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Sample records for platypus quercivorus coleoptera

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Masuya, Hayato; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  3. Can behavioural differences in Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) from Portugal and Tunisia be explained by genetic and morphological traits?

    PubMed

    Bellahirech, A; Inácio, M L; Nóbrega, F; Henriques, J; Bonifácio, L; Sousa, E; Ben Jamâa, M L

    2016-02-01

    Platypus cylindrus is an important wood borer of cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in the Mediterranean region, namely Portugal, Morocco and Algeria where its presence has drastically increased in the past few decades. On the contrary, the insect is not a relevant pest in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to analyze morphological and genetic differences among Tunisian and Portuguese populations in order to understand their role in the diverse population dynamics (e.g., aggressiveness) of the insect. The information could be used as a novel tool to implement protective measures. Insects were collected from cork oak stands in Tunisia (Ain Beya, Babouch and Mzara) and Portugal (Chamusca and Crato). Morphological traits of female and male mycangial pits were determined, using scanning electron microscopy but no significant differences were found. Genetic differences were analyzed using nuclear (internal simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I (COI)) molecular markers. The results showed a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism and genetic diversity. The alignment of COI sequences showed high percentage of identical sites (99%) indicating a very low variation in nucleotide composition. Other variables related with the ecology of the insect and its associated fungi must be studied for a better understanding of the differences in the insect population's dynamic in Mediterranean countries. PMID:26193771

  4. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il

    2011-12-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first. PMID:22217750

  5. Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

  6. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    PubMed

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  7. Conservation of small RNA pathways in platypus.

    PubMed

    Murchison, Elizabeth P; Kheradpour, Pouya; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hodges, Emily; Xuan, Zhenyu; Kellis, Manolis; Grützner, Frank; Stark, Alexander; Hannon, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Small RNA pathways play evolutionarily conserved roles in gene regulation and defense from parasitic nucleic acids. The character and expression patterns of small RNAs show conservation throughout animal lineages, but specific animal clades also show variations on these recurring themes, including species-specific small RNAs. The monotremes, with only platypus and four species of echidna as extant members, represent the basal branch of the mammalian lineage. Here, we examine the small RNA pathways of monotremes by deep sequencing of six platypus and echidna tissues. We find that highly conserved microRNA species display their signature tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, we find a large rapidly evolving cluster of microRNAs on platypus chromosome X1, which is unique to monotremes. Platypus and echidna testes contain a robust Piwi-interacting (piRNA) system, which appears to be participating in ongoing transposon defense. PMID:18463306

  8. Novel venom gene discovery in the platypus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, few peptides in the complex mixture of platypus venom have been identified and sequenced, in part due to the limited amounts of platypus venom available to study. We have constructed and sequenced a cDNA library from an active platypus venom gland to identify the remaining components. Results We identified 83 novel putative platypus venom genes from 13 toxin families, which are homologous to known toxins from a wide range of vertebrates (fish, reptiles, insectivores) and invertebrates (spiders, sea anemones, starfish). A number of these are expressed in tissues other than the venom gland, and at least three of these families (those with homology to toxins from distant invertebrates) may play non-toxin roles. Thus, further functional testing is required to confirm venom activity. However, the presence of similar putative toxins in such widely divergent species provides further evidence for the hypothesis that there are certain protein families that are selected preferentially during evolution to become venom peptides. We have also used homology with known proteins to speculate on the contributions of each venom component to the symptoms of platypus envenomation. Conclusions This study represents a step towards fully characterizing the first mammal venom transcriptome. We have found similarities between putative platypus toxins and those of a number of unrelated species, providing insight into the evolution of mammalian venom. PMID:20920228

  9. IR-SNOM analysis of occluding substances in lumina of xylem elements in sapwood of Quercus serrata attacked by Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takayuki; Aizawa, Kento; Yamada, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    A new microspectroscopic technique was applied to the analysis of occluding deposits in xylem elements of Quercus serrata. The production of this substance is believed to be a defense response of the sapwood against fungal infection. An occluding substance about 10 μm across was analyzed by Infrared-Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (IR-SNOM), which allows for the measurement of IR spectrum with high spatial resolution. The near-field IR spectrum of an occluding substance was different from those of xylem elements and featured a lack of the clear C-H absorption band that should appear at 3000-2850 cm(-1). On the other hand, the absorption band of ester bond exhibited a very strong peak. Among the near-field IR spectra of related compounds, a similar ester absorption peak was observed in the spectrum of pectin and tannic acid. The presence of a C-H absorption band as a very week peak was similar to (+)-catechin and tannic acid. PMID:23574667

  10. The sensory world of the platypus.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, J D; Manger, P R; Fine, S L

    1998-07-29

    Vision, audition and somatic sensation in the platypus are reviewed. Recent work on the eye and retinal ganglion cell layer of the platypus is presented that provides an estimate of visual acuity and suggests that platypus ancestors may have used vision, as well as the bill organ, for underwater predation. The combined electroreceptor and mechanoreceptor array in the bill is considered in detail, with special reference to the elaborate cortical structure, where inputs from these two sensory arrays are integrated in a manner that is astonishingly similar to the stripe-like ocular dominance array in primate visual of cortex, that integrates input from the two eyes. A new hypothesis, along with supporting data, is presented for this combined mechanoreceptive-electroreceptive complex in platypus cortex. Bill mechanoreceptors are shown to be capable of detecting mechanical waves travelling through the water from moving prey. These mechanical waves arrive after the electrical activity from the same prey, as a function of distance. Bimodal cortical neurones, sensitive to combined mechanical and electrical stimulation, with a delay, can thus signal directly the absolute distance of the prey. Combined with the directional information provided by signal processing of the thousands of receptors on the bill surface, the stripe-like cortical array enables the platypus to use two different sensory systems in its bill to achieve a complete, three-dimensional 'fix' on its underwater prey. PMID:9720115

  11. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution.

    PubMed

    Warren, Wesley C; Hillier, LaDeana W; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Eichler, Evan E; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Wakefield, Matthew J; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A; Smit, Arian F A; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Konkel, Miriam K; Harris, Robert S; Whittington, Camilla M; Wong, Emily S W; Gemmell, Neil J; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R; Ray, David A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N; Pohl, Craig S; Smith, Scott M; Hou, Shunfeng; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Renfree, Marilyn B; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-05-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  12. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  13. The oldest platypus and its bearing on divergence timing of the platypus and echidna clades.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Timothy; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Springer, Mark; Woodburne, Michael O

    2008-01-29

    Monotremes have left a poor fossil record, and paleontology has been virtually mute during two decades of discussion about molecular clock estimates of the timing of divergence between the platypus and echidna clades. We describe evidence from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography indicating that Teinolophos, an Early Cretaceous fossil from Australia's Flat Rocks locality (121-112.5 Ma), lies within the crown clade Monotremata, as a basal platypus. Strict molecular clock estimates of the divergence between platypus and echidnas range from 17 to 80 Ma, but Teinolophos suggests that the two monotreme clades were already distinct in the Early Cretaceous, and that their divergence may predate even the oldest strict molecular estimates by at least 50%. We generated relaxed molecular clock models using three different data sets, but only one yielded a date overlapping with the age of Teinolophos. Morphology suggests that Teinolophos is a platypus in both phylogenetic and ecological aspects, and tends to contradict the popular view of rapid Cenozoic monotreme diversification. Whereas the monotreme fossil record is still sparse and open to interpretation, the new data are consistent with much slower ecological, morphological, and taxonomic diversification rates for monotremes than in their sister taxon, the therian mammals. This alternative view of a deep geological history for monotremes suggests that rate heterogeneities may have affected mammalian evolution in such a way as to defeat strict molecular clock models and to challenge even relaxed molecular clock models when applied to mammalian history at a deep temporal scale. PMID:18216270

  14. The unique sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Smith, M A; Rens, W

    2010-10-01

    A striking example of the power of chromosome painting has been the resolution of the male platypus karyotype and the pairing relationships of the chain often sex chromosomes. We have extended our analysis to the nine sex chromosomes of the male echidna. Cross-species painting with platypus shows that the first five chromosomes in the chain are identical in both, but the order of the remainder are different and, in each species, a different autosome replaces one of the five X chromosomes. As the therian X is homologous mainly to platypus autosome 6 and echidna 16, and as SRY is absent in both, the sex determination mechanism in monotremes is currently unknown. Several of the X and Y chromosomes contain genes orthologous to those in the avian Z but the significance of this is also unknown. It seems likely that a novel testis determinant is carried by a Y chromosome common to platypus and echidna. We have searched for candidates for this determinant among the many genes known to be involved in vertebrate sex differentiation. So far fourteen such genes have been mapped, eleven are autosomal in platypus, two map to the differential regions of X chromosomes, and one maps to a pairing segment and is likewise excluded. Search for the platypus testis-determining gene continues, and the extension of comparative mapping between platypus and birds and reptiles may shed light on the ancestral origin of monotreme sex chromosomes. PMID:21250543

  15. Characterizing the chromosomes of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Daniel; Miethke, Pat; Alsop, Amber E; Rens, Willem; O'Brien, Patricia; Trifonov, Vladimir; Veyrunes, Frederic; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin L; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley; Grützner, Frank; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Like the unique platypus itself, the platypus genome is extraordinary because of its complex sex chromosome system, and is controversial because of difficulties in identification of small autosomes and sex chromosomes. A 6-fold shotgun sequence of the platypus genome is now available and is being assembled with the help of physical mapping. It is therefore essential to characterize the chromosomes and resolve the ambiguities and inconsistencies in identifying autosomes and sex chromosomes. We have used chromosome paints and DAPI banding to identify and classify pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes. We have established an agreed nomenclature and identified anchor BAC clones for each chromosome that will ensure unambiguous gene localizations. PMID:18185982

  16. Energetics of foraging and locomotion in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Bethge, P; Munks, S; Nicol, S

    2001-08-01

    We measured the energy requirements of platypuses foraging, diving and resting in a swim tank using flow-through respirometry. Also, walking metabolic rates were obtained from platypuses walking on a conventional treadmill. Energy requirements while foraging were found to depend on water temperature, body weight and dive duration and averaged 8.48 W kg(-1). Rates for subsurface swimming averaged 6.71 W kg(-1). Minimal cost of transport for subsurface swimming platypuses was 1.85 J N(-1)m(-1) at a speed of 0.4 m s(-1). Aerobic dive limit of the platypus amounted to 59 s. Metabolic rate of platypuses resting on the water surface was minimal with 3.91 W kg(-1) while minimal RMR on land was 2.08 W kg(-1). The metabolic rate for walking was 8.80 W kg(-1) and 10.56 W kg(-1) at speeds of 0.2 m s(-1) and 0.3 m s(-1), respectively. A formula was derived, which allows prediction of power requirements of platypuses in the wild from measurements of body weight, dive duration and water temperature. Platypuses were found to expend energy at only half the rate of semiaquatic eutherians of comparable body sizes during both walking and diving. However, costs of transport at optimal speed were in line with findings for eutherians. These patterns suggest that underwater locomotion of semiaquatic mammals have converged on very similar efficiencies despite differences in phylogeny and locomotor mode. PMID:11585262

  17. Energetics of terrestrial locomotion of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Fish, F E; Frappell, P B; Baudinette, R V; MacFarlane, P M

    2001-02-01

    The platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Shaw displays specializations in its limb structure for swimming that could negatively affect its terrestrial locomotion. Platypuses walked on a treadmill at speeds of 0.19-1.08 m x s(-1). Video recordings were used for gait analysis, and the metabolic rate of terrestrial locomotion was studied by measuring oxygen consumption. Platypuses used walking gaits (duty factor >0.50) with a sprawled stance. To limit any potential interference from the extensive webbing on the forefeet, platypuses walk on their knuckles. Metabolic rate increased linearly over a 2.4-fold range with increasing walking speed in a manner similar to that of terrestrial mammals, but was low as a result of the relatively low standard metabolic rate of this monotreme. The dimensionless cost of transport decreased with increasing speed to a minimum of 0.79. Compared with the cost of transport for swimming, the metabolic cost for terrestrial locomotion was 2.1 times greater. This difference suggests that the platypus may pay a price in terrestrial locomotion by being more aquatically adapted than other semi-aquatic or terrestrial mammals. PMID:11171362

  18. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Gambón-Deza, F; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Magadán-Mompó, S

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulins loci in mammals are well known to be organized within a translocon, however their origin remains unresolved. Four of the five classes of immunoglobulins described in humans and rodents (immunoglobulins M, G, E and A-IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) were found in marsupials and monotremes (immunoglobulin D-IgD was not found) thus showing that the genomic structure of antibodies in mammals has remained constant since its origin. We have recently described the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in reptiles (IGHM, IGHD and IGHY). These data and the characterization of the IGH locus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), allow us to elucidate the changes that took place in this genomic region during evolution from reptile to mammal. Thus, by using available genome data, we were able to detect that platypus IGH locus contains reptilian and mammalian genes. Besides having an IGHD that is very similar to the one in reptiles and an IGHY, they also present the mammal specific antibody genes IGHG and IGHE, in addition to IGHA. We also detected a pseudogene that originated by recombination between the IGHD and the IGHM (similar to the IGHD2 found in Eublepharis macularius). The analysis of the IGH locus in platypus shows that IGHY was duplicated, firstly by evolving into IGHE and then into IGHG. The IGHA of the platypus has a complex origin, and probably arose by a process of recombination between the IGHM and the IGHY. We detected about 44 VH genes (25 were already described), most of which comprise a single group. When we compared these VH genes with those described in Anolis carolinensis, we find that there is an evolutionary relationship between the VH genes of platypus and the reptilian Group III genes. These results suggest that a fast VH turnover took place in platypus and this gave rise to a family with a high VH gene number and the disappearance of the earlier VH families. PMID:19505725

  19. Genotypic analysis of Mucor from the platypus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J H; Stodart, B J; Ash, G J

    2010-01-01

    Mucor amphibiorum is the only pathogen known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the free-living platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Tasmania. Infection has also been reported in free-ranging cane toads (Bufo marinus) and green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from mainland Australia but has not been confirmed in platypuses from the mainland. To date, there has been little genotyping specifically conducted on M. amphibiorum. A collection of 21 Mucor isolates representing isolates from the platypus, frogs and toads, and environmental samples were obtained for genotypic analysis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing and GenBank comparison confirmed the identity of most of the isolates. Representative isolates from infected platypuses formed a clade containing the reference isolates of M. amphibiorum from the Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures repository. The M. amphibiorum isolates showed a close sequence identity with Mucor indicus and consisted of two haplotypes, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. With the exception of isolate 96-4049, all isolates from platypuses were in one haplotype. Multilocus fingerprinting via the use of intersimple sequence repeats polymerase chain reaction identified 19 genotypes. Two major clusters were evident: 1) M. amphibiorum and Mucor racemosus; and 2) Mucor circinelloides, Mucor ramosissimus, and Mucor fragilis. Seven M. amphibiorum isolates from platypuses were present in two subclusters, with isolate 96-4053 appearing genetically distinct from all other isolates. Isolates classified as M. circinelloides by sequence analysis formed a separate subcluster, distinct from other Mucor spp. The combination of sequencing and multilocus fingerprinting has the potential to provide the tools for rapid identification of M. amphibiorum. Data presented on the diversity of the pathogen and further work in linking genetic diversity to functional diversity will provide

  20. Development of the olfactory pathways in platypus and echidna.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-01-01

    The two groups of living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) have remarkably different olfactory structures in the adult. The layers of the main olfactory bulb of the short-beaked echidna are extensively folded, whereas those of the platypus are not. Similarly, the surface area of the piriform cortex of the echidna is large and its lamination complex, whereas in the platypus it is small and simple. It has been argued that the modern echidnas are derived from a platypus-like ancestor, in which case the extensive olfactory specializations of the modern echidnas would have developed relatively recently in monotreme evolution. In this study, the development of the constituent structures of the olfactory pathway was studied in sectioned platypus and echidna embryos and post-hatchlings at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany. The aim was to determine whether the olfactory structures follow a similar maturational path in the two monotremes during embryonic and early post-hatching ages or whether they show very different developmental paths from the outset. The findings indicate that anatomical differences in the central olfactory system between the short-beaked echidna and the platypus begin to develop immediately before hatching, although details of differences in nasal cavity architecture emerge progressively during late post-hatching life. These findings are most consistent with the proposition that the two modern monotreme lineages have followed independent evolutionary paths from a less olfaction-specialized ancestor. The monotreme olfactory pathway does not appear to be sufficiently structurally mature at birth to allow olfaction-mediated behaviour, because central components of both the main and accessory olfactory system have not differentiated at the time of hatching. PMID:22156550

  1. Ultrastructure of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins. Secretory granules within the mandibular glands of the echidna failed to stain with the methods used indicating little if any glycoprotein was associated with the secretory granules. Ultrastructurally, secretory granules of the platypus mandibular gland were electron dense with a central core of less electron-dense material and were membrane bound. In contrast, those of the echidna presented a lamellated appearance and also were limited by a membrane. These secretory granules appeared to form as a result of concentric layering of lamellae within cisternae of the Golgi membranes. The intralobular ductal system of the platypus was more extensively developed than that of the echidna. The striated ducts of both species were characterized by elaborate infoldings of the basolateral plasmalemma and an abundance of associated mitochondria. PMID:21671995

  2. Ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Kolomyjec, Stephen H; Grant, Tom R; Blair, David

    2008-09-01

    We identified and optimized 10 microsatellite loci for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae), and screened 21 individuals from the southern tablelands area of New South Wales, Australia. Each polymorphic locus possessed between two and 12 alleles with observed heterozygosities between 0.118 and 0.950. The intent of this effort was to provide informative loci for studies on the population genetics of this species. PMID:21585993

  3. Defensins and the convergent evolution of platypus and reptile venom genes.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Bansal, Paramjit; Torres, Allan M; Wong, Emily S W; Deakin, Janine E; Graves, Tina; Alsop, Amber; Schatzkamer, Kyriena; Kremitzki, Colin; Ponting, Chris P; Temple-Smith, Peter; Warren, Wesley C; Kuchel, Philip W; Belov, Katherine

    2008-06-01

    When the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) was first discovered, it was thought to be a taxidermist's hoax, as it has a blend of mammalian and reptilian features. It is a most remarkable mammal, not only because it lays eggs but also because it is venomous. Rather than delivering venom through a bite, as do snakes and shrews, male platypuses have venomous spurs on each hind leg. The platypus genome sequence provides a unique opportunity to unravel the evolutionary history of many of these interesting features. While searching the platypus genome for the sequences of antimicrobial defensin genes, we identified three Ornithorhynchus venom defensin-like peptide (OvDLP) genes, which produce the major components of platypus venom. We show that gene duplication and subsequent functional diversification of beta-defensins gave rise to these platypus OvDLPs. The OvDLP genes are located adjacent to the beta-defensins and share similar gene organization and peptide structures. Intriguingly, some species of snakes and lizards also produce venoms containing similar molecules called crotamines and crotamine-like peptides. This led us to trace the evolutionary origins of other components of platypus and reptile venom. Here we show that several venom components have evolved separately in the platypus and reptiles. Convergent evolution has repeatedly selected genes coding for proteins containing specific structural motifs as templates for venom molecules. PMID:18463304

  4. Distinct development of the cerebral cortex in platypus and echidna.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    Both lineages of the modern monotremes have distinctive features in the cerebral cortex, but the developmental mechanisms that produce such different adult cortical architecture remain unknown. Similarly, nothing is known about the differences and/or similarities between monotreme and therian cortical development. We have used material from the Hill embryological collection to try to answer key questions concerning cortical development in monotremes. Our findings indicate that gyrencephaly begins to emerge in the echidna brain shortly before birth (crown-rump length 12.5 mm), whereas the cortex of the platypus remains lissencephalic throughout development. The cortices of both monotremes are very immature at the time of hatching, much like that seen in marsupials, and both have a subventricular zone (SubV) within both the striatum and pallium during post-hatching development. It is particularly striking that in the platypus, this region has an extension from the palliostriatal angle beneath the developing trigeminoreceptive part of the somatosensory cortex of the lateral cortex. The putative SubV beneath the trigeminal part of S1 appears to accommodate at least two distinct types of cell and many mitotic figures and (particularly in the platypus) appears to be traversed by large numbers of thalamocortical axons as these grow in. The association with putative thalamocortical fibres suggests that this region may also serve functions similar to the subplate zone of Eutheria. These findings suggest that cortical development in each monotreme follows distinct paths from at least the time of birth, consistent with a long period of independent and divergent cortical evolution. PMID:22143038

  5. Accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in Tasmanian platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Munday, B L; Stewart, N J; Södergren, A

    2002-01-01

    Tailfat samples were collected from 56 platypuses, 38 male and 18 female in Tasmania. No statistically significant, nor apparent, differences between the sexes were found for tailfat lipid levels and DDT and its metabolites. Lindane and PCB concentrations in tailfat lipid. Apparently--but not statistically--significantly different levels of DDT and its metabolites. Lindane and PCB concentrations were found in animals from different geographic regions of the State. Higher concentrations of DDT and its metabolites and Lindane were related to the intensity of agricultural activity and elevated PCB levels were mainly found in animals from zones with industrial and hydroelectric developments. PMID:12395834

  6. New proteins identified in epididymal fluid from the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Dacheux, Francoise; Labas, Valerie; Ecroyd, Heath; Nixon, Brett; Jones, Russell C

    2009-01-01

    The platypus epididymal proteome is being studied because epididymal proteins are essential for male fertility in mammals and it is considered that knowledge of the epididymal proteome in an early mammal would be informative in assessing the convergence and divergence of proteins that are important in the function of the mammalian epididymis. Few of the epididymal proteins that have been identified in eutherian mammals were found in platypus caudal epididymal fluid, and the major epididymal proteins in the platypus (PXN-FBPL, SPARC and E-OR20) have never been identified in the epididymis of any other mammal. PMID:19874724

  7. Possible differences in pathogenicity between cane toad-, frog- and platypus-derived isolates of Mucor amphibiorum, and a platypus-derived isolate of Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Stewart, N J; Munday, B L

    2005-03-01

    Platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the north of the island state of Tasmania, Australia, suffer from a serious disease called ulcerative mycosis, which is responsible for high morbidity and, presumably, mortality rates in areas where it occurs. The disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus Mucor amphibiorum, which is also found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. However, it does not cause disease in platypuses in those states. It has been previously reported that a closely related fungus, Mucor circinelloides, may also be capable of causing this disease. This paper describes pathogenicity trials involving cane toads (Bufo marinus) as the experimental model. The toads were infected with either Tasmanian, platypus-derived M. amphibiorum, West Australian, frog-derived M. amphibiorum, Queensland cane-toad-derived M. amphibiorum or Tasmanian platypus-derived M. circinelloides. The Tasmanian isolates of M. amphibiorum were more likely to cause a serious, long-term infection than were Queensland or West Australian isolates, and (+) mating types caused a more serious infection than the (-) mating type. The isolate of M. circinelloides was incapable of infecting the toads, lending further weight to the theory that it represents an environmental contaminant. The results suggest that an endemic strain of M. amphibiorum has mutated and become pathogenic to platypuses. Alternatively, a pathogenic strain of M. amphibiorum may have been introduced into Tasmania, where it is infecting a naïve population. PMID:15832556

  8. Distinct development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in platypus and echidna.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    Both lineages of the modern monotremes have been reported to be capable of electroreception using the trigeminal pathways and it has been argued that electroreception arose in an aquatic platypus-like ancestor of both modern monotreme groups. On the other hand, the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of the platypus is highly modified for processing tactile and electrosensory information from the bill, whereas the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex of the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is not particularly specialized. If the common ancestor for both platypus and echidna were an electroreceptively and trigeminally specialized aquatic feeder, one would expect the early stages of development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in both species to show evidence of structural specialization from the outset. To determine whether this is the case, we examined the development of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the platypus and short-beaked echidna using the Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections. We found that the highly specialized features of the platypus trigeminal sensory nuclei (i.e. the large size of the principal nucleus and oral part of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, and the presence of a dorsolateral parvicellular segment in the principal nucleus) appear around the time of hatching in the platypus, but are never seen at any stage in the echidna. Our findings support the proposition that the modern echidna and platypus are derived from a common ancestor with only minimal trigeminal specialization and that the peculiar anatomy of the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the modern platypus emerged in the ornithorhynchids after divergence from the tachyglossids. PMID:22722086

  9. Cloning metallothionein gene in Zacco platypus and its potential as an exposure biomarker against cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-07-01

    Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem. PMID:26092240

  10. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%. PMID:24047169

  11. Spermiogenesis and spermiation in a monotreme mammal, the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Jones, R C

    2000-02-01

    Spermatogenesis in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is of considerable biological interest as the structure of its gametes more closely resemble that of reptiles and birds than marsupial or eutherian mammals. The ultrastructure of 16 steps of spermatid development is described and provides a basis for determining the kinetics of spermatogenesis. Steps 1-3 correspond to the Golgi phase of spermatid development, steps 4-8 correspond to the cap phase, steps 9-12 are the acrosomal phase, and steps 13-16 are the maturation phase. Acrosomal development follows the reptilian model and no acrosomal granule is formed. Most other features of spermiogenesis are similar to processes in reptiles and birds. However, some are unique to mammals. For example, a thin, lateral margin of the acrosome of platypus sperm expands over the nucleus as in other mammals, and more than in reptiles and birds. Also, a tubulobulbar complex develops around the spermatid head, a feature which appears to be unique to mammals. Further, during spermiation the residual body is released from the caudal end of the nucleus of platypus sperm leaving a cytoplasmic droplet located at the proximal end of the middle piece as in marsupial and eutherian mammals. Other features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to be unique to monotremes. For example, nuclear condensation involves the formation of a layer of chromatin granules under the nucleolemma, and development of the fibrous sheath of the principal piece starts much later in the platypus than in birds or eutherian mammals. PMID:10739018

  12. Energetics of swimming by the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus: metabolic effort associated with rowing.

