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Sample records for platinum 194 target

  1. MicroRNA-194 (miR-194) regulates ROMK channel activity by targeting intersectin 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Zhang, Chengbiao; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the role of miR-194 in mediating the effect of high-K (HK) intake on ROMK channel. Northern blot analysis showed that miR-194 was expressed in kidney and that HK intake increased while low-K intake decreased the expression of miR-194. Real-time PCR analysis further demonstrated that HK intake increased the miR-194 expression in the cortical collecting duct. HK intake decreased the expression of intersectin 1 (ITSN1) which enhanced With-No-Lysine Kinase (WNK)-induced endocytosis of ROMK. Expression of miR-194 mimic decreased luciferase reporter gene activity in HEK293 T cells transfected with ITSN-1-3'UTR containing the complementary seed sequence for miR-194. In contrast, transfection of miR-194 inhibitor increased the luciferase activity. This effect was absent in the cells transfected with mutated 3'UTR of ITSN1 in which the complimentary seed sequence was deleted. Moreover, the inhibition of miR-194 expression increased the protein level of endogenous ITSN1 in HEK293T cells. Expression of miR-194 mimic also decreased the translation of exogenous ITSN1 in the cells transfected with the ITSN1 containing 3'UTR but not with 3'UTR-free ITSN1. Expression of pre-miR-194 increased K currents and ROMK expression in the plasma membrane in ROMK-transfected cells. Coexpression of ITSN1 reversed the stimulatory effect of miR-194 on ROMK channels. This effect was reversed by coexpression of ITSN1. We conclude that miR-194 regulates ROMK channel activity by modulating ITSN1 expression thereby enhancing ITSN1/WNK-dependent endocytosis. It is possible that miR-194 is involved in mediating the effect of a HK intake on ROMK channel activity. PMID:24197061

  2. MicroRNA-194 Regulates Hepatocytic Differentiation of Progenitor Cells by Targeting YAP1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang Hwa; McCarthy, Ryan L.; Zhou, Chong; Uprety, Nadima; Barton, Michelle Craig; Beretta, Laura

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA expression profiling in human liver progenitor cells following hepatocytic differentiation identified miR-122 and miR-194 as the microRNAs most strongly upregulated during hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells. MiR-194 was also highly upregulated following hepatocytic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Overexpression of miR-194 in progenitor cells accelerated their differentiation into hepatocytes, as measured by morphological features such as canaliculi and expression of hepatocytic markers. Overexpression of miR-194 in hESCs induced their spontaneous differentiation, a phenotype accompanied with accelerated loss of the pluripotent factors OCT4 and NANOG and decrease in mesoderm marker HAND1 expression. We then identified YAP1 as a direct target of miR-194. Inhibition of YAP1 strongly induced hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells and YAP1 over expression reversed the miR-194-induced hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells. In conclusion, we identified miR-194 as a potent inducer of hepatocytic differentiation of progenitor cells and further identified YAP1 as a mediator of miR-194's effects on hepatocytic differentiation and liver progenitor cell fate. PMID:26731713

  3. Platinum(IV)-chlorotoxin (CTX) conjugates for targeting cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nora; Mokhtari, Tara E; Papayannopoulos, Ioannis A; Lippard, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs. Its side effects, however, have motivated researchers to search for equally effective analogs that are better tolerated. Selectively targeting cancer tissue is one promising strategy. For this purpose, a platinum(IV) complex was conjugated to the cancer-targeting peptide chlorotoxin (CTX, TM601) in order to deliver cisplatin selectively to cancer cells. The 1:1 Pt-CTX conjugate was characterized by mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis. Like most platinum(IV) derivatives, the cytotoxicity of the conjugate was lower in cell culture than that of cisplatin, but greater than those of its Pt(IV) precursor and CTX in several cancer cell lines. PMID:22465700

  4. miR-194 targets RBX1 gene to modulate proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaonan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zang, Wenqiao; Du, Yuwen; Li, Min; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2015-04-01

    RING box protein1 (RBX1), an essential component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, plays an important role in gastric cancer. In the study, miR-194 and RBX1 expression was evaluated in 76 pairs of gastric tumor and non-tumor tissue samples by qRT-PCR, and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. CCK8, transwell assay, wound healing assay, and flow cytometry assay were performed to evaluate the effect of miR-194 on gastric cancer (GC) cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and cell cycle, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays and Western blotting were used to evaluate whether RBX1 is a direct target of miR-194. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to evaluate the correlation between miR-194 or RBX1 expression and patient survival. Then, we found that miR-194 was significantly downregulated and RBX1 upregulated in GC tissues; both of which showed significant association with tumor size, location, invasion, and tumor node metastasis. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were significantly restricted with miR-194 overexpression. miR-194 downregulated RBX1 protein expression, and luciferase assays showed that binding sites in the RBX1 3'UTR were required for miR-194-mediated repression of RBX1, indicating that RBX1 was a direct target of miR-194. Transfection of RBX1 without the 3'UTR restored the miR-194-inhibiting migration function. miR-194 overexpression or RBX1 lowexpression was associated with prolonged survival of GC patients. In conclusion, upregulation of miR-194 can inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC cells, possibly by targeting RBX1. Aberrant expression of miR-194 and RBX1 is correlated to GC patient survival time. PMID:25412959

  5. Biotinylated Platinum(II) Ferrocenylterpyridine Complexes for Targeted Photoinduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Shettar, Abhijith; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-06-01

    Biotinylated platinum(II) ferrocenylterpyridine (Fc-tpy) complexes [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (1) and [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (2), where HL(1) and HL(2) are biotin-containing ligands, were prepared, and their targeted photoinduced cytotoxic effect in cancer cells over normal cells was studied. A nonbiotinylated complex, [Pt(Fc-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (3), was prepared as a control to study the role of the biotin moiety in cellular uptake properties of the complexes. Three platinum(II) phenylterpyridine (Ph-tpy) complexes, viz., [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(1))]Cl (4), [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(2))]Cl (5), and [Pt(Ph-tpy)(L(3))]Cl (6), were synthesized and explored to understand the role of a metal-bound Fc-tpy ligand over Ph-tpy as a photoinitiator. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed an intense absorption band near 640 nm, which was absent in their Ph-tpy analogues. The Fc-tpy complexes (1 mM in 0.1 M TBAP) showed an irreversible cyclic voltammetric anodic response of the Fc/Fc(+) couple near 0.25 V. The Fc-tpy complexes displayed photodegradation in red light of 647 nm involving the formation of a ferrocenium ion (Fc(+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Photoinduced release of the biotinylated ligands was observed from spectral measurements, and this possibly led to the controlled generation of an active platinum(II) species, which binds to the calf-thymus DNA used for this study. The biotinylated photoactive Fc-tpy complexes showed significant photoinduced cytotoxicity, giving a IC50 value of ∼7 μM in visible light of 400-700 nm with selective uptake in BT474 cancer cells over HBL-100 normal cells. Furthermore, ferrocenyl complexes resulted in light-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis, as indicated by DCFDA, annexin V/FITC staining, and sub-G1 DNA content determined by fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis. The phenyl analogues 4 and 5 were photostable, served as DNA intercalators, and demonstrated selective cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, giving IC50 values of ∼4 μM. PMID:27171926

  6. MicroRNA-194 restrains the cell progression of non-small cell lung cancer by targeting human nuclear distribution protein C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lirong; Di, Qingguo; Sun, Baohua; Wang, Xiaosheng; Li, Min; Shi, Jian

    2016-06-01

    NSCLC accounts for over 80% of all lung cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Human nuclear distribution C (hNUDC) was predicted to be the target gene of microRNA-194 (miR-194). The present study was designed to demonstrate the mechanism of miR-194 in the regulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via targeting the hNUDC. The hNUDC expression was found to strongly be increased while the miR-194 decreased significantly in the NSCLC cell lines when compared with the healthy controls. Moreover, the luciferase report confirmed the targeting reaction between miR-194 and hNUDC. After transfection with miR-194 mimic into NSCLC cells, we found that the miR-194 overexpression resulted in abnormal nuclear division, decreased cell proliferation and inhibited the expression of hNUDC and Mpl/ERK pathway proteins. Furthermore, the hNUDC overexpression affected the suppression effect of miR-194 in 95D cells, indicating that miR-194 suppresses tumor cell process by inhibiting the hNUDC expression. In brief, the present study suggests that the upregulation of miR-194 affects the hNUDC expression, leading to a downregulated expression of Mpl/ERK pathway proteins, and suppresses the mitosis and proliferation of NSCLC cells. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27035759

  7. Laser ablation of a platinum target in water. III. Laser-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, William T.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2006-12-01

    This is the third paper in our series studying the laser-target-liquid interactions occurring in laser ablation in liquids (LAL). Here, laser ablation of a platinum target in pure water at 355 nm wavelength is studied as a function of laser energy. We describe three distinct reaction regimes between the ablated target species and water at different laser focusing conditions. At low laser fluence (<10 J/cm{sup 2}), material removal is caused by laser heating of the platinum surface and the primary products are small clusters with a large percentage of platinum atoms in a nonzero oxidation state. At intermediate fluences (10-70 J/cm{sup 2}), platinum nanoparticles are the primary products. Our previous studies demonstrated that in this fluence regime ablation occurs through both thermal vaporization and explosive ejection of molten droplets. In both cases reactivity is small due to the low reactivity of platinum with water. At high fluences (>70 J/cm{sup 2}), we find large, faceted particles that are attributed to the drying of PtO{sub x} gels formed by reactive plasma etching of the target. Taken together these results demonstrate that significant tunability in the target-liquid interaction is possible during nanomaterial synthesis by LAL.

  8. MicroRNA-194 promotes the growth, migration, and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells by targeting protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tian; Li, Liru; Cheng, Yan; Ren, Chengcheng; Zhang, Guangmei

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women. Ovarian cancer metastasis is the main reason for poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis in various cancers by affecting the expression of their targets. In this study, we explored the role of miR-194 in ovarian cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed that miR-194 was significantly upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues. Overexpression of miR-194 in ovarian cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; in contrast, inhibition of the expression of miR-194 has the opposite effects. Meanwhile, bioinformatics tools were used to identify protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12 (PTPN12) as a potential target of miR-194. The luciferase assay showed that miR-194 directly binds to the 3′-untranslated region of PTPN12. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that PTPN12 expression was negatively associated with miR-194 expression in both ovarian cancer tissues and cells. Thus, we conclude that miR-194 targets PTPN12 and functions as an oncogene in ovarian cancer cells. This novel pathway may provide a new insight to explain ovarian cancer development and metastasis. PMID:27486333

  9. miR-194 inhibits the proliferation, invasion, migration, and enhances the chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting forkhead box A1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chengyou; Xie, Jing; Ma, Yushui; Fan, Suyun; Cai, Haidong; Luo, Qiong; Lv, Zhongwei; Fan, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have implied that miRNAs may play a crucial role in tumor progression and may be involved in the modulation of some drug resistance in cancer cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated that miR-194 was involved in tumor metastasis and drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas their expression and roles on NSCLC still need further elucidation. In the current study, we found that miR-194 is decreased in NSCLC samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous lung samples, and low expression of miR-194 predicts poor patient survival. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that ectopic stable expression miR-194 suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells and that this suppression could be reversed by reintroducing forkhead box A1 (FOXA1), a functional target of miR-194. In addition, miR-194 was downregulated in in cisplatin-resisted human NSCLC cell line-A549/DDP and overexpression of miR-194 increases cisplatin sensitivity. These findings suggested that miR-194 inhibits proliferation and metastasis and reverses cisplatin-resistance of NSCLC cells and may be useful as a new potential therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:26909612

  10. Cell membrane penetration and mitochondrial targeting by platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Torrano, Adriano A; Herrmann, Rudolf; Strobel, Claudia; Rennhak, Markus; Engelke, Hanna; Reller, Armin; Hilger, Ingrid; Wixforth, Achim; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and focus on their fast uptake and association with mitochondria, the cell's powerhouse. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we clearly show that 46 nm platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles can rapidly penetrate cell membranes and reach the cytosol. Moreover, if suitably targeted, these particles are able to selectively attach to mitochondria. These results are complemented by cytotoxicity assays, thus providing insights into the biological effects of these particles on cells. Interestingly, no permanent membrane disruption or any other significant adverse effects on cells were observed. The unusual uptake behavior observed for 46 nm nanoparticles was not observed for equivalent but larger 143 nm and 285 nm platinum-decorated particles. Our results demonstrate a remarkable particle size effect in which particles smaller than ∼50-100 nm escape the usual endocytic pathway and translocate directly into the cytosol, while particles larger than ∼150 nm are internalized by conventional endocytosis. Since the small particles are able to bypass endocytosis they could be explored as drug and gene delivery vehicles. Platinum-decorated nanoparticles are therefore highly interesting in the fields of nanotoxicology and nanomedicine. PMID:27341699

  11. Long noncoding RNA H19 contributes to gallbladder cancer cell proliferation by modulated miR-194-5p targeting AKT2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Cai; Zhang, Ming-Di; Weng, Ming-Zhe; Zhou, Di; Quan, Zhi-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly malignant cancer with poor prognosis. Although long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been reported to play vital role in many human cancers, whether it is involved in GBC proliferation is still unknown. This study was designed to explore the effect of H19 in GBC cell proliferation. The expression of H19 and AKT2 were significantly elevated in GBC tissues, and the level of miR-194-5p is markedly decreased. Moreover, the RNA levels of H19 and AKT2 were positively correlated, and H19 elevation was significantly associated with tumor size. Cell proliferation decreased significantly after knockdown of H19 in GBC-SD and NOZ cells and after knockdown of AKT2 in NOZ cells. Results from cell cycle studies indicated that the S phase were significantly decreased after knockdown of H19 in NOZ cells but significantly elevated after overexpression of H19 in GBC-SD cells. Furthermore, knockdown of H19 upregulated miR-194-5p levels, yet significantly decreased miR-194-5p targeting AKT2 gene expression in NOZ cells. Inhibitor against miR-194-5p reversed these effects. In addition, overexpression of H19 in GBC-SD cells downregulated miR-194-5p and markedly increased AKT2 expression, and miR-194-5p mimic reversed these effects. Eventually, GBC cells were arrested in G0/G1-phase after H19 knockdown, inhibition of miR-194-5p markedly promoted cells into S-phase and co-transfection of siH19, and miR-194-5p inhibitor exerted mutually counter-regulated effects on cell cycle. These results suggested that H19/miR-194-5p/AKT2 axis regulatory network might modulate cell proliferation in GBC. PMID:26803515

  12. Personalized medicine for targeted and platinum-based chemotherapy of lung and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, George D; Pan, Chong-xian; Henderson, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    The personalized medicine revolution is occurring for cancer chemotherapy. Biomarkers are increasingly capable of distinguishing genotypic or phenotypic traits of individual tumors, and are being linked to the selection of treatment protocols. This review covers the molecular basis for biomarkers of response to targeted and cytotoxic lung and bladder cancer treatment with an emphasis on platinum-based chemotherapy. Platinum derivatives are a class of drugs commonly employed against solid tumors that kill cells by covalent attachment to DNA. Platinum–DNA adduct levels in patient tissues have been correlated to response and survival. The sensitivity and precision of adduct detection has increased to the point of enabling subtherapeutic dosing for diagnostics applications, termed diagnostic microdosing, prior to the initiation of full-dose therapy. The clinical status of this unique phenotypic marker for lung and bladder cancer applications is detailed along with discussion of future applications. PMID:23394702

  13. Picazoplatin, an Azide-Containing Platinum(II) Derivative for Target Analysis by Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    White, Jonathan D.; Osborn, Maire F.; Moghaddam, Alan D.; Guzman, Lindsay E.; Haley, Michael M.; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the broad use of platinum-based chemotherapeutics, identification of their full range of cellular targets remains a significant challenge. In order to identify, visualize, and isolate cellular targets of Pt(II) complexes, we have modified the chemotherapeutic drug picoplatin with an azide moiety for subsequent click reactivity. The new compound picazoplatin readily binds DNA and RNA oligonucleo-tides and undergoes facile post-labeling click reactions to alkyne-fluorophore conjugates. Pt-fluorophore click reactions in ribosomal RNA purified from drug-treated S. cerevisiae demonstrate its potential for future in vivo efforts. PMID:23879391

  14. Targeting c-MYC in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reyes-González, Jeyshka M; Armaiz-Peña, Guillermo N; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Valiyeva, Fatma; Ivan, Cristina; Pradeep, Sunila; Echevarría-Vargas, Ileabett M; Rivera-Reyes, Adrian; Sood, Anil K; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and therapeutic effects of siRNA-mediated c-MYC silencing in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. Statistical analysis of patient's data extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) portal showed that the disease-free (DFS) and the overall (OS) survival were decreased in ovarian cancer patients with high c-MYC mRNA levels. Furthermore, analysis of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines showed that c-MYC protein levels were higher in cisplatin-resistant cells when compared with their cisplatin-sensitive counterparts. In vitro cell viability, growth, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis, as well as in vivo therapeutic effectiveness in murine xenograft models, were also assessed following siRNA-mediated c-MYC silencing in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Significant inhibition of cell growth and viability, cell-cycle arrest, and activation of apoptosis were observed upon siRNA-mediated c-MYC depletion. In addition, single weekly doses of c-MYC-siRNA incorporated into 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG-2000)-based nanoliposomes resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. These findings identify c-MYC as a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancers expressing high levels of this oncoprotein. PMID:26227489

  15. Cell membrane penetration and mitochondrial targeting by platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano, Adriano A.; Herrmann, Rudolf; Strobel, Claudia; Rennhak, Markus; Engelke, Hanna; Reller, Armin; Hilger, Ingrid; Wixforth, Achim; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and focus on their fast uptake and association with mitochondria, the cell's powerhouse. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we clearly show that 46 nm platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles can rapidly penetrate cell membranes and reach the cytosol. Moreover, if suitably targeted, these particles are able to selectively attach to mitochondria. These results are complemented by cytotoxicity assays, thus providing insights into the biological effects of these particles on cells. Interestingly, no permanent membrane disruption or any other significant adverse effects on cells were observed. The unusual uptake behavior observed for 46 nm nanoparticles was not observed for equivalent but larger 143 nm and 285 nm platinum-decorated particles. Our results demonstrate a remarkable particle size effect in which particles smaller than ~50-100 nm escape the usual endocytic pathway and translocate directly into the cytosol, while particles larger than ~150 nm are internalized by conventional endocytosis. Since the small particles are able to bypass endocytosis they could be explored as drug and gene delivery vehicles. Platinum-decorated nanoparticles are therefore highly interesting in the fields of nanotoxicology and nanomedicine.In this work we investigate the interaction between endothelial cells and nanoparticles emitted by catalytic converters. Although catalyst-derived particles are recognized as growing burden added to environmental pollution, very little is known about their health impact. We use platinum-decorated ceria nanoparticles as model compounds for the actual emitted particles and

  16. Antibody fragment-conjugated polymeric micelles incorporating platinum drugs for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooyeon; Miura, Yutaka; Yamada, Naoki; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Kim, Ahram; Sato, Ryuta; Tsumura, Ryo; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated therapies including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have shown much potential in cancer treatment by tumor-targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs. However, there is a limitation of payloads that can be delivered by ADCs. Integration of antibodies to drug-loaded nanocarriers broadens the applicability of antibodies to a wide range of therapeutics. Herein, we developed antibody fragment-installed polymeric micelles via maleimide-thiol conjugation for selectively delivering platinum drugs to pancreatic tumors. By tailoring the surface density of maleimide on the micelles, one tissue factor (TF)-targeting Fab' was conjugated to each carrier. Fab'-installed platinum-loaded micelles exhibited more than 15-fold increased cellular binding within 1 h and rapid cellular internalization compared to non-targeted micelles, leading to superior in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo, Fab'-installed micelles significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts for more than 40 days, outperforming non-targeted micelles and free drugs. These results indicate the potential of Fab'-installed polymeric micelles for efficient drug delivery to solid tumors. PMID:25477168

  17. Laser ablation of a platinum target in water. II. Ablation rate and nanoparticle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, William T.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2006-12-01

    This is the second in a series of three papers examining nanomaterial formation in laser ablation in liquids (LAL). Here we study the effect of the laser wavelength and fluence on the mass yield and size distribution of nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation of a platinum target immersed in water. For all wavelengths tested, laser fluences in the range of 10-70 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in spheroidal, nonagglomerated platinum nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 1 to 30 nm. Nanoparticle size distributions are found to be composed of two modes that are attributed to thermal vaporization and explosive boiling mechanisms. The peak of the smaller size mode remains nearly constant at 3 nm for all laser conditions, which is suggested to be due to the strong confinement of the vapor plume by the liquid. The larger size mode peaks in the range of 5-15 nm with a population that is strongly dependent on the laser parameters. It is concluded that changes in the mean size reported in many earlier studies on LAL of metal targets are a result of the relative quantity of nanoparticles from each mechanism rather than direct control over the ablation process. Additionally, it was observed that the yield of platinum nanoparticles was significantly larger for 1064 nm wavelength at fluences greater than 10 J/cm{sup 2}. The maximum ablation rate was approximately 4.4 mg/h, with an estimated ablation and collection efficiency of 0.9 {mu}g/J. Dependence of the mass yield on wavelength and fluence is seen to be dependent primarily on the extent of the explosive mechanism.

