency 140W space TWT with graphite collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, V.; Purohit, G.; Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, S. M.; Bera, A.; Bhaskar, P. V.; Singh, R. R.; Prasad, K.; Kiran, V.

    2008-05-01

    4-stage graphite collector assembly has been designed and developed for a 140W Ku-band space TWT to achieve the collector efficiency more than 80%. The UHV compatible, high density, copper impregnated POCO graphite (DFP-1C) was used to fabricate the four collector electrodes of the 4-stage depressed collector. Copper impregnated graphite material is used for the collector electrodes because of its low secondary electron emission coefficient, high thermal and electrical conductivities, easy machining and brazing, low thermal expansion coefficient and low weight. The graphite material was characterized for the UHV compatibility. The collector electrodes were precisely fabricated by careful machining, and technology was developed for brazing of graphite electrodes with high voltage alumina insulators. Complete TWT with four-stage graphite collector was developed and 140W output power at gain more than 55 dB was achieved. The TWT was pumped from both the gun and the collector ends.

  1. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  2. An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds is reported. A FORTRAN computer program was written for the computation of the thermal performance of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds. Arrays constructed from two example solar thermal collectors are computated. Typical external manifold sizes and thermal insulations are presented graphically and are compared with the thermal performance of the collector alone.

  3. Status of concentrator collector and high-efficiency concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Photovoltaic concentrator collectors are an attractive option for utility-scale photovoltaic power plants. This paper reviews the current status of photovoltaic concentrator collector and cell development. Included in the review is a discussion of the economic motivation for concentrators, a summary of recent concentrator collector and cell development, and a description of a major new program to accelerate development and commercial introduction of concentrator collectors. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Paper microzone plates.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader. PMID:19572563

  5. Heavy nucleus collector for space station

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.B. )

    1990-03-20

    Two opportunities exist in the next decade for measuring the charge distribution of ultraheavy cosmic ray with unprecedented statistics and elemental resolution. Groups at Berkeley, University of Michigan, and University of Utah will expose an array of track-recording phosphate glass plates {similar to}16 m{sup 2} in area for five years at an orbital inclination of 28.5{degree} on Space Station Freedom. In addition, negotiations are underway between Berkeley and Soviet colleagues to expose 1 to 3 m{sup 2} of glass for 2 years at an inclination of 51.6{degree} on Space Station Mir. The elemental resolution for the two sets of experiments is expected to be {similar to}0.25 charge unit. If negotiations are successful, the Mir experiment will be launched in 1991 and will collect about six times as many events with Z{gt}50 as were studied on HEAO-3 and about one-fifth as many events as will be collected on Freedom.

  6. Multicolor printing plate joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An upper plate having ink flow channels and a lower plate having a multicolored pattern are joined. The joining is accomplished without clogging any ink flow paths. A pattern having different colored parts and apertures is formed in a lower plate. Ink flow channels each having respective ink input ports are formed in an upper plate. The ink flow channels are coated with solder mask and the bottom of the upper plate is then coated with solder. The upper and lower plates are pressed together at from 2 to 5 psi and heated to a temperature of from 295 F to 750 F or enough to melt the solder. After the plates have cooled and the pressure is released, the solder mask is removed from the interior passageways by means of a liquid solvent.

  7. Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Bernard S.; Dharia, Dilip J.

    1979-10-02

    A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending there through contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are supplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material. 10 figs.

  8. Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Bernard S.; Dharia, Dilip J.

    1979-01-01

    A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending therethrough contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are suplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material.

  9. A clamped rectangular plate containing a crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1985-01-01

    The general problem of a rectangular plate clamped along two parallel sides and containing a crack parallel to the clamps is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations and the asymptotic behavior of the stress state near the corners is investigated. Numerical examples are considered for a clamped plate without a crack and with a centrally located crack, and the stress intensity factors and the stresses along the clamps are calculated.

  10. Distributed Collector Systems (DCS) for the medium temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalt, A. C.

    1982-11-01

    The basic layout of a distributed collector system (DCS) is described and questions concerning design are discussed. Plant designs and performance data for four DCS systems are presented. Energy storage techniques, the power conversion cycle, and heat transfer subsystems are addressed.

  11. Carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors using low cost collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirhoseiny, Maryam; Zandi, Majid; Mosayyebi, Abolghasem; Khademian, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical double layer supercapacitors were fabricated using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite microfilm as electrode. To improve the electrochemical properties, MWCNTs were functionalized with -COOH by acid treatments. CNT/PVA films have been deposited on different current collectors by spin coating to drastically enhance the electrode performance. Electrode fabrication involved various stages preparing of the CNT composite, and coating of the CNT/PVA paste on different substrates which also served as current collector. Al, Ni and graphite were used and compared as current collectors. The surface morphology of the fabricated electrodes was investigated with scanning electrode microscopy (SEM). Overall cell performance was evaluated with a multi-channel potentiostat/galvanostat analyzer. Each supercapacitor cell was subjected to charge-discharge cycling study at different current rates from 0.2Ag-1 to 1Ag-1. The results showed that graphite-based electrodes offer advantages of significantly higher conductivity and superior capacitive behavior compared to thin film electrodes formed on Ni and Al current collectors. The specific capacitance of graphite based electrode is found to be 29Fg-1.

  12. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collectors and conveyors. 58.221 Section 58.221 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  13. Vapor grown silicon dioxide improves transistor base-collector junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carley, D. R.; Duclos, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Vapor grown silicon dioxide layer protects base-collector junction in silicon planar transistors during the emitter diffusion process. This oxide fills in any imperfections that exist in the thermally grown oxide layer and is of greater thickness than that layer. This process is used to deposit protective silicon dioxide coatings on optical surfaces.

  14. Solar-collector manufacturing activity, July through December, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Solar thermal collector and solar cell manufacturing activity is both summarized and tabulated. Data are compared for three survey periods (July through December, 1981; January through June, 1981; and July through December, 1980). Annual totals are also provided for the years 1979 through 1981. Data include total producer shipments, end use, market sector, imports and exports. (LEW)

  15. Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

  16. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  17. Silicon crystal as a low work function collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. H.; Shimada, K.

    1975-01-01

    A test vehicle with a low work function collector which can be incorporated in a thermionic converter was constructed from standard vacuum components including an ultrahigh vacuum ion pump. The collector assembly was fabricated by diffusion bonding a (100) oriented silicon single crystal to a molybdenum block. The silicon surface was treated with cesium and oxygen to produce an NEA-type condition and the results were tested by photoemission and work function measurements. An n-type silicon collector was successfully activated to a work function of 1.0 eV, which was verified by photoemission spectral yield measurements. The stability test of an activated surface at elevated temperatures was conducted in the range from room temperature to 619 K, which was slightly lower than the designed collector temperature of 700 K. The work function measurements clearly demonstrated that the behavior of cesium replenishment on the activated Si surface was similar in nature to that of a metallic surface; that is, the loss of cesium by thermal desorption could be compensated by maintaining an adequate vapor pressure of cesium.

  18. 7 CFR 58.221 - Collectors and conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collectors and conveyors. 58.221 Section 58.221 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  19. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  20. Continuous miner dust collector proves worth at Eastover

    SciTech Connect

    Hundman, G.J.; Disney, P.; Divers, E.F.

    1983-02-01

    A twin-scrubber dust collector system has been developed for mounting on the continuous miner's support frame. The system was designed for use in thin (40 in) coal seams and has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. Details are given of underground tests showing the dust control achieved, and also the potential methane dilution that can be obtained.