    PubMed

    Fish, F E; Baudinette, R V; Frappell, P B; Sarre, M P

    1997-10-01

    The metabolism of swimming in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Shaw was studied by measurement of oxygen consumption in a recirculating water flume. Platypuses swam against a constant water current of 0.45-1.0 ms-1. Animals used a rowing stroke and alternated bouts of surface and submerged swimming. Metabolic rate remained constant over the range of swimming speeds tested. The cost of transport decreased with increasing velocity to a minimum of 0.51 at 1.0 ms-1. Metabolic rate and cost of transport for the platypus were lower than values for semiaquatic mammals that swim at the water surface using a paddling mode. However, relative to transport costs for fish, the platypus utilized energy at a similar level to highly derived aquatic mammals that use submerged swimming modes. The efficient aquatic locomotion of the platypus results from its specialised rowing mode in conjunction with enlarged and flexible forefeet for high thrust generation and a behavioral strategy that reduces drag and energy cost by submerged swimming. PMID:9359371

  13. Huangshan population of Chinese Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) harbors diverse matrilines and high genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Tian-Qi; Wan, Tao; Perdices, Anabel; Yang, Jin-Quan; Tang, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Huang, Li-Qun; Huang, Song; He, Shun-Ping

    2016-03-18

    Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus. PMID:27029868

  14. Huangshan population of Chinese Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) harbors diverse matrilines and high genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Xin; ZHOU, Tian-Qi; WAN, Tao; PERDICES, Anabel; YANG, Jin-Quan; TANG, Xin-Sheng; WANG, Zheng-Ping; HUANG, Li-Qun; HUANG, Song; HE, Shun-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus. PMID:27029868

  15. Some related aspects of platypus electroreception: temporal integration behaviour, electroreceptive thresholds and directionality of the bill acting as an antenna.

    PubMed

    Fjällbrant, T T; Manger, P R; Pettigrew, J D

    1998-07-29

    This paper focuses on how the electric field from the prey of the platypus is detected with respect to the questions of threshold determination and how the platypus might localize its prey. A new behaviour in response to electrical stimuli below the thresholds previously reported is presented. The platypus shows a voluntary exploratory behaviour that results from a temporal integration of a number of consecutive stimulus pulses. A theoretical analysis is given, which includes the threshold dependence on the number of receptors and temporal integration of consecutive stimuli pulses, the close relationships between electrical field decay across the bill, electroreceptive thresholds and directionality of the platypus bill acting as an antenna. It is shown that a lobe shape, similar to that which has been measured, can be obtained by combining responses in a specific way from receptors sensing the electric field decay across the bill. Two possible methods for such combinations are discussed and analysed with respect to measurements and observed behaviour of the platypus. A number of factors are described which need to be considered when electroreceptive thresholds are to be determined. It is shown that some information about the distance to the source is theoretically available from the pattern of field decay across the platypus's bill. The paper includes a comparative analysis of radar target tracking and platypus prey localization. PMID:9720116

  16. Diversity at the major histocompatibility complex Class II in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Mette; Woodward, Rachael E; Sanderson, Claire E; Eldridge, Mark D B; Belov, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is the sole survivor of a previously widely distributed and diverse lineage of ornithorhynchid monotremes. Its dependence on healthy water systems imposes an inherent sensitivity to habitat degradation and climate change. Here, we compare genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II-DZB gene and 3 MHC-associated microsatellite markers with diversity at 6 neutral microsatellite markers in 70 platypuses from across their range, including the mainland of Australia and the isolated populations of Tasmania, King Island, and Kangaroo Island. Overall, high DZB diversity was observed in the platypus, with 57 DZB β1 alleles characterized. Significant positive selection was detected within the DZB peptide-binding region, promoting variation in this domain. Low levels of genetic diversity were detected at all markers in the 2 island populations, King Island (endemic) and Kangaroo Island (introduced), with the King Island platypuses monomorphic at the DZB locus. Loss of MHC diversity on King Island is of concern, as the population may have compromised immunological fitness and reduced ability to resist changing environmental conditions. PMID:22563128

  17. Diving behaviour, dive cycles and aerobic dive limit in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Bethge, Philip; Munks, Sarah; Otley, Helen; Nicol, Stewart

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the diving behaviour, the time allocation of the dive cycle and the behavioural aerobic dive limit (ADL) of platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) living at a sub-alpine Tasmanian lake. Individual platypuses were equipped with combined data logger-transmitter packages measuring dive depth. Mean dive duration was 31.3 s with 72% of all dives lasting between 18 and 40 s. Mean surface duration was 10.1 s. Mean dive depth was 1.28 m with a maximum of 8.77 m. Platypuses performed up to 1600 dives per foraging trip with a mean of 75 dives per hour. ADL was estimated by consideration of post-dive surface intervals vs. dive durations. Only 15% of all dives were found to exceed the estimated ADL of 40 s, indicating mainly aerobic diving in the species. Foraging platypuses followed a model of optimised recovery time, the optimal breathing theory. Total bottom duration or total foraging duration per day is proposed as a useful indicator of foraging efficiency and hence habitat quality in the species. PMID:14667845

  18. A peculiar lamin in a peculiar mammal: Expression of lamin LIII in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Peter, Annette; Khandekar, Shaunak; Deakin, Janine E; Stick, Reimer

    2015-11-01

    Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) holds a unique phylogenetic position at the base of the mammalian lineage due to an amalgamation of mammalian and sauropsid-like features. Here we describe the set of four lamin genes for platypus. Lamins are major components of the nuclear lamina, which constitutes a main component of the nucleoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of nuclear functions. Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by an increase in the number of lamin genes from a single gene in their closest relatives, the tunicates and cephalochordates, to four genes in the vertebrate lineage. Of the four genes the LIII gene is characterized by the presence of two alternatively spliced CaaX-encoding exons. In amphibians and fish LIII is the major lamin protein in oocytes and early embryos. The LIII gene is conserved throughout the vertebrate lineage, with the notable exception of marsupials and placental mammals, which have lost the LIII gene. Here we show that platypus has retained an LIII gene, albeit with a significantly altered structure and with a radically different expression pattern. The platypus LIII gene contains only a single CaaX-encoding exon and the head domain together with coil 1a and part of coil1b of the platypus LIII protein is replaced by a novel short non-helical N-terminus. It is expressed exclusively in the testis. These features resemble those of male germ cell-specific lamins in placental mammals, in particular those of lamin C2. Our data suggest (i) that the specific functions of LIII, which it fulfills in all other vertebrates, is no longer required in mammals and (ii) once it had been freed from these functions has undergone structural alterations and has adopted a new functionality in monotremes. PMID:26213206

  19. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed. PMID:2593912

  20. Hematologic, plasma biochemical, and other indicators of the health of Tasmanian platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): predictors of mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Dominic P; Griffiths, Joshua; Stewart, Niall; Robertson, Iain K; Gust, Nick

    2011-07-01

    The fungal disease mucormycosis has affected Tasmanian platypuses for nearly three decades. We investigated the influences of mucormycosis on the hematologic, plasma biochemical, and other indicators of health in free-living platypuses across 18 Tasmanian river catchments. Live trapping enabled sampling of 161 (apparently) healthy and six ulcerated, mucormycosis-affected platypuses in 75 rivers and streams between January 2008 and June 2009. There were no obvious differences in any hematologic or biochemical measures between healthy and mucormycosis-affected platypuses. However, multivariate analysis revealed that ulceration was associated with living at higher altitudes, low tail fat content (high tail fat index), and low trypanosome load. There was evidence of overall lymphocytosis and monocytosis in animals from areas currently affected by mucormycosis, which suggests that some level of immune response to the introduced fungus is now widespread in disease-affected catchments. Animals from currently, historically, and possibly disease-affected catchments had lower neutrophil counts, mean cell volumes, plasma alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and higher plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and platelet counts compared to animals from catchments with no evidence of infection. Reference intervals were generated for all hematologic and biochemical measurements. Since this is the most comprehensive, systematic, and large-scale assessment of the health of the Tasmanian platypus to date, these references intervals should act as the standard against which future studies of platypuses in Tasmania should be compared. PMID:21719813

  1. New Fijian Callidiopini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on examination of material collected as part of the NSF – Fiji Terrestrial Arthropod Survey, two new species of Callidiopini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are described from Fiji: Ceresium tuberculatum Waqa and Lingafelter (type locality: Fiji, Gau Island, 17.98ºS, 179.27ºE) and Lan...

  2. Mammalian peptide isomerase: platypus-type activity is present in mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jennifer M S; Chow, Stephanie J P; Crossett, Ben; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Male platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom has a peptidyl aminoacyl L/D-isomerase (hereafter called peptide isomerase) that converts the second amino acid residue in from the N-terminus from the L- to the D-form, and vice versa. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay has been developed to monitor the interconversion using synthetic hexapeptides derived from defensin-like peptide-2 (DLP-2) and DLP-4 as substrates. It was hypothesised that animals other than the platypus would have peptide isomerase with the same substrate specificity. Accordingly, eight mouse tissues were tested and heart was shown to have the activity. This is notable for being the first evidence of a peptide isomerase being present in a higher mammal and heralds finding the activity in man. PMID:20564672

  3. Evidence for an endogenous papillomavirus-like element in the platypus genome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-06-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect a wide range of vertebrates and have diversified into multiple genetic types, some of which have serious consequences for human health. Although PVs have to date only been characterized as exogenous viral forms, here we report the observation of an endogenous viral element (EPVLoa) in the genome of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) that is related to PVs. Further data mining for endogenous PV-like elements is therefore warranted. PMID:22422067

  4. Retroposed SNOfall--a mammalian-wide comparison of platypus snoRNAs.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Jürgen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kuhl, Heiner; Grützner, Frank; Reinhardt, Richard; Brosius, Jürgen

    2008-06-01

    Diversification of mammalian species began more than 160 million years ago when the egg-laying monotremes diverged from live bearing mammals. The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidnas are the only potential contemporary witnesses of this period and, thereby, provide a unique insight into mammalian genome evolution. It has become clear that small RNAs are major regulatory agents in eukaryotic cells, and the significant role of non-protein-coding (npc) RNAs in transcription, processing, and translation is now well accepted. Here we show that the platypus genome contains more than 200 small nucleolar (sno) RNAs among hundreds of other diverse npcRNAs. Their comparison among key mammalian groups and other vertebrates enabled us to reconstruct a complete temporal pathway of acquisition and loss of these snoRNAs. In platypus we found cis- and trans-duplication distribution patterns for snoRNAs, which have not been described in any other vertebrates but are known to occur in nematodes. An exciting novelty in platypus is a snoRNA-derived retroposon (termed snoRTE) that facilitates a very effective dispersal of an H/ACA snoRNA via RTE-mediated retroposition. From more than 40,000 detected full-length and truncated genomic copies of this snoRTE, at least 21 are processed into mature snoRNAs. High-copy retroposition via multiple host gene-promoted transcription units is a novel pathway for combining housekeeping function and SINE-like dispersal and reveals a new dimension in the evolution of novel snoRNA function. PMID:18463303

  5. A Limited Role for Gene Duplications in the Evolution of Platypus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Emily S. W.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Warren, Wesley C.; Belov, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by adaptive selection is believed to be the primary driver of venom evolution. However, to date, no studies have evaluated the importance of gene duplications for venom evolution using a genomic approach. The availability of a sequenced genome and a venom gland transcriptome for the enigmatic platypus provides a unique opportunity to explore the role that gene duplication plays in venom evolution. Here, we identify gene duplication events and correlate them with expressed transcripts in an in-season venom gland. Gene duplicates (1,508) were identified. These duplicated pairs (421), including genes that have undergone multiple rounds of gene duplications, were expressed in the venom gland. The majority of these genes are involved in metabolism and protein synthesis not toxin functions. Twelve secretory genes including serine proteases, metalloproteinases, and protease inhibitors likely to produce symptoms of envenomation such as vasodilation and pain were detected. Only 16 of 107 platypus genes with high similarity to known toxins evolved through gene duplication. Platypus venom C-type natriuretic peptides and nerve growth factor do not possess lineage-specific gene duplicates. Extensive duplications, believed to increase the potency of toxic content and promote toxin diversification, were not found. This is the first study to take a genome-wide approach in order to examine the impact of gene duplication on venom evolution. Our findings support the idea that adaptive selection acts on gene duplicates to drive the independent evolution and functional diversification of similar venom genes in venomous species. However, gene duplications alone do not explain the “venome” of the platypus. Other mechanisms, such as alternative splicing and mutation, may be important in venom innovation. PMID:21816864

  6. Analysis of SINE and LINE repeat content of Y chromosomes in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Kortschak, R Daniel; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Grützner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Monotremes feature an extraordinary sex-chromosome system that consists of five X and five Y chromosomes in males. These sex chromosomes share homology with bird sex chromosomes but no homology with the therian X. The genome of a female platypus was recently completed, providing unique insights into sequence and gene content of autosomes and X chromosomes, but no Y-specific sequence has so far been analysed. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and analysis of approximately 700 kb of sequence of the non-recombining regions of Y2, Y3 and Y5, which revealed differences in base composition and repeat content between autosomes and sex chromosomes, and within the sex chromosomes themselves. This provides the first insights into repeat content of Y chromosomes in platypus, which overall show similar patterns of repeat composition to Y chromosomes in other species. Interestingly, we also observed differences between the various Y chromosomes, and in combination with timing and activity patterns we provide an approach that can be used to examine the evolutionary history of the platypus sex-chromosome chain. PMID:19874720

  7. Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus) links the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in eutherian mammals and nonmammalian tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaofeng; Cui, Huiting; Whittington, Camilla M; Wei, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Ziding; Yu, Li; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Yaping; Hellman, Lars; Belov, Katherine; Li, Ning; Hammarström, Lennart

    2009-09-01

    The evolutionary origins of mammalian immunoglobulin H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA) are still incompletely understood as these isotypes differ considerably in structure and number from their counterparts in nonmammalian tetrapods. We report in this study that the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) Ig H chain constant region gene locus contains eight Ig encoding genes, which are arranged in an mu-delta-omicron-gamma2-gamma1-alpha1-epsilon-alpha2 order, spanning a total of approximately 200 kb DNA, encoding six distinct isotypes. The omicron (omicron for Ornithorhynchus) gene encodes a novel Ig H chain isotype that consists of four constant region domains and a hinge, and is structurally different from any of the five known mammalian Ig classes. This gene is phylogenetically related to upsilon (epsilon) and gamma, and thus appears to be a structural intermediate between these two genes. The platypus delta gene encodes ten heavy chain constant region domains, lacks a hinge region and is similar to IgD in amphibians and fish, but strikingly different from that in eutherian mammals. The platypus Ig H chain isotype repertoire thus shows a unique combination of genes that share similarity both to those of nonmammalian tetrapods and eutherian animals and demonstrates how phylogenetically informative species can be used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of functionally important genes. PMID:19675164

  8. Replication asynchrony and differential condensation of X chromosomes in female platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Ho, Kristen K K; Deakin, Janine E; Wright, Megan L; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    A common theme in the evolution of sex chromosomes is the massive loss of genes on the sex-specific chromosome (Y or W), leading to a gene imbalance between males (XY) and females (XX) in a male heterogametic species, or between ZZ and ZW in a female heterogametic species. Different mechanisms have evolved to compensate for this difference in dosage of X-borne genes between sexes. In therian mammals, one of the X chromosomes is inactivated, whereas bird dosage compensation is partial and gene-specific. In therian mammals, hallmarks of the inactive X are monoallelic gene expression, late DNA replication and chromatin condensation. Platypuses have five pairs of X chromosomes in females and five X and five Y chromosomes in males. Gene expression analysis suggests a more bird-like partial and gene-specific dosage compensation mechanism. We investigated replication timing and chromosome condensation of three of the five X chromosomes in female platypus. Our data suggest asynchronous replication of X-specific regions on X(1), X(3) and X(5) but show significantly different condensation between homologues for X(3) only, and not for X(1) or X(5). We discuss these results in relation to recent gene expression analysis of X-linked genes, which together give us insights into possible mechanisms of dosage compensation in platypus. PMID:19874719

  9. Studies on monotreme proteins. VII. Amino acid sequence of myoglobin from the platypus, Ornithoryhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1976-03-01

    Myoglobin isolated from skeletal muscle of the platypus contains 153 amino acid residues. The complete amino acid sequence has been determined following cleavage with cyanogen bromide and further digestion of the four fragments with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin and thermolysin. Sequences of the purified peptides were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The amino acid sequence showed 25 differences from human myoglobin and 24 from kangaroo myoglobin. Amino acid sequences in myoglobins are more conserved than sequences in the alpha- and beta-globin chains, and platypus myoglobin shows a similar number of variations in sequence to kangaroo myoglobin when compared with myoglobin of other species. The date of divergence of the platypus from other mammals was estimated at 102 +/- 31 million years, based on the number of amino acid differences between species and allowing for mutations during the evolutionary period. This estimate differs widely from the estimate given by similar treatment of the alpha- and beta-chain sequences and a constant rate of mutation of globin chains is not supported. PMID:962722

  10. The Prime Minister and the platypus: A paradox goes to war.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2012-03-01

    In February 1943, in the midst of the Second World War, Prime Minister Winston Churchill demanded that a live duck-billed platypus be sent from Australia to Britain. A vigorous male was shipped off but died shortly before arrival in Britain. This request can only be understood if placed in the context of Churchill's passion for exotic pets as well as the rich history of aristocratic menageries and live diplomatic gifts. Obtaining an animal hitherto unseen alive in Europe would have been a great zoological achievement for London Zoo and secured British authority in heated historical taxonomical debates. This zoological triumph, coupled with accomplishing an extravagant enterprise in the middle of war-time austerity would have boosted public morale. Most importantly, despite its death, the platypus, served as a token for mediating the soured relations between Australia and Britain. Churchill's platypus provides a unique case of animal collecting that incorporates effects on international diplomacy and public relations along with a great private eccentricity and passion. PMID:22326098

  11. Development of the dorsal and ventral thalamus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-04-01

    The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished from therians as well as each other in part by the unusual structure of the thalamus in each. In particular, the platypus has an enlarged ventral posterior (VP) nucleus reflecting the great behavioural importance of trigeminosensation and electroreception. The embryological collections of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin were used to analyse the development of the dorsal thalamus and ventral thalamus (prethalamus) in both species. Prosomeric organization of the forebrain emerged at 6 mm crown-rump length (CRL), but thalamic neurogenesis did not commence until about 8-9 mm CRL. Distinctive features of the dorsal thalamus in the two species began to emerge after hatching (about 14-15 mm CRL). During the first post-hatching week, dense clusters of granular cells aggregated to form the VP of the platypus, whereas the VP complex of the echidna remained smaller and divided into distinct medial and lateral divisions. At the end of the first post-hatching week, the thalamocortical tract was much larger in the platypus than the echidna. The dorsal thalamus of the platypus is essentially adult-like by the sixth week of post-hatching life. The similar appearance of the dorsal thalamus in the two species until the time of hatching, followed by the rapid expansion of the VP in the platypus, is most consistent with ancestral platypuses having undergone changes in the genetic control of thalamic neurogenesis to produce a large VP for trigeminal electroreception after the divergence of the two lineages of monotreme. PMID:22113857

  12. Distinct development of peripheral trigeminal pathways in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Hardman, Craig D; Giere, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The extant monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are believed to all be capable of electroreception in the trigeminal pathways, although they differ significantly in the number and distribution of electroreceptors. It has been argued by some authors that electroreception was first developed in an aquatic environment and that echidnas are descended from a platypus-like ancestor that invaded an available terrestrial habitat. If this were the case, one would expect the developmental trajectories of the trigeminal pathways to be similar in the early stages of platypus and short-beaked echidna development, with structural divergence occurring later. We examined the development of the peripheral trigeminal pathway from snout skin to trigeminal ganglion in sectioned material in the Hill and Hubrecht collections to test for similarities and differences between the two during the development from egg to adulthood. Each monotreme showed a characteristic and different pattern of distribution of developing epidermal sensory gland specializations (electroreceptor primordia) from the time of hatching. The cross-sectional areas of the trigeminal divisions and the volume of the trigeminal ganglion itself were also very different between the two species at embryonic ages, and remained consistently different throughout post-hatching development. Our findings indicate that the trigeminal pathways in the short-beaked echidna and the platypus follow very different developmental trajectories from the earliest ages. These findings are more consistent with the notion that the platypus and echidna have both diverged from an ancestor with rudimentary electroreception and/or trigeminal specialization, rather than the contention that the echidna is derived from a platypus-like ancestor. PMID:22179203

  13. The hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the echidna and platypus.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Lajevardi, Shahab-Eddin; Cheng, Gang; Paxinos, George

    2006-01-01

    The monotremes are an intriguing group of mammals that have major differences in their reproductive physiology and lactation from therian mammals. Monotreme young hatch from leathery skinned eggs and are nourished by milk secreted onto areolae rather than through nipples. Parturition and lactation are in part controlled through the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. We have used Nissl staining, enzyme histochemistry, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase, calbindin, oxytocin, neurophysin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and carbocyanine dye tracing techniques to examine the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and the course of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract in two monotremes: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). In both monotremes, the supraoptic nucleus consisted of loosely packed neurons, mainly in the retrochiasmatic position. In the echidna, the paraventricular nucleus was quite small, but had similar chemoarchitectural features to therians. In the platypus, the paraventricular nucleus was larger and appeared to be part of a stream of magnocellular neurons extending from the paraventricular nucleus to the retrochiasmatic supraoptic nucleus. Immunohistochemistry for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein and carbocyanine dye tracing suggested that hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract neurons in the echidna lie mainly in the retrochiasmatic supraoptic and lateral hypothalamic regions, but most neurophysin and oxytocin immunoreactive neurons in the echidna were found in the paraventricular, lateral hypothalamus and supraoptic nuclei and most oxytocinergic neurons in the platypus were distributed in a band from the paraventricular nucleus to the retrochiasmatic supraoptic nucleus. The small size of the supraoptic nucleus in the two monotremes might reflect functional aspects of monotreme lactation. PMID:16809908

  14. Identification and structural analysis of four serine proteases in a monotreme, the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Poorafshar, M; Aveskogh, M; Munday, B; Hellman, L

    2000-11-01

    To study the emergence of the major subfamilies of serine proteases during vertebrate evolution, we present here the primary structure of four serine proteases expressed in the spleen of a monotreme, the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Partial cDNA clones for four serine proteases were isolated by a PCR-based strategy. This strategy is based on the high level of sequence identity between various members of the large gene family of trypsin-related serine proteases, over two highly conserved regions, those of the histidine and the serine of the catalytic triad. The partial cDNA clones were used to isolate full-length or almost full-length cDNA clones for three of these proteases from a platypus spleen cDNA library. By phylogenetic analysis, these three clones were identified as being the platypus homologues of human coagulation factor X, neutrophil elastase, and a protease distantly related to the T-cell granzymes. The remaining partial clone was found to represent a close homologue of human complement factor D (adipsin). The isolation of these four clones shows that several of the major subfamilies of serine proteases had evolved as separate subfamilies long before the radiation of the major mammalian lineages of today, the monotremes, the marsupials, and the placental mammals. Upon comparison of the corresponding proteases of monotremes and eutherian mammals, the coagulation and complement proteases were shown to display a higher degree of conservation compared to the hematopoietic proteases N-elastase and the T-cell granzymes. This latter finding indicates a higher evolutionary pressure to maintain specific functions in the complement and coagulation enzymes compared to many of the hematopoietic serine proteases. PMID:11132153

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus ssp.).