  18. Linker design for the modular assembly of multifunctional and targeted platinum(ii)-containing anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ding, S; Bierbach, U

    2016-08-16

    A versatile and efficient modular synthetic platform was developed for assembling multifunctional conjugates and targeted forms of platinum-(benz)acridines, a class of highly cytotoxic DNA-targeted hybrid agents. The synthetic strategy involved amide coupling between succinyl ester-modified platinum compounds (P1, P2) and a set of 11 biologically relevant primary and secondary amines (N1-N11). To demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of the approach, a structurally and functionally diverse range of amines was introduced. These include biologically active molecules, such as rucaparib (a PARP inhibitor), E/Z-endoxifen (an estrogen receptor antagonist), and a quinazoline-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Micro-scale reactions in Eppendorf tubes or on 96-well plates were used to screen for optimal coupling conditions in DMF solution with carbodiimide-, uronium-, and phosphonium-based compounds, as well as other common coupling reagents. Reactions with the phosphonium-based coupling reagent PyBOP produced the highest yields and gave the cleanest conversions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemistry can also be performed in aqueous media and is amenable to parallel synthesis based on multiple consecutive reactions in DMF in a "one-tube" format. In-line LC-MS was used to assess the stability of the conjugates in physiologically relevant buffers. Hydrolysis of the conjugates occurs at the ester moiety and is facilitated by the aquated metal moiety under low-chloride ion conditions. The rate of ester cleavage greatly depends on the nature of the amine component. Potential applications of the linker technology are discussed. PMID:27251881

  19. Polymeric micelles loaded with platinum anticancer drugs target preangiogenic micrometastatic niches associated with inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hailiang; Cabral, Horacio; Toh, Kazuko; Mi, Peng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Matsumoto, Yu; Yamada, Naoki; Liu, Xueying; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Miura, Yutaka; Kano, Mitsunobu R; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-09-10

    Nanocarriers have been used for specific delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors based on the enhanced permeability and retention in cancerous tissues. Despite metastasis is the main reason of cancer-related death and a priority for nanocarrier-based therapies, the targeting ability of nanocarriers to the metastatic disease is poorly understood, especially for preangiogenic micrometastases as nanocarriers usually use the malignant neovasculature for enhancing their accumulation. Thus, herein, we studied the ability of micellar nanocarriers incorporating (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II) (DACHPt) for treating liver metastases of bioluminescent murine colon adenocarcinoma C-26, during overt and preangiogenic metastatic stages. After intravenous injection, DACHPt-loaded micelles (DACHPt/m) effectively inhibited the tumor growth in both metastatic tumor models. While the anticancer activity of the micelles against overt metastases was associated with their selective accumulation in cancerous tissues having neovasculature, the ability of DACHPt/m to target preangiogenic metastases was correlated with the inflammatory microenvironment of the niche. This targeting capability of polymeric micelles to preangiogenic metastasis may provide a novel approach for early diagnosis and treatment of metastases. PMID:24956488

  20. Use of platinum coproporphyrin and delayed luminescence imaging to extend the number of targets FISH karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Tanke, H J; De Haas, R R; Sagner, G; Ganser, M; van Gijlswijk, R P

    1998-12-01

    Combinatorial use of fluorophores in multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows for the recognition of all human chromosomes. Here we introduce the concept of the use of delayed luminescence labels such as phosphorescent platinum coproporphyrins (PtCP) to extend the number of simultaneously detectable targets in multicolor FISH karyotyping. PtCP-conjugated antibodies were used in combination with conventional FISH labels such as cascade blue, fluorescein, lissamine rhodamine, Cy5, and Cy7. Probe sets for all human chromosomes were generated and labeled with these dyes in a combinatorial approach. Delayed luminescence of PtCP was accomplished using a standard fluorescence microscope in which a specially constructed module for visualization of delayed luminescence was incorporated. The module consists of a minichopper incorporated in the standard block that holds the shutter and diaphragm, and a FLC polarizing shutter mounted in a filter holder at the emission side. Multicolor FISH staining was applied to normal metaphase chromosomes and to chromosomes generated from cultured JVM-2 cells with known translocations. Multicolor FISH images (conventional and delayed) were registered using a slow-scan CCD camera. Recognition of all 24 chromosomes was feasible, since the delayed PtCP fluorescence (lifetime, 90 micros) could be easily distinguished from the conventional promptly fluorescing dyes. We discuss possibilities for extending the number of targets far beyond the 24 demonstrated so far. PMID:9845440

  1. Evaluation of Platinum Chemotherapy in Combination with HER2-Targeted α-Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Shih, Joanna H.; Wong, Karen J.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The studies described herein assess the potential of combining platinum-based chemotherapy with high-linear energy transfer (LET) α-particle-targeted radiation therapy using trastuzumab as the delivery vehicle. An initial study explored the combination of cisplatin with 213Bi-trastuzumab in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model. This initial study determined the administration sequence of cisplatin and 213Bi-trastuzumab. Cisplatin coinjected with 213Bi-trastuzumab increased the median survival (MS) to 90 days versus 65 days for 213Bi-trastuzumab alone. Toxicity was observed with a weight loss of 17.6% in some of the combined treatment groups. Carboplatin proved to be better tolerated. Maximal therapeutic benefit, that is, a 5.1-fold increase in MS, was obtained in the group injected with 213Bi-trastuzumab, followed by carboplatin 24 hours later. This was further improved by administration of multiple weekly doses of carboplatin. The MS achieved with administration of 3 doses of carboplatin was 180 days versus 60 days with 213Bi-trastuzumab alone. The combination of carboplatin with 212Pb radioimmunotherapy was also evaluated. The therapeutic efficacy of 212Pb-trastuzumab (58-day MS) increased when the mice were pretreated with carboplatin 24 hours prior (157-day MS). These results again demonstrate the necessity of empirically determining the administration sequence when combining therapeutic modalities. PMID:23758610

  2. Targeting translesion synthesis to facilitate the eradication of ovarian cancer stem cells by platinum-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Wang, Qi-En

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells (CSCs) survive chemotherapy is essential for the development of new therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that ovarian CSCs survive cisplatin treatment through enhanced expression of DNA polymerase η (Pol η). Identification of micro RNA-93 (miR-93) as the regulator of Pol η provides a novel target to improve the outcome of platinum-based therapy. PMID:27308560

  3. Targeting translesion synthesis to facilitate the eradication of ovarian cancer stem cells by platinum-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Wang, Qi-En

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells (CSCs) survive chemotherapy is essential for the development of new therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that ovarian CSCs survive cisplatin treatment through enhanced expression of DNA polymerase η (Pol η). Identification of micro RNA-93 (miR-93) as the regulator of Pol η provides a novel target to improve the outcome of platinum-based therapy.

  4. Targeting of a platinum-bound sunitinib analog to renal proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, ME (Emmy) M; Harmsen, Stefan; Pieters, Ebel HE; Sparidans, Rolf W; Lacombe, Marie; Szokol, Bálint; Őrfi, László; Kéri, György; Storm, Gert; Hennink, Wim E; Kok, Robbert J

    2012-01-01

    Background Activated proximal tubular cells play an important role in renal fibrosis. We investigated whether sunitinib and a kidney-targeted conjugate of sunitinib were capable of attenuating fibrogenic events in tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Methods A kidney-targeted conjugate was prepared by linkage of a sunitinib analog (named 17864) via a platinum-based linker to the kidney-specific carrier lysozyme. Pharmacological activity of 17864-lysozyme was evaluated in human kidney proximal tubular cells (HK-2); the capability of the kidney-directed conjugate to accumulate in the kidneys was studied in mice. Potential antifibrotic effects of a single-dose treatment were evaluated in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model in mice. Results The 17864-lysozyme conjugate and its metabolites strongly inhibited tyrosine kinase activity. Upon intravenous injection, 17864-lysozyme rapidly accumulated in the kidneys and provided sustained renal drug levels for up to 3 days after a single dose. Renal drug level area under the curve was increased 28-fold versus an equimolar dose of sunitinib malate. Daily treatment of UUO mice with a high dose of sunitinib malate (50 mg/kg) resulted in antifibrotic responses, but also induced drug-related toxicity. A single dose of 17864-lysozyme (equivalent to 1.8 mg/kg sunitinib) was safe but showed no antifibrotic effects. Conclusion Multikinase inhibitors like sunitinib can be of benefit in the treatment of fibrotic diseases, provided that their safety can be improved by strategies as presented in this paper, and sustained renal levels can be achieved. PMID:22334775

  5. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Complex Targeting Genomic DNA and Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Novakova, Olga; Křikavová, Radka; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-11-23

    We report toxic effects of a photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex conjugated with suberoyl-bis-hydroxamic acid in tumor cells. The conjugate exerts, after photoactivation, two functions: activity as both a platinum(II) anticancer drug and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor in cancer cells. This approach relies on the use of a Pt(IV) pro-drug, acting by two independent mechanisms of biological action in a cooperative manner, which can be selectively photoactivated to a cytotoxic species in and around a tumor, thereby increasing selectivity towards cancer cells. These results suggest that this strategy is a valuable route to design new platinum agents with higher efficacy for photodynamic anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:26458068

  6. Active targeting of cancer cells using folic acid-conjugated platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with human cells is an interesting topic for understanding toxicity and developing potential drug candidates. Water soluble platinum nanoparticles were synthesized viareduction of hexachloroplatinic acid using sodium borohydride in the presence of capping agents. The bioactivity of folic acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) has been investigated using commercially available cell lines. In the cell viability experiments, PVP-capped nanoparticles were found to be less toxic (>80% viability), whereas, folic acid-capped platinum nanoparticles showed a reduced viability down to 24% after 72 h of exposure at a concentration of 100 μg ml-1 for MCF7 breast cancer cells. Such toxicity, combined with the possibility to incorporate functional organic molecules as capping agents, can be used for developing new drug candidates.

  7. Multi-platinum anti-cancer agents. Substitution-inert compounds for tumor selectivity and new targets.

    PubMed

    Farrell, N P

    2015-12-21

    This tutorial review summarizes chemical, biophysical and cellular biological properties of formally substitution-inert "non-covalent" polynuclear platinum complexes (PPCs). We demonstrate how modulation of the pharmacological factors affecting platinum compound cytotoxicity such as cellular accumulation, reactivity toward extracellular and intracellular sulfur-ligand nucleophiles and consequences of DNA binding is achieved to afford a profile of biological activity distinct from that of covalently-binding agents. The DNA binding of substitution-inert complexes is achieved by molecular recognition through minor groove spanning and backbone tracking of the phosphate clamp. In this situation, the square-planar tetra-am(m)ine Pt(ii) coordination units hydrogen bond to phosphate oxygen OP atoms to form bidentate N-O-N motifs. The modular nature of the polynuclear compounds results in high-affinity binding to DNA and very efficient nuclear condensation. These combined effects distinguish the phosphate clamp as a third mode of ligand-DNA binding, discrete from intercalation and minor-groove binding. The cellular consequences mirror those of the biophysical studies and a significant portion of nuclear DNA is compacted, a unique effect different from mitosis, senescence or apoptosis. Substitution-inert PPCs display cytotoxicity similar to cisplatin in a wide range of cell lines, and sensitivity is indifferent to p53 status. Cellular accumulation is mediated through binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) allowing for possibilities of tumor selectivity as well as disruption of HSPG function, opening new targets for platinum antitumor agents. The combined properties show that covalently-binding chemotypes are not the unique arbiters of cytotoxicity and antitumor activity and meaningful antitumor profiles can be achieved even in the absence of Pt-DNA bond formation. These dual properties make the substitution-inert compounds a unique class of inherently dual

  8. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-05-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  9. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted. PMID:27150583

  10. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  11. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  12. A Dual-Targeting, p53-Independent, Apoptosis-Inducing Platinum(II) Anticancer Complex, [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl

    PubMed Central

    Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Wilson, Justin J.; Lin, Wei; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic index and cellular mechanism of action of [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl, a monocationic, square-planar platinum(II) complex, are reported. [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl was used to treat several cell lines, including wild type and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells (A2780 and A2780CP70) and non-proliferating lung carcinoma cells (A549). [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl selectively kills cancer over healthy cells and exhibits no cross-resistance with cisplatin. The mechanism of cell killing was established through detailed cell-based assays. [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl exhibits dual-threat capabilities, targeting nuclear DNA and mitochondria simultaneously. [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl induces DNA damage, leading to p53 enrichment, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarisation, and caspase-mediated apoptosis. [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl also accumulates in the mitochondria, resulting in direct mitochondrial damage. Flow cytometric studies demonstrated that [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl has no significant effect on cell cycle progression. Remarkably, p53-status is a not a determinant of [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl activity. In p53-null cells, [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl induces cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction. Cancers with p53-null status could therefore be targeted using [Pt(BDIQQ)]Cl. PMID:24514456

  13. Enhanced cytotoxicity to cancer cells by mitochondria-targeting MWCNTs containing platinum(IV) prodrug of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Wong, Bin Sheng; Zhou, Qi Ling; Chin, Chee Fei; Li, Jian; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2014-01-01

    Among the arsenal of nano-materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are becoming more prominent due to favorable attributes including their unique shape, which promotes cellular-uptake, and large aspect-ratio that facilitates functionalization of bioactive molecules on their surface. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with either mitochondrial-targeting fluorescent rhodamine-110 (MWCNT-Rho) or non-targeting fluorescein (MWCNT-Fluo). Despite structural similarities, MWCNT-Rho associated well with mitochondria (ca. 80% co-localization) in contrast to MWCNT-Fluo, which was poorly localized (ca. 21% co-localization). Additionally, MWCNT-Rho entrapping platinum(IV) pro-drug of cisplatin (PtBz) displayed enhanced potency (IC50 = 0.34 ± 0.07 μM) compared to a construct based on MWCNT-Fluo (IC50 ≥ 2.64 μM). Concurrently, preliminary in vitro toxicity evaluation revealed that empty MWCNT-Rho neither decreased cell viability significantly nor interfered with mitochondrial membrane-potential, while seemingly being partially expelled from cells. Due to its targeting capability and apparent lack of cytotoxicity, MWCNT-Rho complex was used to co-encapsulate PtBz and a chemo-potentiator, 3-bromopyruvate (BP), and the resulting MWCNT-Rho(PtBz+BP) construct demonstrated superior efficacy over PtBz free drug in several cancer cell lines tested. Importantly, a 2-fold decrease in mitochondrial potential was observed, implying that mitochondrial targeting of compounds indeed incurred additional intended damage to mitochondria. PMID:24140044

  14. Improving Platinum Efficiency:. Nanoformulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rolando; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-09-01

    Platinum-based drugs continue being the support of therapy for many different kinds of cancer. Cancer patients often present irreversible resistance to platinum after repeated treatment in clinic. Despite of the great efforts, chemoresistance (intrinsic or acquired) already is a major limitation in the management of this disease. In this review, the last current research on cancer characteristic and cancer chemical resistance is summarized, the major and novel strategies to reverse resistance to platinum- based drugs are discussed and this article mainly emphasizes the contribution of nanotechnology and combination therapies to target sites and reduce the cancer chemoresistance.

  15. Multifunctional iron platinum stealth immunomicelles: targeted detection of human prostate cancer cells using both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Dale L.; Monson, Todd C.; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S.; Bisoffi, Marco; Sillerud, Laurel O.

    2011-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most common type of contrast agents used in contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Still, there is a great deal of room for improvement, and nanoparticles with increased MRI relaxivities are needed to increase the contrast enhancement in MRI applied to various medical conditions including cancer. We report the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron platinum nanoparticles (SIPPs) and subsequent encapsulation using PEGylated phospholipids to create stealth immunomicelles (DSPE-SIPPs) that can be specifically targeted to human prostate cancer cell lines and detected using both MRI and fluorescence imaging. SIPP cores and DSPE-SIPPs were 8.5 ± 1.6 nm and 42.9 ± 8.2 nm in diameter, respectively, and the SIPPs had a magnetic moment of 120 A m2/kg iron. J591, a monoclonal antibody against prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was conjugated to the DSPE-SIPPs (J591-DSPE-SIPPs), and specific targeting of J591-DSPE-SIPPs to PSMA-expressing human prostate cancer cell lines was demonstrated using fluorescence confocal microscopy. The transverse relaxivity of the DSPE-SIPPs, measured at 4.7 Tesla, was 300.6 ± 8.5 s−1 mM−1, which is 13-fold better than commercially available SPIONs (23.8 ± 6.9 s−1 mM−1) and ~3-fold better than reported relaxivities for Feridex® and Resovist®. Our data suggest that J591-DSPE-SIPPs specifically target human prostate cancer cells in vitro, are superior contrast agents in T2-weighted MRI, and can be detected using fluorescence imaging. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of multifunctional SIPP micelles and using SIPPs for the specific detection of prostate cancer. PMID:22121333

  16. BODIPY-Appended 2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole Platinum(II) Catecholates for Mitochondria-Targeted Photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Gautam, Srishti; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-09-01

    Platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L)(cat)] (1 and 2), in which H2 cat is catechol and L represents two 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole ligands with 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) pendants, were synthesized to achieve mitochondria-targeted photocytotoxicity. The complexes showed strong absorptions in the range λ=510-540 nm. Complex 1 exhibited intense emission at λ=525 nm in 1 % DMSO/water solution (fluorescence quantum yield of 0.06). Nanosecond transient absorption spectral features indicated an enhanced population of the triplet excited state in di-iodinated complex 2. The generation of singlet oxygen by complex 2 upon exposure to visible light, as evidenced from experiments with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, is suitable for photodynamic therapy because of the remarkable photosensitizing ability. The complexes resulted in excellent photocytotoxicity in HaCaT cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 ≈3 μm, λ=400-700 nm, light dose=10 J cm(-2) ), but they remained non-toxic in the dark (IC50 >100 μm). Confocal microscopy images of 1 and Pt estimation from isolated mitochondria showed colocalization of the complexes in the mitochondria. Complex 2 displayed generation of reactive oxygen species induced by visible light, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis. PMID:27465792

  17. Sub-2 nm size and density tunable platinum nanoparticles using room temperature tilted-target sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Balavinayagam; Mukherjee, Somik; Mathai, Cherian J; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2013-05-24

    This paper describes a tilted-target RF magnetron sputter deposition system to grow nanoparticles in a controlled way. With detailed characterization of ultra-high density (up to 1.1 × 10¹³ cm⁻²) and ultra-small size Pt nanoparticles (0.5-2 nm), it explains their growth and crystalline properties on amorphous Al₂O₃ thin films. It is shown that Pt nanoparticle size and number density can be precisely engineered by varying selected experimental parameters such as target angle, sputtering power and time of deposition to control the energy of the metal atoms in the deposition flux. Based on rate equation modelling of nanoparticle growth, three distinct growth regimes, namely nucleation dependent, coalescence dependent and agglomeration dependent regimes, were observed. The correlation between different nanoparticle growth regimes and the consequent crystal structure transformation, non-crystalline clusters → single crystalline nanoparticles → polycrystalline islands, is also discussed. PMID:23609435

  18. Vitamin B₁₂ as a carrier for targeted platinum delivery: in vitro cytotoxicity and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez, Pilar; König, Christiane; Ferrari, Stefano; Alberto, Roger

    2011-01-01

    It is attractive to use vitamin B₁₂ as a carrier for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents such as platinum complexes owing to the high demand for vitamin B₁₂ by fast proliferating cells. The basic {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates are recognized by intracellular enzymes and converted to coenzyme B₁₂ in an enzymatic adenosylation assay. The reductive adenosylation of {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates leads to the release of the Pt(II) complexes; thus, {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates can be considered as prodrugs. It is important not only to elucidate the activity of the cisplatin-B₁₂ conjugates, but also to understand the mode of action on a molecular level. Chemical reduction of {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates with cobaltocene yielded cob(II)alamin and induced release of the corresponding Pt(II) species. Kurnakov tests and coordination of 2'-deoxyguanosine or GMP to the released Pt(II) complexes allowed isolation and characterization of Pt(II) complexes as released during enzymatic adenosylation. The biological activity of these Pt(II) complexes was evaluated. Since the cleaved Pt(II) complexes show cytotoxicity, the {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} conjugates can be used for specific targeting of cancer cells and therapeutic drug delivery. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies indicated lower activity (IC(50) between 8 and 88 μM) than found for pure cisplatin. Since active transport and receptor-mediated uptake limits the intracellular {B₁₂-CN-Pt(II)} concentration, comparison with pure cisplatin is of limited use. We could show that the Pt(II) complexes cleaved from B₁₂ exerted a cytotoxicity comparable to that of cisplatin itself. Cytotoxicity studies in vitamin B₁₂ free media showed a dependence on the addition of transcobalamin II for B₁₂-Pt(II) conjugates. PMID:20803225

  19. Methyl 6-Amino-6-deoxy-d-pyranoside-Conjugated Platinum(II) Complexes for Glucose Transporter (GLUT)-Mediated Tumor Targeting: Synthesis, Cytotoxicity, and Cellular Uptake Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Taoli; Gao, Xiangqian; Yang, Liu; Shi, Yunli; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-05-19

    Methyl 6-aminodeoxy-d-pyranoside-derived platinum(II) glycoconjugates were designed and synthesized based on the clinical drug oxaliplatin for glucose transporter (GLUT)-mediated tumor targeting. In addition to a substantial improvement in water solubility, the conjugates exhibited cytotoxicity similar to or higher than that of oxaliplatin in six different human cancer cell lines. GLUT-mediated transport of the complexes was investigated with a cell-based fluorescence competition assay and GLUT-inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity analysis in a GLUT-overexpressing human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell line. The antitumor effect of the aminodeoxypyranoside-conjugated platinum(II) complexes was found to depend significantly on the GLUT inhibitor, and the cellular uptake of the molecules was regulated by GLUT-mediated transport. The results from this study demonstrate the potential advantages of aminodeoxypyranosides as sugar motifs for glycoconjugation for Warburg-effect-targeted drug design. These fundamental results also support the potential of aminodeoxypyranoside-conjugated platinum(II) complexes as lead compounds for further preclinical evaluation. PMID:27135196

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Folate-Targeted Platinum-Loaded Theranostic Nanoemulsions for Therapy and Imaging of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Niravkumar R; Piroyan, Aleksandr; Nack, Abbegial H; Galati, Corin A; McHugh, Mackenzi; Orosz, Samantha; Keeler, Amanda W; O'Neal, Sara; Zamboni, William C; Davis, Barbara; Coleman, Timothy P

    2016-06-01

    Platinum (Pt) based chemotherapy is widely used to treat many types of cancer. Pt therapy faces challenges such as dose limiting toxicities, cumulative side effects, and multidrug resistance. Nanoemulsions (NEs) have tremendous potential in overcoming these challenges as they can be designed to improve circulation time, limit non-disease tissue uptake, and enhance tumor uptake by surface modification. We designed novel synthesis of three difattyacid platins, dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin, suitable for encapsulation in the oil core of an NE. The dimyrisplatin, dipalmiplatin, and distearyplatin were synthesized, characterized, and loaded into the oil core of our NEs, NMI-350, NMI-351, and NMI-352 respectively. Sequestration of the difattyacid platins was accomplished through high energy microfluidization. To target the NE, FA-PEG3400-DSPE was incorporated into the surface during microfluidization. The FA-NEs selectively bind the folate receptor α (FR-α) and utilize receptor mediated endocytosis to deliver Pt past cell surface resistance mechanisms. FR-α is overexpressed in a number of oncological conditions including ovarian cancer. The difattyacid platins, lipidated Gd-DTPA, and lipidated folate were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and elemental analysis. NEs were synthesized using high shear microfluidization process and characterized for size, zeta-potential, and loading efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined using KB-WT (Pt-sensitive) and KBCR-1000 (Pt-resistant) cancer cells and measured by MTT assay. Pharmacokinetic profiles were studied in CD-1 mice. NEs loaded with difattyacid platins are highly stable and had size distribution in the range of ∼120 to 150 nm with low PDI. Cytotoxicity data indicates the longer the fatty acid chains, the less potent the NEs. The inclusion of C6-ceramide, an apoptosis enhancer, and surface functionalization with folate molecules significantly increased

  1. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided. PMID:26567482

  2. Platinum stable isotopes in ferromanganese crust and nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Loretta; Seward, Terry; Handler, Monica R.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crust and nodules are slow-growing chemical sediments that form by direct precipitation from seawater, resulting in a record of changing seawater chemistry. These sediments are the primary sink for platinum in the modern oxic marine environment, hosting well-documented enrichments over other platinum-group elements (PGEs): the Pt anomaly [1]. Platinum is a non-bio-essential, highly siderophile, transition metal with six stable isotopes (190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt) with several oxidation states (Pt0, Pt2+ and Pt4+). Platinum is generally considered to exist in the hydrosphere as Pt2+ although its behaviour in the marine environment is poorly constrained, and Pt4+may also be present. Variations in ocean redox state, together with changes in source fluxes to the oceans, may therefore lead to small variations (< ±1) in the stable isotopic composition of marine platinum, raising the potential of adding platinum to the growing arsenal of paleoceanographic tracers. A method has been developed to measure the platinum isotopic composition using double spike MC-ICPMS analysis [2]and applied to a global suite of modern Fe-Mn crust and nodules. Combining synchrotron XAFS analyses of platinum adsorbed onto Fe-Mn oxide and oxyhydroxide surfaces to determine oxidation state and bonding environment, with platinum stable isotopic measurements allowing us to evaluate both platinum incorporation onto these sediments and the associated degree of platinum isotopic fractionation. Leaching experiments conducted on platinum rich terrestrial materials underwent platinum stable isotopic measurement as an analogue for the Pt isotopic fractionation associated with continental weathering. [1] Hodge, V.F. et al. (1985) Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 72, 158-162. [2] Creech, J. et al. (2013) Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 28. 853-865.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Non-Platinum-Based Halogenated Compounds as Potent Antitumor Agents for Natural Targeted Chemotherapy of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Qin-Rong; Ou, Ning; Wang, Chun-Rong; Warrington, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Based on a molecular-mechanism-based anticancer drug discovery program enabled by an innovative femtomedicine approach, we have found a previously unknown class of non-platinum-based halogenated molecules (called FMD compounds) as potent antitumor agents for effective treatment of cancers. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo studies of the compounds for targeted chemotherapy of cervical, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Our results show that these FMD agents led to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We also observed that such a FMD compound caused an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH, an endogenous antioxidant) levels in human normal cells, while it largely depleted GSH in cancer cells. We correspondingly found that these FMD agents exhibited no or little toxicity toward normal cells/tissues, while causing significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, as well as suppression and delay in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of cervical, ovarian, breast and lung cancers. These compounds are therefore a previously undiscovered class of potent antitumor agents that can be translated into clinical trials for natural targeted chemotherapy of multiple cancers. PMID:26351651

  4. 49 CFR 194.113 - Information summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information summary. 194.113 Section 194.113... Response Plans § 194.113 Information summary. (a) The information summary for the core plan, required by... state(s). (b) The information summary for the response zone appendix, required in § 194.107,...

  5. 49 CFR 194.113 - Information summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information summary. 194.113 Section 194.113... Response Plans § 194.113 Information summary. (a) The information summary for the core plan, required by... state(s). (b) The information summary for the response zone appendix, required in § 194.107,...

  6. A triple-amplification colorimetric assay for antibiotics based on magnetic aptamer-enzyme co-immobilized platinum nanoprobes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yangbao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yan, Zhongdan; Chen, Yinji

    2015-11-21

    Herein, an ultrasensitive and selective colorimetric assay for antibiotics, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as the model analyte, was developed based on magnetic aptamer-HRP-platinum composite probes and exonuclease-assisted target recycling. The composite probes were prepared through immunoreactions between the double stranded DNA antibody (anti-DNA) labeled on core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (AuMNP-anti-DNA) as the capture probe, and the double stranded aptamer (aptamer hybrid with its complementary oligonucleotides) labeled on Pt@HRP nanoparticles as the nanotracer (ds-Apt-HRP-PtNPs). When the CAP samples were incubated with the probes for 30 min at room temperature, they could be captured by the aptamer to form a nanotracer-CAP complex, which was then released into the supernatant after magnetic separation. This is because the anti-DNA on the capture probes cannot recognize the single strand aptamer-CAP complex. The exonuclease I (Exo I) added into the supernatant can further digest the aptamer-CAP from the 3'-end of the aptamer and the CAP in the aptamer-CAP complex can be released again, which can further participate in a new cycling process to react with the probes. Pt and HRP in the nanotracer could both catalyze and dual amplify the absorbance at 650 nm ascribed to the 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2 system. Moreover, Exo I can assist the target recycling, which can further amplify the signal. Thus, the triple amplified signal can be quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the CAP detection possessed a linear range of 0.001-10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.0003 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The assay was successfully employed to detect CAP in milk, which is much more facile, time saving, and sensitive than the commercial ELISA kits. PMID:26442572

  7. MicroRNA-194 promotes osteoblast differentiation via downregulating STAT1

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; He, Xijing; Wei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2015-05-01

    Osteoblast differentiation is a vital process in maintaining bone homeostasis in which various transcriptional factors, signaling molecules, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved. Recently, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) has been found to play an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. Here, we identified that STAT1 expression was regulated by miR-194. Using mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), we found that miR-194 expression was significantly increased following osteoblast differentiation induction. Overexpression of miR-194 by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly increased osteoblast differentiation, whereas inhibition of miR-194 significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, a direct interaction between miR-194 and the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of STAT1 was confirmed. Additionally, miR-194 regulated mRNA and protein expression of STAT1 in BMSCs. Further analysis showed that miR-194 overexpression promoted the nuclear translocation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which is critical for osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, inhibition of miR-194 blocked the nuclear translocation of Runx2. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 significantly blocked Runx2 nuclear translocation and osteoblast differentiation mediated by miR-194 overexpression. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-194 regulates osteoblast differentiation through modulating STAT1-mediated Runx2 nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • Overexpression of miR-194 significantly increased osteoblast differentiation. • miR-194 directly targeted the 3′- UTR of STAT1. • miR-194 regulated the expression of STAT1. • Overexpression of miR-194 promoted the nuclear translocation of Runx2.

  8. Determination of platinum, palladium, and rhodium in automotive catalysts using high-energy secondary target X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Meel, Katleen; Smekens, Anne; Behets, Marc; Kazandjian, Paul; Van Grieken, René

    2007-08-15

    A fast and direct determination procedure for precious metals in spent automotive catalyst was developed using the novel high-energy polarized-beam XRF. A sample preparation method working directly on the ground material was optimized. The material was pressed as a pellet using wax as a binder; no internal standard was added. The standards for this application were available spent automotive catalyst, previously analyzed by ICP-OES to verify their concentration, prepared in the same way as the unknown samples. The investigated concentration ranged from nearly 0 to approximately 2700 ppm for Pt, to 500 ppm for Rh, and to 7500 ppm for Pd. The repeatability of the XRF measurement appeared to be better than 0.5%, while the precision of the whole method was approximately 1%. The accuracy of the XRF method was verified with the well-established (but very time-consuming) ICP-OES method; a good agreement (no difference when using the 95% confidence interval) was found for the results. When using an irradiation time of 500 s for the CsI secondary target and the Zr secondary target, the detection limits for Pt, Pd, and Rh were found to be better than 5 ppm. PMID:17628117

  9. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  10. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  11. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 19.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget...

  12. 49 CFR 194.117 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training. 194.117 Section 194.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.117 Training....

  13. 10 CFR 72.194 - Physical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical requirements. 72.194 Section 72.194 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT... Certification of Personnel § 72.194 Physical requirements. The physical condition and the general health...

  14. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  20. 10 CFR 72.194 - Physical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical requirements. 72.194 Section 72.194 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT... Certification of Personnel § 72.194 Physical requirements. The physical condition and the general health...

  1. 10 CFR 72.194 - Physical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical requirements. 72.194 Section 72.194 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT... Certification of Personnel § 72.194 Physical requirements. The physical condition and the general health...

  2. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  3. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public...) Federal/State Monitoring § 460.194 Corrective action. (a) A PACE organization must take action to correct... corrective actions. (c) Failure to correct deficiencies may result in sanctions or termination, as...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-9 - Storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storage. 194.15-9 Section 194.15-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-9...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 194.15-1 Section 194.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.194-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.194-3 Section 1.194-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.194-3 Definitions....

  9. 49 CFR 572.194 - Shoulder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shoulder. 572.194 Section 572.194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.194 Shoulder....

  10. 49 CFR 572.194 - Shoulder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shoulder. 572.194 Section 572.194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES SID-IIsD Side Impact Crash Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.194...

  11. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  12. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  13. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  14. 49 CFR 194.115 - Response resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Response resources. 194.115 Section 194.115... Response Plans § 194.115 Response resources. (a) Each operator shall identify and ensure, by contract or other approved means, the resources necessary to remove, to the maximum extent practicable, a worst...

  15. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  16. 40 CFR 194.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.3 Communications. (a) Compliance... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Communications. 194.3 Section 194.3...) Communications and reports concerning the criteria in this part shall be: (1) Addressed to the Administrator...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 194.20-1 Section 194.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 194.20-1 Section 194.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 194.20-1 Section 194.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 194.20-1 Section 194.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a)...

  1. 50 CFR 19.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 19.4 Section 19.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING... (CONTINUED) AIRBORNE HUNTING Introduction § 19.4 Definitions. In addition to definitions contained in part...

  2. 10 CFR 72.194 - Physical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical requirements. 72.194 Section 72.194 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Training and Certification of Personnel § 72.194...

  3. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  4. MicroRNA-194 is a Marker for Good Prognosis in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nofech-Mozes, Roy; Khella, Heba W Z; Scorilas, Andreas; Youssef, Leza; Krylov, Sergey N; Lianidou, Evi; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos G; Gabril, Manal; Evans, Andrew; Yousef, George M

    2016-04-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most prevalent adult kidney cancer. Prognostic markers are needed to guide patient management toward aggressive versus more conservative approaches, especially for small tumors ≤4 cm. miR-194 was reported to be downregulated in several cancers and is involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We evaluated miR-194 as a prognostic marker in ccRCC. In a cohort of 234 patients with primary ccRCC, we correlated miR-194 expression level with multiple clinicopathological features including disease-free and overall survival, tumor size, clinical stage, and histological grade. Our results shows a stepwise decrease in miR-194 expression from normal kidney to primary ccRCC (P = 0.0032) and a subsequent decrease from primary to metastatic lesions. Additionally, patients with higher miR-194 expression has significantly longer disease-free survival (P = 0.041) and overall survival (P = 0.031) compared to those with lower expression. In multivariate analysis, miR-194-positive tumors retain significance in disease-free survival and overall survival, suggesting miR-194 is an independent marker for good prognosis in ccRCC. Moreover, miR-194 is a marker for good prognosis for patients with small renal masses (P = 0.014). These findings were validated on an independent data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We also compared miR-194 expression between RCC subtypes. ccRCC had the highest levels, whereas chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma had comparable lower levels. Target prediction coupled with pathway analysis show that miR-194 is predicted to target key molecules and pathways involved in RCC progression. miR-194 represents a prognostic biomarker in ccRCC. PMID:26860079

  5. Studies of {sup 194,195,197}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    The energy systematics of low-lying polonium states show sudden changes near N = 114. The observed drops in the low-lying levels of {sup 196,198}Po relative to the heavier isotopes indicate significant changes in the underlying structure of these nuclei. It is thought that this change is due to the onset of vibrational collectivity brought about by the quadrupole interaction between neutron and proton-pairs. In order to extend the Po systematics even further, we measured, for the first time, states in {sup 194,195,197}Po using the {sup 28}Si + {sup 170}Yb reaction at a beam energy of 142 MeV. The beam was supplied by ATLAS, and the data were taken with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors placed at the target position of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. Preliminary level schemes were constructed for {sup 194,195,197}Po based on {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-FMA coincidences. The results for {sup 194}Po show that the 2{sup +} - 0{sup +} transition energy decreased in energy by 140 keV relative to {sup 196}Po suggesting that this nucleus moved beyond the vibrational limit to more collective motion. An extrapolation of the systematics predicts that the 2{sup +} energy could drop another 140 keV between {sup 194}Po and {sup 192}Po which would indicate the onset of rotational motion. Currently, we have an approved experiment to investigate the decay of yrast isomers in {sup 194}Po which will allow us to (1) confirm our earlier level scheme of {sup 194}Po, and (2) assess the experimental conditions needed for a future study of {sup 192}Po.

  6. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 194

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balraj

    2006-06-15

    Nuclear spectroscopic information for known nuclides of mass number 194 (Re,Os,Ir,Pt,Au,Hg,Tl,Pb,Bi, Po,At) with Z = 75 to 85 and N = 119 to 109 have been evaluated and presented together with adopted energies and J{pi} of levels in these nuclei. No excited state data are yet available for {sup 194}Re and {sup 194}At. Many superdeformed structures are known in A = 194: three SD bands in {sup 194}Hg, two of which are connected to the normal-deformed structures; six SD bands in {sup 194}Tl; and three SD bands in {sup 194}Pb, one of which is connected to the normal-deformed structure. In addition four magnetic-rotational (MR) dipole bands are known in {sup 194}Pb together with many other dipole bands which are probable multi-quasiparticle structures. This evaluation supersedes previous full evaluations of A = 194 published by 1996Br26, 1989Si01, 1977Ha46 and 1972Au11.

  7. MicroRNA-194 reciprocally stimulates osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis via regulating COUP-TFII expression

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, B-C; Kang, I-H; Hwang, Y-C; Kim, S-H; Koh, J-T

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblasts and adipocytes are differentiated from common mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in processes which are tightly controlled by various growth factors, signaling molecules, transcriptional factors and microRNAs. Recently, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) was identified as a critical regulator of MSC fate. In the present study, we aimed to identify some microRNAs (miR), which target COUP-TFII, and to determine the effects on MSCs fate. During osteoblastic or adipocytic differentiation from MSCs lineage cells, miR-194 expression was found to be reversal. In the cultures of mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 and primary bone marrow stromal cells, osteogenic stimuli increased miR-194 expression with accompanying decreases in COUP-TFII expression, whereas adipogenic stimuli reduced miR-194 expression with accompanying increases in COUP-TFII expression. A luciferase assay with COUP-TFII 3′-untranslated region (UTR) reporter plasmid, including the miR-194 binding sequences, showed that the introduction of miR-194 reduced the luciferase activity. However, it did not affect the activity of mutated COUP-TFII 3′-UTR reporter. Enforced expression of miR-194 significantly enhanced osteoblast differentiation, but inhibited adipocyte differentiation by decreasing COUP-TFII mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of the endogenous miR-194 reduced matrix mineralization in the MSCs cultures, promoting the formation of lipid droplets by rescuing COUP-TFII expression. Furthermore, overexpression of COUP-TFII reversed the effects of miR-194 on the cell fates. Taken together, our results showed that miR-194 acts as a critical regulator of COUP-TFII, and can determinate the fate of MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. This suggests that miR-194 and COUP-TFII may be good target molecules for controlling bone and metabolic diseases. PMID:25412310

  8. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document assembles, organizes, and evaluates all pertinent information (up to April 1976) about the effects on man and his environment that result either directly or indirectly from pollution by platinum-group metals: iridium (Ir), osmium (Os), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), ...

  9. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  10. 46 CFR 194.10-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... construction of magazines shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR parts 173 and 176 and 33 CFR part 6 and parts 121 to 126, inclusive. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 194.10-1 Section 194.10-1 Shipping...

  11. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  12. 42 CFR 460.194 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrective action. 460.194 Section 460.194 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  13. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  14. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  15. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  2. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  5. 40 CFR 194.27 - Peer review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.27 Peer review. (a) Any compliance application shall include documentation of peer review that has... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Peer review. 194.27 Section...

  6. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...); corroborating data; confirmatory testing; or a quality assurance program that is equivalent in effect to ASME... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  7. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...); corroborating data; confirmatory testing; or a quality assurance program that is equivalent in effect to ASME... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  8. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...); corroborating data; confirmatory testing; or a quality assurance program that is equivalent in effect to ASME... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section 194... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and...

  9. 40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative provisions. 194.6 Section... part alternative provisions, or minor alternative provisions, in accordance with the...

  10. 40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative provisions. 194.6 Section... part alternative provisions, or minor alternative provisions, in accordance with the...

  11. 40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alternative provisions. 194.6 Section... part alternative provisions, or minor alternative provisions, in accordance with the...

  12. 40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative provisions. 194.6 Section... part alternative provisions, or minor alternative provisions, in accordance with the...

  13. 40 CFR 194.6 - Alternative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.6 Alternative provisions... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative provisions. 194.6 Section... part alternative provisions, or minor alternative provisions, in accordance with the...

  14. 46 CFR 194.90-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 194.90-1 Section 194.90-1 Shipping COAST...-1 Requirements. (a) Vessels contracted for prior to March 1, 1968, shall meet the following requirements: (1) Existing arrangements, materials, and facilities previously approved but not meeting...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-19 - Electrical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical. 194.15-19 Section 194.15-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 194.15-5 Section 194.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific Laboratory §...

  1. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring. 194.42 Section 194.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL...

  2. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Monitoring. 194.42 Section 194.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS...

  3. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring. 194.42 Section 194.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS...

  4. 49 CFR 194.113 - Information summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information summary. 194.113 Section 194.113 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL...

  5. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.15-3 Section 194.15-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND....15-3 Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master, the senior member of...

  7. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  8. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  9. 40 CFR 194.42 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring. 194.42 Section 194.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS...

  10. 40 CFR 194.22 - Quality assurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.22 Quality assurance. (a)(1) As soon as practicable after April 9, 1996, the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality assurance. 194.22 Section...

  11. 40 CFR 194.21 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection, and personal safety when conducting activities pursuant to this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections. 194.21 Section 194.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS...

  12. 21 CFR 211.194 - Laboratory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laboratory records. 211.194 Section 211.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports §...

  13. 21 CFR 211.194 - Laboratory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laboratory records. 211.194 Section 211.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports §...

  14. 21 CFR 211.194 - Laboratory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laboratory records. 211.194 Section 211.194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports §...

  15. 46 CFR 194.20-3 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibility. 194.20-3 Section 194.20-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND... Responsibility. (a) With the knowledge and approval of the master the senior member of the scientific...

  16. Gamma-ray spectrometry in the decay of (194)Ir to (194)Pt.

    PubMed

    Krane, K S

    2016-09-01

    As a complement to a resent high-resolution spectrometric investigation of the decay of (194)Au to levels of (194)Pt, a similar study has been undertaken of the decay of 19-h (194)Ir to (194)Pt. The two decays populate a similar set of levels in (194)Pt, and so the complementary investigations with similar resolution and efficiency permit a direct comparison of the two data sets. Overall there is excellent agreement between the energies of the common γ-ray transitions and also between the deduced energies of the excited states in (194)Pt. The (194)Ir half-life has been remeasured to be 19.20(2)h. PMID:27318151

  17. Platinum-containing compound platinum pyrithione is stronger and safer than cisplatin in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Yang, Changshan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; He, Zhimin; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2016-09-15

    DNA is the well-known molecular target of current platinum-based anticancer drugs; consequently, their clinical use is severely restricted by their systemic toxicities and drug resistance originating from non-selective DNA damage. Various strategies have been developed to circumvent the shortcomings of platinum-based chemotherapy but the inherent problem remains unsolved. Here we report that platinum pyrithione (PtPT), a chemically well-characterized synthetic complex of platinum, inhibits proteasome function and thereby exhibits greater and more selective cytotoxicity to multiple cancer cells than cisplatin, without showing discernible DNA damage both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, unlike the classical proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/Velcade which inhibits the proteasome via blocking the peptidase activity of 20S proteasomes, PtPT primarily deactivates 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases USP14 and UCHL5. Furthermore, PtPT can selectively induce cytotoxicity and proteasome inhibition in cancer cells from leukemia patients but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy humans. In nude mice, PtPT also remarkably inhibited tumor xenograft growth, without showing the adverse effects that were induced by cisplatin. Hence, we have discovered a new platinum-based anti-tumor agent PtPT which targets 26S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases rather than DNA in the cell and thereby exerts safer and more potent anti-tumor effects, identifying a highly translatable new platinum-based anti-cancer strategy. PMID:27381943

  18. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  19. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  20. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  1. 49 CFR 194.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES General § 194.1 Purpose. This part contains requirements for oil spill response plans to reduce the environmental impact of oil discharged from onshore oil pipelines....