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Myers, Mark A; Forbes, Briony E; Grützner, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Monotremes have undergone remarkable changes to their digestive and metabolic control system; however, the monotreme pancreas remains poorly characterized. Previous work in echidna demonstrated the presence of pancreatic islets, but no information is available for platypus and the fine structure has not been described for either monotreme. Based on our recent finding that monotremes lack the ghrelin gene, which is expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islets, we investigated the structure of monotreme islets in more detail. Generally, as in birds, the islets of monotremes were smaller but greater in number compared with mouse. β-cells were the most abundant endocrine cell population in platypus islets and were located peripherally, while α-cells were observed both in the interior and periphery of the islets. δ-cells and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-cells were mainly found in the islet periphery. Distinct PP-rich (PP-lobe) and PP-poor areas (non-PP-lobe) are present in therian mammals, and we identified these areas in echidna but not platypus pancreas. Interestingly, in some of the echidna islets, α- and β-cells tended to form two poles within the islets, which to our knowledge is the first time this has been observed in any species. Overall, monotreme pancreata share the feature of consisting of distinct PP-poor and PP-rich islets with other mammals. A higher number of islets and α- or β-cell only islets are shared between monotremes and birds. The islets of monotremes were larger than those of birds but smaller compared with therian mammals. This may indicate a trend of having fewer larger islets comprising several endocrine cell types during mammalian evolution. PMID:25682842

  16. Sex determination in platypus and echidna: autosomal location of SOX3 confirms the absence of SRY from monotremes.

    PubMed

    Wallis, M C; Waters, P D; Delbridge, M L; Kirby, P J; Pask, A J; Grützner, F; Rens, W; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Graves, J A M

    2007-01-01

    In eutherian ('placental') mammals, sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-borne gene SRY, which triggers testis determination. Marsupials also have a Y-borne SRY gene, implying that this mechanism is ancestral to therians, the SRY gene having diverged from its X-borne homologue SOX3 at least 180 million years ago. The rare exceptions have clearly lost and replaced the SRY mechanism recently. Other vertebrate classes have a variety of sex-determining mechanisms, but none shares the therian SRY-driven XX female:XY male system. In monotreme mammals (platypus and echidna), which branched from the therian lineage 210 million years ago, no orthologue of SRY has been found. In this study we show that its partner SOX3 is autosomal in platypus and echidna, mapping among human X chromosome orthologues to platypus chromosome 6, and to the homologous chromosome 16 in echidna. The autosomal localization of SOX3 in monotreme mammals, as well as non-mammal vertebrates, implies that SRY is absent in Prototheria and evolved later in the therian lineage 210-180 million years ago. Sex determination in platypus and echidna must therefore depend on another male-determining gene(s) on the Y chromosomes, or on the different dosage of a gene(s) on the X chromosomes. PMID:18185981

  17. TCR gamma chain diversity in the spleen of the duckbill platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Parra, Zuly E; Arnold, Tamara; Nowak, Melissa A; Hellman, Lars; Miller, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    TCR gamma (TRG) chain diversity in splenic gammadelta T cells was determined for an egg-laying mammal (or monotreme), the duckbill platypus. Three distinct V subgroups were found in the expressed TRG chains and these three subgroups are members of a clade not found so far in eutherian mammals or birds. Each subgroup contains approximately five V gene segments, and their overall divergence is much less than is found in eutherians and birds, consistent with their recent evolution from an ancestral V gene segment. The platypus TRG locus also contains three C region genes and many of the residues involved in TCR function, such as interactions with CD3, were conserved in the monotreme C regions. All non-eutherian mammals (monotremes and marsupials) lacked the second cysteine residue necessary to form the intradomain disulfide bond in the C region, a loss apparently due to independent mutations in marsupials and monotremes. Monotreme TRGC regions also had among the most variation in the length of the connecting peptide region described for any species due to repeated motifs. PMID:16303181

  18. Time-of-Flight Polarized Neutron Reflectometry on PLATYPUS: Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saerbeck, T.; Cortie, D. L.; Brück, S.; Bertinshaw, J.; Holt, S. A.; Nelson, A.; James, M.; Lee, W. T.; Klose, F.

    Time-of-flight (ToF) polarized neutron reflectometry enables the detailed investigation of depth-resolved magnetic structures in thin film and multilayer magnetic systems. The general advantage of the time-of-flight mode of operation over monochromatic instruments is a decoupling of spectral shape and polarization of the neutron beam with variable resolution. Thus, a wide Q-range can be investigated using a single angle of incidence, with resolution and flux well-adjusted to the experimental requirement. Our paper reviews the current status of the polarization equipment of the ToF reflectometer PLATYPUS and presents first results obtained on stratified Ni80Fe20/α-Fe2O3 films, revealing the distribution of magnetic moments in an exchange bias system. An outlook on the future development of the PLATYPUS polarization system towards the implementation of a polarized 3He cell is presented and discussed with respect to the efficiency and high Q-coverage up to 1 Å-1 and 0.15 Å-1 in the vertical and lateral momentum transfer, respectively.

  19. Investigation into the characteristics, triggers and mechanism of apnoea and bradycardia in the anaesthetized platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, J. W.; Holyoake, C.; Fleming, P. A.; Robertson, I. D.; Connolly, J. H.; Warren, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Health and conservation research on platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) may require anaesthesia to reduce stress and the risk of injury to both the animal and the researcher, as well as to facilitate examination and sample collection. Platypus anaesthesia can be difficult to manage, with reports of periods of apnoea and bradycardia described. This study investigated the conditions around sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia in 163 field-anaesthetized platypuses as part of a health study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane delivered in oxygen by face mask. Sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia was observed in 19% of platypuses, occurring either at induction of anaesthesia, during recovery, or both. At induction, occurrence was more often recorded for adults (P = 0.19) and was correlated with low body temperature (P < 0.001), season (P = 0.06; greater incidence in summer) and longer pre-anaesthetic holding time (P = 0.16). At recovery, sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia occurred only in platypuses that had been placed in dorsal recumbency as part of their examination, and correlated with poor body condition (P = 0.002), time in dorsal recumbency (P = 0.005), adults (P = 0.06), number of fieldworkers (P = 0.06) and females (P = 0.11). The sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia we observed is likely to result from the irritant nature of isoflurane (stimulating the trigeminal nerve via nasal chemoreceptors). We propose that this mechanism is analogous to that of submersion of the face/nasal cavity in cold water during a natural dive response, but that the term ‘nasopharyngeal response’ would more appropriately describe the changes observed under isoflurane anaesthesia. Although we did not record any long-term adverse effects on platypuses that had undergone this response, the nasopharyngeal response could complicate the diagnosis of anaesthetic dose-dependent apnoea and bradycardia. Therefore, we suggest that

  20. Investigation into the characteristics, triggers and mechanism of apnoea and bradycardia in the anaesthetized platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Macgregor, J W; Holyoake, C; Fleming, P A; Robertson, I D; Connolly, J H; Warren, K S

    2014-01-01

    Health and conservation research on platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) may require anaesthesia to reduce stress and the risk of injury to both the animal and the researcher, as well as to facilitate examination and sample collection. Platypus anaesthesia can be difficult to manage, with reports of periods of apnoea and bradycardia described. This study investigated the conditions around sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia in 163 field-anaesthetized platypuses as part of a health study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane delivered in oxygen by face mask. Sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia was observed in 19% of platypuses, occurring either at induction of anaesthesia, during recovery, or both. At induction, occurrence was more often recorded for adults (P = 0.19) and was correlated with low body temperature (P < 0.001), season (P = 0.06; greater incidence in summer) and longer pre-anaesthetic holding time (P = 0.16). At recovery, sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia occurred only in platypuses that had been placed in dorsal recumbency as part of their examination, and correlated with poor body condition (P = 0.002), time in dorsal recumbency (P = 0.005), adults (P = 0.06), number of fieldworkers (P = 0.06) and females (P = 0.11). The sudden-onset apnoea and bradycardia we observed is likely to result from the irritant nature of isoflurane (stimulating the trigeminal nerve via nasal chemoreceptors). We propose that this mechanism is analogous to that of submersion of the face/nasal cavity in cold water during a natural dive response, but that the term 'nasopharyngeal response' would more appropriately describe the changes observed under isoflurane anaesthesia. Although we did not record any long-term adverse effects on platypuses that had undergone this response, the nasopharyngeal response could complicate the diagnosis of anaesthetic dose-dependent apnoea and bradycardia. Therefore, we suggest that these

  1. In situ impact assessment of wastewater effluents by integrating multi-level biomarker responses in the pale chub (Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Jung, Jinho

    2016-06-01

    The integration of biomarker responses ranging from the molecular to the individual level is of great interest for measuring the toxic effects of hazardous chemicals or effluent mixtures on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus by using multi-level biomarker responses at molecular [mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and metallothionein (MT)], biochemical (enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and concentration of MT), and physiological [condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI)] levels. The mRNA expression levels of GST and MT in Z. platypus from a site downstream of a WWTP significantly increased by 2.2- and 4.5-fold (p<0.05) when compared with those from an upstream site. However, the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in fish from the downstream site significantly decreased by 43%, 98%, and 13%, respectively (p<0.05), except for an increase in MT concentration (41%). In addition, a significant increase in LSI (46%) was observed in Z. platypus from the downstream site (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the liver of Z. platypus were higher (530%, 353%, 800%, and 2,200%, respectively) in fish from a downstream site than in fish from an upstream location, and several multi-level biomarker responses were significantly correlated with the accumulated metals in Z. platypus (p<0.05). Integrated biomarker responses at molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels (multi-level IBR) were much higher (about 4-fold) at the downstream site than at the upstream site. This study suggests that the multi-level IBR approach is very useful for quantifying in situ adverse effects of WWTP effluents. PMID:26967356

  2. A New Record of Candida kashinagacola (Synonym Ambrosiozyma kashinagacola) from Galleries of Platypus koryoensis, the Oak Wilt Disease Vector, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Yeon; Son, Seung Yeol; Seo, Sang Tae; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2013-01-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, is an economically important pest affecting oak trees in Korea. Candida kashinagacola was isolated from galleries of the beetle in oak wood and identified by analyses of morphology, physiological properties, and nucleotide sequence of the large subunit ribosomal DNA. This is the first report on Candida species associated with oak wilt disease vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, in Korea. PMID:24493947

  3. A New Record of Candida kashinagacola (Synonym Ambrosiozyma kashinagacola) from Galleries of Platypus koryoensis, the Oak Wilt Disease Vector, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Son, Seung Yeol; Seo, Sang Tae; Kim, Kyung Hee

    2013-12-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, is an economically important pest affecting oak trees in Korea. Candida kashinagacola was isolated from galleries of the beetle in oak wood and identified by analyses of morphology, physiological properties, and nucleotide sequence of the large subunit ribosomal DNA. This is the first report on Candida species associated with oak wilt disease vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, in Korea. PMID:24493947

  4. Field biology of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): historical and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grant, T R; Temple-Smith, P D

    1998-07-29

    The field biology of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, was first studied by a number of expatriate biologists who visited the Australian colonies to collect specimens in the 1800s. Their work was followed in the early to mid-1900s by a group of resident natural historians and later by an increasing number of academic biologists. All of these workers contributed significantly to the current understanding of the field biology of this unique Australian species. The platypus occupies much the same general distribution as it did prior to European occupation of Australia, except for its loss from the state of South Australia. However, local changes and fragmentation of distribution due to human modification of its habitat are documented. The species currently inhabits eastern Australia from around Cooktown in the north to Tasmania in the south. Although not found in the west-flowing rivers of northern Queensland, it inhabits the upper reaches of rivers flowing to the west and north of the dividing ranges in the south of the state and in New South Wales and Victoria. Its current and historical abundance, however, is less well known and it has probably declined in numbers, although still being considered as common over most of its current range. The species was extensively hunted for its fur until around this turn of this century. The platypus is mostly nocturnal in its foraging activities, being predominantly an opportunistic carnivore of benthic invertebrates. The species is homeothermic, maintaining its low body temperature (32 degrees C), even while foraging for hours in water below 5 degrees C. Its major habitat requirements include both riverine and riparian features which maintain a supply of benthic prey species and consolidated banks into which resting and nesting burrows can be excavated. The species exhibits a single breeding season, with mating occurring in late winter or spring and young first emerging into the water after 3-4 months of nurture by the

  5. Field biology of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): historical and current perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, T R; Temple-Smith, P D

    1998-01-01

    The field biology of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, was first studied by a number of expatriate biologists who visited the Australian colonies to collect specimens in the 1800s. Their work was followed in the early to mid-1900s by a group of resident natural historians and later by an increasing number of academic biologists. All of these workers contributed significantly to the current understanding of the field biology of this unique Australian species. The platypus occupies much the same general distribution as it did prior to European occupation of Australia, except for its loss from the state of South Australia. However, local changes and fragmentation of distribution due to human modification of its habitat are documented. The species currently inhabits eastern Australia from around Cooktown in the north to Tasmania in the south. Although not found in the west-flowing rivers of northern Queensland, it inhabits the upper reaches of rivers flowing to the west and north of the dividing ranges in the south of the state and in New South Wales and Victoria. Its current and historical abundance, however, is less well known and it has probably declined in numbers, although still being considered as common over most of its current range. The species was extensively hunted for its fur until around this turn of this century. The platypus is mostly nocturnal in its foraging activities, being predominantly an opportunistic carnivore of benthic invertebrates. The species is homeothermic, maintaining its low body temperature (32 degrees C), even while foraging for hours in water below 5 degrees C. Its major habitat requirements include both riverine and riparian features which maintain a supply of benthic prey species and consolidated banks into which resting and nesting burrows can be excavated. The species exhibits a single breeding season, with mating occurring in late winter or spring and young first emerging into the water after 3-4 months of nurture by the

  6. Duck-billed platypus venom peptides induce Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masaki; Black, David StC; Ohno, Osamu; Yamada, Kaoru; Kigoshi, Hideo; Uemura, Daisuke

    2009-12-23

    The duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is one of the few venomous Australian mammals. We previously found that its crude venom potently induces Ca(2+) influx in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Guided by this bioassay, we identified 11 novel peptides, including the heptapeptide H-His-Asp-His-Pro-Asn-Pro-Arg-OH (1). Compounds 1-4 and 5-11 coincided with the 6-9 N-terminal residues of Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide (OvCNP) and the 132-150 part of OvCNP precursor peptide, respectively. Heptapeptide 1, which is one of the primary components of the venom fluid (approximately 200 ng/microL), induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in IMR-32 cells at 75 microM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the isolation of the N-terminal linear fragments of CNPs in any mammal. PMID:19928958

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Zacco platypus, Huangshan, China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuang-Huai; Yan, Jin-Jin; Yan, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Xia, Meng-Ning; Liu, Ying-Long; Lu, Yan-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae) is a circular molecule of 16,611 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a D-loop region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most fish mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATG codon except for COI which use GTG as start codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA or TAG, except for the COII which use single T as stop codon. The D-loop region is 928 bp long, located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the Cyprinidae. PMID:24409889

  8. Structure and antimicrobial activity of platypus 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Torres, Allan M; Bansal, Paramjit; Koh, Jennifer M S; Pagès, Guilhem; Wu, Ming J; Kuchel, Philip W

    2014-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a chemically synthesized peptide that we have called 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide (Int-DLP), from the platypus genome, was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. The overall structural fold of Int-DLP was similar to that of the DLPs and β-defensins, however the presence of a third antiparallel β-strand makes its structure more similar to the β-defensins than the DLPs. Int-DLP displayed potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The four arginine residues at the N-terminus of Int-DLP did not affect the overall fold, but were important for its antimicrobial potency. PMID:24694388

  9. Invited Article: Polarization ``Down Under'': The polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saerbeck, T.; Klose, F.; Le Brun, A. P.; Füzi, J.; Brule, A.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; James, M.

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  10. Novel genotypes of Trypanosoma binneyi from wild platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and identification of a leech as a potential vector.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Macgregor, James; Irwin, Peter J; Warren, Kristin; Ryan, Una M

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and pathogenesis of trypanosomes in Australian monotremes, and few genetic characterisation studies have been conducted with these haemoparasites. During the present investigation, molecular and microscopic methods were used to screen peripheral blood (n=28) and ectoparasites (n=10 adult ticks; n=5 tick nymphs; n=1 leech; and n>500 tick eggs) collected from wild Tasmanian platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), for the presence of trypanosomatid-specific DNA and/or trypomastigotes. The genes for the small ribosomal subunit RNA (18S rDNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) were amplified and sequenced, prior to conducting phylogenetic analyses. The detection rate of the parasite-specific 18S rDNA in platypus blood was 85.7% (n=24/28), and the leech was also positive at both loci. Microscopically, high parasitaemia and the presence of abundant trypomastigotes, morphologically consistent with Trypanosoma binneyi Mackerras (1959), were observed in the blood films. Phylogenetic analyses at the 18S locus revealed the existence of four trypanosomatid-like genotypes, with variable similarity to two previously-described genotypes of T. binneyi (range of genetic p-distance: 0.0-0.5%). For the gGAPDH locus, for which only one T. binneyi sequence is available in GenBank, three genotypes closely related T. binneyi were identified (range of genetic p-distance: 0.1-0.4%). The leech-derived trypanosome isolate was virtually identical (at the two loci studied) to the other parasites sequenced from infected platypuses; however, the molecular or morphological identification of the leech species was not possible. Although further studies are required, the molecular detection of trypanosomes in an aquatic leech removed from a platypus, suggests the possibility that these haematophagous hirudineans may be a vector for T. binneyi (and closely related genotypes). PMID:25045852

  11. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  12. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  13. Revision of Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...

  14. Serological responses against the pathogenic dimorphic fungus Mucor amphibiorum in populations of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) with and without ulcerative mycotic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Whittington, R J; Connolly, J H; Obendorf, D L; Emmins, J; Grant, T R; Handasyde, K A

    2002-06-01

    Mucor amphibiorum, a dimorphic fungus, causes ulcerative dermatitis and systemic infections in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus in some river systems in Tasmania but apparently not in other regions of Australia. As yet there are no suitable tests for population surveys, nor for detection of internal lesions in live animals. Consequently, immunoglobulins were purified from the serum of platypuses and anti-immunoglobulin antisera were prepared in rabbits in order to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-M. amphibiorum antibodies. Antigens from plate-grown cultures resulted in greater signal-to-noise ratios in indirect ELISA than those from broth-grown cultures. Platypuses with clinical ulcerative dermatitis had elevated anti-Mucor antibody levels compared to apparently unaffected individuals. Seroconversion was observed in one animal coincident with the development of cutaneous ulcers. The results suggested that platypuses in affected rivers were exposed to M. amphibiorum at a higher frequency than the occurrence of clinical disease. Some platypuses from New South Wales had elevated antibody levels but these increased significantly with age suggesting exposure to cross-reactive antigens, although exposure to M. amphibiorum cannot be excluded. Further studies are warranted to determine factors that result in progression from infection to disease, the occurrence of the fungus in areas where disease has not been observed and the specificity of antigen used in ELISA. PMID:12079747

  15. Cloning and structural analysis of two highly divergent IgA isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2 from the duck billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, M; Belov, K; Aveskogh, M; Hellman, L

    2010-01-01

    To trace the emergence of modern IgA isotypes during vertebrate evolution we have studied the immunoglobulin repertoire of a model monotreme, the platypus. Two highly divergent IgA-like isotypes (IgA1 and IgA2) were identified and their primary structures were determined from full-length cDNAs. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgA from various animal species showed that the two platypus IgA isotypes form a branch clearly separated from their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure of eutherian IgA, with a hinge region and three constant domains. This indicates that the deletion of the second domain and the formation of a hinge region in IgA did occur very early during mammalian evolution, more than 166 million years ago. The two IgA isotypes in platypus differ in primary structure and appear to have arisen from a very early gene duplication, possibly preceding the metatherian eutherian split. Interestingly, one of these isotypes, IgA1, appears to be expressed in only the platypus, but is present in the echidna based on Southern blot analysis. The platypus may require a more effective mucosal immunity, with two highly divergent IgA forms, than the terrestrial echidna, due to its lifestyle, where it is exposed to pathogens both on land and in the water. PMID:19913303

  16. Immunoglobulin genetics of Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus) and Tachyglossus aculeatus (short-beaked echidna).