  2. {alpha} decay of {sup 194}At

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Streicher, B.; Saro, S.; Venhart, M.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Hessberger, F. P.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Sulignano, B.; Bianco, L.; Page, R. D.; Sapple, P.; Thomson, J.; Franchoo, S.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.

    2009-06-15

    Detailed {alpha}-decay studies of the neutron-deficient isotope {sup 194}At have been performed in the complete fusion reaction {sup 56}Fe+{sup 141}Pr{yields}{sup 194}At+3n at the velocity filter SHIP. Two {alpha}-decaying isomeric states with half-lives of T{sub 1/2}({sup 194}At{sup m1})=310(8) ms and T{sub 1/2}({sup 194}At{sup m2})=253(10) ms were identified in this nucleus. Their complex decays to the states in the daughter nucleus {sup 190}Bi are discussed in the article. We propose that similar to the case of the neighboring {sup 191,192,193,195}At isotopes, the oblate-deformed configurations based on the proton 1/2{sup +}[440] and/or 7/2{sup -}[514] Nilsson orbitals become important in {sup 194}At. A new isomeric state with the half-life of 175(8) ns was observed in {sup 190}Bi.

  3. [Platinum antitumor complexes].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Andrea; Giuliani, Jacopo; Muggia, Franco

    2015-12-01

    In the last 50 years the oncology has experienced remarkable changes resulting in transforming malignant germ-cell testicular tumors from highly fatal to nearly uniformly cured neoplasms. This clinical landmark was justly attributed to the identification of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg in his experiments dating to 1965. On this 50th anniversary of this discovery, one is reminded of the following key aspects in cancer therapeutics: 1) the life-story of Barnett Rosenberg and his legacy that included organizing nearly quadrennial "platinum" meetings incorporating advances in cancer biology into evolving therapeutic strategies; 2) the search for less toxic analogs of cisplatin leading to the development of carboplatin; 3) clinical research into attenuation of cisplatin toxicities; 4) oxaliplatin and the expansion of the therapeutic spectrum of platinum compounds; and 5) the ongoing multifaceted investigations into the problem of "platinum resistance". PMID:26780071

  4. Linear clusters of galaxies - A194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. N. F.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    New measurements for 160 redshifts and previous measurements for 108 other redshifts are presented for galaxies within 5 deg of A194. The galaxy distribution in A194 is shown to be inconsistent with a spherically symmetric King model. A mass-to-light ratio is derived using the virial theorem which is lower than the mean for the groups in the CfA redshift survey (Huchra and Geller, 1982; Geller, 1984). A nonparametric test for galaxy-cluster alignment and a Chi-squared test are used to search for alignment of galaxy major axes with the axis of A194. Evidence for neither luminosity segregation nor significant differences in the velocity or surface distributions of galaxies as a function of morphological type is found.

  5. Platinum Neurotoxicity Pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, Sarah R.; Goldberg, Richard M.; McLeod, Howard L.

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin anticancer drugs are commonly used to treat lung, colorectal, ovarian, breast, head/neck, and genitourinary cancers. However, the efficacy of platinum-based drugs is often compromised because of the substantial risk for severe toxicities, including neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity can result in both acute and chronic debilitation. Moreover, colorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin more often discontinue therapy due to peripheral neuropathy than for tumor progression, potentially compromising patient benefit. Numerous methods to prevent neurotoxicity have so far proven unsuccessful. In order to circumvent this life-altering side effect, while taking advantage of the antitumor activities of the platinum agents, efforts to identify mechanism-based biomarkers are underway. In this review, we detail findings from the current literature for genetic markers associated with neurotoxicity induced by single agent and combination platinum chemotherapy. These data have the potential for broad clinical implications if mechanistic associations lead to the development of toxicity modulators to minimize the noxious sequelae of platinum chemotherapy. PMID:19139108

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-25 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-25 Ventilation. (a) Integral magazines. (1) All integral magazines shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation. Design calculations shall be submitted demonstrating that the system has sufficient capacity to maintain the...

  9. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated... waste that influences a waste characteristic. WIPP means the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, as...

  10. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The system shall have a capacity sufficient to effect a complete change of air in not more than 4...

  11. 46 CFR 194.20-5 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-5 Ventilation. (a) Chemical storerooms shall be equipped with a power ventilation system of exhaust type. The system shall have a capacity sufficient to effect a complete change of air in not more than 4...

  12. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Certification means any action taken by the Administrator pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA... pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA or any compliance re-certification applications submitted...

  13. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Certification means any action taken by the Administrator pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA... pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA or any compliance re-certification applications submitted...

  14. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated.... Certification means any action taken by the Administrator pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA... pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA or any compliance re-certification applications submitted...

  15. 40 CFR 194.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.2 Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated... time period during which the waste was generated, as well as data resulting from the analysis of waste... analysis conducted to determine compliance with § 191.15, and part 191, subpart C of this chapter....

  16. 46 CFR 194.20-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-1 General. (a) The chemical storerooms shall be considered to be service areas and as such shall be subject to the applicable... incombustible materials. (2) The access doors to the storeroom shall bear the inscription “Chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  18. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  19. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  20. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  1. 40 CFR 194.64 - Documentation of continued compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.64 Documentation of... regulations pursuant to section 8(f) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Administrator will publish a notice...

  2. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  3. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Magazine sprinklers. 194.10-30 Section 194.10-30..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers... shall be installed in each magazine or magazine group. The control valve shall generally be...

  4. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  5. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  6. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magazine van construction. 194.10-15 Section 194.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine...

  7. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Magazine sprinklers. 194.10-30 Section 194.10-30..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers... shall be installed in each magazine or magazine group. The control valve shall generally be...

  8. 46 CFR 194.10-30 - Magazine sprinklers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Magazine sprinklers. 194.10-30 Section 194.10-30..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-30 Magazine sprinklers... shall be installed in each magazine or magazine group. The control valve shall generally be...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 19-4 - Service classes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service classes. Sec. 19-4 Section 19-4... Classifications Sec. 19-4 Service classes. The statistical classifications are designed to reflect the operating elements attributable to each distinctive class of service offered. The operating elements shall be...

  10. 47 CFR 95.194 - (FRS Rule 4) FRS units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (FRS Rule 4) FRS units. 95.194 Section 95.194 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.194 (FRS Rule 4) FRS units. (a) You may...

  11. 19 CFR 10.194 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.194 Section 10.194 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.194 Evidence of direct shipment....

  12. 19 CFR 10.194 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.194 Section 10.194 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.194 Evidence of direct shipment....

  13. 19 CFR 10.194 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.194 Section 10.194 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.194 Evidence of direct shipment....

  14. 19 CFR 10.194 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.194 Section 10.194 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.194 Evidence of direct shipment....

  15. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual.... 194.51 Section 194.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 29 CFR 19.4 - Contents of request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contents of request. 19.4 Section 19.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT § 19.4 Contents of request. The formal written request..., business address and business phone number. The request shall also contain the following: (a) The...

  17. 49 CFR 194.111 - Response plan retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Response plan retention. 194.111 Section 194.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Response Plans § 194.111 Response plan retention. (a) Each operator shall maintain relevant portions of...

  18. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  19. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  20. 33 CFR 110.194 - Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. 110.194 Section 110.194 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.194 Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 110.194 - Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. 110.194 Section 110.194 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.194 Mobile Bay, Ala., at entrance. (a) The...

  2. Growth of platinum nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Movie showing the growth of platinum nanocrystals in a liquid cell observed in situ using the JEOL 3010 TEM at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. This is the first ever-real time movie showing nucleation and growth by monomer attachment or by smaller nanocrystals coalescing to form larger nanocrystals. All the nanocrystals end up being roughly the same shape and size. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/08/04/growth-spurts/

  3. Enhancing Tumor Cell Response to Chemotherapy through the Targeted Delivery of Platinum Drugs Mediated by Highly Stable, Multifunctional Carboxymethylcellulose-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Medříková, Zdenka; Novohradsky, Vojtech; Zajac, Juraj; Vrána, Oldřich; Kasparkova, Jana; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Petr, Martin; Zbořil, Radek; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles using different formulations, and which can be used for the delivery of chemotherapeutics, has recently attracted considerable attention. We describe herein an innovative approach that may ultimately allow for the selective delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells by using an external magnet. A conventional antitumor drug, cisplatin, has been incorporated into new carboxymethylcellulose-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles conjugated with the fluorescent marker Alexa Fluor 488 or folic acid as targeting agent. The magnetic nanocarriers possess exceptionally high biocompatibility and colloidal stability. These cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles overcome the resistance mechanisms typical of free cisplatin. Moreover, experiments aimed at the localization of the nanoparticles driven by an external magnet in a medium that mimics physiological conditions confirmed that this localization can inhibit tumor cell growth site-specifically. PMID:27246144

  4. Development of Platinum(iv) Complexes as Anticancer Prodrugs: the Story so Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ang, Wee Han

    2012-06-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the antitumor properties of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg some forty years ago brought about a paradigm shift in the field of medicinal chemistry and challenged conventional thinking regarding the role of potentially toxic heavy metals in drugs. Platinum(II)-based anticancer drugs have since become some of the most effective and widely-used drugs in a clinician's arsenal and have saved countless lives. However, they are limited by high toxicity, severe side-effects and the incidence of drug resistance. In recent years, attention has shifted to stable platinum(IV) complexes as anticancer prodrugs. By exploiting the unique chemical and structural attributes of their scaffolds, these platinum(IV) prodrugs offer new strategies of targeting and killing cancer cells. This review summarizes the development of anticancer platinum(IV) prodrugs to date and some of the exciting strategies that utilise the platinum(IV) construct as targeted chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.

  5. Possible chiral bands in {sup 194}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Masiteng, P. L.; Ramashidzha, T. M.; Maliage, S. M.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Vymers, P. A.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Bark, R. A.; Mullins, S. M.; Murray, S. H. T.; Kau, J.; Komati, F.; Lindsay, R.; Matamba, I.; Mutshena, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-10-28

    High spin states in {sup 194}Tl, excited through the {sup 181}Ta({sup 18}O,5n) fusion evaporation reaction, were studied using the AFRODITE array at iThemba LABS. Candidate chiral bands built on the {pi}h{sub 9/2} x {nu}i{sub 13/2}{sup 1} configuration were found. Furthermore these bands were observed through a band crossing caused by the excitation of a {nu}i{sub 13/2} pair. Above the band crossing the excitation energies remain close, suggesting that chirality may persist for the four quasiparticle configuration too.

  6. Silicone breast implants and platinum.

    PubMed

    Wixtrom, Roger N

    2007-12-01

    Platinum, in a specific form, is used as a catalyst in the cross-linking reactions of the silicone gel and elastomer in breast implants. After manufacture, it remains in the devices at low-parts-per-million levels. Potential concerns have been raised as to whether this platinum might diffuse from silicone breast implants into the body and result in adverse health effects. The weight of evidence indicates that the platinum present is in its most biocompatible (zero valence) form, and the very minute levels (<0.1 percent) that might diffuse from the implants do not represent a significant health risk to patients. PMID:18090821

  7. Platinum availability for future automotive technologies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elisa; Field, Frank R; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-12-01

    Platinum is an excellent catalyst, can be used at high temperatures, and is stable in many aggressive chemical environments. Consequently, platinum is used in many current industrial applications, notably automotive catalytic converters, and prospective vehicle fuel cells are expected to rely upon it. Between 2005 and 2010, the automotive industry used approximately 40% of mined platinum. Future automotive industry growth and automotive sales shifts toward new technologies could significantly alter platinum demand. The potential risks for decreased platinum availability are evaluated, using an analysis of platinum market characteristics that describes platinum's geophysical constraints, institutional efficiency, and dynamic responsiveness. Results show that platinum demand for an automotive fleet that meets 450 ppm greenhouse gas stabilization goals would require within 10% of historical growth rates of platinum supply before 2025. However, such a fleet, due largely to sales growth in fuel cell vehicles, will more strongly constrain platinum supply in the 2050 time period. While current platinum reserves are sufficient to satisfy this increased demand, decreasing platinum ore grade and continued concentration of platinum supply in a single geographic area are availability risk factors to platinum end-users. PMID:23088692

  8. HDAC4-regulated STAT1 activation mediates platinum resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Alfraidi, Albandri; Rama, Nona; Datler, Christoph; Studd, James B; Agarwal, Roshan; Guney, Tankut G; Gourley, Charlie; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Mai, Antonello; Brown, Robert; Dina, Roberto; Gabra, Hani

    2011-07-01

    Ovarian cancer frequently acquires resistance to platinum chemotherapy, representing a major challenge for improving patient survival. Recent work suggests that resistant clones exist within a larger drug-sensitive cell population prior to chemotherapy, implying that resistance is selected for rather than generated by treatment. We sought to compare clinically derived, intrapatient paired models of initial platinum response and subsequent resistant relapse to define molecular determinants of evolved resistance. Transcriptional analysis of a matched cell line series from three patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer before and after development of clinical platinum resistance (PEO1/PEO4/PEO6, PEA1/PEA2, PEO14/PEO23) identified 91 up- and 126 downregulated genes common to acquired resistance. Significantly enhanced apoptotic response to platinum treatment in resistant cells was observed following knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4, FOLR2, PIK3R1, or STAT1 (P < 0.05). Interestingly, HDAC4 and STAT1 were found to physically interact. Acetyl-STAT1 was detected in platinum-sensitive cells but not in HDAC4 overexpressing platinum-resistant cells from the same patient. In resistant cells, STAT1 phosphorylation/nuclear translocation was seen following platinum exposure, whereas silencing of HDAC4 increased acetyl-STAT1 levels, prevented platinum-induced STAT1 activation, and restored cisplatin sensitivity. Conversely, matched sensitive cells were refractory to STAT1 phosphorylation on platinum treatment. Analysis of 16 paired tumor biopsies taken before and after development of clinical platinum resistance showed significantly increased HDAC4 expression in resistant tumors [n = 7 of 16 (44%); P = 0.04]. Therefore, clinical selection of HDAC4-overexpressing tumor cells upon exposure to chemotherapy promotes STAT1 deacetylation and cancer cell survival. Together, our findings identify HDAC4 as a novel, therapeutically tractable target to counter platinum

  9. HDAC4-regulated STAT1 activation mediates platinum resistance in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A; Alfraidi, Albandri; Rama, Nona; Datler, Christoph; Studd, Jamie; Agarwal, Roshan; Guney, Tankut G; Gourley, Charlie; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Mai, Antonello; Brown, Robert; Dina, Roberto; Gabra, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer frequently acquires resistance to platinum chemotherapy, representing a major challenge for improving patient survival. Recent work suggests resistant clones exist within a larger drug sensitive cell-population prior to chemotherapy, implying that resistance is selected for rather than generated by treatment. We sought to compare clinically-derived, intra-patient paired models of initial platinum response and subsequent resistant relapse to define molecular determinants of evolved resistance. Transcriptional analysis of a matched cell-line series from three patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer before and after development of clinical platinum resistance (PEO1/PEO4/PEO6, PEA1/PEA2, PEO14/PEO23) identified 91 up- and 126 down-regulated genes common to acquired resistance. Significantly enhanced apoptotic response to platinum treatment in resistant cells was observed following knockdown of HDAC4, FOLR2, PIK3R1 or STAT1 (p<0.05). Interestingly, HDAC4 and STAT1 were found to physically interact. Acetyl-STAT1 was detected in platinum sensitive but not HDAC4 over-expressing platinum resistant cells from the same patient. In resistant cells, STAT1 phosphorylation/nuclear translocation was seen following platinum exposure, whereas silencing of HDAC4 increased acetyl-STAT1 levels, prevented platinum induced STAT1 activation and restored cisplatin sensitivity. Conversely, matched sensitive cells were refractory to STAT1 phosphorylation on platinum treatment. Analysis of 16 paired tumor biopsies taken before and after development of clinical platinum resistance showed significantly increased HDAC4 expression in resistant tumors (n=7/16[44%]; p=0.04). Therefore, clinical selection of HDAC4 overexpressing tumor cells upon exposure to chemotherapy promotes STAT1 deacetylation and cancer cell survival. Together, our findings identify HDAC4 as a novel, therapeutically tractable target to counter platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. PMID:21571862

  10. 10 CFR 205.194 - Participants; official service list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participants; official service list. 205.194 Section 205.194 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable... directed, his address and the products, dollar amounts, time period, and geographical area specified in...

  11. 10 CFR 205.194 - Participants; official service list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participants; official service list. 205.194 Section 205.194 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable... directed, his address and the products, dollar amounts, time period, and geographical area specified in...

  12. 10 CFR 205.194 - Participants; official service list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participants; official service list. 205.194 Section 205.194 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable... directed, his address and the products, dollar amounts, time period, and geographical area specified in...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  14. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  15. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  16. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  17. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  18. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  19. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  2. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B...

  7. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjustment of management measures. 622.194 Section 622.194 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND...

  8. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be classed, marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR part 172: (1) Explosives. (2) Flammable... under paragraph (a) of this section but not specifically listed by name in 49 CFR 172.101 must be... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  9. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be classed, marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR part 172: (1) Explosives. (2) Flammable... under paragraph (a) of this section but not specifically listed by name in 49 CFR 172.101 must be... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  10. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall be classed, marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR part 172: (1) Explosives. (2) Flammable... under paragraph (a) of this section but not specifically listed by name in 49 CFR 172.101 must be... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  11. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be classed, marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR part 172: (1) Explosives. (2) Flammable... under paragraph (a) of this section but not specifically listed by name in 49 CFR 172.101 must be... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  12. 46 CFR 194.05-3 - Chemical stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall be classed, marked and labeled in accordance with 49 CFR part 172: (1) Explosives. (2) Flammable... under paragraph (a) of this section but not specifically listed by name in 49 CFR 172.101 must be... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical stores. 194.05-3 Section 194.05-3...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  15. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  16. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping and electrical requirements. 194.20-19 Section... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  20. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  1. 46 CFR 194.15-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.15-11 Section 194.15-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  2. 21 CFR 1.94 - Hearing on refusal of admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing on refusal of admission. 1.94 Section 1.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL..., the district director shall specify a time limit, reasonable in the light of the circumstances,...

  3. 26 CFR 1.194-2 - Amount of deduction allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....194-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... parent corporation shall file a separate statement attached to the income tax return on which an election... part of the deduction under section 194 shall file a separate statement attached to the income...

  4. 40 CFR 194.15 - certification application(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Applications Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re-certification application(s... Sec. 194.15 Content of compliance re PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  5. 34 CFR 403.194 - What are the comparability requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the comparability requirements? 403.194 Section 403.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY...

  6. 40 CFR 194.32 - Scope of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of performance assessments. 194.32 Section 194.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of compliance assessments. 194.54 Section 194.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR 194.54 - Scope of compliance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of compliance assessments. 194.54 Section 194.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  9. 40 CFR 194.32 - Scope of performance assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of performance assessments. 194.32 Section 194.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  10. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass...

  11. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  12. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  13. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  14. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  15. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by...

  16. 26 CFR 1.194-1 - Amortization of reforestation expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of reforestation expenditures. 1....194-1 Amortization of reforestation expenditures. (a) In general. Section 194 allows a taxpayer to elect to amortize over an 84-month period, up to $10,000 of reforestation expenditures (as defined...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  18. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  19. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  20. 46 CFR 194.20-11 - Flushing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flushing systems. 194.20-11 Section 194.20-11 Shipping... Flushing systems. (a) Provision shall be made for flushing away chemical spills. (b) If a drainage system is installed, it shall be separate from any other drainage system....

  1. 19 CFR 10.194 - Evidence of direct shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of direct shipment. 10.194 Section 10.194... Evidence of direct shipment. (a) Documents constituting evidence of direct shipment. The port director may require that appropriate shipping papers, invoices, or other documents be submitted within 60 days of...

  2. 46 CFR 194.20-17 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chemical storeroom. (b) Flammable compressed gases and oxygen shall be stowed in accordance with 49 CFR part 176, subpart H. (c) Compressed gas cylinders shall have valve protection in accordance with 49 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases. 194.20-17 Section 194.20-17...

  3. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  4. 49 CFR 173.194 - Gas identification sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas identification sets. 173.194 Section 173.194... Gas identification sets. Gas identification sets containing poisonous material must be packaged in... silical gel, gas identification sets may be shipped as follows: (1) If the poisonous material does...

  5. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.46 Removal of waste. Any compliance application shall include documentation... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  6. 28 CFR 19.4 - Cost and percentage estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and percentage estimates. 19.4... RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 19.4 Cost and percentage estimates. It is estimated that this program will cost DOJ $78,000 during the initial year. This figure is based on estimates of printing, inserting,...

  7. 21 CFR 1.94 - Hearing on refusal of admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing on refusal of admission. 1.94 Section 1.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL..., the district director shall specify a time limit, reasonable in the light of the circumstances,...

  8. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles of partnership or association. 41.194 Section 41.194 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... statement, in duplicate, to that effect by the partnership or association will be sufficient for the...

  9. 22 CFR 194.1 - Authority and scope of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 194.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION INTER-AMERICAN COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE § 194.1 Authority and scope of application. In accordance with the authority in chapter III of the Federal Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 306), the Department...

  10. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actions prior to grant closing. 4280.194 Section 4280.194 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

  11. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actions prior to grant closing. 4280.194 Section 4280.194 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.194 - Actions prior to grant closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actions prior to grant closing. 4280.194 Section 4280.194 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and...

  13. 22 CFR 194.1 - Authority and scope of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 194.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION INTER-AMERICAN COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE § 194.1 Authority and scope of application. In accordance with the authority in chapter III of the Federal Arbitration Act (9 U.S.C. 306), the Department...

  14. Overexpression of OsCYP19-4 increases tolerance to cold stress and enhances grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dae Hwa; Lee, Sang Sook; Park, Hyun Ji; Lyu, Jae Il; Chong, Won Seog; Liu, Jang Ryol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass. PMID:26453745

  15. Overexpression of OsCYP19-4 increases tolerance to cold stress and enhances grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hwa; Lee, Sang Sook; Park, Hyun Ji; Lyu, Jae Il; Chong, Won Seog; Liu, Jang Ryol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass. PMID:26453745

  16. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Silver-Platinum Nanocomposite Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    CHRISTOPHER, BERRY

    2005-03-07

    Silver and platinum were incorporated within diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films reveals that the metals self-assemble into particulate nanocomposite structures. Nanoindentation testing has shown that diamondlike carbon-silver films exhibit hardness and Young's modulus values of approximately 37 GPa and 333 GPa, respectively. DLC-silver-platinum films exhibited antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. Diamondlike carbon-biofunctional metal nanocomposite films have a variety of potential medical and antimicrobial applications.

  17. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  18. Polymorphic transporters and platinum pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Ness, Rachel A.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several solute carriers and ATP-binding cassette transporters have been implicated in the influx or efflux of platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. Given that many of these proteins are highly polymorphic, the genetic status of these proteins could be an important contributor to the extensive interindividual pharmacokinetic variability associated with the clinical use of these agents. In this review article, we provide an updated overview of the various transporters that have shown promise in animal models or patient populations in facilitating the movement of platinum-based agents across cell membranes, and how their function is associated with drug disposition or pharmacodynamic effects. PMID:22986709

  19. Combinatorial-Designed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Chitosan Nanoparticles for Encapsulation and Delivery of Lipid-Modified Platinum Derivatives in Wild-Type and Resistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana Vanessa; Singh, Amit; Bousbaa, Hassan; Ferreira, Domingos; Sarmento, Bruno; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2015-12-01

    Development of efficient and versatile drug delivery platforms to overcome the physical and biological challenges in cancer therapeutics is an area of great interest, and novel materials are actively sought for such applications. Recent strides in polymer science have led to a combinatorial approach for generating a library of materials with different functional identities that can be "mixed and matched" to attain desired characteristics of a delivery vector. We have applied the combinatorial design to chitosan (CS), where the polymer backbone has been modified with polyethylene glycol, epidermal growth factor receptor-binding peptide, and lipid derivatives of varying chain length to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs. Cisplatin, cis-([PtCl2(NH3)2]), is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs broadly administered for cancer treatment. Cisplatin is a hydrophilic drug, and in order for it to be encapsulated in the developed nanosystems, it was modified with lipids of varying chain length. The library of four CS derivatives and six platinum derivatives was self-assembled in aqueous medium and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxic effects in platinum-sensitive and -resistant lung cancer cells. The results show that the lipid-modified platinate encapsulation into CS nanoparticles significantly improved cellular cytotoxicity of the drug. In this work, we have also reinforced the idea that CS is a multifaceted system that can be as successful in delivering small molecules as it has been as a nucleic acids carrier. PMID:26523837

  20. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 264.194 - General operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.194 General operating requirements. (a) Hazardous wastes or treatment reagents...

  6. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  7. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  8. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  9. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  10. 40 CFR 194.5 - Publications incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.5 Publications incorporated... by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  11. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a) Each... to the FOSC. OPS may consider FOSC comments on response techniques, protecting fish, wildlife...

  12. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a) Each... to the FOSC. OPS may consider FOSC comments on response techniques, protecting fish, wildlife...

  13. 49 CFR 194.119 - Submission and approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Response Plans § 194.119 Submission and approval procedures. (a) Each... to the FOSC. OPS may consider FOSC comments on response techniques, protecting fish, wildlife...

  14. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  15. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  16. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  17. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  18. 40 CFR 194.63 - Final rule for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194.63 Final rule for... Administrator's decision, pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA, whether to issue a certification that...

  19. 5. SANDY RIVER (STARK ST.) BRIDGE, EAST ELEVATION, LOOKING 194 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SANDY RIVER (STARK ST.) BRIDGE, EAST ELEVATION, LOOKING 194 DEGREES SOUTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Stark Street Bridge, Spanning Sandy River on Stark Street at Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for I-194 (Iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope I-194 (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53, mass number A = 194).

  1. Bioavailability of platinum emitted from automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Artelt, S; Kock, H; Nachtigall, D; Heinrich, U

    1998-08-01

    A model substance was used which is similar in respect to platinum content of exhaust particles emitted from a three-way-catalytic converter equipped engine. The bioavailability of platinum from such exhaust particles and the kind of platinum species formed in vivo were assessed. An in vitro solubility test showed a solubility of approximately 10 percent of platinum content of the model substance in physiological sodium chloride solution. Two short-term animal studies (8 days) were performed. In all examined rat tissues and body fluids platinum could be detected. In addition, the contribution of the overall bioavailability caused by swallowing a certain amount of the intratracheally applied platinum was evaluated by oral application. It was very low. An analytical method was developed to determine platinum species. Synthetic samples (matrix with a platinum standard solution) were analysed. In rat bronchoalveolar lavage spiked with a platinum standard solution only low molecular complexed platinum was found whereas in rat blood plasma all platinum was bound to proteins. In ongoing studies, the model substance is being tested in a three month rat inhalation study. PMID:9820662

  2. Method for forming porous platinum films

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    2000-01-01

    A method for forming a platinum film includes providing a substrate, sputtering a crystalline platinum oxide layer over at least a portion of the substrate, and reducing the crystalline platinum oxide layer to form the platinum film. A device includes a non-conductive substrate and a platinum layer having a density of between about 2 and 5 g/cm.sup.3 formed over at least a portion of the non-conductive substrate. The platinum films produced in accordance with the present invention provide porous films suitable for use as electrodes, yet require few processing steps. Thus, such films are less costly. Such films may be formed on both conductive and non-conductive substrates. While the invention has been illustrated with platinum, other metals, such as noble metals, that form a low density oxide when reactively sputtered may also be used.

  3. Nanocarriers for delivery of platinum anticancer drugs☆

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Hardeep S.; Nukolova, Natalia V.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana K.

    2014-01-01

    Platinum based anticancer drugs have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy, and continue to be in widespread clinical use especially for management of tumors of the ovary, testes, and the head and neck. However, several dose limiting toxicities associated with platinum drug use, partial anti-tumor response in most patients, development of drug resistance, tumor relapse, and many other challenges have severely limited the patient quality of life. These limitations have motivated an extensive research effort towards development of new strategies for improving platinum therapy. Nanocarrier-based delivery of platinum compounds is one such area of intense research effort beginning to provide encouraging preclinical and clinical results and may allow the development of the next generation of platinum chemotherapy. This review highlights current understanding on the pharmacology and limitations of platinum compounds in clinical use, and provides a comprehensive analysis of various platinum–polymer complexes, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes and other nanoparticles currently under investigation for delivery of platinum drugs. PMID:24113520

  4. Quasicontinuous spectrum of γ rays which feed and depopulate SD in ^194Pb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, D. P.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ding, K.-Y.; Younes, W.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Archer, D. E.; Bauer, R. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Hauschild, K.; Clark, R. M.; Deleplanque, M. A.; Diamond, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Stephens, F. S.; Kelly, W. H.

    1996-10-01

    The mechanism for decay from superdeformed (SD) to ``normal'' (ND) states in ^192Hg results in a large quasicontinuum component which can be fit by a statistical model.(R.G. Henry, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 777 (1994). Recent experiments(M.J. Brinkman, et al., Phys. Rev. C53), R1461 (1996); T.L. Khoo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1583 (1996). have also identified discrete one-step decays from SD to ND states in ^194Pb and ^194Hg which have allowed for the determination of excitation energy and spin of the second wells in these nuclei. We used the ^174Yb(^25Mg,5n) reaction at 130 MeV with a backed target and Gammasphere to study the total spectrum of γ rays in coincidence with the yrast SD band in ^194Pb. The response functions of the detectors were previously determined. The results of the preliminary analysis on the quasicontinuous γ rays which feed and depopulate the yrast SD band will be presented. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Tian, Dongliang; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ˜4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  6. Role of copper transporters in platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Guancial, Elizabeth; Kim, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents are effective in the treatment of many solid malignancies. However, their efficacy is limited by toxicity and drug resistance. Reduced intracellular Pt accumulation has been consistently shown to correlate with resistance in tumors. Proteins involved in copper homeostasis have been identified as Pt transporters. In particular, copper transporter receptor 1 (CTR1), the major copper influx transporter, has been shown to play a significant role in Pt resistance. Clinical studies demonstrated that expression of CTR1 correlated with intratumoral Pt concentration and outcomes following Pt-based therapy. Other CTRs such as CTR2, ATP7A and ATP7B, may also play a role in Pt resistance. Recent clinical studies attempting to modulate CTR1 to overcome Pt resistance may provide novel strategies. This review discusses the role of CTR1 as a potential predictive biomarker of Pt sensitivity and a therapeutic target for overcoming Pt resistance. PMID:26862494

  7. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenxian; Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue; Tian, Dongliang

    2014-07-21

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ∼4 nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  8. 41 CFR 102-194.35 - Should I create electronic Standard or Optional forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic Standard or Optional forms? 102-194.35 Section 102-194.35 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROGRAMS 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.35 Should I create electronic Standard or Optional forms? Yes, you should create electronic Standard or Optional forms, especially...

  9. Advances in drug delivery system for platinum agents based combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiang; Xiao, Hai-Hua; Song, Hai-Qin; Jing, Xia-Bin; Yan, Le-San; Qi, Ruo-Gu

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based anticancer agents are widely used as first-line drugs in cancer chemotherapy for various solid tumors. However, great side effects and occurrence of resistance remain as the major drawbacks for almost all the platinum drugs developed. To conquer these problems, new strategies should be adopted for platinum drug based chemotherapy. Modern nanotechnology has been widely employed in the delivery of various therapeutics and diagnostic. It provides the possibility of targeted delivery of a certain anticancer drug to the tumor site, which could minimize toxicity and optimize the drug efficacy. Here, in this review, we focused on the recent progress in polymer based drug delivery systems for platinum-based combination therapy. PMID:26779373

  10. Surface characterization of platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Solla-Gullón, José; Rodríguez, Paramaconi; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio; Feliu, Juan M

    2008-03-14

    The quantitative analysis of the different surface sites on platinum samples is attempted from pure voltammetric data. This analysis requires independent knowledge of the fraction of two-dimensional (111) and (100) domains. Specific site-probe reactions are employed to achieve this goal. Irreversibly-adsorbed bismuth and tellurium have been revealed to be sensitive to the presence of (111) terrace domains of different width whereas almost all sites involved in (100) ordered domains have been characterized through germanium adatoms. The experimental protocol follows that used with well-defined single-crystal electrodes and, therefore, requires careful control of the surface cleanliness. Platinum basal planes and their vicinal stepped surfaces have been employed to obtain calibration plots between the charge density measured under the adatom redox peak, specific for the type of surface site, and the corresponding terrace size. The evaluation of the (100) bidimensional domains can also be achieved using the voltammetric profiles, once the fraction of (111) ordered domains present in the polyoriented platinum has been determined and their featureless contribution has been subtracted from the whole voltammetric response. Using that curve, it is possible to perform a deconvolution of the adsorption states of the polycrystalline sample different from those related to (111) domains. The fraction of (100)-related states in the deconvoluted voltammogram can then be compared to that expected from the independent estimation coming from the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly-adsorbed germanium and thus check the result of the deconvolution. The information about the surface-site distribution can also be applied to analyze the voltammetric profile of nanocrystalline platinum electrodes. PMID:18309392

  11. An investigation into factors affecting the stability of carbons and carbon supported platinum and platinum/cobalt alloy catalysts during 1.2 V potentiostatic hold regimes at a range of temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, S. C.; Hudson, S. L.; Thompsett, D.; Theobald, B.

    To meet automotive targets for fuel cell operation and allow higher temperature operation an understanding of the factors affecting carbon and platinum stability is critical. The stability of both carbons and carbon supported platinum and platinum/cobalt alloy catalysts was studied during 1.2 V versus RHE potentiostatic hold tests using carbon and catalyst coated electrodes in a three-chamber wet electrolyte cell at a range of temperatures. At 80 °C the wt% of carbon corroded increases with increasing BET area. Surface oxidation was followed electrochemically using the quinone/hydroquinone redox couple. Increasing temperature, time at 1.2 V and wt% platinum on the carbon increases surface oxidation. Although increasing temperature was shown to increase the extent of carbon corrosion, catalysing the carbon did not significantly change how much carbon was corroded. Platinum stability was investigated by electrochemical metal area loss (ECA). Platinum catalysts on commercial carbons lost more ECA with increasing temperature. A platinum/cobalt alloy on a low surface area carbon was demonstrated to be more stable to both carbon corrosion and metal area loss at temperatures up to 80 °C than platinum catalysts on commercial carbons, making this material an excellent candidate for higher temperature automotive operation.

  12. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  13. Design, Synthesis of Novel Platinum(II) Glycoconjugates, and Evaluation of Their Antitumor Effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianbin; Gao, Xiangqian; Liu, Ran; Yang, Jinna; Zhang, Menghua; Mi, Yi; Shi, Ying; Gao, Qingzhi

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sugar-conjugated (trans-R, R-cyclohexane-1, 2-diamine)-2-halo-malonato-platinum(II) complexes were designed and synthesized to target tumor-specific glucose transporters (GLUTs). The water solubility of the sugar-conjugated platinum (II) complexes was greatly improved by average of 570-fold, 33-fold, and 94-fold, respectively, compared to cisplatin (1.0 mg/mL), carboplatin (17.1 mg/mL), and the newest generation of clinical drug oxaliplatin (6.0 mg/mL). Despite the high water solubility, the platinum(II) glycoconjugates exhibited a notable increase in cytotoxicity by a margin of 1.5- to 6.0-fold in six different human cancer cell lines with respect to oxaliplatin. The potential GLUT1 transportability of the complexes was investigated through a molecular docking study and was confirmed with GLUT1 inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity dependency evaluation. The results showed that the sugar-conjugated platinum(II) complexes can be recognized by the glucose recognition binding site of GLUT1 and their cell killing effect depends highly on the GLUT1 inhibitor, quercetin. The research presenting a prospective concept for targeted therapy anticancer drug design, and with the analysis of the synthesis, water solubility, antitumor activity, and the transportability of the platinum(II) glycoconjugates, this study provides fundamental data supporting the inherent potential of these designed conjugates as lead compounds for GLUT-mediated tumor targeting. PMID:26706102

  14. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 417.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... or conditions pertaining to the disposal system that differ significantly from the most recent... significantly from what is indicated in the most recent compliance application, but does not involve...

  20. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... or conditions pertaining to the disposal system that differ significantly from the most recent... significantly from what is indicated in the most recent compliance application, but does not involve...

  1. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... or conditions pertaining to the disposal system that differ significantly from the most recent... significantly from what is indicated in the most recent compliance application, but does not involve...

  2. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... or conditions pertaining to the disposal system that differ significantly from the most recent... significantly from what is indicated in the most recent compliance application, but does not involve...

  3. 40 CFR 194.4 - Conditions of compliance certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.4 Conditions of compliance... or conditions pertaining to the disposal system that differ significantly from the most recent... significantly from what is indicated in the most recent compliance application, but does not involve...

  4. 40 CFR 19.4 - Penalty adjustment and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 19.4 Penalty adjustment and table. The adjusted statutory penalty... Inflation Adjustments U.S. code citation Environmental statute Statutorypenalties, as enacted... amounts set forth in this Table reflect an inflation adjustment to the calendar year 1992 penalty...

  5. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  6. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  7. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or... products must furnish with its application for the permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the...

  8. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... lamps; (2) 500 bulbs; (3) 50 feet of cord; (4) a battery discharge rack for 20 batteries; and (5) a 50-bulb rack. Specifications for items (4) and (5) will be furnished by MSHA. (c) The applicant will...

  9. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... lamps; (2) 500 bulbs; (3) 50 feet of cord; (4) a battery discharge rack for 20 batteries; and (5) a 50-bulb rack. Specifications for items (4) and (5) will be furnished by MSHA. (c) The applicant will...

  10. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... lamps; (2) 500 bulbs; (3) 50 feet of cord; (4) a battery discharge rack for 20 batteries; and (5) a 50-bulb rack. Specifications for items (4) and (5) will be furnished by MSHA. (c) The applicant will...

  11. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... lamps; (2) 500 bulbs; (3) 50 feet of cord; (4) a battery discharge rack for 20 batteries; and (5) a 50-bulb rack. Specifications for items (4) and (5) will be furnished by MSHA. (c) The applicant will...

  12. 30 CFR 19.4 - Conditions governing investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 19.4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... lamps; (2) 500 bulbs; (3) 50 feet of cord; (4) a battery discharge rack for 20 batteries; and (5) a 50-bulb rack. Specifications for items (4) and (5) will be furnished by MSHA. (c) The applicant will...

  13. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  14. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  15. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  16. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  17. 40 CFR 194.1 - Purpose, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.1 Purpose, scope, and... section 8(d)(1) and section 8(f), respectively, of the WIPP LWA. The compliance certification application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and any compliance re-certification...

  18. 46 CFR 194.10-15 - Magazine van construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system shall be of watertight construction and bear a label plate denoting the power requirement of the..., USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Magazines § 194.10-15 Magazine van... incombustible materials. (b) Lighting fixtures, if installed, shall be of an approved type equipped with...

  19. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  20. 40 CFR 194.46 - Removal of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of waste. 194.46 Section...

  1. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Models and computer codes....

  2. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  3. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  4. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  5. 40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification General Requirements § 194.23 Models and computer codes. (a) Any compliance application shall include: (1... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Models and computer codes....

  6. 50 CFR 622.194 - Adjustment of management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.194 Adjustment of management measures. In accordance with the framework procedures of the FMP for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South... section for South Atlantic snapper-grouper and wreckfish. (a) Biomass levels, age-structured...

  7. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  8. 46 CFR 194.01-1 - General; preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels of less than 300 gross tons shall be governed by the applicable portions of 49 CFR parts 171-179, and the applicable portions of 33 CFR parts 6 and 121 to 126, inclusively. Alternately, the owner, at... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General; preemptive effect. 194.01-1 Section...

  9. INDUCTION OF TRISOMICS BY PLATINUM DIAMINODINITRODICHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trisomics were produced in the pollen mother cells of Pennisetum americanum (L) K. Schum plants resulting from seeds treated with M to the minus 6th power platinum diaminodinitrodichloride. On the basis of the preliminary study the relative potency of cis-Platinum diaminodinitrod...

  10. Failure mechanism characterization of platinum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.; Mcfarlen, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes procedures and results of testing performed on a platinum/10-percent rhodium, thin-wall tubular product. The purpose of the testing was to develop exemplar SEM fractographs to be used to characterize failures under various environmental conditions. Conditions evaluated for the platinum alloys included high temperature, hydrogen environment, braze metal contamination, and cyclic loading.

  11. Platinum electrodes for electrochemical detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Bacteria is detected electro-chemically by measuring evolution of hydrogen in test system with platinum and reference electrode. Using system, electrodes of platinum are used to detect and enumerate varieties of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms compared in different media.