    PubMed

    Belov, Katherine; Hellman, Lars

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we review data on the monotreme immune system focusing on the characterisation of lymphoid tissue and of antibody responses, as well the recent cloning of immunoglobulin genes. It is now known that monotremes utilise immunoglobulin isotypes that are structurally identical to those found in marsupials and eutherians, but which differ to those found in birds and reptiles. Monotremes utilise IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE. They do not use IgY. Their IgG and IgA constant regions contain three domains plus a hinge region. Preliminary analysis of monotreme heavy chain variable region diversity suggests that the platypus primarily uses a single VH clan, while the short-beaked echidna utilises at least 4 distinct VH families which segregate into all three mammalian VH clans. Phylogenetic analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gene sequences provides strong support for the Theria hypothesis. The constant region of IgM has proven to be a useful marker for estimating the time of divergence of mammalian lineages. PMID:14667846

  17. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  18. Fine structure and functional comments of mouthparts in Platypus cylindrus (Col., Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Belhoucine, Latifa; Bouhraoua, Rachid T; Prats, Eva; Pulade-Villar, Juli

    2013-02-01

    Oak pinhole borer, Platypus cylindrus is seen in recent years as one of the biggest enemies directly involved in the observed decline of cork oak in Mediterranean forests with all the economic implications. As an ambrosia beetle, it has developed its effective drilling mouthpart enough to make tunnels in hardwood of the tree. The fine structural aspects of the mouthpart using the field emission scanning electron microscopy are analyzed about 23 adults collected in galleries of infested cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in a littoral forest of northwest Algeria. These adults are preserved in alcohol 70%, cleaned and coated with gold. The mouthparts of this beetle consist commonly of a labrum, a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae and the labium but with adapted structure to excavate galleries in the hardwood. In this role is also involved the first pair of legs. The function that present the different structures related to the construction of the tunnels is discussed. Both of maxillary and labial palpi direct the food to the mouth and hold it while the mandibles chew the food. The distal ends of these palpi are flattened and have shovel-like setae. Females have larger maxillary palpi than males and this is related to the particular biology of each sex. PMID:23182681

  19. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  20. Venom from the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, induces a calcium-dependent current in cultured dorsal root ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    de Plater, G M; Milburn, P J; Martin, R L

    2001-03-01

    The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), a uniquely Australian species, is one of the few living venomous mammals. Although envenomation of humans by many vertebrate and invertebrate species results in pain, this is often not the principal symptom of envenomation. However, platypus envenomation results in an immediate excruciating pain that develops into a very long-lasting hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that the venom contains a C-type natriuretic peptide that causes mast cell degranulation, and this probably contributes to the development of the painful response. Now we demonstrate that platypus venom has a potent action on putative nociceptors. Application of the venom to small to medium diameter dorsal root ganglion cells for 10 s resulted in an inward current lasting several minutes when the venom was diluted in buffer at pH 6.1 but not at pH 7.4. The venom itself has a pH of 6.3. The venom activated a current with a linear current-voltage relationship between -100 and -25 mV and with a reversal potential of -11 mV. Ion substitution experiments indicate that the current is a nonspecific cationic current. The response to the venom was blocked by the membrane-permeant Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, and by the tyrosine- and serine-kinase inhibitor, k252a. Thus the response appears to be dependent on calcium release from intracellular stores. The identity of the venom component(s) that is responsible for the responses we have described is yet to be determined but is probably not the C-type natriuretic peptide or the defensin-like peptides that are present in the venom. PMID:11248005

  1. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-04-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (H(E)= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  2. D-amino acid residue in a defensin-like peptide from platypus venom: effect on structure and chromatographic properties.

    PubMed

    Torres, Allan M; Tsampazi, Chryssanthi; Geraghty, Dominic P; Bansal, Paramjit S; Alewood, Paul F; Kuchel, Philip W

    2005-10-15

    The recent discovery that the natriuretic peptide OvCNPb (Ornithorhynchus venom C-type natriuretic peptide B) from platypus (Ornithorynchus anatinus) venom contains a D-amino acid residue suggested that other D-amino-acid-containing peptides might be present in the venom. In the present study, we show that DLP-2 (defensin-like peptide-2), a 42-amino-acid residue polypeptide in the platypus venom, also contains a D-amino acid residue, D-methionine, at position 2, while DLP-4, which has an identical amino acid sequence, has all amino acids in the L-form. These findings were supported further by the detection of isomerase activity in the platypus gland venom extract that converts DLP-4 into DLP-2. In the light of this new information, the tertiary structure of DLP-2 was recalculated using a new structural template with D-Met2. The structure of DLP-4 was also determined in order to evaluate the effect of a D-amino acid at position 2 on the structure and possibly to explain the large retention time difference observed for the two molecules in reverse-phase HPLC. The solution structures of the DLP-2 and DLP-4 are very similar to each other and to the earlier reported structure of DLP-2, which assumed that all amino acids were in the L-form. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the D-amino acid at position 2 has minimal effect on the overall fold in solution. PMID:16033333

  3. Life history and dynamics of a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) population: four decades of mark-recapture surveys

    PubMed Central

    Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R.; Kingsford, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia’s iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973–2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = −0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution. PMID:26536832

  4. Life history and dynamics of a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) population: four decades of mark-recapture surveys.

    PubMed

    Bino, Gilad; Grant, Tom R; Kingsford, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the life-history and population dynamics of Australia's iconic and evolutionarily distinct platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) remains poor. We marked-recaptured 812 unique platypuses (total 1,622 captures), over four decades (1973-2014) in the Shoalhaven River, Australia. Strong sex-age differences were observed in life-history, including morphology and longevity. Apparent survival of adult females (Φ = 0.76) were higher than adult males (Φ = 0.57), as in juveniles: females Φ = 0.27, males Φ = 0.13. Females were highly likely to remain in the same pool (adult: P = 0.85, juvenile: P = 0.88), while residency rates were lower for males (adult: P = 0.74, juvenile: P = 0.46). We combined survival, movement and life-histories to develop population viability models and test the impact of a range of life-history parameters. While using estimated apparent survival produced unviable populations (mean population growth rate r = -0.23, extinction within 20 years), considering residency rates to adjust survival estimates, indicated more stable populations (r = 0.004, p = 0.04 of 100-year extinction). Further sensitivity analyses highlighted adult female survival and overall success of dispersal as most affecting viability. Findings provide robust life-history and viability estimates for a difficult study species. These could support developing large-scale population dynamics models required to underpin a much needed national risk assessment for the platypus, already declining in parts of its current distribution. PMID:26536832

  5. Characterisation of ATRX, DMRT1, DMRT7 and WT1 in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; Lim, Shu Ly; Pask, Andrew J; Hamdan, Diana Demiyah Mohd; Renfree, Marilyn B; Grützner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    One of the most puzzling aspects of monotreme reproductive biology is how they determine sex in the absence of the SRY gene that triggers testis development in most other mammals. Although monotremes share a XX female/XY male sex chromosome system with other mammals, their sex chromosomes show homology to the chicken Z chromosome, including the DMRT1 gene, which is a dosage-dependent sex determination gene in birds. In addition, monotremes feature an extraordinary multiple sex chromosome system. However, no sex determination gene has been identified as yet on any of the five X or five Y chromosomes and there is very little knowledge about the conservation and function of other known genes in the monotreme sex determination and differentiation pathway. We have analysed the expression pattern of four evolutionarily conserved genes that are important at different stages of sexual development in therian mammals. DMRT1 is a conserved sex-determination gene that is upregulated in the male developing gonad in vertebrates, while DMRT7 is a mammal-specific spermatogenesis gene. ATRX, a chromatin remodelling protein, lies on the therian X but there is a testis-expressed Y-copy in marsupials. However, in monotremes, the ATRX orthologue is autosomal. WT1 is an evolutionarily conserved gene essential for early gonadal formation in both sexes and later in testis development. We show that these four genes in the adult platypus have the same expression pattern as in other mammals, suggesting that they have a conserved role in sexual development independent of genomic location. PMID:19874722

  6. Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVIII platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Cox, Guy C; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-07-01

    As part of a programme of comparative measurements of Pd (diffusional water permeability) the RBCs (red blood cells) from an aquatic monotreme, platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and an aquatic reptile, saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) were studied. The mean diameter of platypus RBCs was estimated by light microscopy and found to be approximately 6.3 microm. Pd was measured by using an Mn2+-doping 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technique. The Pd (cm/s) values were relatively low: approximately 2.1 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 2.5 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 3.4 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 4.5 at 42 degrees C for the platypus RBCs and approximately 2.8 x 10(-3) at 25 degrees C, 3.2 x 10(-3) at 30 degrees C, 4.5 x 10(-3) at 37 degrees C and 5.7 x 10(-3) at 42 degrees C for the crocodile RBCs. In parallel with the low water permeability, the Ea,d (activation energy of water diffusion) was relatively high, approximately 35 kJ/mol. These results suggest that "conventional" WCPs (water channel proteins), or AQPs (aquaporins), are probably absent from the plasma membranes of RBCs from both the platypus and the saltwater crocodile. PMID:20187871

  7. Proteomics and Deep Sequencing Comparison of Seasonally Active Venom Glands in the Platypus Reveals Novel Venom Peptides and Distinct Expression Profiles*

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Emily S. W.; Morgenstern, David; Mofiz, Ehtesham; Gombert, Sara; Morris, Katrina M.; Temple-Smith, Peter; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Whittington, Camilla M.; King, Glenn F.; Warren, Wesley C.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Belov, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The platypus is a venomous monotreme. Male platypuses possess a spur on their hind legs that is connected to glands in the pelvic region. They produce venom only during the breeding season, presumably to fight off conspecifics. We have taken advantage of this unique seasonal production of venom to compare the transcriptomes of in- and out-of-season venom glands, in conjunction with proteomic analysis, to identify previously undiscovered venom genes. Comparison of the venom glands revealed distinct gene expression profiles that are consistent with changes in venom gland morphology and venom volumes in and out of the breeding season. Venom proteins were identified through shot-gun sequenced venom proteomes of three animals using RNA-seq-derived transcripts for peptide-spectral matching. 5,157 genes were expressed in the venom glands, 1,821 genes were up-regulated in the in-season gland, and 10 proteins were identified in the venom. New classes of platypus-venom proteins identified included antimicrobials, amide oxidase, serpin protease inhibitor, proteins associated with the mammalian stress response pathway, cytokines, and other immune molecules. Five putative toxins have only been identified in platypus venom: growth differentiation factor 15, nucleobindin-2, CD55, a CXC-chemokine, and corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein. These novel venom proteins have potential biomedical and therapeutic applications and provide insights into venom evolution. PMID:22899769

  8. Development of massive multilevel molecular dynamics simulation program, platypus (PLATform for dYnamic protein unified simulation), for the elucidation of protein functions

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazuto; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    A massively parallel program for quantum mechanical‐molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation, called Platypus (PLATform for dYnamic Protein Unified Simulation), was developed to elucidate protein functions. The speedup and the parallelization ratio of Platypus in the QM and QM/MM calculations were assessed for a bacteriochlorophyll dimer in the photosynthetic reaction center (DIMER) on the K computer, a massively parallel computer achieving 10 PetaFLOPs with 705,024 cores. Platypus exhibited the increase in speedup up to 20,000 core processors at the HF/cc‐pVDZ and B3LYP/cc‐pVDZ, and up to 10,000 core processors by the CASCI(16,16)/6‐31G** calculations. We also performed excited QM/MM‐MD simulations on the chromophore of Sirius (SIRIUS) in water. Sirius is a pH‐insensitive and photo‐stable ultramarine fluorescent protein. Platypus accelerated on‐the‐fly excited‐state QM/MM‐MD simulations for SIRIUS in water, using over 4000 core processors. In addition, it also succeeded in 50‐ps (200,000‐step) on‐the‐fly excited‐state QM/MM‐MD simulations for the SIRIUS in water. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26940542

  9. Development of massive multilevel molecular dynamics simulation program, Platypus (PLATform for dYnamic Protein Unified Simulation), for the elucidation of protein functions.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yu; Nakata, Kazuto; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-05-01

    A massively parallel program for quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulation, called Platypus (PLATform for dYnamic Protein Unified Simulation), was developed to elucidate protein functions. The speedup and the parallelization ratio of Platypus in the QM and QM/MM calculations were assessed for a bacteriochlorophyll dimer in the photosynthetic reaction center (DIMER) on the K computer, a massively parallel computer achieving 10 PetaFLOPs with 705,024 cores. Platypus exhibited the increase in speedup up to 20,000 core processors at the HF/cc-pVDZ and B3LYP/cc-pVDZ, and up to 10,000 core processors by the CASCI(16,16)/6-31G** calculations. We also performed excited QM/MM-MD simulations on the chromophore of Sirius (SIRIUS) in water. Sirius is a pH-insensitive and photo-stable ultramarine fluorescent protein. Platypus accelerated on-the-fly excited-state QM/MM-MD simulations for SIRIUS in water, using over 4000 core processors. In addition, it also succeeded in 50-ps (200,000-step) on-the-fly excited-state QM/MM-MD simulations for the SIRIUS in water. PMID:26940542

  10. Autosomal location of genes from the conserved mammalian X in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): implications for mammalian sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Waters, Paul D; Delbridge, Margaret L; Deakin, Janine E; El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; Kirby, Patrick J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise R; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ancient autosomal pair. Mapping of human X- and Y-borne genes in distantly related mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates has proved valuable to help deduce the evolution of this unique part of the genome. The platypus, a monotreme mammal distantly related to eutherians and marsupials, has an extraordinary sex chromosome system comprising five X and five Y chromosomes that form a translocation chain at male meiosis. The largest X chromosome (X1), which lies at one end of the chain, has considerable homology to the human X. Using comparative mapping and the emerging chicken database, we demonstrate that part of the therian X chromosome, previously thought to be conserved across all mammals, was lost from the platypus X1 to an autosome. This region included genes flanking the XIST locus, and also genes with Y-linked homologues that are important to male reproduction in therians. Since these genes lie on the X in marsupials and eutherians, and also on the homologous region of chicken chromosome 4, this represents a loss from the monotreme X rather than an additional evolutionary stratum of the human X. PMID:15973504

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase A as a highly abundant eye lens protein in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): upsilon (upsilon)-crystallin.

    PubMed

    van Rheede, Teun; Amons, Reinout; Stewart, Niall; de Jong, Wilfried W

    2003-06-01

    Vertebrate eye lenses mostly contain two abundant types of proteins, the alpha-crystallins and the beta/gamma-crystallins. In addition, certain housekeeping enzymes are highly expressed as crystallins in various taxa. We now observed an unusual approximately 41-kd protein that makes up 16% to 18% of the total protein in the platypus eye lens. Its cDNA sequence was determined, which identified the protein as muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A). It is the first observation of LDH-A as a crystallin, and we designate it upsilon (upsilon)-crystallin. Interestingly, the related heart-type LDH-B occurs as an abundant lens protein, known as epsilon-crystallin, in many birds and crocodiles. Thus, two members of the ldh gene family have independently been recruited as crystallins in different higher vertebrate lineages, suggesting that they are particularly suited for this purpose in terms of gene regulatory or protein structural properties. To establish whether platypus LDH-A/upsilon-crystallin has been under different selective constraints as compared with other vertebrate LDH-A sequences, we reconstructed the vertebrate ldh-a gene phylogeny. No conspicuous rate deviations or amino acid replacements were observed. PMID:12716980

  12. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in free-ranging platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): response to capture and patterns in relation to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Handasyde, K A; McDonald, I R; Evans, B K

    2003-12-01

    Energy demands in the platypus are likely to increase in the breeding season, which occurs from winter to early spring. Glucocorticoids, which play a major role in energy mobilisation, were measured in consecutive blood samples from free-ranging adults at approximately monthly intervals throughout the year. Glucose and free fatty acids were also measured in some samples. Plasma concentrations of glucocorticoids rose significantly during the first 30 min after capture, accompanied by a rise in free fatty acids, but no corresponding increase in glucose concentrations. We observed a strong pattern in plasma glucocorticoids in samples collected within 15 min of capture (indicative of pre-disturbance concentrations) in different phases of the annual reproductive cycle, with significantly higher levels in both males and females in the breeding season compared to the non-breeding season. These data, and the decline in tail fat stores that occur towards the end of the mating period (around October), suggest that platypus experience high-energy demands during this phase of reproduction. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in females sampled during the lactation period (October-February) were relatively low, and similar to those in females sampled in the non-breeding, non-lactation period (March-June). The latter requires further investigation as results may have been influenced by sampling limitations. PMID:14667852

  13. Platypus chain reaction: directional and ordered meiotic pairing of the multiple sex chromosome chain in Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Daish, Tasman; Casey, Aaron; Grützner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Monotremes are phylogenetically and phenotypically unique animals with an unusually complex sex chromosome system that is composed of ten chromosomes in platypus and nine in echidna. These chromosomes are alternately linked (X1Y1, X2Y2, ...) at meiosis via pseudoautosomal regions and segregate to form spermatozoa containing either X or Y chromosomes. The physical and epigenetic mechanisms involved in pairing and assembly of the complex sex chromosome chain in early meiotic prophase I are completely unknown. We have analysed the pairing dynamics of specific sex chromosome pseudoautosomal regions in platypus spermatocytes during prophase of meiosis I. Our data show a highly coordinated pairing process that begins at the terminal Y5 chromosome and completes with the union of sex chromosomes X1Y1. The consistency of this ordered assembly of the chain is remarkable and raises questions about the mechanisms and factors that regulate the differential pairing of sex chromosomes and how this relates to potential meiotic silencing mechanisms and alternate segregation. PMID:19874721

  14. Tissue-specific antioxidant responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Park, June-Woo; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2014-05-01

    In this study, antioxidant responses including lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were evaluated in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Cu exposure induced significant antioxidant responses in Z. platypus, particularly in the liver, whereas BaP exposure had a negligible effect. Following Cu exposure, both SOD and CAT activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing significant correlations with malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a measure of LPO (r = 0.646 and 0.663, respectively). SOD, CAT and GST mRNA levels were also enhanced following Cu exposure, except at 20 μg L(-1), although significant correlations with antioxidant enzyme activities were not found. The results of this study suggest that combined information on SOD and CAT activities together with LPO levels in the liver could be a useful indicator for assessing oxidative stress in freshwater fish. PMID:24477393

  15. Insights into the evolution of mammalian telomerase: Platypus TERT shares similarities with genes of birds and other reptiles and localizes on sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The TERT gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the telomerase complex and is responsible for maintaining telomere length. Vertebrate telomerase has been studied in eutherian mammals, fish, and the chicken, but less attention has been paid to other vertebrates. The platypus occupies an important evolutionary position, providing unique insight into the evolution of mammalian genes. We report the cloning of a platypus TERT (OanTERT) ortholog, and provide a comparison with genes of other vertebrates. Results The OanTERT encodes a protein with a high sequence similarity to marsupial TERT and avian TERT. Like the TERT of sauropsids and marsupials, as well as that of sharks and echinoderms, OanTERT contains extended variable linkers in the N-terminal region suggesting that they were present already in basal vertebrates and lost independently in ray-finned fish and eutherian mammals. Several alternatively spliced OanTERT variants structurally similar to avian TERT variants were identified. Telomerase activity is expressed in all platypus tissues like that of cold-blooded animals and murine rodents. OanTERT was localized on pseudoautosomal regions of sex chromosomes X3/Y2, expanding the homology between human chromosome 5 and platypus sex chromosomes. Synteny analysis suggests that TERT co-localized with sex-linked genes in the last common mammalian ancestor. Interestingly, female platypuses express higher levels of telomerase in heart and liver tissues than do males. Conclusions OanTERT shares many features with TERT of the reptilian outgroup, suggesting that OanTERT represents the ancestral mammalian TERT. Features specific to TERT of eutherian mammals have, therefore, evolved more recently after the divergence of monotremes. PMID:22655747

  16. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  17. The genus Leptostylopsis of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...

  18. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  19. Tumidusternus, a new genus of Aspidimerini from China (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lizhi; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tumidusternus gen. n., along with Tumidusternus fujianensis sp. n. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Aspidimerini) from China is described and illustrated. A key to the tribe Aspidimerini is given. PMID:26257552

  20. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vidushi S; Cooper, Steven JB; Deakin, Janine E; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Jennifer AM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vertebrate alpha (α)- and beta (β)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil β-globin gene (ω) in the marsupial α-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the α-β cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous α- and β-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. Results The platypus α-globin cluster (chromosome 21) contains embryonic and adult α- globin genes, a β-like ω-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-ζ-ζ'-αD-α3-α2-α1-ω-GBY-3'. The platypus β-globin cluster (chromosome 2) contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-ε-β-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate α-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal β-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian α- and β-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird α- and β-globin clusters respectively. Conclusion We propose that α- and β-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-α-β-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original β (represented by ω in marsupials and monotremes) was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago), then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of β-globin genes with different expression profiles in different lineages. PMID:18657265

  1. Integration of multi-level biomarker responses to cadmium and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the pale chub (Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Park, June-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Cargo, Jordan; Schlenk, Daniel; Jung, Jinho

    2014-12-01

    The Cd exposure for 14 days significantly increased both the molecular (DNA single-strand breaks) and biochemical (metallothionein concentrations) biomarkers in the freshwater pale chub, Zacco platypus, whereas changes in the histological and physiological biomarker responses were negligible. The BkF exposure for 14 days led to significant increases in the mRNA expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase enzymatic activity and DNA single-strand breakage at the molecular and biochemical levels. In addition, exposure to 50μg/L of BkF induced histological alteration in the liver, with significant changes to the liver somatic index and condition factor at the physiological level. The integration of multi-level biomarker responses at the molecular, biochemical and physiological levels was highly correlated with the concentrations of Cd and BkF. PMID:25217733

  2. Conservation of a vitellogenin gene cluster in oviparous vertebrates and identification of its traces in the platypus genome.