  12. Platinum metallization for MEMS application

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Vittorio; Biazi, Leonardo; Marchiori, Roberto; Lago, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The adherence of Platinum thin film on Si/SiO2 wafer was studies using Chromium, Titanium or Alumina (Cr, Ti, Al2O3) as interlayer. The adhesion of Pt is a fundamental property in different areas, for example in MEMS devices, which operate at high temperature conditions, as well as in biomedical applications, where the problem of adhesion of a Pt film to the substrate is known as a major challenge in several industrial applications health and in biomedical devices, such as for example in the stents.1-4 We investigated the properties of Chromium, Titanium, and Alumina (Cr, Ti, and Al2O3) used as adhesion layers of Platinum (Pt) electrode. Thin films of Chromium, Titanium and Alumina were deposited on Silicon/Silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2) wafer by electron beam. We introduced Al2O3 as a new adhesion layer to test the behavior of the Pt film at higher temperature using a ceramic adhesion thin film. Electric behaviors were measured for different annealing temperatures to know the performance for Cr/Pt, Ti/Pt, and Al2O3/Pt metallic film in the gas sensor application. All these metal layers showed a good adhesion onto Si/SiO2 and also good Au wire bondability at room temperature, but for higher temperature than 400 °C the thin Cr/Pt and Ti/Pt films showed poor adhesion due to the atomic inter-diffusion between Platinum and the metal adhesion layers.5 The proposed Al2O3/Pt ceramic-metal layers confirmed a better adherence for the higher temperatures tested. PMID:24743057

  13. Aurora Kinase A expression predicts platinum-resistance and adverse outcome in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Chiara; Staropoli, Nicoletta; Botta, Cirino; De Marco, Carmela; Rizzuto, Antonia; Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Franco, Renato; Camastra, Caterina; Presta, Ivan; Malara, Natalia; Salvino, Angela; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Barni, Tullio; Donato, Giuseppe; Di Vito, Anna

    2016-01-01

    High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma (HGSOC) is the predominant histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), characterized by advanced stage at diagnosis, frequent TP53 mutation, rapid progression, and high responsiveness to platinum-based-chemotherapy. To date, standard first-line-chemotherapy in advanced EOC includes platinum salts and paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab. The major prognostic factor is the response duration from the end of the platinum-based treatment (platinum-free interval) and about 10-0 % of EOC patients bear a platinum-refractory disease or develop early resistance (platinum-free interval shorter than 6 months). On these bases, a careful selection of patients who could benefit from chemotherapy is recommended to avoid unnecessary side effects and for a better disease outcome. In this retrospective study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of Aurora Kinase A (AURKA) was performed on 41 cases of HGSOC according to platinum-status. Taking into account the number and intensity of AURKA positive cells we built a predictive score able to discriminate with high accuracy platinum-sensitive patients from platinum-resistant patients (p < 0.001). Furthermore, we observed that AURKA overexpression correlates to worse overall survival (p = 0.001; HR 0.14). We here suggest AURKA as new effective tool to predict the biological behavior of HGSOC. Particularly, our results indicate that AURKA has a role both as predictor of platinum-resistance and as prognostic factor, that deserves further investigation in prospective clinical trials. Indeed, in the era of personalized medicine, AURKA could assist the clinicians in selecting the best treatment and represent, at the same time, a promising new therapeutic target in EOC treatment. PMID:27209210

  14. 40 CFR 267.194 - What installation requirements must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required in 40 CFR 270.11(d). ... follow? 267.194 Section 267.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... must support and protect ancillary equipment against physical damage and excessive stress due...

  15. 40 CFR 267.194 - What installation requirements must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required in 40 CFR 270.11(d). ... follow? 267.194 Section 267.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... must support and protect ancillary equipment against physical damage and excessive stress due...

  16. 40 CFR 267.194 - What installation requirements must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required in 40 CFR 270.11(d). ... follow? 267.194 Section 267.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... must support and protect ancillary equipment against physical damage and excessive stress due...

  17. 40 CFR 194.61 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194... application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Agency will publish in...

  18. 40 CFR 194.61 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194... application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Agency will publish in...

  19. 40 CFR 194.61 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194... application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Agency will publish in...

  20. 40 CFR 194.61 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194... application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Agency will publish in...

  1. 40 CFR 194.61 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Public Participation § 194... application submitted pursuant to section 8(d)(1) of the WIPP LWA and § 194.11, the Agency will publish in...

  2. [Platinum compounds in cancer therapy--past, present, and future].

    PubMed

    Akaza, H; Saijo, N; Aiba, K; Isonishi, S; Ohashi, Y; Kawai, K; Konishi, T; Saeki, T; Sone, S; Tsukagoshi, S; Tsuruo, T; Noguchi, S; Miki, T; Mikami, O; Smith, M; Hoctin-Boes, G; Stribling, D

    2001-05-01

    Platinum cytotoxics play an important role globally in the management of solid tumours. Cisplatin sets the standard for efficacy in both regions with careful administration to reduce nephrotoxicity. Carboplatin is associated with neurotoxicity, but has become the leading product in the US due largely to the easier to manage toxicity profile. Both agents have been widely used in both registered and non registered indications and are frequently combined with other cytotoxics. In Japan, cisplatin has been used successfully at low doses in combination with 5-FU based regimens and appears to achieve a synergistic effect, but controlled data are not yet available. More recently oxaliplatin (Europe) and nedaplatin (in Japan) have been introduced, but their clinical roles in therapy have yet to be established. One of the limiting features of the first generation of platinum compounds is that a significant proportion of tumours develop cross resistance to platins due to either changes in uptake or excretion, intracellular detoxification or accelerated DNA repair. The forum discussed the possibility for the development of better new platinum compounds, A new platin agent which had lower toxicity and higher efficacy across a wide range of cancers without the development of resistance would be a significant step forward. If the tolerability profile was suitable, an oral formulation may improve the quality of life for patients but this must not be at the expense of efficacy. Even after the introduction of new target based drugs, platinum cytotoxics are likely to be used to reduce the tumour mass and in some cases can be expected to potentiate the effects of the new agents. In preclinical studies, ZD0473 has been shown to by-pass some major mechanisms of resistance and has the potential to achieve these objectives and is now being evaluated in clinical studies in both Japan and the West. PMID:11383210

  3. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements... requirements in 34 CFR 403.194(a) include the following: Example 1: The local educational agency files with...

  4. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements... requirements in 34 CFR 403.194(a) include the following: Example 1: The local educational agency files with...

  5. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements... requirements in 34 CFR 403.194(a) include the following: Example 1: The local educational agency files with...

  6. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements... requirements in 34 CFR 403.194(a) include the following: Example 1: The local educational agency files with...

  7. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  8. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of underground sources... drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  9. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  10. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  11. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  14. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  15. 27 CFR 19.4 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.4 Section 19.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... General Provisions § 19.4 Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes....

  16. 37 CFR 1.94 - Return of models, exhibits or specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Return of models, exhibits or specimens. 1.94 Section 1.94 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Models, Exhibits, Specimens § 1.94 Return...

  17. 46 CFR 194.20-15 - Chemical stores other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical stores other than compressed gases. 194.20-15 Section 194.20-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-15 Chemical...

  18. 30 CFR 250.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 250.194 Section 250.194 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reporting Requirements § 250.194 How must I protect archaeological resources? (a) If the Regional...

  19. 26 CFR 1.194-4 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section, an election to amortize reforestation expenditures under section 194 shall be made by entering... for which reforestation expenditures are being amortized under section 194. The election may only be... election to amortize reforestation expenditures under section 194 may be made by a statement on,...

  20. 34 CFR Appendix B to Part 403 - Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples for 34 CFR 403.194-Comparability Requirements... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM Pt. 403, App. B Appendix B to Part 403—Examples for 34 CFR 403.194—Comparability... requirements in 34 CFR 403.194(a) include the following: Example 1: The local educational agency files with...

  1. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  2. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  3. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  4. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  5. 1 CFR 19.4 - Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... special days or events. 19.4 Section 19.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL... PROCLAMATIONS § 19.4 Proclamations calling for the observance of special days or events. Except as may be... calling for the observance of special days, or other periods of time, or events, shall be assigned by...

  6. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  7. [Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury].

    PubMed

    Yan, Feifei; Duan, Jianchun; Wang, Jie

    2015-09-20

    Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug's toxicity such as the cisplatin's nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury. PMID:26383983

  8. Antitumor effect of arabinogalactan and platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Starkov, A K; Zamay, T N; Savchenko, A A; Ingevatkin, E V; Titova, N M; Kolovskaya, O S; Luzan, N A; Silkin, P P; Kuznetsova, S A

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the results of investigation of antitumor properties of platinum-arabinogalactan complex. We showed the ability of the complex to inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. It is found that the distribution of the platinum-arabinogalactan complex is not specific only for tumor cells in mice. The complex was found in all tissues and organs examined (ascites cells, embryonic cells, kidney, and liver). The mechanism of action of the arabinogalactan-platinum complex may be similar to cisplatin as the complex is able to accumulate in tumor cells. PMID:27193706

  9. Comparison of the effects of the oral anticancer platinum(IV) complexes oxoplatin and metabolite cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) on global gene expression of NCI-H526 cells

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Ulsperger, Ernst; Geissler, Klaus; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Platinum(IV) coordination complexes like oxoplatin (cis,cis,trans-diammine-dichlorido-dihydroxido-platinum[IV]) show high stability and therefore can be utilized orally for outpatient care. Although oxoplatin is capable of binding directly to DNA after prolonged incubation, platinum(IV) agents are considered to be largely inert prodrugs that are converted to highly cytotoxic platinum(II) compounds by reducing substances, enzymes, or microenviron-mental conditions. Reaction of oxoplatin with 0.1 M hydrogen chloride mimicking gastric acid yields cis-diammine-tetrachlorido-platinum(IV) (DATCP[IV]), which exhibits two-fold increased activity. The presence of chlorides as ligands in the axial position results in a high reduction potential that favors transformation to platinum(II) complexes. In this study, the intracellular effect of the highly reactive tetrachlorido derivative was investigated in comparison with an equipotent dose of cisplatin. Genome-wide expression profiling of NCI-H526 small cell lung cancer cells treated with these platinum species revealed clear differences in the expression pattern of affected genes and concerned cellular pathways between DATCP(IV) and cisplatin. Application of DATCP(IV) resulted in extensive downregulation of protein and ATP synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and glycolysis, in contrast to cisplatin, which preferentially targeted glutathione conjugation, pyruvate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids and a range of carbohydrates. Thus, the oxoplatin metabolite DATCP(IV) constitutes a potent cytotoxic derivative that may be produced by gastric acid or acidic areas prevailing in larger solid tumors, depending on the respective pharmaceutical formulation of oxoplatin. Furthermore, DATCP(IV) exhibits intracellular effects that are clearly different from the expected reduced product cisplatin(II). In conclusion, activation of the platinum(IV) complex oxoplatin seems to involve the generation of a cytotoxic

  10. Short-lived isomers in 192Po and 194Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kalaninová, Z.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lommel, B.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Sulignano, B.; Van Duppen, P.

    2016-06-01

    Isomeric states in 194Po and 192Po were studied at the velocity filter SHIP. The isotopes were produced in the fusion-evaporation reactions 141Pr(56Fe, p 2 n )194Po and 144Sm(51V, p 2 n )192Po . Several new γ -ray transitions were attributed to the isomers and γ -γ coincidences for both isomers were studied for the first time. The 459-keV transition earlier, tentatively proposed as de-exciting the isomeric level in 194Po, was replaced by a new 248-keV transition, and the spin of this isomer was reassigned from (11-) to (10-). The de-excitation of the (11-) isomeric level in 192Po by the 154-keV transition was confirmed and a parallel de-excitation by a 733-keV (E 3 ) transition to (8+) level of the ground-state band was suggested. Moreover, side feeding to the (4+) level of the ground-state band was proposed. The paper also discusses strengths of transitions de-exciting 11- isomers in neighboring Po and Pb isotopes.

  11. Teaching the Chemistry of Platinum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert G W

    2015-01-01

    Following colonisation of South America by the Spanish, many new naturally occurring substances were sent to Europe. One of these was the silvery, unreactive metal, platinum, discovered in New Grenada in the mid-eighteenth century. It was often found in granular form, associated with gold, and the challenge to chemists was to refine it, produce it as wire or sheet, and determine its chemical properties. This interested the professor of chemistry at the University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black, who was able to obtain samples from London-based Spanish contacts, particularly Ignacio Luzuriaga. This paper examines how Black transmitted his knowledge of the metal to large numbers of students attending his annual course. PMID:26924332

  12. Calibration of platinum resistance thermometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, D. H.; Terbeek, H. G.; Malone, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of five years experience in calibrating about 1000 commercial platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) are reported. These PRT were relatively small and rugged, with ice-point resistances from 200 to 5000 ohms. Calibrations normalized in terms of resistance-difference ratios (Cragoe Z function) were found to be remarkably uniform for five of six different types of PRT tested, and to agree very closely with normalized calibrations of the primary reference standard type PRT. The Z function normalization cancels residual resistances which are not temperature dependent and simplifies interpolation between calibration points when the quality of a given type of PRT has been established in terms of uniform values of the Z function. Measurements at five or six well spaced base-point temperatures with Z interpolation will suffice to calibrate a PRT accurately from 4 to 900 K.

  13. Evaluation of platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation procedure for the characterization of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) for use in the temperature range -120 to 160 C was investigated. This evaluation procedure consisted of calibration, thermal stability and hysteresis testing of four surface measuring PRTs. Five different calibration schemes were investigated for these sensors. The IPTS-68 formulation produced the most accurate result, yielding average sensor systematic error of 0.02 C and random error of 0.1 C. The sensors were checked for thermal stability by successive and thermal cycling between room temperature, 160 C, and boiling point of nitrogen. All the PRTs suffered from instability and hysteresis. The applicability of the self-heating technique as an in situ method for checking the calibration of PRTs located inside wind tunnels was investigated.

  14. Combinations of platinums and selected phytochemicals as a means of overcoming resistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huq, Fazlul; Yu, Jun Q; Beale, Philip; Chan, Charles; Arzuman, Lalia; Nessa, Meher U; Mazumder, Mohammed E H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are often found to use herbal products along with targeted therapy although not much information (whether beneficial or harmful) is available about the effects of such combinations. In this study, we investigated synergism from the combination of platinum drugs and a number of tumour-active phytochemicals including curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, thymoquinone, genistein, resveratrol, betulinic acid and ursolic acid in three human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, A2780(cisR) and A2780(ZD0473R), as a function of concentration and the sequence of administration. Both the dose-effect curves and combination indices show that the binary combinations of platinum drugs with the phytochemicals exert concentration- and sequence-dependent synergism in the cell lines. Generally the degree of synergism is found to be greater in sequenced administration such as 0/2 h, 2/0 h, 0/4 h and 4/0 h than the bolus. The variation in the nature of the combined drug action from being highly synergistic to antagonistic with the change in sequence of administration clearly indicates that the action of one drug modulates that of the other (towards the induction or inhibition of apoptosis). We have also used sequenced combinations of platinum drugs and bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor that prevents cisplatin-induced proteasomal degration of copper transporter CTR1) to enhance cellular platinum accumulation and the level of platinum-DNA binding especially in the resistant human ovarian tumour models. Proteomic studies to identify the key proteins associated with platinum resistance are ongoing. We have identified 59 proteins associated with platinum resistance in ovarian tumor models. PMID:24403514

  15. Platinum-ruthenium-palladium fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2006-02-07

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum at a concentration that is between about 20 and about 60 atomic percent, ruthenium at a concentration that is between about 20 and about 60 atomic percent, palladium at a concentration that is between about 5 and about 45 atomic percent, and having an atomic ratio of platinum to ruthenium that is between about 0.7 and about 1.2. Alternatively, the catalyst may contain platinum at a concentration that is between about 25 and about 50 atomic percent, ruthenium at a concentration that is between about 25 and about 55 atomic percent, palladium at a concentration that is between about 5 and about 45 atomic percent, and having a difference between the concentrations of ruthenium and platinum that is no greater than about 20 atomic percent.

  16. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  17. Platinum-Resistor Differential Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Platinum resistance elements used in bridge circuit for measuring temperature difference between two flowing liquids. Temperature errors with circuit are less than 0.01 degrees C over range of 100 degrees C.

  18. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst supported on a carbon substrate. During operation, the small platinum crystallites sinter, causing loss in cell performance. A support was developed that stabilizes platinum in the high surface area condition by retarding or preventing the sintering process. The approach is to form etch pits in the carbon by oxidizing the carbon in the presence of a metal oxide catalyst, remove the metal oxide by an acid wash, and then deposit platinum in these pits. Results confirm the formation of etch pits in each of the three supports chosen for investigation: Vulcan XC-72R, Vulcan XC-72 that was graphized at 2500 C, and Shawinigan Acetylene Black.

  19. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  20. Trastuzumab-mediated selective delivery for platinum drug to HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Yu; Gao, Qihe; Wang, Qiucui; Sun, Baiwang

    2015-10-01

    Oxaliplatin is used widely as an anticancer drug for clinical treatment. However, its applications are limited because of its poor selectivity. In this work, we described the design, synthesis, and characterization of conjugates combining trastuzumab with a platinum (IV) analog of oxaliplatin, in which the trastuzumab acted as an active targeting agent for HER2-positive cancer cells. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence study indicated the platinum (IV)-trastuzumab conjugates retained specific binding activity to HER2 overexpressed SK-BR-3 cells. In the presence of ascorbic acid, platinum (IV)-trastuzumab conjugates were reduced to platinum (II) analogs, which could bind to and unwind PUC19 DNA in a manner similar to oxaliplatin. The cytotoxic study was tested on three breast cell lines: SK-BR-3, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. Platinum (IV)-trastuzumab conjugates showed promising antiproliferative activity against SK-BR-3 cells, but significantly decreased the inhibition to MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The flow cytometric analysis showed that the conjugates arrested the cell cycle mainly at the G2/M phase and killed the cells through an apoptotic pathway. PMID:26186063

  1. Mississippi Canyon 194, Gulf of Mexico: Development case history/geophysical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, M. )

    1991-03-01

    A 3-D geophysical survey acquired at Cognac (MC 194 field) nine years after the first production shows the effect of reservoir drainage. A redevelopment program currently in progress targeted wells for oil bypassed due to poor sweep efficiency and/or small faults. Revised structural interpretation based on the 3-D showed several additional opportunities in new fault blocks. Attribute measurements were done at all levels where the pay sand was amplitude supported. These data were then tied in great detail with the geology and the production data available for the different reservoirs. Based on the results of the development wells, a good 3-D seismic survey can help locate fluid contacts, detect small faults ({plus minus}50 ft), and reduce dry hole and marginal well risks with better placement of wells.

  2. Allergic reaction to platinum in silicone breast implants.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, Sambasiva R; Bezabeh, Shewit; Brown, S Lori

    2002-01-01

    Platinum is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of silicone breast implants. Because platinum is recognized as a potent sensitizer in certain circumstances, some have expressed concern that women with silicone breast implants are exposed to platinum, which is causing allergic reactions. We searched the literature for information on the level of platinum in breast implants and reports of sensitization that clearly related to platinum in women with breast implants. We found no published report with convincing evidence that platinum causes allergic reactions in women with breast implants or that women with breast implants are any more likely to have allergic reactions than women without breast implants. PMID:12627791

  3. Platinum in Earth surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, F.; Campbell, S. G.; Ball, A. S.; Pring, A.; Southam, G.

    2014-04-01

    Platinum (Pt) is a rare precious metal that is a strategic commodity for industries in many countries. The demand for Pt has more than doubled in the last 30 years due to its role in the catalytic conversion of CO, hydrocarbons and NOx in modern automobiles. To explore for new Pt deposits, process ores and deal with ecotoxicological effects of Pt mining and usage, the fundamental processes and pathways of Pt dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments need to be understood. Hence, the aim of this review is to develop a synergistic model for the cycling of Pt in Earth surface environments. This is achieved by integrating the geological/(biogeo)chemical literature, which focuses on naturally occurring Pt mobility around ore deposits, with the environmental/ecotoxicological literature dealing with anthropogenic Pt dispersion. In Pt deposits, Pt occurs as sulfide-, telluride- and arsenide, native metal and alloyed to other PGEs and iron (Fe). Increased mining and utilization of Pt combined with the burning of fossil fuels have led to the dispersion of Pt-containing nano- and micro-particles. Hence, soils and sediments in industrialized areas, urban environments and along major roads are now commonly Pt enriched. Platinum minerals, nuggets and anthropogenic particles are transformed by physical and (bio)geochemical processes. Complexation of Pt ions with chloride, thiosulfate, ammonium, cyanide, low- and high molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs and HMWOAs) and siderophores can facilitate Pt mobilization. Iron-oxides, clays, organic matter and (micro)biota are known to sequester Pt-complexes and -particles. Microbes and plants are capable of bioaccumulating and reductively precipitating mobile Pt complexes. Bioaccumulation can lead to toxic effects on plants and animals, including humans. (Bio)mineralization in organic matter-rich sediments can lead to the formation of secondary Pt particles and -grains. Ultimately, Pt is enriched in oceanic sediments

  4. Studies of n-butane conversion over silica-supported platinum, platinum-silver and platinum-copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Junhua

    1992-06-09

    The present work was undertaken to elucidate effect of adding silver and copper to silica-supported platinum catalyst on the activity and selectivity in the n-butane reactions. At the conditions of this study n-butane underwent both hydrogenolysis and structural isomerization. The catalytic activity and selectivities between hydrogenolysis and isomerization and within hydrogenolysis were measured at temperature varying from 330 C to 370 C. For platinum-silver catalysts, at lower temperatures studied the catalytic activity per surface platinum atom (turnover frequency) remained constant at lower silver content (between 0 at. % and 30 at. %) and decreased with further increased silver loading, suggesting that low- index planes could be dominant in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane. Moreover, increasing silver content resulted in an enhancement of the selectivity of isomerization products relative to hydrogenolysis products. At the higher temperature studied, no suppression in catalytic activity was observed. It is postulated that surface structure could change due to the mobility of surface silver atoms, leading to surface silver atoms forming islands or going to the bulk, and leaving large portions of basal planes exposed with active platinum atoms. It is also suggested that the presence of inert silver atoms results in weakening of the H-surface bond. This results in increased mobility of hydrogen atoms on the surface and hence, higher reactivity with other adsorbed species. For platinum copper catalysts, the mixed ensembles could play an active role in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane.

  5. Volumes 193, 194, 195 January–December 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Below is a list of individuals who have reviewed manuscripts for GENETICS during the preparation of volumes 193, 194, and 195 (2013). The aim of GENETICS is to communicate significant research. To succeed, we must recognize what is significant, making sure the presentation is accurate, unambiguous, and easily readable. For this, we depend heavily upon our reviewers, who perform this indispensable service without reward. The quality of the journal strongly reflects the quality of their efforts. We apologize to any reviewer whose name has been inadvertently omitted, and we are sincerely grateful to all.

  6. Production and decay spectroscopy of 192Po and 194Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.

    2015-10-01

    A γ-ray spectroscopy study of the (11-) isomers in 194Po and 192Po was performed at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI (Germany). Nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and investigated in the detection set-up at the focal plane after the separator. Several new γ transitions were attributed to the isomers and detailed analysis of the first γ-γ coincidences for both isomers is being prepared. For the reaction 56Fe + 141Pr → 197At*, excitation functions for astatine and polonium isotopes were measured and compared with HIVAP calculations.

  7. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M

    1980-06-27

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. PMID:17796685

  9. Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and Capecitabine for Primary Platinum-Resistant or Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Basu, Bristi; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penny; Hosking, Karen; Iddawela, Mahesh; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Abraham, Jean; Brenton, James; Hatcher, Helen; Earl, Helena; Parkinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Primary platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is an area of unmet medical need. There is limited evidence from small studies that platinum-based combinations can overcome “resistance” in a proportion of patients. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of platinum-based combination chemotherapy in the platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory setting. Methods Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECX) combination chemotherapy was used at our institution for the treatment of relapsed EOC. From the institutional database, we identified all patients with primary platinum-refractory or platinum-resistant relapse treated with ECX as second-line therapy between 2001 and 2012. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used logistic and Cox regression models to identify predictors of response and survival respectively. Results Thirty-four 34 patients (8 refractory, 26 resistant) were treated with ECX. Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) response rate was 45%, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.4 months, and overall survival (OS) was 10.6 months. Platinum-resistant patients had better outcomes than did platinum-refractory patients (response rate, 54% vs 0%, P = 0.047; PFS 7.2 vs 1.8 months, P < 0.0001; OS 14.4 vs 3 months, P < 0.001). In regression models, time to progression after first-line treatment and platinum-refractory status were the strongest predictors of response and PFS or OS, respectively. Patients with time to progression after first-line treatment longer than 3 months showed PFS and OS of 7.9 and 14.7 months, respectively. Toxicity was manageable, with only 13% of cycles administered at reduced doses. Conclusions Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine seems to be active in platinum-resistant relapsed EOC with manageable toxicity. Further prospective investigation of platinum-anthracycline combinations is warranted in patients who relapse 3 to 6 months after

  10. Production of tungsten-188 and osmium-194 in a nuclear reactor for new clinical generators

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Rhenium-188 and iridium-194 are potential candidates for radioimmunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens. Both nuclei are short-lived and decay by high energy {Beta}{minus} emission. In addition, both nuclei emit {gamma}-rays with energy suitable for imaging. An important characteristics is availability of {sup 188}Re and {sup 194}Ir from decay of reactor-produced parents ({sup 188}W and {sup 194}Os, respectively) in convenient generator systems. The {sup 188}W and {sup 194}Os are produced by double neutron capture of {sup 186}W and {sup 192}Os, respectively. The large scale production yields of {sup 188}W in several nuclear reactors will be presented. We also report a new management for the cross-section of {sup 193}Os(n,{gamma}){sup 194}Os reaction and discuss the feasibility of producing sufficient quantities of {sup 194}Os. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB proteins-platinated DNA interactions correlates with cytotoxic effectiveness of the platinum complexes

    PubMed Central

    Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is the target responsible for anticancer activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Their activity is mediated by altered signals related to programmed cell death and the activation of various signaling pathways. An example is activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). Binding of NF-κB proteins to their consensus sequences in DNA (κB sites) is the key biochemical activity responsible for the biological functions of NF-κB. Using gel-mobility-shift assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we examined the interactions of NF-κB proteins with oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing κB site damaged by DNA adducts of three platinum complexes. These complexes markedly differed in their toxic effects in tumor cells and comprised highly cytotoxic trinuclear platinum(II) complex BBR3464, less cytotoxic conventional cisplatin and ineffective transplatin. The results indicate that structurally different DNA adducts of these platinum complexes exhibit a different efficiency to affect the affinity of the platinated DNA (κB sites) to NF-κB proteins. Our results support the hypothesis that structural perturbations induced in DNA by platinum(II) complexes correlate with their higher efficiency to inhibit binding of NF-κB proteins to their κB sites and cytotoxicity as well. However, the full generalization of this hypothesis will require to evaluate a larger series of platinum(II) complexes. PMID:27574114

  12. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB proteins-platinated DNA interactions correlates with cytotoxic effectiveness of the platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Kostrhunova, Hana; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is the target responsible for anticancer activity of platinum anticancer drugs. Their activity is mediated by altered signals related to programmed cell death and the activation of various signaling pathways. An example is activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB). Binding of NF-κB proteins to their consensus sequences in DNA (κB sites) is the key biochemical activity responsible for the biological functions of NF-κB. Using gel-mobility-shift assays and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we examined the interactions of NF-κB proteins with oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing κB site damaged by DNA adducts of three platinum complexes. These complexes markedly differed in their toxic effects in tumor cells and comprised highly cytotoxic trinuclear platinum(II) complex BBR3464, less cytotoxic conventional cisplatin and ineffective transplatin. The results indicate that structurally different DNA adducts of these platinum complexes exhibit a different efficiency to affect the affinity of the platinated DNA (κB sites) to NF-κB proteins. Our results support the hypothesis that structural perturbations induced in DNA by platinum(II) complexes correlate with their higher efficiency to inhibit binding of NF-κB proteins to their κB sites and cytotoxicity as well. However, the full generalization of this hypothesis will require to evaluate a larger series of platinum(II) complexes. PMID:27574114

  13. New features of superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    A striking difference between superdeformed (SD) nuclei near A = 190 and those in the other regions is the behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia (lm) with the rotational frequency h{omega}. While the (lm) patterns of the SD bands near A = 130 and A = 150 show pronounced variations, the majority of the SD bands near A = 190 display the same large, smooth increase of (lm) within the frequency range 0.15 < {h_bar}{omega} < 0.40 MeV. Current interpretations of this rise of (lm) within mean field theories invoke the gradual alignment of quasiparticles occupying high-N intruder orbitals in the presence of pair correlations. It is a direct consequence of these interpretations that, after the quasiparticle alignments take place, (lm) will exhibit a downturn with increasing {h_bar}{omega} toward the rigid-body value. Up to now, no downturn in (lm) for the SD bands in the A = 190 mass region was observed, raising some doubt as to our understanding of pair correlations and alignment effects at these large deformations. An experiment was carried out at the 88-Inch Cyclotron facility of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where excited states in {sup 194}Hg were populated with the reaction {sup 150}Nd({sup 48}Ca,4n) {sup 194}Hg at a beam energy of 206 MeV. The gamma rays emitted in the reaction were detected with the Gammasphere detector array (32 detectors for this experiment).

  14. Sandwich-like Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructure: structure, formation mechanism and localized surface plasmon resonance behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng

    2012-10-01

    In this communication, a thermolysis route is developed to synthesize novel Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructures with interesting sandwich-like architectures, taking Cu1.94S nanoplates as precursors. Evidently, the trimeric nanostructure is formed by a three-stage process, which includes the Zn-oleate induced assembling of Cu1.94S nanoplate couples, the heteronucleation and growth of a ZnS layer between two Cu1.94S plates dominated by interfacial diffusion, and the catalyst assisted axial growth of ZnS nanorod following the solution-liquid-solid mechanism. With epitaxial growth of ZnS nanocrystal between two Cu1.94S nanoplates, the localized surface plasmon resonance frequency of Cu1.94S shifts from 1875 to 1323 nm, indicating that this new material is potentially applicable as a light absorbing agent in laser photothermal therapy. The reported growth mechanism may provide new strategies for designing and fabricating various technologically important polymeric nanoheterostructures.

  15. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-09-15

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option. PMID:26125441

  16. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option. PMID:26125441

  17. Surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatti, Iacopo; Femoni, Cristina; Iapalucci, Maria Carmela; Longoni, Giuliano; Zacchini, Stefano; Zarra, Salvatore

    2012-06-01

    Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters.Four molecular Pt-carbonyl clusters decorated by Cd-Br fragments, i.e., [Pt13(CO)12{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br2(dmf)3}2]2- (1), [Pt19(CO)17{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br3(Me2CO)2}{Cd5(μ-Br)5Br(Me2CO)4}]2- (2), [H2Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12]8- (3) and [H4Pt26(CO)20(CdBr)12(PtBr)x]6- (4) (x = 0-2), have been obtained from the reactions between [Pt3n(CO)6n]2- (n = 2-6) and CdBr2.H2O in dmf at 120 °C. The structures of these molecular clusters with diameters of 1.5-2 nm have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 are composed of icosahedral or bis-icosahedral Pt-CO cores decorated on the surface by Cd-Br motifs, whereas 3 and 4 display a cubic close packed Pt26Cd12 metal frame decorated by CO and Br ligands. An oversimplified and unifying approach to interpret the electron count of these surface decorated platinum carbonyl clusters is suggested, and extended to other low-valent organometallic clusters and Au-thiolate nanoclusters. CCDC 867747 and 867748. For crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30400g

  18. Autonomous movement of platinum-loaded stomatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Daniela A; Nolte, Roeland J M; van Hest, Jan C M

    2012-04-01

    Polymer stomatocytes are bowl-shaped structures of nanosize dimensions formed by the controlled deformation of polymer vesicles. The stable nanocavity and strict control of the opening are ideal for the physical entrapment of nanoparticles which, when catalytically active, can turn the stomatocyte morphology into a nanoreactor. Herein we report an approach to generate autonomous movement of the polymer stomatocytes by selectively entrapping catalytically active platinum nanoparticles within their nanocavities and subsequently using catalysis as a driving force for movement. Hydrogen peroxide is free to access the inner stomatocyte cavity, where it is decomposed by the active catalyst (the entrapped platinum nanoparticles) into oxygen and water. This generates a rapid discharge, which induces thrust and directional movement. The design of the platinum-loaded stomatocytes resembles a miniature monopropellant rocket engine, in which the controlled opening of the stomatocytes directs the expulsion of the decomposition products away from the reaction chamber (inner stomatocyte cavity). PMID:22437710

  19. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1) transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays), although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1. PMID:27447607

  20. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1) transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays), although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1. PMID:27447607

  1. Further studies on the synthesis of finely divided platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Turkevich, J.; Miner, R.S. Jr.; Babenkova, L.

    1986-09-25

    An investigation was made of the effect of pH and of starting platinum complexes on the synthesis of monodisperse platinum particles by citrate reduction. The antitumor drug cis-platin does not readily produce colloidal particles, and these lack activity for hydrogen peroxide decomposition. The growth of platinum particles by both citrate reduction and hydrogen gas treatment was also studied.

  2. Platinum Publications, January 1–March 31, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  3. Platinum Publications, October 1–29, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  4. Platinum Publications, July 31–September 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  5. Platinum Publications, June 26–July 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  6. Platinum Publications, October 30–December 31, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  7. Platinum Publications, November 27, 2014 – February 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  8. Platinum Publications, October 30 – November 26, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  9. Platinum Publications, February 27 – March 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  10. Platinum Publications as of May 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  11. Platinum Publications as of June 25, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  12. Platinum Publications as of March 6, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  13. Platinum Publications as of September 25, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  14. Platinum Publications, March 27 – April 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  15. Platinum Publications, February 27 – March 26, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  16. Platinum Publications, October 30 – November 26, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  17. Platinum Publications, July 31–September 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  18. Platinum Publications, June 26–July 30, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  19. Platinum Publications, July 1–July 28, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  20. Platinum Publications, September 26 – October 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  1. Platinum Publications as of April 30, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  2. Platinum Publications, October 30–December 31, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  3. Platinum Publications, September 26 – October 29, 2014 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  4. Platinum Publications, April 1–May 27, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  5. Platinum Publications, January 1–March 31, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  6. Platinum Publications as of December 3, 2013 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 21 prestigious science journals. This list represents new publications generated from PubMed as of the date shown above. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: platinum-group metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The precious metals commonly referred to as platinum-group metals (PGM) include iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhodium and ruthenium. PGM are among the rarest of elements, and their market values — particularly for palladium, platinum and rhodium — are the highest of all precious metals.

  8. Platinum Publications, June 1–June 30, 2016 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  9. Platinum Publications, May 1 – June 25, 2015 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Platinum Publications are selected from articles by NCI at Frederick scientists published in 42 prestigious science journals. This list represents articles published during the time period shown above, as generated from PubMed. Articles designated as Platinum Highlights are noteworthy articles selected by Dr. Craig Reynolds, associate director, National Cancer Institute, from among the most recently published Platinum Publications.

  10. Nonuniformity effects in a hybrid platinum silicide imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Perry, David L.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project was twofold. The first objective was to characterize the Hughes Aircraft Company CRC-365 platinum silicide imaging device in a starting infrared sensor system. The CRC-365 is a hybrid 256 x 256 IR focal plane array that operates in the 3-5 micrometer thermal infrared band. A complete sensor and computer interface were built for these tests, using, plans provided by the Rome Laboratory at Hanscom AFB. Testing of the device revealed largely satisfactory performance, with notable exception in the areas of temporal response, temporal noise, and electrical crosstalk. The second objective of this research was to advance the understanding of how detector nonuniformity effects reduce the performance of sensors of this type. Notable accomplishments in this area included a complete linear analysis of corrected thermal imaging in platinum silicide sensors, a nonlinear analysis of the CRC-365's expected performance, analysis of its actual performance when operated with nonuniformity correction, and the development of a new figure of merit. It was demonstrated that the CRC-365 is capable of maintaining background-noise-limited performance over at least a 40 K target temperature range, when operated with two-point nonuniformity correction.

  11. Nonenzymatic glucose detection using mesoporous platinum.

    PubMed

    Park, Sejin; Chung, Taek Dong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2003-07-01

    Roughness of nanoscopic dimensions can be used to selectively enhance the faradaic current of a sluggish reaction. Using this principle, we constructed mesoporous structures on the surfaces of pure platinum electrodes responding even more sensitively to glucose than to common interfering species, such as L-ascorbic acid and 4-acetamidophenol. Good sensitivities, as high as 9.6 microA cm(-2) mM(-1), were reproducibly observed in the presence of high concentration of chloride ion. The selectivities, sensitivities, and stabilities determined experimentally have demonstrated the potential of mesoporous platinum as a novel candidate for nonenzymatic glucose sensors. PMID:12964749

  12. DSAM lifetime measurements for the chiral bands in 194Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiteng, P. L.; Pasternak, A. A.; Lawrie, E. A.; Shirinda, O.; Lawrie, J. J.; Bark, R. A.; Bvumbi, S. P.; Kheswa, N. Y.; Lindsay, R.; Lieder, E. O.; Lieder, R. M.; Madiba, T. E.; Mullins, S. M.; Murray, S. H. T.; Ndayishimye, J.; Ntshangase, S. S.; Papka, P.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.

    2016-06-01

    When a left-handed and a right-handed nuclear system form in angular momentum space, a pair of nearly degenerate rotational bands is observed. To identify chiral symmetry most important is to establish near-degeneracy not only in excitation energies of the partner bands, but also in their intra-band and inter-band B(M1) and B(E2) transition probabilities. This needs dedicated lifetime measurements. Such measurements were performed for four bands of 194Tl. Two of these have very close near-degeneracy and form a prime candidate for best chiral pair. The lifetime measurements confirm the excellent near-degeneracy in this chiral pair.

  13. Platinum particle size and support effects in NO(x) mediated carbon oxidation over platinum catalysts.

    PubMed

    Villani, Kenneth; Vermandel, Walter; Smets, Koen; Liang, Duoduo; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Martens, Johan A

    2006-04-15

    Platinum metal was dispersed on microporous, mesoporous, and nonporous support materials including the zeolites Na-Y, Ba-Y, Ferrierite, ZSM-22, ETS-10, and AIPO-11, alumina, and titania. The oxidation of carbon black loosely mixed with catalyst powder was monitored gravimetrically in a gas stream containing nitric oxide, oxygen, and water. The carbon oxidation activity of the catalysts was found to be uniquely related to the Pt dispersion and little influenced by support type. The optimum dispersion is around 3-4% corresponding to relatively large Pt particle sizes of 20-40 nm. The carbon oxidation activity reflects the NO oxidation activity of the platinum catalyst, which reaches an optimum in the 20-40 nm Pt particle size range. The lowest carbon oxidation temperatures were achieved with platinum loaded ZSM-22 and AIPO-11 zeolite crystallites bearing platinum of optimum dispersion on their external surfaces. PMID:16683615

  14. Platinum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hilliard, Henry E.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, catalytic converters are the major source of secondary platinum for recycling. Other sources of platinum scrap include reforming and chemical process catalysts. The glass industry is a small but significant source of platinum scrap. In North America, it has been estimated that in 1998 more than 20,000 kilograms per year of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts were available for recycling. In 1998, an estimated 7,690 kilograms of platinum were recycled in the United States. U.S. recycling efficiency was calculated to have been 76 percent in 1998; the recycling rate was estimated at 16 percent.

  15. Chronology of platinum accumulation in an urban lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, S.; Hermond, H. F.; Ravizza, G.; Morrison, G. M.

    2003-05-01

    Concern has recently emerged over the release of platinum from automobile catalysts and increasing environmental concentrations. The history of platinum deposition is followed through the natural incorporation of pollutants into the sediment record of the Upper Mystic Lake. Platinum was determined by ICP-MS in dated sediments. Platinum concentration remained relatively constant until the mid-1970s when Pt-containing catalysts were introduced in the US. After the introduction of catalysts, platinum concentration increased significantly, with an average deposition rate of 5.4 μg m^{-2} year^{-1} after 1990.

  16. Use of platinum electrodes for the electrochemical detection of bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Platinum electrodes with surface area ratios of four to one were used to detect and enumerate a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Linear relationships were established between inoculum size and detection time. End points for platinum electrodes were similar to those obtained with a platinum-reference electrode combination. Shape of the overall response curves and length of detection times for gram-positive organisms were markedly different than those for the majority of gram-negative species. Platinum electrodes are better than the platinum-reference electrode combination because of cost, ease of handling, and clearer definition of the end point.

  17. Platinum-based drugs: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Dilruba, Shahana; Kalayda, Ganna V

    2016-06-01

    Platinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of human neoplasms. Their clinical success is, however, limited due to severe side effects and intrinsic or acquired resistance to the treatment. Much effort has been put into the development of new platinum anticancer complexes, but none of them has reached worldwide clinical application so far. Nedaplatin, lobaplatin and heptaplatin received only regional approval. Some new platinum complexes and platinum drug formulations are undergoing clinical trials. Here, we review the main classes of new platinum drug candidates, such as sterically hindered complexes, monofunctional platinum drugs, complexes with biologically active ligands, trans-configured and polynuclear platinum complexes, platinum(IV) prodrugs and platinum-based drug delivery systems. For each class of compounds, a detailed overview of the mechanism of action is given, the cytotoxicity is compared to that of the clinically used platinum drugs, and the clinical perspectives are discussed. A critical analysis of lessons to be learned is presented. Finally, a general outlook regarding future directions in the field of new platinum drugs is given. PMID:26886018

  18. Fraction of platinum surface covered with carbonaceous species following hydrogenolysis of hexane on platinum alumina catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera Latas, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Catalytic naphtha reforming plays a major role in satisfying the demand for unleaded, high octane gasoline. Hydrogen containing carbonaceous deposits (coke) accumulation on the surface of the catalysts during reforming operation. This study investigated the following question: what is the fraction of the platinum surface covered with the deposits following a typical reforming reaction. These observations prompted us to prepare a platinum-alumina catalyst with a high metal content (5%) to enhance the sensitivity of experiments designed to examine the platinum surface following hexane hydrogenolysis. The reaction was selected because it is a good model reaction for catalytic reforming and it was also studied by the Somorjai group in the higher temperature range of their work. Hydrogenolysis of hexane was carried out in a flow system for 3 h at 713 K, at atmospheric pressure, and around 0.1 total conversion. The catalyst was cooled down to room temperature in the reactant mixture, and the fraction of surface platinum atoms exposed was measured in situ by four independent methods: titration of adsorbed oxygen by dihydrogen, chemisorption of carbon monoxide, infra-red spectroscopy of carbon monoxide bonded to platinum, and rate of ethylene hydrogenation. Independent gravimetric studies showed that coke deposits of around 1% by weight were formed on the same catalyst during hydrogenolysis of hexane under similar conditions. Each of the four methods indicate that approximately 50% of the platinum surface remains exposed under the conditions.

  19. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  20. Nanoscale platinum printing on insulating substrates.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, C D; Higgins, M J; Sullivan, R P; Jamali, S S; Moulton, S E; Wallace, G G

    2013-12-20

    The deposition of noble metals on soft and/or flexible substrates is vital for several emerging applications including flexible electronics and the fabrication of soft bionic implants. In this paper, we describe a new strategy for the deposition of platinum electrodes on a range of materials, including insulators and flexible polymers. The strategy is enabled by two principle advances: (1) the introduction of a novel, low temperature strategy for reducing chloroplatinic acid to platinum using nitrogen plasma; (2) the development of a chloroplatinic acid based liquid ink formulation, utilizing ethylene glycol as both ink carrier and reducing agent, for versatile printing at nanoscale resolution using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The ink formulation has been printed and reduced upon Si, glass, ITO, Ge, PDMS, and Parylene C. The plasma treatment effects reduction of the precursor patterns in situ without subjecting the substrate to destructively high temperatures. Feature size is controlled via dwell time and degree of ink loading, and platinum features with 60 nm dimensions could be routinely achieved on Si. Reduction of the ink to platinum was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Feature morphology was characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and AFM. The high electrochemical activity of individually printed Pt features was characterized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). PMID:24270681

  1. Nanoscale platinum printing on insulating substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, C. D.; Higgins, M. J.; Sullivan, R. P.; Jamali, S. S.; Moulton, S. E.; Wallace, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    The deposition of noble metals on soft and/or flexible substrates is vital for several emerging applications including flexible electronics and the fabrication of soft bionic implants. In this paper, we describe a new strategy for the deposition of platinum electrodes on a range of materials, including insulators and flexible polymers. The strategy is enabled by two principle advances: (1) the introduction of a novel, low temperature strategy for reducing chloroplatinic acid to platinum using nitrogen plasma; (2) the development of a chloroplatinic acid based liquid ink formulation, utilizing ethylene glycol as both ink carrier and reducing agent, for versatile printing at nanoscale resolution using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The ink formulation has been printed and reduced upon Si, glass, ITO, Ge, PDMS, and Parylene C. The plasma treatment effects reduction of the precursor patterns in situ without subjecting the substrate to destructively high temperatures. Feature size is controlled via dwell time and degree of ink loading, and platinum features with 60 nm dimensions could be routinely achieved on Si. Reduction of the ink to platinum was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Feature morphology was characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and AFM. The high electrochemical activity of individually printed Pt features was characterized using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).