    PubMed

    Babin, Patrick J

    2008-04-30

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) derivatives are the main egg-yolk proteins in most oviparous animal species, and are, therefore, key players in reproduction and embryo development. Conserved synteny and phylogeny were used to identify a Vtg gene cluster (VGC) that had been evolutionarily conserved in most oviparous vertebrates, encompassing the three linked Vtgs on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 8. Tandem arranged homologs to chicken VtgII and VtgIII were retrieved in similar locations in Xenopus (Xenopus tropicalis) and homologous transcribed inverted genes were found in medaka (Oryzias latipes), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes), and Tetrahodon (Tetraodon nigroviridis), while zebrafish (Danio rerio) Vtg3 may represent a residual trace of VGC in this genome. Vtgs were not conserved in the paralogous chromosomal segment attributed to a whole-genome duplication event in the ancestor of teleosts, while tandem duplicated forms have survived the recent African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) tetraploidization. Orthologs to chicken VtgI were found in similar locations in teleost fish, as well as in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Additional Vtg fragments found suggested that VGC had been conserved in this egg-laying mammal. A low ratio of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution values and the paucity of pseudogene features suggest functional platypus Vtg products. Genomic identification of Vtgs, Apob, and Mtp in this genome, together with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses, support the existence of these three large lipid transfer protein superfamily members at the base of the mammalian lineage. In conclusion, the establishment of a VGC in the vertebrate lineage predates the divergence of ray-finned fish and tetrapods and the shift in reproductive and developmental strategy observed between prototherians and therians may be associated with its loss, as shown by its absence from the genomic resources currently

  3. Integrative assessment of biomarker responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2013-06-01

    Multi-level biomarker responses (molecular/biochemical and histological/physiological levels) were studied to assess the sublethal toxicities of copper (Cu: 1.25, 5, and 20μg/L) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP: 0.5, 5, and 50μg/L) induced in the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus. Except for the kidney tissues when exposed to 20μg Cu/L, no significant differences were observed at the histological or physiological levels among the treatment groups. However, various molecular and biochemical responses were observed in Z. platypus, and these responses primarily depended on exposure time. Upon Cu exposure, both DNA single-strand breaks (COMET) and metallothionein (MT) concentration significantly increased after 4 days, whereas there were no significant changes after 14 days of exposure. Both 4 and 14 days of BaP exposure induced significant increases in COMET and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but there was no significant difference between them. Additionally, both Cu and BaP induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity only after 14 days of exposure. The current findings demonstrate that the differences in the responses of MT and EROD are associated with each chemical's particular mode of action. Biomarker responses at the molecular and biochemical levels were quantized in terms of the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index to compare the toxicities of Cu and BaP. The IBR values were well correlated with the concentrations of Cu and BaP, and the correlations were enhanced at 4 days of exposure (r(2)=0.849 and 0.945, respectively) compared with 14 days (r(2)=0. 412 and 0.634, respectively). These results suggest that the IBR index may be a useful tool for the integrative quantification of the molecular and biochemical biomarker responses in a short-term exposure to Cu and BaP. PMID:23478165

  4. A component of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom forms slow-kinetic cation channels.

    PubMed

    Kourie, J I

    1999-11-01

    The lipid bilayer technique is used to examine the biophysical properties of anion and cation channels frequently formed by platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom (OaV). The OaV-formed anion channel in 250/50 mm KCl cis/trans has a maximum conductance of 857 +/- 23 pS (n = 5) in 250/50 mm KCl cis/trans. The current-voltage relationship of this channel shows strong inward rectification. The channel activity undergoes time-dependent inactivation that can be removed by depolarizing voltage steps more positive than the reversal potential for chloride, E(Cl), (+40 mV). The reversal potential of the OaV-formed slow current activity in 250/50 mm KCl cis/trans is close to the potassium equilibrium potential (E(K)) of -40 mV. The conductance values for the slow channel are 22.5 +/- 2.6 pS and 41.38 +/- 4.2 pS in 250/50 and 750/50 mm cis/trans, respectively. The gating kinetics of the slow ion channels are voltage-dependent. The channel open probability (P(o)) is between 0.1 and 0.8 at potentials between 0 and +140 mV. The channel frequency (F(o)) increases with depolarizing voltages between 0 and +140 mV, whereas mean open time (T(o)) and mean closed time (T(c)) decrease. Ion substitution experiments of the cis solution show that the channel has conductance values of 21.47 +/- 2. 3 and 0.53 +/- 0.1 pS in 250 mm KCl and choline Cl, respectively. The amplitude of the single channel current is dependent on [K(+)](cis) and the current reversal potential (E(rev)) responds to increases in [K(+)](cis) by shifting to more negative voltages. The increase in current amplitude as a function of increasing [K(+)](cis) can be best described by a third order polynomial fit. At +140 mV, the values of the maximal single channel conductance (gamma(max)) and the concentration for half maximal gamma (K(s)) are 38.6 pS and 380 mm and decline to 15.76 pS and 250 mm at 0 mV, respectively. The ion selectivity of the channel to K(+), Na(+), Cs(+) and choline(+) was determined in ion substitution

  5. D-Amino acid residue in the C-type natriuretic peptide from the venom of the mammal, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, the Australian platypus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Allan M; Menz, Ian; Alewood, Paul F; Bansal, Paramjit; Lahnstein, Jelle; Gallagher, Clifford H; Kuchel, Philip W

    2002-07-31

    The C-type natriuretic peptide from the platypus venom (OvCNP) exists in two forms, OvCNPa and OvCNPb, whose amino acid sequences are identical. Through the use of nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and peptidase digestion studies, we discovered that OvCNPb incorporates a D-amino acid at position 2 in the primary structure. Peptides containing a D-amino acid have been found in lower forms of organism, but this report is the first for a D-amino acid in a biologically active peptide from a mammal. The result implies the existence of a specific isomerase in the platypus that converts an L-amino acid residue in the protein to the D-configuration. PMID:12135762

  6. Description of a cranial endocast from a fossil platypus, Obdurodon dicksoni (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae), and the relevance of endocranial characters to monotreme monophyly.

    PubMed

    Macrini, Thomas E; Rowe, Timothy; Archer, Michael

    2006-08-01

    A digital cranial endocast of the Miocene platypus Obdurodon dicksoni was extracted from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography scans. This endocast represents the oldest from an unequivocal member of either extant monotreme lineage and is therefore important for inferring character support for Monotremata, a clade that is not well diagnosed. We describe the Obdurodon endocast with reference to endocasts extracted from skulls of the three species of extant monotremes, particularly Ornithorhynchus anatinus, the duckbill platypus. We consulted published descriptions and illustrations of whole and sectioned brains of monotremes to determine which external features of the nervous system are represented on the endocasts. Similar to Ornithorhynchus, well-developed parafloccular casts and reduced olfactory bulb casts are present in the Obdurodon endocast. Reduction of the olfactory bulbs in comparison with tachyglossids and therian mammals is a potential apomorphy for Ornithorhynchidae. The trigeminal nuclei, ganglia, and nerves (i.e., trigeminal complex) are enlarged in Obdurodon, as evidenced by their casts on the endocast, as is the case in the extant platypus. The visibility of enlarged trigeminal nucleus casts on the endocasts of Obdurodon and Ornithorhynchus is a possible synapomorphy of Ornithorhynchidae. Electroreception and enlargement of the trigeminal complex are possible synapomorphies for Monotremata. PMID:16710845

  7. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  8. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  9. Evidence for an early appearance of modern post-switch immunoglobulin isotypes in mammalian evolution (II); cloning of IgE, IgG1 and IgG2 from a monotreme, the duck-billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, M; Aveskogh, M; Munday, B; Hellman, Lars

    2002-08-01

    To trace the emergence of the modern post-switch immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes in vertebrate evolution we have studied Ig expression in mammals distantly related to eutherians. We here present an analysis of the Ig expression in an egg-laying mammal, a monotreme, the duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Fragments of platypus IgG and IgE cDNA were obtained by a PCR-based screening using degenerate primers. The fragments obtained were used as probes to isolate full-length cDNA clones of three platypus post-switch isotypes, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis against IgY, IgE and IgG from various animal species revealed that platypus IgE and IgG form branches that are clearly separated from those of their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, the platypus IgE and IgG still conform to the general structure displayed by the respective Ig isotypes of eutherian and marsupial mammals. According to our findings, all of the major evolutionary changes in the expression array and basic Ig structure that have occurred since the evolutionary separation of mammals from the early reptile lineages, occurred prior to the separation of monotremes from marsupial and placental mammals. Hence, our results indicate that the modern post-switch isotypes appeared very early in the mammalian lineage, possibly already 310-330 million years ago. PMID:12209626

  10. The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Yu, Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We report the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The 16,919 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a partial control region. A phylogenetic tree has been built using the 13 protein-coding genes of 11 related species from Coleoptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Coleoptera. PMID:26094987

  11. Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson. PMID:27615864

  12. Coleoptera of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an annotated checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.P.; Barr, W.F.; Johnson, J.B.

    1986-04-30

    An insect survey was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the summers of 1981-1983. This site is on the Snake River Plains in southeastern Idaho. Presented here is an annotated checklist of the Coleoptera collected. Successful collecting methods, dates of adult occurrence, and relative abundance are given for each species. Relevant biological information is also presented for some species.

  13. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  14. Temperature-dependent development of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...

  15. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country. PMID:27615977

  16. Checklist of the Coleoptera of New Brunswick, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174

  17. Diet based fitness variability of Coccinella novemnotata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata (Herbst) is a species of North American native lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) that has come under great ecological duress over the past 30 years and is experiencing a significant decline throughout its native range. This species once was widely distributed across mos...

  18. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  19. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  20. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p < 0.01) after 4 days of exposure in 100 μg/L BaP. These results indicate that the only use of mRNA expression level of CYP system as a biomarker make us underestimate prolonged toxicity (4-14 days) of BaP and the only use of protein expression level of CYP system make us underestimate acute toxicity (1-2 days) of BaP. Therefore, we suggests that a combinational use of the mRNA expression level and protein expression level of CYP system, hepatosomatic index is a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure. In addition, DNA adduct formation was a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure at 4 days. CYP1A was a more sensitive biomarker than CYP reductase for BaP exposure when considering both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, our results show that Z. platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure. PMID:23192953

  1. 4-O-Acetyl-sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) in acidic milk oligosaccharides of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and its evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Tadasu; Inamori, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T

    2015-06-01

    Monotremes (echidnas and platypus) retain an ancestral form of reproduction: egg-laying followed by secretion of milk onto skin and hair in a mammary patch, in the absence of nipples. Offspring are highly immature at hatching and depend on oligosaccharide-rich milk for many months. The primary saccharide in long-beaked echidna milk is an acidic trisaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose), but acidic oligosaccharides have not been characterized in platypus milk. In this study, acidic oligosaccharides purified from the carbohydrate fraction of platypus milk were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All identified structures, except Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-sialyllactose) contained Neu4,5Ac2 (4-O-acetyl-sialic acid). These include the trisaccharide 4-O-acetyl 3'-sialyllactose, the pentasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-tetraose d) and the hexasaccharide Neu4,5Ac2(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (4-O-acetyl-3'-sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III). At least seven different octa- to deca-oligosaccharides each contained a lacto-N-neohexaose core (LNnH) and one or two Neu4,5Ac2 and one to three fucose residues. We conclude that platypus milk contains a diverse (≥ 20) array of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides based primarily on lactose, lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) and LNnH structural cores and shares with echidna milk the unique feature that all identified acidic oligosaccharides (other than 3'-sialyllactose) contain the 4-O-acetyl-sialic acid moiety. We propose that 4-O-acetylation of sialic acid moieties protects acidic milk oligosaccharides secreted onto integumental surfaces from bacterial hydrolysis via steric interference with bacterial sialidases. This may be of evolutionary significance since taxa ancestral to monotremes and other mammals are

  2. The pretectal nuclei in two monotremes: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S; Paxinos, G

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the organization of the pretectal area in two monotremes (the short beaked echidna-Tachyglossus aculeatus, and the platypus-Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and compared it to that in the Wistar strain rat, using Nissl staining in conjunction with enzyme histochemistry (acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase) and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin and non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32 antibody). We were able to identify distinct anterior, medial, posterior (now called tectal gray) and olivary pretectal nuclei as well as a nucleus of the optic tract, all with largely similar topographical and chemoarchitectonic features to the homologous regions in therian mammals. The positions of these pretectal nuclei correspond to the distributions of retinofugal terminals identified by other authors. The overall size of the pretectum in both monotremes was found to be at least comparable in size, if not larger than, the pretectum of representative therian mammals of similar brain and body size. Our findings suggest that the pretectum of these two monotreme species is comparable in both size and organization to that of eutherian mammals, and is more than just an undifferentiated area pretectalis. The presence of a differentiated pretectum with similar chemoarchitecture to therians in both living monotremes lends support to the idea that the stem mammal for both prototherian and therian lineages also had a differentiated pretectum. This in turn indicates that a differentiated pretectum appeared at least 125 million years ago in the mammalian lineage and that the stem mammal for proto- and eutherian lineages probably had similar pretectal nuclei to those identified in its descendants. PMID:17717686

  3. Development of the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-01-01

    The modern monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are characterized by development of their young in a leathery egg that is laid into a nest or abdominal pouch. At hatching, the young are externally immature, with forelimbs capable of digitopalmar prehension, but hindlimbs little advanced beyond limb buds. The embryological collections at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin were used to examine the development of the spinal cord and early peripheral nervous system in developing monotremes and to correlate this with known behavioural development. Ventral root outgrowth to the bases of both the fore- and hindlimbs occurs at 6.0 mm crown-rump length (CRL), but invasion of both limbs does not happen until about 8.0-8.5 mm CRL. Differentiation of the ventral horn precedes the dorsal horn during incubation and separate medial and lateral motor columns can be distinguished before hatching. Rexed's laminae begin to appear in the dorsal horn in the first week after hatching, and gracile and cuneate fasciculi emerge during the first two post-hatching months. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the structure of the cervicothoracic junction spinal cord in the two monotremes with that in a diprotodont marsupial (the brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula) of similar size at birth, did not reveal any significant structural differences between the monotremes and the marsupial. The precocious development of motor systems in the monotreme spinal cord is consistent with the behavioural requirements of the peri-hatching period, that is, rupture of embryonic membranes and egg, and digitopalmar prehension to grasp maternal hair or nest material. PMID:22401666

  4. Development of the hypothalamus and pituitary in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-07-01

    The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished by the development of their young in a leathery-shelled egg, a low and variable body temperature and a primitive teat-less mammary gland. Their young are hatched in an immature state and must deal with the external environment, with all its challenges of hypothermia and stress, as well as sourcing nutrients from the maternal mammary gland. The Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections have been used to follow the structural development of the monotreme hypothalamus and its connections with the pituitary gland both in the period leading up to hatching and during the lactational phase of development, and to relate this structural maturation to behavioural development. In the incubation phase, development of the hypothalamus proceeds from closure of the anterior neuropore to formation of the lateral hypothalamic zone and putative medial forebrain bundle. Some medial zone hypothalamic nuclei are emerging at the time of hatching, but these are poorly differentiated and periventricular zone nuclei do not appear until the first week of post-hatching life. Differentiation of the pituitary is also incomplete at hatching, epithelial cords do not develop in the pars anterior until the first week, and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract does not appear until the second week of post-hatching life. In many respects, the structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary of the newly hatched monotreme is similar to that seen in newborn marsupials, suggesting that both groups rely solely on lateral hypothalamic zone nuclei for whatever homeostatic mechanisms they are capable of at birth/hatching. PMID:22512474

  5. Heavy chain V region diversity in the duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): long and highly variable complementarity-determining region 3 compensates for limited germline diversity.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jeannette; Aveskogh, Maria; Munday, Barry; Hellman, Lars

    2002-05-15

    In this work, to study the emergence of the H chain V region repertoire during mammalian evolution, we present an analysis of 25 independent H chain V regions from a monotreme, the Australian duck-billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. All the sequences analyzed were found to form a single branch within the clan III of mammalian V region sequences in a distance tree. However, compared with a classical V gene family this branch was more diversified in sequence. Sequence analysis indicates that the apparent lack of diversity in germline V segments is well compensated for by relatively long and highly diversified D and N nucleotides. In addition, extensive sequence variation was observed in the framework region 3. Furthermore, at least five and possibly seven different J segments seem to be actively used in recombination. Interestingly, internal cysteine bridges in the complementarity-determining region (CDR)3 loop, or between the CDR2 and CDR3 loops, are found in approximately 36% of the platypus V(H) sequences. Such cysteine bridges have also been observed in cow, camel, and shark. Internal cysteine bridges may play a role in stabilizing long and diversified CDR3 and thereby have a role in increasing the affinity of the Ab-Ag interaction. PMID:11994470

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma chelodina and Trypanosoma binneyi from Australian tortoises and platypuses inferred from small subunit rRNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Jakes, K A; O'Donoghue, P J; Adlard, R D

    2001-11-01

    Trypanosome infections are often difficult to detect by conventional microscopy and their pleomorphy often confounds differential diagnosis. Molecular techniques are now being used to diagnose infections and to determine phylogenetic relationships between species. Complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences were determined for isolates of Trypanosoma chelodina from the Brisbane River tortoise (Emydura signata), the saw-shelled tortoise (Elseya latisternum), and the eastern snake-necked tortoise (Chelodina longicollis) from southeast Queensland, Australia. Partial sequence data were also obtained for T. binneyi from a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) from Tasmania. Phylogenetic relationships between T. chelodina, T. binneyi and other species were examined by maximum parsimony and likelihood methods. The Australian tortoise and platypus trypanosomes did not exhibit any close phylogenetic relationships with those of mammals, reptiles or amphibians, but were closely related to each other, and to fish trypanosomes. This contra-indicates their co-evolution with their vertebrate hosts but does not exclude co-evolution with different groups of invertebrate vectors, notably insects and leeches. PMID:11719959

  7. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Alessandro; Jäch, Manfred A; Ostovan, Hadi; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran is summarized. A total of ten species of Dryopidae in three genera (Dryops Olivier, Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, and Praehelichus Löbl & Smetana), and 18 species of Heteroceridae in two genera (Augyles Schiödte and Heterocerus Fabricius) are listed. Augyles hispidulus (Kiesenwetter, 1843) (Heteroceridae) is recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:27470861

  8. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  9. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Lawrence, John F; Lyal, Chris H C; Newton, Alfred F; Reid, Chris A M; Schmitt, Michael; Slipiński, S Adam; Smith, Andrew B T

    2011-01-01

    We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification.New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856

  10. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. PMID:25863331

  11. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  12. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia. PMID:26701426

  13. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  14. Effects of a novel microsporidium on the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered microsporidium infecting the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), provisionally placed in the genus Canningia, was studied to determine its impact on O. sulcatus. Otiorhyncus sulcatus populations from several locations were sampled and evaluat...

  15. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  16. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  17. A new species of Phymatodes Mulsant (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575

  18. Effects of a Novel Microsporidium on the Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly discovered microsporidium infecting the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), provisionally placed in the genus Canningia, was studied to determine its impact on O. sulcatus. Otiorhyncus sulcatus populations from several locations were sampled and evaluat...

  19. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated. PMID:27563272

  20. Similarities in pheromonal communication of flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze and Ph. vittula Redtenbacher (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkable similarities have been found in the pheromonal communication of Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher and of Ph. cruciferae Goeze (European population) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In previous European field tests with Ph. cruciferae, only the major male-produced sesquiterpene identified from ...

  1. Primary types of Chinese longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...

  2. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  3. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  4. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  5. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles. PMID:26248935

  6. New taxa, notes and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2014-01-01

    New taxa, notes, and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) are given. New taxa are described from Ecuador: Compsibidion inflatum sp. nov., Bezarkia gen. nov. and B. suturalis sp. nov., Corimbion antennatum sp. nov. and Neocompsa muira sp. nov.; from México: Neocompsa chiapensis sp. nov., and from French Guyana: Kunaibidion giesberti sp. nov. Pygmodeon maculatum Martins & Galileo, 2012 is considered a new synonym of Heterachthes xyleus Martins, 1974 which is transferred to the genus Pygmodeon as a new combination. Notes on variability and new records of Asynapteron equatorianum (Martins, 1960) are presented. PMID:24869549

  7. An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species. PMID:26250020

  8. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  9. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590

  10. Likelihood of multiple mating in Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungkoo; Krupke, Christian H

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the mating ability of male western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), for 20 d after initial mating, using a series of laboratory experiments. Males mated an average of 2.24 times within 10 d after their first mating and averaged 0.15 matings between days 11 and 20 after their first mating. Because estimating the mating frequency in Bt/refuge cornfields is critical to developing robust and reliable models predicting Bt resistance development in this pest, we discuss how these laboratory findings may influence development and evaluation of current and future insect resistance management plans. PMID:20069837

  11. Morphological and histochemical observations on the crural gland-spur apparatus of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) together with comparative observations on the femoral gland-spur apparatus of the duckbilled platypus (Ornithorhyncus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2010-01-01

    The echidna and platypus have a crural/femoral gland that is linked by a large duct to a canalized, keratinous spur located on the medial side of the ankle. The echidna crural gland, like the femoral gland of the platypus, exhibits cyclic activity, being prominent in both monotremes when they are sexually active. In the present study, we compared the structure and histochemistry of these glands. During the active phase, the secretory epithelium forming the respective glands of both species increased in height and became packed with secretory granules that differed markedly in structure. Secretory granules of the echidna crural gland were electron dense and characterized by cores or areas of increased electron density. Those of the platypus were initially electron dense, but then became less dense and coalesced into irregular complexes of secretory material. Large cytoplasmic blebs extended from epithelial cell apices and appeared to be shed into the lumen, resulting in an apocrine mode of secretion. Exocytosis was also observed. A similar form of release of secretory product was not observed in the echidna. Secretory granules of both species were periodic acid-Schiff positive and stained for protein, suggesting that much of the secretory product was glycoprotein. Myoepithelial cells enveloped the secretory tubules of the platypus femoral gland, whereas they were not observed surrounding tubules comprising the echidna crural gland. During the quiescent phase, the epithelial cells of both species lost their secretory granules and decreased in height. As a result, the secretory tubules became smaller, intralobular connective tissue increased and the glands decreased in overall size. PMID:20224277

  12. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in floor traps: the effect of previous captures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian Yi; Li, Lei; Xin, Tianrong; Wang, Yayu; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (GenBank accession number KT182067) by the long PCR and primer walking method. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15 511 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a A + T-rich region (D-loop). The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The base composition of the genome is A (39.17%), T (37.24%), C (14.22%), and G (9.37%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codon and terminate with the stop codon T (AA) or TAG. The A + T-rich region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(Ile). In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of Coleoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Coleoptera species. PMID:26330111

  14. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes pusillus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liu, Guanghua; Sun, Tanyi; Xin, Tianrong; Li, Meiyun; Zou, Zhiwen; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Cryptolestes pusillus (GenBank accession number KT070713) was sequenced by long PCR and primer walking methods. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 15 502 bp and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a A + T-rich region. The base composition of the genome is A (39.04%), T (37.07%), C (23.4%), and G (14.6%). Except for COI and ATP8 with TCC and ATC as start codon, respectively, the remaining protein-coding genes initiated with the three orthodox start codons. Two complete stop codons (TAA and TAG) and two incomplete stop codons (COIII stop with T and ND5 stop with TA) were used in the protein-coding genes. The A + T-rich region is located between 12s rRNA and tRNA(Ile) with the length of 859 bp. The phylogenetic relationships of Coleoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 protein-coding genes of mitogenome using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogenetic analysis supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Coleoptera species. PMID:26329895

  16. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair. PMID:27375029

  17. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  18. Stevewoodia minutum, a new genus and species of Scolytidae (Coleoptera) from the West Indies. Studies on West Indian Scolytidae (Coleoptera) 6

    PubMed Central

    E. Bright, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of Scolytidae (Coleoptera), Stevewoodia, from St. Lucia in the Lesser Antilles, is herein named and described. The type species, Stevewoodia minutum sp. n. is also named. The genus is named in honor of the late Steven L. Wood for his many contributions to the systematics of the Scolytidae. PMID:21594171

  19. The genomes of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) encode a more complete purine catabolic pathway than placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Keebaugh, Alaine C; Thomas, James W

    2009-09-01

    The end product of purine catabolism varies amongst vertebrates and is a consequence of independent gene inactivation events that have truncated the purine catabolic pathway. Mammals have traditionally been grouped into two classes based on their end product of purine catabolism: most mammals, whose end product is allantoin due to an ancient loss of allantoinase (ALLN), and the hominoids, whose end product is uric acid due to recent inactivations of urate oxidase (UOX). However little is known about purine catabolism in marsupials and monotremes. Here we report the results of a comparative genomics study designed to characterize the purine catabolic pathway in a marsupial, the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). We found that both genomes encode a more complete set of genes for purine catabolism than do eutherians and conclude that a near complete purine catabolic pathway was present in the common ancestor of all mammals, and that the loss of ALLN is specific to placental mammals. Our results therefore provide a revised history for gene loss in the purine catabolic pathway and suggest that marsupials and monotremes represent a third class of mammals with respect to their end products of purine catabolism. PMID:20161190

  20. A study on the Neotropical Anthaxiini (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907

  1. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  2. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, I; Beutel, R G; Balke, M; Vogler, A P

    2002-01-01

    The six extant aquatic families of Hydradephaga (Coleoptera) known so far represent a diverse group of beetles morphologically highly modified for life in the water. We report the discovery of a new genus with two species from South Africa and China, which differ greatly from all extant families, but resemble the Jurassic-Cretaceous dagger Liadytidae (the dagger symbol indicates that the taxa are known only as fossils). Based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data we erect a new family, Aspidytidae, which is the sister group of Dytiscidae plus Hygrobiidae. We propose a new scenario for the evolution of swimming behaviour in adephagan beetles, in which the transition into the aquatic environment is followed by complex and repeated changes in lifestyles, including the secondary complete loss of swimming ability in Aspidytidae. PMID:12495503

  3. Biology and Management of Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Turfgrass

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080

  4. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. PMID:26264818

  5. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  6. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. PMID:23550535

  7. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  8. Host plant oviposition preference of Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera:Apionidae), a potential biological control agent of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia that is being evaluated as a prospective classical biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) in the United States. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory ...

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...