  2. Evaluation of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillontownes, Lawrence A.; Alderfer, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The calibration and stability of four surface temperature measuring industrial platinum resistance thermometers for use in the temperature range -120 C to 160 C was investigated. It was found that the calibration formulation of the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 provided the most accurate calibration. It was also found that all the resistance thermometers suffered from varying degrees of instability and hysteresis.

  3. 41 CFR 102-194.45 - Who should I contact about Standard and Optional forms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who should I contact about Standard and Optional forms? 102-194.45 Section 102-194.45 Public Contracts and Property... about Standard and Optional forms? For Standard and Optional forms, you should contact the: Standard...

  4. 30 CFR 250.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 250.194 Section 250.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT..., you must immediately halt operations within the area of the discovery and report the discovery to...

  5. 30 CFR 250.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 250.194 Section 250.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... lease or right-of-way area, you must immediately halt operations within the area of the discovery...

  6. 30 CFR 250.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 250.194 Section 250.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT..., you must immediately halt operations within the area of the discovery and report the discovery to...

  7. 30 CFR 550.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 550.194 Section 550.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... operations within the area of the discovery and report the discovery to the BOEM Regional Director....

  8. 30 CFR 550.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 550.194 Section 550.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... operations within the area of the discovery and report the discovery to the BOEM Regional Director....

  9. 30 CFR 250.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 250.194 Section 250.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT..., you must immediately halt operations within the area of the discovery and report the discovery to...

  10. 30 CFR 550.194 - How must I protect archaeological resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must I protect archaeological resources? 550.194 Section 550.194 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... operations within the area of the discovery and report the discovery to the BOEM Regional Director....

  11. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise provided by law, a person who transfers unprocessed private timber to another person and meets all... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public... the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic...

  12. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public... unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic processing requirement. Each person who acquires... States, and who also possesses or acquires unprocessed timber from private lands located west of...

  13. 40 CFR 267.194 - What installation requirements must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What installation requirements must I follow? 267.194 Section 267.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems...

  14. 40 CFR 267.194 - What installation requirements must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What installation requirements must I follow? 267.194 Section 267.194 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  16. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  17. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  18. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  19. 46 CFR 194.15-15 - Chemicals other than compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-15 Chemicals other than compressed gases. Chemicals, including those listed in 49 CFR part 172, may be stored in small working quantities in the chemical laboratory. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemicals other than compressed gases. 194.15-15...

  20. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  1. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  2. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  3. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  4. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi...

  5. 27 CFR 44.194 - To district director of customs for shipment to contiguous foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false To district director of customs for shipment to contiguous foreign countries. 44.194 Section 44.194 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND...

  6. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  7. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  8. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  9. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  10. 41 CFR 102-194.25 - What is an automated Standard or Optional format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is an automated... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.25 What is an automated Standard or Optional format? An automated Standard or Optional format is an electronic version of the...

  11. 41 CFR 102-194.20 - What is an electronic Standard or Optional form?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an electronic... 194-STANDARD AND OPTIONAL FORMS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM § 102-194.20 What is an electronic Standard or Optional form? An electronic Standard or Optional form is an officially prescribed set of data residing...

  12. 19 CFR 19.4 - CBP and proprietor responsibility and supervision over warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... over warehouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF... warehouses. (a) Customs supervision. The character and extent of Customs supervision to be exercised...

  13. Preparation of platinum modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles with the use of laser ablation in water.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Sawczak, M; Klein, M; Nowaczyk, G; Jurga, S; Cenian, A

    2014-08-01

    We report on the preparation method of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide modified with platinum by using nanosecond laser ablation in liquid (LAL). Titania in the form of anatase crystals has been prepared in a two-stage process. Initially, irradiation by laser beam of a titanium metal plate fixed in a glass container filled with deionized water was conducted. After that, the ablation process was continued, with the use of a platinum target placed in a freshly obtained titania colloid. In this work, characterization of the obtained nanoparticles, based on spectroscopic techniques--Raman, X-ray photoelectron and UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy--is given. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to describe particle morphology. On the basis of photocatalytic studies we observed the rate of degradation process of methylene blue (MB) (a model organic pollution) in the presence of Pt modified titania in comparison to pure TiO2--as a reference case. Physical and chemical mechanisms of the formation of platinum modified titania are also discussed here. Stable colloidal suspensions containing Pt modified titanium dioxide crystalline anatase particles show an almost perfect spherical shape with diameters ranging from 5 to 30 nm. The TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with platinum exhibit much higher (up to 30%) photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of MB under UV illumination than pure titania. PMID:24937772

  14. RF magnetron sputtering of thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.; Hsieh, E.J.; Burt, R.J.

    1980-05-28

    Thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres are needed for proposed Laser Fusion targets. The spherical nature of these substrates coupled with the small dimensions (approx. 100 ..mu..m OD) make it difficult to achieve a smooth and uniform coating. Coating problems encountered include a rough surface and porous microstructure from the oblique incidence and lack of temperature and bias control, clumping of the microspheres causing non-uniformities, and particle accumulation causing cone defects. Sputtering parameters significantly affecting the coatings include total pressure, DC substrate bias, and the addition of doping gases. Using an ultrasonic vibrating screened cage and RF magnetron Sputtergun, we have successfully batch coated microspheres with up to 6 ..mu..m of Pt, with a surface roughness of 200 nm, thickness non-concentricity of 300 nm, and density greater than 98% of bulk Pt.

  15. Platinum Group Metal Recycling Technology Development - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Shore

    2009-08-19

    BASF Catalysts LLC, formerly Engelhard Corporation, has completed a project to recover Pt from PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The project, which began in 2003, has met the project objective of an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective method for recovery of platinum without release of hydrogen fluoride. This has been achieved using a combination of milling, dispersion and acid leaching. 99% recovery of Pt was achieved, and this high yield can be scaled up using one vessel for a single leach and rinse. Leaching was been successfully achieved using a 10% solids level, double the original target. At this solids content, the reagent and utility costs represent ~0.35% of the Pt value of a lot, using very conservative assumptions. The main cost of the process is capital depreciation, followed by labor.

  16. Platinum(iv) anticancer prodrugs - hypotheses and facts.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Dan

    2016-08-16

    In this manuscript we focus on Pt(iv) anticancer prodrugs. We explore the main working hypotheses for the design of effective Pt(iv) prodrugs and note the exceptions to the common assumptions that are prevalent in the field. Special attention was devoted to the emerging class of "dual action" Pt(iv) prodrugs, where bioactive ligands are conjugated to the axial positions of platinum in order to obtain orthogonal or complementary effects that will increase the efficacy of killing the cancer cells. We discuss the rationale behind the design of the "dual action" prodrugs and the results of the pharmacological studies obtained. Simultaneous release of two bioactive moieties inside the cancer cells often triggers several processes that together determine the fate of the cell. Pt(iv) complexes provide many opportunities for applying new concepts in targeting, synergistic cell killing and exploiting novel nanodelivery systems. PMID:27214873

  17. Cataloging antineoplastic agents according to their effectiveness against platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Kimiko; Zhu, Yong-Lian; Lin, Z. Ping; Penketh, Philip G.; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Zhu, Rui; Baumann, Raymond P.; Sartorelli, Alan C.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Ratner, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Although epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) are initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, EOCs vary in platinum responsiveness. Cataloging antineoplastic agents according to their effectiveness against platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive EOC cell lines is valuable for development of therapeutic strategies to avoid platinum inefficacy and to exploit platinum sensitivity. TOV-21G devoid of FANCF expression, OV-90 and SKOV-3 were employed as examples of platinum-sensitive, platinum-intermediate and platinum-resistant cell lines, respectively. Antineoplastic agents examined included mitomycin C, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, chlorambucil, paclitaxel, triapine and X-rays. Their effectiveness against cell lines was analyzed by clonogenic assays. Cytotoxic profiles of mitomycin C and carboplatin were similar, with mitomycin C exhibiting greater potency and selectivity against TOV-21G than carboplatin. Cytotoxic profiles of doxorubicin, etoposide and X-rays overlapped with that of carboplatin, while OV-90 overexpressing Rad51 was more resistant to chlorambucil than SKOV-3. The efficacy of paclitaxel and triapine was independent of platinum sensitivity or resistance. Consistent with these cytotoxic profiles, cisplatin/mitomycin C, triapine, and paclitaxel differed in the capacity to induce phosphorylation of H2AX, and produced unique inhibitory patterns of DNA/RNA syntheses in HL-60 human leukemia cells. Paclitaxel and triapine in combination produced additive antitumor effects in M109 murine lung carcinoma. In conclusion, mitomycin C is potentially more effective against Fanconi anemia pathway-deficient EOCs than carboplatin. Doxorubicin and etoposide, because of their overlapping cytotoxic properties with carboplatin, are unlikely to be efficacious against platinum-refractory EOCs. Paclitaxel and triapine are effective regardless of platinum sensitivity status, and promising in combination for both platinum-sensitive and platinum-refractory EOCs

  18. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-03-22

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.

  19. Catalytic Activity of Platinum Monolayer on Iridium and Rhenium Alloy Nanoparticles for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karan, Hiroko I.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Kuttiyiel, Kurian; Farberow, Carrie A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2012-05-04

    A new type of electrocatalyst with a core–shell structure that consists of a platinum monolayer shell placed on an iridium–rhenium nanoparticle core or platinum and palladium bilayer shell deposited on that core has been prepared and tested for electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Carbon-supported iridium–rhenium alloy nanoparticles with several different molar ratios of Ir to Re were prepared by reducing metal chlorides dispersed on Vulcan carbon with hydrogen gas at 400 °C for 1 h. These catalysts showed specific electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction comparable to that of platinum. The activities of PtML/PdML/Ir2Re1, PtML/Pd2layers/Ir2Re1, and PtML/Pd2layers/Ir7Re3 catalysts were, in fact, better than that of conventional platinum electrocatalysts, and their mass activities exceeded the 2015 DOE target. Our density functional theory calculations revealed that the molar ratio of Ir to Re affects the binding strength of adsorbed OH and, thereby, the O2 reduction activity of the catalysts. The maximum specific activity was found for an intermediate OH binding energy with the corresponding catalyst on the top of the volcano plot. The monolayer concept facilitates the use of much less platinum than in other approaches. Finally, the results with the PtML/PdML/Ir2Re electrocatalyst indicate that it is a promising alternative to conventional Pt electrocatalysts in low-temperature fuel cells.

  20. Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) anticancer complexes featuring a dichloroacetate moiety in the leaving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiping; Su, Jia; Jiang, Jing; Li, Xingyao; Ye, Qingsong; Zhou, Hongyu; Chen, Jialin; Li, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Two mixed-NH3/amine platinum (II) complexes of 3-dichoroacetoxylcyclobutane-1, 1-dicarboxylate have been prepared in the present study and characterized by elemental analysis and IR, HPLC-MS and 1H, 13C-NMR. The complexes exist in equilibrium between two position isomeric forms and undergo hydrolysis reaction in aqueous solution, releasing the platinum pharmacophores and dichloroacetate which is a small-molecular cell apoptosis inducer. Both complexes were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic profile in A549, SGC-7901 and SK-OV-3 caner cells as well as in BEAS-2B normal cells. They exhibit markedly cytoxicity toward cancer cells by selectively inducing the apoptosis of cancer cells, whereas leaving normal cells less affected. They have also the ability to overcome the resistance of SK-OV-3 cancer cells to cisplatin. Our findings offer an alternative novel way to develop platinum drugs which can both overcome the drug resistance and selectively target tumor cells.

  1. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Polyethylenimine Platinum Complexes with Potent in Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chekkat, Neila; Dahm, Georges; Chardon, Edith; Wantz, May; Sitz, Justine; Decossas, Marion; Lambert, Olivier; Frisch, Benoit; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gasser, Gilles; Guichard, Gilles; Fournel, Sylvie; Bellemin-Laponnaz, Stéphane

    2016-08-17

    The current interest for platinum N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in cancer research stems from their impressive toxicity reported against a range of different human cancer cells. To date, the demonstration of their in vivo efficacy relative to that of established platinum-based drugs has not been specifically addressed. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to increase the NHC-Pt complex potency whereby multiple NHC-Pt(II) complexes are coordinated along a polyethylenimine polymer (PEI) chain. We show that such NHC-Pt(II)-PEI conjugates induce human cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model with no observable side effects in contrast to oxaliplatin. Additional studies indicate nucleus and mitochondria targeting and suggest various mechanisms of action compared to classical platinum-based anticancer drugs. PMID:27459208

  2. 22 CFR 19.4 - Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.4 Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to...

  3. 22 CFR 19.4 - Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.4 Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to...

  4. 22 CFR 19.4 - Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.4 Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to...

  5. 22 CFR 19.4 - Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to former spouses. 19.4 Section 19.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.4 Special rules for computing creditable service for purposes of payments to...

  6. 43 CFR 19.4 - Liaison with other governmental agencies and submission of views by interested persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liaison with other governmental agencies and submission of views by interested persons. 19.4 Section 19.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National Wilderness Preservation System § 19.4 Liaison with other governmental agencies...

  7. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  8. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  9. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  12. The platinum group metals in Younger Dryas Horizons are terrestrial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wikes, E.; Kennett, J.; West, A.; Sharma, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) event, which began 12,900 years ago, was a period of abrupt and rapid cooling in the Northern Hemisphere whose primary cause remains unclear. The prevalent postulated mechanism is a temporary shutdown of the thermohaline circulation following the breakup of an ice dam in North America. Firestone et al. (2007) proposed that the cooling was triggered by multiple cometary airbursts and/or impacts that engendered enormous environmental changes and disrupted the thermohaline circulation. The evidence in support for this hypothesis is a black layer in North America and in Europe marking the YD boundary containing charcoal, soot, carbon spherules and glass-like carbon suggesting extensive and intense forest fires. This layer is also enriched in magnetic grains high in iridium, magnetic microspherules, fullerenes containing extraterrestrial He-3, and nanodiamonds. Whereas the nanodiamonds could be produced in an impact or arrive with the impactor, the cometary burst/impact hypothesis remains highly controversial as the YD horizon lacks important impact markers such as craters, breccias, tektites and shocked minerals. Firestone et al. (2007) contend that bulk of Ir found at the YD boundary is associated with magnetic grains. The key issue is whether this Ir is meteorite derived. We used Ir and Os concentrations and Os isotopes to investigate the provenance of the platinum group metals in the YD horizon. The bulk sediment samples from a number of North American YD sites (Blackwater Draw, Murray Springs, Gainey, Sheriden Cave, and Myrtle Beach) and a site in Europe (Lommel) do not show any traces of meteorite derived Os and Ir. The [Os] = 2 to 45 pg/g in these sediments and the 187Os/188Os ratios are similar to the upper continental crustal values (~1.3), much higher than those in meteorites (0.13). Higher [Os] is observed in Blackwater Draw (= 194 pg/g). However, the Os/Ir ratio in Blackwater Draw is 5 (not 1 as expected for a meteorite) and 187Os/188

  13. Synthesis of Bimetallic Platinum Nanoparticles for Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Leteba, Gerard M.; Lang, Candace I.

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnetic nanomaterials in biosensing applications is growing as a consequence of their remarkable properties; but controlling the composition and shape of metallic nanoalloys is problematic when more than one precursor is required for wet chemistry synthesis. We have developed a successful simultaneous reduction method for preparation of near-spherical platinum-based nanoalloys containing magnetic solutes. We avoided particular difficulties in preparing platinum nanoalloys containing Ni, Co and Fe by the identification of appropriate synthesis temperatures and chemistry. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to show that our particles have a narrow size distribution, uniform size and morphology, and good crystallinity in the as-synthesized condition. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the coexistence of Pt with the magnetic solute in a face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution. PMID:23941910

  14. Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O’Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Motta, Carlo; Zheng, Jian-Yao; Berner, Nina C.; Kotakoski, Jani; Elibol, Kenan; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Meyer, Jannik C.; Yim, Chanyoung; Abid, Mohamed; Hallam, Toby; Donegan, John F.; Sanvito, Stefano; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-06-01

    Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a newly discovered 2D material which is of great interest for applications in electronics and catalysis. PtSe2 films were synthesized by thermally assisted selenization of predeposited platinum films and scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the crystal structure of these films to be 1T. Raman scattering of these films was studied as a function of film thickness, laser wavelength and laser polarization. E g and A 1g Raman active modes were identified using polarization measurements in the Raman setup. These modes were found to display a clear position and intensity dependence with film thickness, for multiple excitation wavelengths, and their peak positions agree with simulated phonon dispersion curves for PtSe2. These results highlight the practicality of using Raman spectroscopy as a prime characterization technique for newly synthesized 2D materials.

  15. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  16. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms aremore » as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.« less

  17. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms. PMID:25429995

  18. Platinum anticancer drugs. From serendipity to rational design.

    PubMed

    Monneret, C

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of cis-platin was serendipitous. In 1965, Rosenberg was looking into the effects of an electric field on the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. He noticed that bacteria ceased to divide when placed in an electric field but what Rosenberg also observed was a 300-fold increase in the size of the bacteria. He attributed this to the fact that somehow the platinum-conducting plates were inducing cell growth but inhibiting cell division. It was later deduced that the platinum species responsible for this was cis-platin. Rosenberg hypothesized that if cis-platin could inhibit bacterial cell division it could also stop tumor cell growth. This conjecture has proven correct and has led to the introduction of cis-platin in cancer therapy. Indeed, in 1978, six years after clinical trials conducted by the NCI and Bristol-Myers-Squibb, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved cis-platin under the name of Platinol(®) for treating patients with metastatic testicular or ovarian cancer in combination with other drugs but also for treating bladder cancer. Bristol-Myers Squibb also licensed carboplatin, a second-generation platinum drug with fewer side effects, in 1979. Carboplatin entered the U.S. market as Paraplatin(®) in 1989 for initial treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in established combination with other approved chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous platin derivatives have been further developed with more or less success and the third derivative to be approved in 1994 was oxaliplatin under the name of Eloxatin(®). It was the first platin-based drug to be active against metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid. The two others platin-based drugs to be approved were nedaplatin (Aqupla(®)) in Japan and lobaplatin in China, respectively. More recently, a strategy to overcome resistance due to interaction with thiol-containing molecules led to the synthesis of picoplatin in which one of the amines linked to Pt

  19. Luminescent Platinum Compounds: From Molecules to OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Lisa; Williams, J. A. Gareth

    Around 30 years ago, much of the research into platinum coordination chemistry was being driven either by research into one-dimensional, electrically conducting molecular materials exploiting the stacking interactions of planar complexes, or by the unprecedented success of cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2 (cisplatin) as an anticancer agent. At that time, a number of simple platinum(II) compounds were known to be photoluminescent at low temperature or in the solid state, but almost none in fluid solution at room temperature. Since that time, several families of complexes have been discovered that are brightly luminescent, and a number of investigations have shed light on the factors that govern the luminescence efficiencies of Pt(II) complexes. Over the past decade, such studies have been spurred on by the potential application of triplet-emitting metal complexes as phosphors in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), where their ability to trap otherwise wasted triplet states can lead to large gains in efficiency. In this contribution, we take a chemist's perspective of the field, overviewing in the first instance the factors that need to be taken into account in the rational design of highly luminescent platinum(II) complexes, and the background to their use in OLEDs. We then consider in more detail the properties of some individual classes, highlighting work from the past 3 years, and including selected examples of their utility in OLEDs and other applications.

  20. Active site of the replication protein of the rolling circle plasmid pC194.

    PubMed Central

    Noirot-Gros, M F; Bidnenko, V; Ehrlich, S D

    1994-01-01

    Mutation analysis of the rolling circle (RC) replication initiator protein RepA of plasmid pC194 was targeted to tyrosine and acidic amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) which are well conserved among numerous related plasmids. The effect of mutations was examined by an in vivo activity test. Mutations of one tyrosine and two glutamate residues were found to greatly impair or abolish activity, without affecting affinity for the origin, as deduced from in vitro gel mobility assays. We conclude that all three amino acids have a catalytic role. Tyrosine residues were found previously in active sites of different RC plasmid Rep proteins and topoisomerases, but not in association with acidic residues, which are a hallmark of the active sites of DNA hydrolyzing enzymes, such as the exo- and endonucleases. We propose that the active site of RepA contains two different catalytic centers, corresponding to a tyrosine and a glutamate. The former may be involved in the formation of the covalent DNA-protein intermediate at the initiation step of RC replication, and the latter may catalyze the release of the protein from the intermediate at the termination step. Images PMID:7925284