  10. Non-constant thermal regimes enhance overwintering success and accelerate diapause development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....

  11. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  12. Natural history studies for the preliminary evaluation of a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies on the life history, behavior and ecology of Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to determine if it is worthy of further evaluation as a classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Larinus filiformis occurs ...

  13. A new species of Hypoaspis Canestrini (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) associated with Oryctes sp. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Joharchi, Omid; Shahedi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Hypoaspis Canestrini, Hypoaspis surenai sp. n., is described based on adult female specimens collected in association with Oryctes sp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Taft, Yazd province, Iran. PMID:27110181

  14. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  15. Utility of morphological and molecular techniques for determination of paternity in two subspecies of Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the paternity of F1 progeny using morphological and molecular methods in Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) subspecies: Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, also known as spotted cucumber beetle and D. undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, als...

  16. Inter-Cohort Cannibalism of Early Benthic Phase Blue King Crabs (Paralithodes platypus): Alternate Foraging Strategies in Different Habitats Lead to Different Functional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Benjamin; Long, W. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus) are commercially and ecologically important in Alaska, USA, but population abundances have fluctuated over the past several decades likely resulting from a combination of environmental and biological factors, including recruitment variability. Cannibalism between cohorts may be a source of mortality limiting recruitment success in the wild, but the degree of inter-cohort cannibalism is unknown for early benthic phase blue king crabs. In laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of habitat type (sand and shell) on the predator functional response and foraging behavior of year-1 blue king crabs as predators of year-0 conspecifics and examined the effects of predator presence on crypsis of prey crabs. In sand, consumption rates increased with predator size and prey density until satiation, while predation rates in shell were low regardless of predator size or prey density. These differential predation rates yielded a type III functional response in sand but a type I functional response in shell habitat. Crypsis of prey crabs was generally high and did not change in the presence of predators. Predator foraging activity was reduced in shell and may be an adaptive behavior to balance foraging efficiency and susceptibility to larger predators. Our results demonstrate that early benthic phase blue king crabs are cannibalistic between cohorts in the laboratory and that shell material is extremely effective for reducing encounter rates with conspecific predators. The distribution and abundance of such habitat may be important for recruitment success in some populations. Future studies should compare benthic habitat and species assemblages in areas with variable abundances, such as the Pribilof Islands and Saint Matthew Island in the eastern Bering Sea, to better understand possible mechanisms for recruitment variability. PMID:24558414

  17. Inter-cohort cannibalism of early benthic phase blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus): alternate foraging strategies in different habitats lead to different functional responses.

    PubMed

    Daly, Benjamin; Long, W Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Blue king crabs (Paralithodes platypus) are commercially and ecologically important in Alaska, USA, but population abundances have fluctuated over the past several decades likely resulting from a combination of environmental and biological factors, including recruitment variability. Cannibalism between cohorts may be a source of mortality limiting recruitment success in the wild, but the degree of inter-cohort cannibalism is unknown for early benthic phase blue king crabs. In laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of habitat type (sand and shell) on the predator functional response and foraging behavior of year-1 blue king crabs as predators of year-0 conspecifics and examined the effects of predator presence on crypsis of prey crabs. In sand, consumption rates increased with predator size and prey density until satiation, while predation rates in shell were low regardless of predator size or prey density. These differential predation rates yielded a type III functional response in sand but a type I functional response in shell habitat. Crypsis of prey crabs was generally high and did not change in the presence of predators. Predator foraging activity was reduced in shell and may be an adaptive behavior to balance foraging efficiency and susceptibility to larger predators. Our results demonstrate that early benthic phase blue king crabs are cannibalistic between cohorts in the laboratory and that shell material is extremely effective for reducing encounter rates with conspecific predators. The distribution and abundance of such habitat may be important for recruitment success in some populations. Future studies should compare benthic habitat and species assemblages in areas with variable abundances, such as the Pribilof Islands and Saint Matthew Island in the eastern Bering Sea, to better understand possible mechanisms for recruitment variability. PMID:24558414

  18. Predator-driven intra-species variation in locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference in pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Fu, Shi-Jian; Yuan, Xin-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong

    2015-01-15

    Fish inhabit environments that vary greatly in terms of predation intensity, and these predation regimes are generally expected to be a major driver of divergent natural selection. To test whether there is predator-driven intra-species variation in the locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference of pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river, we measured unsteady and steady swimming and water velocity preference among fish collected from both high- and low-predation habitats in the Wujiang River. We also measured the routine metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed (Uopt). The fish from the high-predation populations showed a shorter response latency, elevated routine metabolism, lower swimming efficiency at low swimming speed and lower water velocity preference compared with those from the low-predation populations. Neither of the kinematic parameters fast-start and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) showed a significant difference between the high- and low-predation populations. The fish from the high-predation populations may improve their predator avoidance capacity primarily through an elevated routine metabolism and shorter response latency to achieve advanced warning and escape, rather than an improved fast-start swimming speed or acceleration. Thus, the cost of this strategy is an elevated RMR, and no trade-off between unsteady and steady swimming performance was observed in the pale chub population under various predation stresses. It was interesting to find that the high-predation fish showed an unexpected lower velocity preference, which might represent a compromise between predation avoidance, foraging and energy saving. PMID:25452504

  19. Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) response to soybean variety and organic-compliant treatments in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to concerns from certified organic producers who were experiencing significant market losses due to seed staining of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], we evaluated alternative ways to manage bean leaf beetles [Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a known vector for...

  20. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  1. Chemical Control of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...

  2. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...

  3. ACOUSTIC ESTIMATION OF INFESTATIONS AND POPULATION DENSITIES OF WHITE GRUBS (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE) IN TURFGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidental sounds produced by Phyllophaga and Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grubs were acoustically monitored in turf fields and golf course fairways. A one-sensor acoustic system was used to assess the likelihood of infestation and a four-sensor array was used to facilitate localization ...

  4. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  5. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  6. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  7. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  8. Rhyzodiastes (Temoana) xii sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Rhysodidae: Clinidiini),
    a new species from Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Rhyzodiastes (Temoana) xii sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Rhysodidae: Clinidiini) is described from Hainan Island, China. Important morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. An updated key to nine species of of the R. (T.) singularis species-group is compiled so as to include the new species. PMID:27395589

  9. An Annotated Checklist of the Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An annotated list of 80 species of lady beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) that occur in the state of Iowa, U.S.A., is presented based on literature searches and a review of over 3500 specimens from institutional and private collections. The list includes new state records for Scymnus tenebrosus M...

  10. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  11. THE PRESENCE OF TIBIAL SPURS AS A MALE SEXUAL CHARACTER FOR GALERUCELLA CALMARIENIS (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Close examination (20-30X) of tibia of Galerucella calmariensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) showed that some of these leaf beetles had a single black-colored spur at the distal end of the tibia. These spurs were only observed on the meso- and metatibia and were clearly contrasted against the l...

  12. Diversity of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attracted to avocado, lychee, and essential oil lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...

  13. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  14. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  15. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  16. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) capture in pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...

  17. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  18. Detection of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and identification of associated nematodes in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...

  19. Impact of corn variety on potential predators of larval corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.) are serious pests of maize around the world. Larvae feed on corn roots, which reduces uptake of water and nutrients and lowers plant yield. Current control practices rely on soil insecticides or genetically modified corn varieties. Although some researche...

  20. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  1. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models. PMID:27497607

  2. Multistate characters and diet shifts: evolution of Erotylidae (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Leschen, Richard A B; Buckley, Thomas R

    2007-02-01

    The dominance of angiosperms has played a direct role in the diversification of insects, especially Coleoptera. The shift to angiosperm feeding from other diets is likely to have increased the rate of speciation in Phytophaga. However, Phytophaga is only one of many hyperdiverse lineages of beetles and studies of host-shift proliferation have been somewhat limited to groups that primitively feed on plants. We have studied the diet-diverse beetle family Erotylidae (Cucujoidea) to determine if diet is correlated with high diversification rates and morphological evolution by first reconstructing ancestral diets and then testing for associations between diet and species number and diet and ovipositor type. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of morphological data that was previously published in Leschen (2003, Pages 1-108 in Fauna of New Zealand, 47; 53 terminal taxa and 1 outgroup, 120 adult characters and 1 diet character) yielded results that are similar to the parsimony analyses of Leschen (2003). Ancestral state reconstructions based on Bayesian and parsimony inference were largely congruent and both reconstructed microfungal feeding (the diet of the outgroup Biphyllidae) at the root of the Erotylidae tree. Shifts among microfungal, saprophagous, and phytophagous diets were most frequent. The largest numbers of species are contained in lineages that are macrofungal feeders (subfamily Erotylinae) and phytophagous (derived Languriinae), although the Bayesian posterior predictive tests of character state correlation were unable to detect any significant associations. Ovipositor morphology correlated with diet (i.e., acute forms were associated with phytophagy and unspecialized forms were associated with a mixture of diets). Although there is a general trend to increased species number associated with the shift from microfungal feeding to phytophagy (based on character mapping and mainly restricted to shifts in Languriinae), there is a large radiation of taxa feeding on

  3. A review of the genus Carchesiopygus Schedl (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae), with keys to species.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Roger A; Sanguansub, Sunisa

    2015-01-01

    The ten species included by Schedl (1972) in the Oriental platypodine genus Carchesiopygus Schedl are reviewed. The genus is rediagnosed and restricted to the following species: Carchesiopygus wollastoni (Chapuis) (type species), C. alternantes Schedl, C. assamensis (Beeson), C. impariporus (Beeson), C. multidentatus (Strohmeyer) and C. oculatus (Beeson), and distinguished from Crossotarsus Chapuis and related genera. The following species are transferred to Platypus Herbst: Carchesiopygus dentipennis Schedl, Carchesiopygus lobacanthus Schedl, Crossotarsus acanthurus Beeson, Crossotarsus psilacanthurus Beeson. Keys are provided to males and females of Carchesiopygus. The taxonomy, distribution and biology of the species are briefly reviewed, and some new records included. PMID:25781834

  4. A synopsis of the pin-hole borers of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y

    2013-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774

  5. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. PMID:26487745

  6. Bacteria from Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their biocontrol potential.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Ali; Gökçe, Cihan; Erbaş, Zeynep; Ozkan, Filiz

    2012-12-01

    Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive pests of the spruce trees in Europe. In this study, we have isolated and characterized culturable bacteria from I. sexdentatus and tested their insecticidal activity against the last instar larvae of the pest as a possible biocontrol agent. A total of eight bacterial isolates was determined and four of them were identified at species level, and the others were identified at genus level. Isolates were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Is1), Rahnella sp. (Is2), Pseudomonas sp. (Is3), Bacillus sp. (Is4), Alcaligenes faecalis (Is5), Panteoea agglomerans (Is6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) and Serratia sp. (Is8) based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Insecticidal effects of bacterial isolates were performed on the last instar larvae of the pest. The highest insecticidal activity was obtained from P. fluorescens (Is7) with 73% mortality within 10 days after inoculation (p < 0.05). Mortality values of the other isolates ranged from 20 to 53%. This study suggests that Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) seems to be a good candidate as a possible biocontrol agent against I. sexdentatus, and provides suitable strains that can be modified to express insecticidal toxins and/or other detrimental substances to develop new control methods for I. sexdentatus. PMID:22581609

  7. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given. PMID:27615867

  8. The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated. PMID:27394368

  9. Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae revisited (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Petitpierre, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xy(p) and XY(p) clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104

  10. A chromosomal analysis of eleven species of Gyrinidae (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347

  11. Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae revisited (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) *

    PubMed Central

    Petitpierre, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104

  12. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  13. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%. PMID:25427809

  14. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Han, Haibin; Pang, Baoping; Zhang, Pengfei

    2016-07-01

    Abstracts Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of important pests in the Inner Mongolia grasslands. The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced. The genome is 16 615 bp long, with an AT content of 78.1%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an AT-rich region. All 13 PCGs share the start codon ATN, and the usual termination codons (TAA and TAG) are found from 13 protein-coding genes, except for COI, COII, and ND4 (T). All the 22 typical animal tRNA genes are found in G. daurica mt-genome, and most of the tRNAs could be folded into the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA-Ser (AGN), which lacks the dihydrouracil (DHU) stem. The sizes of the large ribosomal RNA genes are 1276 bp long and small ribosomal RNA genes are 747 bp long. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 79.0%. Phylogenetic analysis supports that the coleopteran insects from the same family cluster in the same group, and Chrysomelidae and Tenebrionidae are basal to the Cerambycidae. Galeruca daurica has a closest relationship with Diabrotica barberi and Diabrotica virgifera. PMID:26122336

  16. PLATYPUS: A code for reaction dynamics of weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies within a classical dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2011-04-01

    A self-contained Fortran-90 program based on a three-dimensional classical dynamical reaction model with stochastic breakup is presented, which is a useful tool for quantifying complete and incomplete fusion, and breakup in reactions induced by weakly-bound two-body projectiles near the Coulomb barrier. The code calculates (i) integrated complete and incomplete fusion cross sections and their angular momentum distribution, (ii) the excitation energy distribution of the primary incomplete-fusion products, (iii) the asymptotic angular distribution of the incomplete-fusion products and the surviving breakup fragments, and (iv) breakup observables, such as angle, kinetic energy and relative energy distributions. Program summaryProgram title: PLATYPUS Catalogue identifier: AEIG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 332 342 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 344 124 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran-90 Computer: Any Unix/Linux workstation or PC with a Fortran-90 compiler Operating system: Linux or Unix RAM: 10 MB Classification: 16.9, 17.7, 17.8, 17.11 Nature of problem: The program calculates a wide range of observables in reactions induced by weakly-bound two-body nuclei near the Coulomb barrier. These include integrated complete and incomplete fusion cross sections and their spin distribution, as well as breakup observables (e.g. the angle, kinetic energy, and relative energy distributions of the fragments). Solution method: All the observables are calculated using a three-dimensional classical dynamical model combined with the Monte Carlo sampling of probability-density distributions. See Refs. [1,2] for further details. Restrictions: The

  17. A new cytosporone derivative from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomoya; Koseki, Takuya; Koyama, Hiromasa; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2014-07-01

    Japanese oak wilt (JOW) is a tree disease caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora, which is vectored by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus. In a screening study of the inhibitory active compounds from fungi, a new cytosporone analogue, compound 1, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Cytospora sp. TT-10 isolated from Japanese oak, together with the known compounds, integracin A (2), cytosporones N (3) and A (4). Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analyses. Compound 1 was identified as 4,5-dihydroxy-3-heptylphthalide and named cytosporone E. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antimicrobial activity against Raffaelea quercivora. PMID:25230507

  18. A molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to

  19. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  20. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  1. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  2. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C

    2013-04-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D

  3. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361

  4. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of Eudicella from East Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Seidel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Eudicella White, 1839 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is described from Uganda and Kenya: E. nana new species. Morphological and genetic analyses of the new taxon and phenotypically allied species are given. Eudicella nana is compared with its hypothesized sister species, E. darwiniana Kraatz, 1880, and diagnostic characters that distinguish it from other species occurring in the same region are provided. PMID:27470742

  5. Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanshu; Chandra, Kailash; Hillert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Odontotrypes Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) belonging to the subgenus Odontotrupes Boucomont, 1905 is described from the Tawang district, State of Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India): Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species. Relevant diagnostic characters (pronotum, head, elytra, profemur, scutellar shield, and external male genitalia) are illustrated and compared with closely related species of this subgenus, in particular Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) orichalceus (Fairmaire, 1895). The distribution of the new species is mapped. PMID:27615859

  6. New species and records of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arce-Pérez, Roberto; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Bolivia are described and illustrated: M. megaphyllus new species (from Comarapa, Santa Cruz and Sehuenca, Cochabamba) and M. yunganus new species (from Mairana and Comarapa, Santa Cruz). In addition, the species Macrodactylus bolivianus Moser, M. gracilis Moser, and M. nobilis Frey are redescribed and illustrated to help facilitate identification of these species. A key to the 10 species of Macrodactylus presently known from Bolivia is provided.  PMID:25283110

  7. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799

  8. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  9. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae) from Taiwan Island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271

  10. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam; Mandal, Samir K; Ghosh, Arup K; Das, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Siddhartha S; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2008-01-01

    Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m.), and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m.) phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P < 0.05) with different prey, predator and volume combinations, revealed through univariate ANOVA. The field study revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in larval density of different species of mosquitoes after 30 days from the introduction of A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in larval density was noted indicating the efficacy of A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito

  11. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-01-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  12. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    PubMed

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer. PMID:26476555

  13. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced. PMID:26743218

  14. Recent Records of Adalia Bipunctata (L.), Coccinella Transversoguttata Richardsoni Brown and, Coccinella Novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from South Dakota and Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and C. novemnotata Herbst (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were previously common throughout much of North America, but their numbers have declined drastically over the last few decades. This paper reports on recent findings of thes...

  15. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  16. Seven New Species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic with Taxonomic Notes, New Country Records, and a Key to Elaphidion Audinet-Serville from Hispaniola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new species, two new combinations, two new synonyms, and four new country records of Elaphidiini longhorned woodborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic are presented. Elaphidion compressipenne Fisher is transferred to Ceresium Newman as C. compressipenne (Fisher), new c...

  17. SEMIOCHEMICAL-MEDIATED FLIGHT RESPONSES OF SAP BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:NITDULIDAE) VECTORS OF OAK WILT, CERATOCYSTIS FAGACEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sap beetle, Colopterus truncatus (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae), is one of the primary vectors of the oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, in the north central United States. Male beetles emit an aggregation pheromone that attracts both sexes. Field behavioral assays utilizing various release...

  18. Olfactory and visual responses of the long-legged chafer hoplia spectabilis medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Qinghai province, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-legged chafer, Hoplia spectabilis Medvedev (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has recently been recorded in outbreak numbers in pastureland of Qinghai province, China. It is causing significant damage to several species of woody shrubs, especially Hippophae neurocarpa Liu and Ho (Elaeagnaceae), D...

  19. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  20. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  1. Quantitative relationship between potato tuber damage and counts of Pacific Coast wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in baits: seasonal effects.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plots were baited with rolled oats in spring to assess the relationship between counts of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and damage to potato tubers. Baiting was done at 7 intervals beginning before planting of potatoes and ending following germination. Injury (per...

  2. Responses of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), to Relative Humidity: Oviposition, Hatch and Immature Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a predator of whiteflies. It is tropical in origin. Whiteflies are agricultural problems in environments ranging from humid to arid conditions. A study was conducted to determine if there were any humidity effects on oviposition, hatching...

  3. From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

  4. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  5. Catalog of the coleoptera of America North of Mexico. Family: Curculionidae. Subfamily: Polydrosinae. Tribe: Tanymecini. Agriculture handbook (Research)

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, A.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).

  6. Introduction and Recovery of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alyerodidae) is an important pest of many crops on a global scale. The use of biological control organisms such as coccinelid predators can help manage this pest. Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an obligate predator of whiteflies, in...

  7. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  8. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  9. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...

  10. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  11. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  12. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  13. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  14. Redescription of the Hispaniolan ladybird genus Bura Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and justification for its transfer from Coccidulinae to Sticholotidinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the current work, we discuss the features of Bura (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) that justify its transfer from Coccidulinae to Sticholotidinae, speculate on circumstances that led to its prior misclassification, and highlight current problems in the delineation of the afforementioned lady beetle su...

  15. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...

  16. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) nematodes in a morphologically aberrant adult specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...

  17. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  18. The effects of temperature, diet, and other factors on development, survivorship, and oviposition of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental rate and survivorship of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), life stages were measured across different temperatures (21, 25, 28, 32 and 35ºC) and diets, which included natural and artiÞcial pollen, honey, and bee pupae. Temperature affected hatch su...

  19. Fungal symbionts in three exotic ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus amputatus, Xyleborinus andrewesi, and Dryoxylon onoharaense (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...

  20. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  1. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  2. Influence of environmental and physical factors on Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) trap captures in a flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental and physical variables in food processing facilities can influence both the distribution of stored-product pests and the effectiveness of traps at capturing them. Data from a long-term Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) monitoring program was used to evaluate spat...

  3. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  4. An effective trap and bait combination for monitoring the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is a pest of European honeybees Apis mellifera mellifera (L.) in the United States. This paper reports field tests of an effective trap and bait combination for monitoring flying SHB. The bait consisted of pollen dough (...

  5. Identification of feeding stimulants for Pacific coast wireworm by use of a filter paper assay (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...

  6. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation of North American populations of Aphthona species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), flea beetles imported for biocontrol of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...

  8. Efficacy of layer treatment with methoprene for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat, rice, and maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect growth regulators are promising alternatives to traditional pesticides in stored grain. The efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene was evaluated as a layer treatment in a laboratory experiment for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in wheat, rice and...

  9. Susceptibility of Persea spp. and other Lauraceae to attack by redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva that causes laurel wilt (LW), a l...

  10. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde. PMID

  11. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde

  12. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  13. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870

  14. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  15. On the family- and genus-series nomina in Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810 (Coleoptera, Adephaga).

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2013-01-01

    All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851. PMID:25277555

  16. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance. PMID:18062323

  17. Kuznetsovia, a new generic replacement name for Aenigma Kuznetsova, 1957 (Ostracoda) non Newman, 1836 (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The generic name Aenigma was proposed by Kuznetsova (1957: 68; type species A. jucunda Kuznetsova, by original designation) for a new fossil ostracod genus from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) of Tegchaj, North-Eastern Azerbaijan, former USSR (Transcaucasia). However, this name is already preoccupied by a marine gastropod molluscan generic name Aenigma Newman (1836: 499), which is in active current use in zoology (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Besides this earliest generic name, a few homonyms were also known: Aenigma Amsel (1956: 288) [Lepidoptera], Aenigma Koch (in Martin & Chemnitz 1846: 1, unpaginated) [Mollusca], Aenigma Karsch (1878: 825) [Arachnida], Aenigma Strecker (1876: 122) [Lepidoptera]. PMID:27395148

  18. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  19. Abundance, diversity and community characterization of aquatic Coleoptera in a rice field of Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A

    2015-09-01

    Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna. PMID:26666120

  20. Adaptation of the egg of the desert beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to arid environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  1. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits. PMID:22245358

  2. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  3. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  4. The diversity and biogeography of the Coleoptera of Churchill: insights from DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the

  5. Immediate and delayed mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults exposed to spinosad-treated commodities.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Anna Iversen; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests was conducted to characterize differences in the mortality of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), exposed to three commodities treated with a liquid and dry spinosad formulation. In laboratory bioassays, adults of the two insect species were exposed to untreated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., corn, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., and to commodities treated with 1 mg (AI)/kg of liquid and dry spinosad formulations. Mortality was assessed from independent samples examined at specific time intervals to determine immediate mortality and after 24 h of recovery on untreated grain at 28 degrees C and 65% RH to determine delayed mortality. Comparison of the time required for 50% (LT50) and 95% (LT95) mortality indicated that R. dominica adults were consistently and significantly more susceptible (died quickly) than S. oryzae adults when exposed to spinosad-treated commodities. In general, the toxicity of liquid and dry spinosad formulations was similar against R. dominica or S. oryzae. The toxicity of spinosad to each species varied slightly among the three commodities, and there were no consistent trends to suggest that spinosad was more effective on one commodity versus another. LT50 values based on immediate mortality for R. dominica on all commodities ranged from 0.45 to 0.74 d; corresponding values based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.04 to 0.23 d, suggesting delayed toxic action of spinosad in R. dominica. LT50 values based on immediate and delayed mortality for S. oryzae on all three commodities treated with the two spinosad formulations were essentially similar and ranged from 2.75 to 4.56 d. LT95 values for R. dominica based on immediate mortality on spinosad-treated commodities ranged from 1.75 to 3.36 d, and those based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.49 to 1.88 d. There were no significant differences in

  6. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured. PMID:27615939

  7. Molecular analysis reveals two new dimorphic species of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) parasitic on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex; Rossi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Four morphotypes of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) were found on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Costa Rica and Ecuador. Partial SSU and ITS rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these belong to two phylogenetic species, each with a pair of morphotypes displaying position specificity. Confirmation of dimorphism in Laboulbeniales highlights the need for a thorough systematic revision of species concepts within the order. The theory of 'position specificity' also needs to be revisited. PMID:24295919

  8. A new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 from Amazonian Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lycidae) with an updated key to the species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2016-01-01

    While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America. PMID:27394794

  9. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526

  10. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  11. A new brachypterous scarab species, Orphnus longicornis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), from the East African Rift.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below. PMID:26624632

  12. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  13. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB-endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894

  14. Development of a Nondestructive Method for Sexing Live Adult Sternoplax souvorowiana (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang

    2015-01-01

    The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924

  15. Geotrupine beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as bio-monitors of man-made radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia

    2003-04-01

    Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body. PMID:12729271

  16. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB–endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894

  17. The investigation of heavy element accumulation in some Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) species.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Zeynep; Gürol, Ali; İncekara, Ümit

    2016-04-01

    First of all, this study aimed to find out the measures of some heavy elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Pb) as heavy element pollution in Erzurum Province, and secondly to observe whether some hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) species can be used as a biomonitor. Insect samples were collected from five different localities of Erzurum in June, July, and August 2014. Heavy element levels in sediment, water, and insect samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer device. According to the results of analysis derived through EDXRF spectrometry, heavy element concentrations display differences between stations and also species. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and water; therefore, some hydrophilidae species accumulate higher concentration of elements than their environment. Results for levels in water were compared to national water quality guidelines. The values of some heavy elements found at higher concentration than acceptable limits. PMID:26935735

  18. The first complete mitochondrial genome of stag beetle from China, Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group. PMID:26024142

  19. Cellulose digestion in Monochamus marmorator Kby. (coleoptera: Cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukol, J.J.; Martin, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Larvae of the balsam fir sawyer, Monochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (Deuteromycetes, Moniliales, Moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. When larvae are maintained on a fungusfree diet, their midgut fluids lack cellulolytic activity, and they are unable to digest cellulose. Cellulolytic capacity can be restored by feeding the larvae wood permeated by fungi. We conclude that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae. Instead, the larvae acquire the capacity to digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood.

  20. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  1. Taxonomic review of Cratocerus Dejean, 1829 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Grzymala, Traci L.; Will, Kipling W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A diagnosis of the South and Central American genus Cratocerus Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and a key to all species is provided. Eight species are recognized including six species that are newly described: Cratocerus sinesetosus sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; Cratocerus multisetosus sp. n. from Costa Rica and Panama; Cratocerus tanyae sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Mexico; Cratocerus indupalmensis sp. n. a species widely distributed throughout Central and South America; Cratocerus kavanaughi sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; and Cratocerus culpepperi sp. n. from Peru. A lectotype for Cratocerus sulcatus Chaudoir is designated. Habitus images are provided along with illustrations and images of male genitalia, female genitalia, and diagnostic morphological characters. PMID:25061348

  2. Adaptation by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bt maize: inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Cibils-Stewart, Ximena; French, B Wade; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-08-01

    We examined inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs for a laboratory-selected strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with resistance to maize (Zea maize L.) producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1. The resistant strain developed faster and had increased survival on Bt maize relative to a susceptible strain. Results from reciprocal crosses of the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that inheritance of resistance was nonrecessive. No fitness costs were associated with resistance alleles in the presence of two entomopathogenic nematode species, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar. Larval feeding studies indicated that the susceptible and resistant strains did not differ in preference for Bt and non-Bt root tissue in choice assays. PMID:22928323

  3. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  4. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  5. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  6. Taxonomy of Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): new species and a status change.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Carmen T; Scholtz, Clarke H; Strümpher, Werner P

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the Cape high-mountain stag beetle genus, Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), from South Africa are described. They are C. deschodti new species, C. switalae new species, and C. struempheri new species. The new taxa fall within a species complex of geographically disjunct entities related to Colophon stokoei Barnard. Furthermore, the mitochondrial COI gene shows a high degree of sequence divergence, with pairwise genetic distances between the species ranging between 7.4-10.7%. The new species are illustrated by photographs. Colophon eastmani nagaii Mizukami is raised to species level on the basis of geographic range and molecular differences between it and the nominate subspecies. This brings the total number of described species in the genus to 21. An updated checklist of the South African species of Colophon is also provided. PMID:26701471

  7. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  8. New synonyms, combinations and faunistic records in the genus Denierella Kaszab (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Batelka, Jan; Hájek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomy of the genus Denierella Kaszab, 1952 (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Epicautini) is evaluated. The following new synonyms and combinations (all from the genus Epicauta Dejean, 1834) are established: Denierella thailandica (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. = D. striolata Yang & Ren, 2007 syn. nov.; Denierella emmerichi (Pic, 1934) comb. nov. = D. serrata Kaszab, 1952 syn. nov.; Denierella promerotricha (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for Epicauta emmerichi. Epicauta emmerichi yunnanensis Kaszab, 1960 is provisionally raised to E. yunnanensis stat. nov., until its status can be confirmed by the study of the holotype specimen. Five new country records, one new Chinese province record and two new Indian state records of six Denierella species are provided, and the distribution of all species included in this study is outlined. A checklist of the genus Denierella is provided and general problems in the taxonomy of Asiatic Epicautini are discussed. PMID:26623605

  9. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML ("nonhomogeneous") algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  10. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N.; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G.; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML (“nonhomogeneous”) algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  11. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to female-produced macrocyclic lactone and to ash bark volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive beetle species from Asia that has caused extensive mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since arriving in the U.S. in 2002. Especially hard hit are green ash (F. pennsylvanica), black ash (F. nigra), a...

  12. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a brief history of the collection.

    PubMed

    Monné, Miguel A; Monné, Marcela L

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types deposited in the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is given. There are 1,044 primary types. Lectotype designation for Megacyllene castroi (Prosen, 1947) is proposed. A brief history of the collection of Cerambycidae of the Museu Nacional is presented. PMID:27394892

  13. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  14. Post entry interception of the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle,Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Italy Genbank Accession Number GU244486

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) known as the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle is native from eastern Asia (China, Japan including Ryukyu, Shikoku and Honshu archipelago and Taïwan) where it attacks plants belonging to Moraceae family, in particular to Morus and Ficus genera. In...

  15. Establishing abiotic and biotic factors necessary for reliable male pheromone production and attraction to pheromones by female plum curculios Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...

  16. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  18. Brood production by Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and growth of its fungal symbiont on artificial diet based on sawdust of different species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blanford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is among the most important exotic pests of orchards and nurseries in the US. It attacks a wide range of hosts and is difficult to control using conventional insecticides. As part of our studies on the biology and cont...

  19. Effects of combined thiamethoxam and diatomaceous earth on mortality and progeny production of four Pakistani populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat, rice and maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of combining thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg with the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation, SilicoSec, at the rate of 100 mg/kg against four diverse populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) th...

  20. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  1. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  2. The host range and impact of Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising candidate agent for biological control of Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...

  3. Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Reproductive Biology and Diapause of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Egg Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  4. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  5. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the USA, reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  6. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  7. Mitochondrial DNA variation of North American populations of Aphthona czwalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a flea beetle imported for biocontrol of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). A black beetle,Aphthona czwalinae, was one of the first species to be released in the late ...

  8. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  9. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  10. Coleoptera and microbe biomass in Antarctic Dry Valley paleosols adjacent to the Inland Ice: Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hart, Kris M.; O'Reilly, Shane S.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Dohm, James M.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Kelleher, Brian P.; Milner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk paleosol samples collected from a Middle to Early Miocene moraine in the New Mountain area of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, yielded Coleoptera exoskeletons and occasional endoskeletons showing considerable diagenetic effects along with several species of bacteria, all lodged in a dry-frozen but salt-rich horizon at shallow depth to the land surface. The till is at the older end of a chronologic sequence of glacial deposits, thought to have been deposited before the transition from wet-based to cold-based ice (∼15 Ma), and hence, entirely weathered in contact with the subaerial atmosphere. It is possible, though not absolutely verifiable, that the skeletons date from this early stage of emplacement having undergone modifications whenever light snowmelt occurred or salt concentrations lowered the freezing temperature to maintain water as liquid. Correlation of the Coleoptera species with cultured bacteria in the sample and the likelihood of co-habitation with Beauveria bassiani found in two adjacent, although younger paleosols, leads to new questions about the antiquity of the Coleoptera and the source of N and glucose from chitinase derived from the insects. The skeletons in the 831 section may date close to the oldest preserved chitin (Oligocene) yet found on Earth. While harsh Martian conditions make it seemingly intolerable for complex, multicellular organisms such as insects to exist in the near-surface and subaerially, life within similar cold, dry paleosol microenvironments (Cryosols) of Antarctica point to life potential for the Red Planet, especially when considering the relatively diverse microbe (bacteria and fungi) population.

  11. New replacement name for the species Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) nitidus Davis & Deschodt, 2015 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)--not an American pest.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian L V; Stals, Riaan; Deschodt, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    In their review of the subgenus Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) Balthasar, 1965 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Deschodt et al. (2015) described seven new species from Africa. One of these was Scarabaeus (Scarabaeolus) nitidus Davis & Deschodt, known by only twelve specimens from Botswana. This new name is preoccupied by Scarabaeus nitidus Linnaeus, 1758, a fact that was overlooked. The latter species has been known as Cotinis nitida (Linnaeus) since Burmeister (1842) placed the species in his new genus Cotinis. It belongs to the subfamily Cetoniinae of Scarabaeidae, is called the Green June Beetle, and is a common pest species throughout most of the eastern United States (Goodrich 1966; Woodruff 2008). PMID:26701500

  12. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  13. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  14. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458

  15. Development and characterization of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in Bembidion atrocaeruleum (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Matt J; Finn, Debra S; Williams, Mike; Sadler, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    We isolated seven polymorphic microsatellite loci from a ground beetle (Bembidion atrocaeruleum, Coleoptera, Carabidae (Stephens, 1826)) associated with naturally and regularly disturbed floodplain habitat in northwest Europe. Loci were tested on 157 individuals collected from five distinct habitat patches across two adjacent drainage basins in Wales, United Kingdom, to assess their potential for revealing population structure across a relatively short spatial extent. Alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12. For a central representative population, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 (mean: 0.63), and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.16 to 0.94 (mean: 0.56). Analysis of molecular variance indicated significant structure among populations, even when one locus potentially containing null alleles was removed. These loci have the potential to aid the study of dispersal mechanisms of this important riparian species along and between river corridors, a recurring question in floodplain conservation studies. In addition, given the diversity of the Bembidion genus, they may have utility in the study of sister species. PMID:25502039

  16. Convergent evolution of cucurbitacin feeding in spatially isolated rootworm taxa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae, Luperini).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Joseph J; Kjer, Karl M; Duckett, Catherine N; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2003-10-01

    Historically, chemical ecologists assumed that cucurbitacin feeding and sequestration in rootworm leaf beetles is a remnant of an ancient association between the Luperini (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Galerucinae) and Cucurbitaceae (ancestral host hypothesis). Under this premise, rootworms that do not develop on cucurbits but undergo pharmacophagous forays for cucurbitacins are thought to do so to supplement novel host diets that lack these bitter compounds. The ancestral host hypothesis is supported from studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloid pharmacophagy in Lepidoptera but has not been subjected to phylogenetic analysis within the Luperini. New evidence that this feeding behavior is better correlated with an adult affinity for pollen than with larval host offers the possibility that Old and New World rootworm species with an affinity for cucurbitacins converged on this behavior through apomorphic taste receptor modifications (loose receptor hypothesis). Here we test the monophyly of cucurbitacin feeding within the Luperini by using nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships among 49 taxa representing tribes of the Galerucinae and subtribes of the Luperini. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis is mostly concordant with existing tribal and subtribal delineations within the Subfamily Galerucinae sensu stricto (Galerucinae not including the flea beetles). The establishment of ancestry among the subtribes of the Luperini refutes the monophyly of cucurbitacin feeding and cucurbit specialization, with the New World Diabroticina being paraphyletic to the Old World Aulacophorina and cosmopolitan Luperina. These data unambiguously support the convergent evolution of cucurbitacin feeding in rootworms and are inconsistent with the ancestral host hypothesis. PMID:12967617

  17. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  18. Molecular identification of Epitrix potato flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Germain, Jean-François; Chatot, Catherine; Meusnier, Isabelle; Artige, Emmanuelle; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid

    2013-06-01

    Epitrix species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed mostly on plants from the family Solanaceae and some of them are major pests of potato crops. All Epitrix species are morphologically highly similar, which makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. Identification of species is mostly based on the observation of the genitalia and requires a high level of expertise. Here, we propose a tool to reliably identify all developmental stages of the most economically important Epitrix species feeding on potato in Europe and North America (Epitrix cucumeris, Epitrix similaris, Epitrix tuberis, Epitrix subcrinita and Epitrix hirtipennis). We first sequenced two DNA markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)) to test their effectiveness in differentiating among six Epitrix species (126 specimens). Morphospecies of Epitrix were well-differentiated by both DNA barcodes and no mitochondrial introgression was detected. Then, we developed an RFLP-based diagnostic method and showed that unambiguous species discrimination can be achieved by using the sole restriction enzyme TaqI on COI polymerase chain reaction products. The tool proposed here should improve our knowledge about Epitrix species biology, distribution and host range, three capacities that are particularly important in the detection and management of these pest species. Specifically, this tool should help prevent the introduction of E. tuberis and E. subcrinita in Europe and limit the spread of the recently introduced E. cucumeris and E. similaris, with minimal disruption to Solanaceae trade. PMID:23448201

  19. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. PMID:26470205

  20. Rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) collected during the long term ecological research in a Hungarian oak forest.

    PubMed

    Balog, Adalbert; Marko, Viktor; Adam, Laszlo

    2008-03-01

    Along term ecological research was carried out in a Hungarian oak forest, in "Bükk" National Park starting with 1972. During the faunistical studies 3,602 insect species and more than 200,000 individuals were collected. The dominant orders were Coleoptera (1,051 species), Lepidoptera (803 species), Hymenoptera (470 species) and Diptera (400 species). The relative species abundance (RSA) for all insects collected in all years of sampling period suggests a rather J shape curve than a not clear scaling property. This means that we were able to identify almost three quarters of the insect species from one ha European oak forest during the survey (from 1987 to 2003), and two third of the staphylinides expected. Considering the staphylinid fauna a total number of 160 species and 4,022 individuals were collected. The most widely occurring species in dominance order were: Ocypus biharicus, Pseudocypus mus, Atheta gagatina, Philonthus quisquiliarius, Oxypoda acuminate, Platydracus chalcocephalus, Atheta crassicomis, Latrimaeum atrocephalum, Haploglossa puncticollis, Philonthus succicola and Anotylus mutator. The pooled value of alpha diversity was 1.51. The Shannon-Weiner Index (H') was relatively high (3.29) in comparison with other studies. PMID:18831387

  1. Evaluating light attraction to increase trap efficiency for Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Duehl, A J; Cohnstaedt, L W; Arbogast, R T; Teal, P E A

    2011-08-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a major coleopteran pest in flour mills and storage facilities. An aggregation pheromone has been identified for this pest; however, the pheromone is of limited value for population monitoring. To develop more efficient methods to monitor this pest, experiments were conducted to determine whether light functioned as an attractant for the red flour beetle. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of various wavelengths were examined as light sources because they produce bright, narrow light spectra. A comparison of responses to light spectra across the visible and UV regions of the electromagnetic spectrum indicated that the beetle was most attracted to near UV LED at a 390 nm dominant wavelength. The use of LEDs in competitive laboratory experiments resulted in a 20% capture of released beetles, compared with a 1% capture with the aggregation pheromone alone. Even more beetles were captured with a combination of LEDs and commercially available chemical lures in traps. LEDs can easily be added onto existing trap designs or new traps can be designed to take full advantage of positive phototaxis. PMID:21882713

  2. Pathogenicity of Isolates of Serratia Marcescens towards Larvae of the Scarab Phyllophaga Blanchardi (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L.; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J.; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M. Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:25984910

  3. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mycetophagidae, Tetratomidae, and Melandryidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895

  4. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  5. Characterizing DNA preservation in degraded specimens of Amara alpina (Carabidae: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Heintzman, Peter D; Elias, Scott A; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Barnes, Ian

    2014-05-01

    DNA preserved in degraded beetle (Coleoptera) specimens, including those derived from dry-stored museum and ancient permafrost-preserved environments, could provide a valuable resource for researchers interested in species and population histories over timescales from decades to millenia. However, the potential of these samples as genetic resources is currently unassessed. Here, using Sanger and Illumina shotgun sequence data, we explored DNA preservation in specimens of the ground beetle Amara alpina, from both museum and ancient environments. Nearly all museum specimens had amplifiable DNA, with the maximum amplifiable fragment length decreasing with age. Amplification of DNA was only possible in 45% of ancient specimens. Preserved mitochondrial DNA fragments were significantly longer than those of nuclear DNA in both museum and ancient specimens. Metagenomic characterization of extracted DNA demonstrated that parasite-derived sequences, including Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, are recoverable from museum beetle specimens. Ancient DNA extracts contained beetle DNA in amounts comparable to museum specimens. Overall, our data demonstrate that there is great potential for both museum and ancient specimens of beetles in future genetic studies, and we see no reason why this would not be the case for other orders of insect. PMID:24266987

  6. [Diversity of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) using aromatic plants (Apiaceae) as survival and reproduction sites in agroecological system].

    PubMed

    Lixa, Alice T; Campos, Juliana M; Resende, André L S; Silva, Joice C; Almeida, Maxwell M T B; Aguiar-Menezes, Elen L

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that Apiaceae may provide concentrated vital resources for predator insects, stimulating their abundance, diversity and persistence in agricultural systems, thereby increasing their efficiency as biological control agents. Among the predatory insects, Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) on many different species both as larvae and adults, complementing their diet with pollen and/or nectar. This study aimed to determine the diversity and relative abundance of Coccinellidae species visiting plants of Anethum graveolens (dill), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Foeniculum vulgare (sweet fennel) (all Apiaceae), particularly in their blooming seasons, and to evaluate the potential of these aromatic species for providing the resources for survivorship and reproduction of coccinelids. Coccinellids were collected by removal of samplings from September to October, 2007. Besides one unidentified species of Chilocorinae, five species of Coccinellinae were collected: Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Coleomegilla quadrifasciata (Schönherr), Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Eriopis connexa (Germar) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Meneville. Dill provided a significant increase in the abundance of coccinellids as compared to coriander and sweet fennel. These aromatic species were used by coccinellids as survival and reproduction sites, providing food resources (pollen and/or prey), shelter for larvae, pupae and adults, and mating and oviposition sites as well. PMID:20676507

  7. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms. PMID:18392795

  8. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550

  9. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  10. The potential of irradiation as a postharvest disinfestation treatment against Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Duvenhage, A J; Johnson, S A

    2014-02-01

    Phlyctinus callosus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of major phytosanitary concern for some of South Africa's biggest export markets such as the United States and Europe because this pest does not occur there. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the only postharvest disinfestation treatment against this pest; therefore, sustainable alternatives are needed. One such alternative is irradiation treatment of whole pallets of packed fruit to sterilize insects that may be present within the cartons. Wild adult P. callosus weevils were treated with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 Gy of gamma-irradiation and then cross mated to breed with either treated or nontreated adults of the opposite sex. Fecundity and fertility were monitored and recorded. Trials were conducted during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 fruit harvesting seasons. The results from both seasons indicated that irradiation did not affect fecundity but fertility was significantly affected, decreasing as irradiation doses increased. Egg hatch was zero for mating crosses that involved females weevils treated with a dose of 80 Gy gamma-irradiation. Probit analysis indicated that in the first season, the estimated LD95 for crosses involving treated males and treated females was 30 Gy, while in the second season it was 49.5 Gy. Respective estimated LD99S were 47.9 and 169.4 Gy. Ultimately, a dose lower than the current generic dose of 400 Gy, approved for irradiation disinfestation treatments, would control P. callosus should they occur in packed export fruit. PMID:24665697

  11. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. PMID:26314050

  12. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  13. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  14. Cold hardiness of Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae in different populations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuqian; Xu, Lili; Tian, Bing; Tao, Jing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2014-10-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is distributed widely in China, where it causes severe damage to forests, and is a quarantine pest in Europe, the United States, and Canada. A. glabripennis overwinters as dormant larvae to avoid adverse environmental conditions. To elucidate the cold hardiness of A. glabripennis larvae, the supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and cold hardiness-related compounds were examined in overwintering larva from five populations in China (Yili, Yanchi, Wulateqianqi, Beijing, and Dezhou). The results showed that the SCP and FP differed significantly among populations, where the SCP of larvae in the Wulateqianqi population was the lowest and highest in the Beijing population. The water, fat, and glycogen contents also differed significantly among the five populations. The SCPs of larvae from all five populations were proportional to glycogen contents, but had no association with water contents and fat contents. The total contents of seven low-molecular weight compounds (glycerol, galactose, glucose, mannose, sorbitol, inositol, and trehalose) differed significantly among populations. Thus, A. glabripennis larvae from different geographical populations contained different sugars or sugar alcohols (especially glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, and trehalose), which helped them to resist cold temperatures. This study provides basic information about that may facilitate the prediction of distribution range expansions and ensure proper implementation of the integrated management of A. glabripennis populations. PMID:25202887

  15. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  16. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

  17. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  18. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis. PMID:23949856

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  1. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  2. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  3. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest's life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  4. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Mu, Feng-Juan; Ao, Liang; Zhao, Hua-Bin; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), is an aquatic firefly species, whose larvae inhabit ponds or lakes. Here we present the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the firefly (GenBank accession number KP313820) and provide its annotation. This circular genome is 16,248 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Similar to other firefly species, the base composition of this mitochondrial genome is also biased toward A and T (44.09% A, 34.00% T, 12.89% C, and 9.01% G). All 13 protein-coding genes start with a typical mitochondrial start codon, and terminate with a usual stop codon TAA, or TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region (1636 bp in length) include one (A)20, and two (T)15 tandem repeats, and one (AAT)5 element. This mitochondrial genome sequence will promote a better understanding for firefly evolution in the future. PMID:25714154

  5. Visual cues are relevant in behavioral control measures for Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A

    2011-04-01

    Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control. PMID:21510190

  6. Predaceous diving beetle, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) larvae avoid cannibalism by recognizing prey.

    PubMed

    Inoda, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism. PMID:22943777

  7. Glycolytic Activities in the Larval Digestive Tract of Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Noriko; Sunairi, Michio; Anzai, Hirosi; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Yamane, Akiomi; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The larvae of the Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae), are an example of a saprophage insect. Generally, Scarabaeid larvae, such as T. dichotomus, eat dead plant matter that has been broken down by fungi, such as Basidiomycota. It is thought that β-1,3-glucan, a constituent polysaccharide in microbes, is abundant in decayed plant matter. Studies of the degradation mechanism of β-1,3-glucan under these circumstances are lacking. In the current study, we sought to clarify the relationship between the capacity to degrade polysaccharides and the food habits of the larvae. The total activities and optimum pH levels of several polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from the larvae were investigated. The foregut, midgut and hindgut of final instar larvae were used. Enzymatic activities were detected against five polysaccharides (soluble starch, β-1,4-xylan, β-1,3-glucan, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose) and four glycosides (p-nitrophenyl (PNP)-β-N-acetylglucosaminide, PNP-β-mannoside, PNP-β-glucoside and PNP-β-xyloside). Our results indicate that the digestive tract of the larvae is equipped with a full enzymatic system for degrading β-1,3-glucan and β-1,4-xylan to monomers. This finding elucidates the role of the polysaccharide-digesting enzymes in the larvae, and it is suggested that the larvae use these enzymes to enact their decomposition ability in the forest environment. PMID:26462688

  8. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors' experience. PMID:25977817

  9. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes, 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. PMID:25665775

  10. Instability of copronecrophagous beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in a mountainous tropical landscape of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Halffter, Gonzalo; Pineda, Eduardo; Arellano, Lucrecia; Escobar, Federico

    2007-12-01

    We analyzed changes over time in species composition and functional guild structure (temporal beta diversity) for natural assemblages and those modified by humans in a fragmented, tropical mountain landscape. The assemblages belong to cloud forests (the original vegetation type), secondary forests, traditional shaded coffee plantations, commercial shaded coffee plantations, and a cattle pasture. Copronecrophagous beetles, subfamily Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were used as the indicator group. This group has been used in previous studies and other tropical forests and has been found to be a good indicator of the effects of anthropogenic change. For each assemblage, we compared samples that were collected several years apart. Changes were found in species composition, order of abundance, and in the proportion that a given species is present in the different functional groups. The changes that occurred between samplings affected the less abundant species in the cloud forest and in the pasture. In the other vegetation types, both abundant and less abundant species were affected. Their order of abundance and proportion in the different guilds also changed. This study shows that, although landscape richness remains relatively constant, richness at the local level (alpha diversity) changes notably even over short lapses of time. This could be a characteristic of landscapes with intermediate degrees of disturbance (such as those that have been partially modified for human use), where assemblage composition is very fluid. PMID:18284767

  11. First transcriptional survey of the Malpighian tubules of giant mealworm, Zophobas morio (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Prado, R A; Amaral, D T; Viviani, V R

    2015-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules play a key role in insect osmoregulation. Although a transcriptional analysis has been done for the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), no functional genomics analysis has yet been carried out for any Coleoptera species. Recently, we constructed a cDNA library from Malpighian tubules of larval Zophobas morio, a close relative of Tribolium castaneum, and cloned the cDNA for an AMP/CoA-ligase with luciferase-like enzyme properties. Using this cDNA library, we randomly isolated, partially sequenced and analyzed ca. 540 clones, obtaining the first transcriptional profile of the most representative expressed genes, and associated them with their possible biological functions. A high percentage of mitochondrial genes was found, which is consistent with the high metabolic activity required by this organ during the formation of primary urine. Common transcripts included those for enzymes involved in osmoregulation, such as solute transporters and ATPases, and in detoxification and excretion, such as cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, alcohol dehydrogenase. The presence of AMP/CoA-ligases, which activate exogenous carboxylic acids such as firefly D-luciferin suggests their participation in important new xenobiotic excretion/detoxification roles in Malpighian tubule physiology. PMID:25729980

  12. Heated-controlled atmosphere postharvest treatments for Macchiademus diplopterus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, S A; Neven, L G

    2011-04-01

    Nonchemical, environmentally friendly quarantine treatments are preferred for use in postharvest control of insect pests. Combined high temperature and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for phytosanitary fruit pests Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were investigated to determine the potential of such treatments for quarantine security. Field-collected, aestivating M. diplopterus adults and P. callosus adults were treated using a controlled atmosphere waterbath system. This system simulates the controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system (CATTS) used to control a number of phytosanitary pests in the United States and allows for a rapid assessment of pest response to treatment. Insects were treated under regular air conditions and a controlled atmosphere of 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide in nitrogen, at two ramping heat rates, 12 and 24 degrees C/h. Treatment of both species was more effective under both heating rates when the controlled atmosphere condition was applied. Under these conditions of controlled atmospheres, mortality of P. callosus was greater when the faster heating rate was used, but the opposite was true for M. diplopterus. This could be due to the physiological condition of aestivation contributing to metabolic arrest in response to the stresses being applied during treatment. Results indicate that the potential for the development of CATTS treatments for these phytosanitary pests, particularly P. callosus, is promising. PMID:21510185

  13. Culturable bacterial microbiota of Plagiodera versicolora (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and virulence of the isolated strains.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Meryem; Sevim, Elif; Demir, İsmail; Sevim, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting, 1781) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important forest pest which damages many trees such as willow, poplar, and hazelnut. In order to find new microbes that can be utilized as a possible microbial control agent against this pest, we investigated the culturable bacterial flora of it and tested the isolated bacteria against P. versicolora larvae and adults. We were able to isolate nine bacteria from larvae and adults. The isolates were characterized using a combination of morphological, biochemical, and physiological methods. Additionally, we sequenced the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene to verify conventional identification results. Based on characterization studies, the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus sp. Pv1, Rahnella sp. Pv2, Rahnella sp. Pv3, Rahnella sp. Pv4, Rahnella sp. Pv5, Pantoea agglomerans Pv6, Staphylococcus sp. Pv7, Micrococcus luteus Pv8, and Rahnella sp. Pv9. The highest insecticidal activity against larvae and adults was obtained from M. luteus Pv8 with 50 and 40 % mortalities within 10 days after treatment, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activity of the bacterial isolates such as amylase, proteinase, lipase, cellulose, and chitinase was also determined. Consequently, our results show that M. luteus Pv8 might be a good candidate as a possible microbial control agent against P. versicolora and were discussed with respect to biocontrol potential of the bacterial isolates. PMID:23054688

  14. A novel method for controlling multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Glemser, Erik J; Dowling, Lisa; Inglis, Debra; Pickering, Gary J; McFadden-Smith, Wendy; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-10-01

    The introduced biological control agent Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has attained pest status in North America as its presence in vineyards during harvest may compromise the quality of the resulting wine. Control of H. axyridis in vineyards is difficult as their populations may fluctuate daily, and there are few products registered to control this pest. Sulfur dioxide, in the form of potassium metabisulfite (KMS), is commonly used in wine as both an antimicrobial and an antioxidant. In this study, the effectiveness of KMS as a repellent against H. axyridis was measured. In a Y-tube olfactometer, H. axyridis spent significantly less time in the treatment arm (KMS 2.5, 5, and 10 g/liter) than in the control arm during a 10-min period. When sprayed in a vineyard, KMS significantly reduced the number of H. axyridis on grape vines. KMS is an effective repellent against H. axyridis and may be suitable for use in vineyards to control this pest. KMS (5 g/liter) applied to Riesling grapes at 2 wk, 1 wk, 3 d, or 1 d before harvest did not affect free sulfur dioxide in either freshly processed or settled juice. This study lays the foundation for the development of a pest management strategy incorporating repellents for H. axyridis in vineyards. PMID:23068174

  15. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  16. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. PMID:27189867

  17. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tourtois, Joseph; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev), and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. PMID:26463077

  18. Karyotype differentiation patterns in species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Sárah Gomes; Ramos, Ituza Celeste; de Moura, Rita de Cássia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the karyotype of species belonging to the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and to compile the conventional cytogenetic data available in the literature for this group. The karyotypes of ten species belonging to the tribes Canthonini, Coprini, Onthophagini and Phanaeini were analyzed by conventional staining. Eight of these species were described for the first time (Canthon aff carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Coprophanaeus dardanus, Deltochilum aff amazonicum, Dichotomius geminatus, Oxysternon silenus, Phanaeus chalcomelas and Malagoniella aff astyanax) and two were redescribed (Diabroctis mimas and Digitonthophagus gazella) since their karyotypes differed from those previously published in the literature. Four species studied showed a diploid number of 2n=20 and a parachute type sex determining system and the karyotype was 2n=20,Xy in two species and 2n=18,Xy(p), 2n=19,X0, 2n=12,XY and 2n=14,neoXY in one each. The chromosome morphology of the different species varied, with the observation of metacentric, submetacentric, subacrocentric and acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was predominantly meta or submetacentric in the species analyzed, whereas the y chromosome presented two arms or was punctiform. In conclusion, the subfamily Scarabaeinae comprises 120 species analyzed cytogenetically, and are observed the occurrence of five chromosome rearrangements (autosome-autosome and X-autosome fusions, pericentric inversions, fissions and loss of the y chromosome) that are related to the chromosome variability and evolution in the group. PMID:18495484

  19. Influence of Constant Temperature on Reproductive Parameters of Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Holotrichia oblita Faldermann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major pest both in field crops and forests because the larvae could eat the roots of most crops in the field, and the adults damage the leaves of trees and field crops. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on H. oblita reproductive parameters. The results indicated H. oblita female adults at 25°C could lay more eggs (84.0 eggs per female) and have the shortest preoviposition period (19.1 d), the greatest oviposition rate (2.8 eggs per female per 3 d), and largest percentage of life span spent in oviposition (59.5%). The longevity and the time to 50% egg laying decreased with increasing temperature, and female longevity was always longer than male longevity. The preoviposition and postoviposition period decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 25°C and then increased when the temperature increased from 25 to 30°C. These results show that 25°C is the optimal temperature for reproduction of H. oblita. PMID:26160804

  20. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  1. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Derivatives: Extraction Methods and Bioactivity Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Ansante, T F; Niculau, E S; Pavarini, R; Silva, M F G F; Seffrin, R C; Vendramim, J D

    2015-12-01

    Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains. PMID:26285912

  2. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mendoza, Joel; Campbell, James F; Throne, James E

    2014-02-01

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera-Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum movement are not fully understood. We investigated the impact of photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, and relative humidity on flight initiation. The percentage of adults initiating flight reached a maximum at 30 -35 degrees C, and then fell to zero at 22.5 and 45 degrees C. Only 2% of beetles flew in complete darkness, and the number of beetles initiating flight increased to 41% under 18 h of light and then decreased slightly to 37% under 24 h of light. Rates of flight initiation did not vary with light intensities from 1,784 to 4,356 lux or relative humidities from 25 to 85%. Thus, temperature and photoperiod are the main abiotic factors tested that impact flight initiation in T castaneum, which have broad ranges of temperatures and photoperiods over which they can fly. The current results should be useful in helping to interpret trap catches based on abiotic conditions during the trapping period, and the results should be useful in helping to understand T. castaneum movement outside grain storages and processing facilities and their potential to infest structures. PMID:24665734

  3. Development and evaluation of a trapping system for Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nehme, M E; Trotter, R T; Keena, M A; McFarland, C; Coop, J; Hull-Sanders, H M; Meng, P; De Moraes, C M; Mescher, M C; Hoover, K

    2014-08-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as the Asian longhorned beetle, is an invasive wood-boring pest that infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, several countries in Europe, and in its native range in Asia. The success of eradication efforts may depend on early detection of introduced populations; however, detection has been limited to identification of tree damage (oviposition pits and exit holes), and the serendipitous collection of adults, often by members of the public. Here we describe the development, deployment, and evaluation of semiochemical-baited traps in the greater Worcester area in Massachusetts. Over 4 yr of trap evaluation (2009-2012), 1013 intercept panel traps were deployed, 876 of which were baited with three different families of lures. The families included lures exhibiting different rates of release of the male-produced A. glabripennis pheromone, lures with various combinations of plant volatiles, and lures with both the pheromone and plant volatiles combined. Overall, 45 individual beetles were captured in 40 different traps. Beetles were found only in traps with lures. In several cases, trap catches led to the more rapid discovery and management of previously unknown areas of infestation in the Worcester county regulated area. Analysis of the spatial distribution of traps and the known infested trees within the regulated area provides an estimate of the relationship between trap catch and beetle pressure exerted on the traps. Studies continue to optimize lure composition and trap placement. PMID:24960252

  4. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  5. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  6. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed. PMID:19253644

  7. Evolution of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporini, Bidessini) in the arid zone of Australia.

    PubMed

    Leys, Remko; Watts, Chris H S; Cooper, Steve J B; Humphreys, William F

    2003-12-01

    Calcrete aquifers in arid inland Australia have recently been found to contain the world's most diverse assemblage of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). In this study we test whether the adaptive shift hypothesis (ASH) or the climatic relict hypothesis (CRH) is the most likely mode of evolution for the Australian subterranean diving beetles by using a phylogeny based on two sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S-tRNA-ND1) and linearized using a relaxed molecular clock method. Most individual calcrete aquifers contain an assemblage of diving beetle species of distantly related lineages and/or a single pair of sister species that significantly differ in size and morphology. Evolutionary transitions from surface to subterranean life took place in a relatively small time frame between nine and four million years ago. Most of the variation in divergence times of the sympatric sister species is explained by the variation in latitude of the localities, which correlates with the onset of aridity from the north to the south and with an aridity maximum in the Early Pliocene (five mya). We conclude that individual calcrete aquifers were colonized by several distantly related diving beetle lineages. Several lines of evidence from molecular clock analyses support the CRH, indicating that all evolutionary transitions took place during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene as a result of aridification. PMID:14761060

  8. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Bian, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Li, Zhen-Xing; Ge, Bao-Ming; Xuan, Fu-Jun; Yang, Li; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was determined to be 15,883 bp (GenBank accession No. KM009121), which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes and a major non-coding A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from ancestral insects. The nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (71.72%) and the AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive. All of the 22 tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). Thirteen PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by AAT. Eight of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T or TA. The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 1237 bp in length and the A + T content was 82.30%. PMID:25162515

  10. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia. PMID:26707213

  12. Pathology of Yersinia entomophaga MH96 towards Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Mark Robin Holmes; van Koten, Chikako; Jackson, Trevor Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Yersinia entomophaga was isolated from larvae of the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), found in soil. Following ingestion of a lethal dose of bacteria, larvae of C. zealandica reduced feeding activity and movement. After approximately 4h infected larvae convulsed and regurgitated dark digestive fluid and expelled frass pellets leaving the midgut empty and the larva amber in appearance. In the initial stages of infection, ingested bacteria were mostly contained within the peritrophic membrane and expelled with the gut fluid or transferred into the hind gut. While few Y. entomophaga were associated with the midgut epithelial cells, by 24h cells were swelling and bursting with vesicles being expelled into the midgut lumen. By 48h, bacteria had entered the haemocoel and the midgut cells had further deteriorated. After 72h, the cellular remnants were totally detached from the basal membrane the infected insects were filled with bacteria and moribund or dead with septicaemia. Mortality was directly proportional to dose and time after infection. By applying a range of doses, the LD50 was determined as 2.9×10(4)Y. entomophaga per C. zealandica larva, with an LT50 of 2.94days for doses of>1×10(5) per larva. Ingestion of low doses of bacteria did not inhibit feeding activity but led more slowly to death. By time of death, Y. entomophaga had multiplied, approximately 500 fold, in the cadavers of the infected larvae. PMID:24291403

  13. Taxonomic revision of genus Ablattaria Reitter (Coleoptera, Silphidae) using geometric morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Qubaiová, Jarin; Růžička, Jan; Šípková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), Ablattaria cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), Ablattaria laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of Ablattaria laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832, Silpha laevigata Fabricius, 1775, Silpha gibba Brullé, 1832, Ablattaria gibba var. costulata Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. distinguenda Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. punctata Portevin, 1926 and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. The distribution of all taxa is mapped, based on material examined. Geometric morphometric methods were used to evaluate shape variability in Ablattaria. Results indicated sexual dimorphism in all species. Shape inconsistency was found between the sexes of all taxa when tested independently. The first two relative warp axes indicated 65.17% shape variation in males and 65.72% in females. Canonical variate analysis separated the taxa studied. There was minimal overlap between some groups in both sexes. Differences in body shape between populations of Ablattaria laevigata from Central Europe, Italy and Greece + Turkey were also examined. Relative warps implied 58.01% shape variability on both axes in males and 64.78% in females. CVA revealed noticeable overlaps between the groups, although the Italian population demonstrated a higher separation in both sexes. PMID:25685005

  14. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  15. Ribosomal protein genes of holometabolan insects reject the Halteria, instead revealing a close affinity of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Longhorn, Stuart J; Pohl, Hans W; Vogler, Alfried P

    2010-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among holometabolan insect orders remain poorly known, despite a wealth of previous studies. In particular, past attempts to clarify the sister-group of the enigmatic order Strepsiptera with rRNA genes have led to intense debate about long-branch attraction (the 'Strepsiptera problem'), without resolving the taxonomic question at hand. Here, we appealed to alternative nuclear sequences of 27 ribosomal proteins (RPs) to generate a data matrix of 10,731 nucleotides for 22 holometabolan taxa, including two strepsipteran species. Phylogenetic relationships among holometabolan insects were analyzed under several nucleotide-coding schemes to explore differences in signal and systematic biases. Saturation and compositional bias particularly affected third positions, which greatly differed in AT content (18-72%). Such confounding factors were best reduced by R-Y coding and removal of third codon positions, resulting in more strongly supported topologies, whereas amino acid coding gave poor resolution. The placement of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera (the Coleopterida) was recovered under most coding schemes and analytical methods, if often with modest support and ambiguity. In contrast, an alternative sister-group with Diptera (the Halteria) was only found in one analysis using parsimony, and weakly supported. The topologies here generally support a Coleoptera+Strepsiptera as sister-group to Mecopterida (Siphonaptera+Mecoptera+Diptera+Lepidoptera+Trichoptera), while Hymenoptera were always recovered as sister-group to the remaining Holometabola. PMID:20348001

  16. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171

  17. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  18. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  19. Partial life tables from three generations of Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Haavik, Laurel J; Crook, Damon J; Fierke, Melissa K; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2012-12-01

    We used life table analyses to investigate age specific mortality and to better understand the population dynamics of the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We continually sampled populations within 177 trees at primarily two sites in the Ozark National Forest in Arkansas throughout three (2-yr) generations. The first cohort (adults emerged in 2003) was sampled during a severe population outbreak, whereas the second and third (2005 and 2007) were sampled during the population crash that followed. Generation mortality was 94% in 2003 and 99% in both 2005 and 2007. Estimates of apparent mortality indicated that the E. rufulus population crash likely occurred during or before the first overwintering period (2003-2004) of the generation that emerged as adults in 2005. We found limited evidence for density dependent mortality, which suggest that intraspecific competition after the first active feeding period was apparently not an important mortality factor during E. rufulus development. Life tables revealed that E. rufulus larvae generally experienced the greatest apparent mortality during the second summer of active feeding (80-94%) when larvae were feeding in, and moving between phloem and sapwood. The least apparent mortality was incurred during the following spring and early summer (26-67%) when late stage larvae and pupae were deepest and most protected within sapwood or heartwood tunnels. We found very little evidence for mortality from associated species. Scarring of vascular tissue in response to E. rufulus feeding occurred during early life stages and may be an important tree resistance mechanism and E. rufulus mortality factor. PMID:23321078

  20. Bioactivity of six plant extracts on adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  1. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities

  2. Displacement of Tetropium cinnamopterum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) by Its Invasive Congener Tetropium fuscum.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Kenneth W; Heard, Stephen B; Sweeney, Jon; Pureswaran, Deepa S

    2016-08-01

    We examined the native community of insects interacting with an invasive species, Tetropium fuscum (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in its new range to explore reasons for the invader's relatively slow spread. Tetropium fuscum is a European spruce borer established in Nova Scotia since at least 1990, but it has spread only about 125 km from its site of introduction. We compared the densities of Tetropium spp., their known parasitoids, and the community of wood-boring insects at sites located within the invasion zone in Nova Scotia versus well outside this zone, in New Brunswick, Canada. Using red spruce trees stressed by girdling or felling, we tested whether: 1) T. fuscum had altered the native wood-boring community; 2) T. fuscum displaced a native congener, Tetropium cinnamopterum (Kirby); and 3) parasitism rates of Tetropium spp. differed between the invaded and noninvaded zones. Both Tetropium spp. and their parasitoid wasps emerged exclusively from felled trees as opposed to girdled trees. We found no difference in community diversity inside versus outside the invasion zone. The combined densities of both Tetropium spp. and their overall parasitism rates also did not differ between zones, but T. cinnamopterum density was significantly greater outside the invasion zone, suggesting T. fuscum may displace the native congener where they are sympatric. Our results suggest that the native and invasive Tetropium spp. act as a single functional species in the invasion zone. We speculate that natural control agents (predators, parasitoids, and competitors) might be limiting the rate of spread of T. fuscum. PMID:27247305

  3. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  4. Global Transcriptome Profiling of the Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The pine shoot beetle Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an economically important pest of Pinus yunnanensis in southwestern China. Developed resistance to insecticides due to chemical pesticides being used for a long time is a factor involved in its serious damage, which poses a challenge for management. In addition, highly efficient adaptation to divergent environmental ecologies results in this pest posing great potential threat to pine forests. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown as only limited nucleotide sequence data for this species is available. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied next generation sequencing (Illumina sequencing) to sequence the adult transcriptome of T. yunnanensis. A total of 51,822,230 reads were obtained. They were assembled into 140,702 scaffolds, and 60,031 unigenes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG). In total, 80,932 unigenes were classified into GO, 13,599 unigenes were assigned to COG, and 33,875 unigenes were found in KO categories. A biochemical pathway database containing 219 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations. In depth analysis of the data revealed a large number of genes related to insecticides resistance and heat shock protein genes associated with environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance The results facilitate the investigations of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress. This study lays the foundation for future functional genomics studies of important biological questions of this pest. PMID:22384206

  5. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. PMID:26470208

  6. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  7. Lectotype designations and nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Gómez, Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Lawrence, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We designate lectotypes and propose nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae) based on type specimens deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (USA), Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Germany), the Natural History Museum (UK), Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de la Ville de Genève (Switzerland), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (France), Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Sweden) and Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Austria). We designate lectotypes for the following species: Cis fultoni Broun, 1886, Xylographus anthracinus Mellié, 1849, X. bicolor Pic, 1916, X. brasiliensis Pic, 1916, X. ceylonicus Ancey, 1876, X. contractus Mellié, 1849, X. corpulentus Mellié, 1849, X. dentatus Pic, 1922, X. gibbus Mellié, 1849, X. hypocritus Mellié, 1849, X. javanus Pic, 1937, X. lemoulti Pic, 1916, X. longicollis Pic, 1922, X. madagascariensis Mellié, 1849, X. nitidissimus Pic, 1916, X. perforatus Gerstaecker, 1871, X. porcus Gorham, 1886, X. punctatus Mellié, 1849, X. ritsemai Pic, 1921, X. rufescens Pic, 1921, X. rufipennis Pic, 1934, X. rufipes Pic, 1930, X. seychellensis Scott, 1926, X. subopacus Pic, 1929, X. subsinuatus Pic, 1916, X. suillus Gorham, 1886, X. testaceitarsis Pic, 1916 and X. tomicoides Reitter, 1902. We propose the following syn. n. (senior synonym listed first): X. anthracinus = X. testaceitarsis, X. brasiliensis = X. lucasi Lopes-Andrade & Zacaro, X. corpulentus = X. lemoulti and X. richardi Mellié, X. madagascariensis = X. eichelbaumi Reitter, X. rufipennis, X. seychellensis Scott and X. tarsalis Fåhraeus, X. nitidissimus = X. longicollis, X. subsinuatus = X. rufescens. We exclude three species from Xylographus: Cis renominatus, nom. n. (for X. dentatus Pic, 1922, not C. dentatus Mellié, 1849), Paratrichapus fultoni (Broun, 1886), comb. n. and P. javanus (Pic, 1937), comb. n. PMID:24493963

  8. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  9. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium. PMID:26612893

  10. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 10(4)-10(6) living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  11. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle. PMID:19736768

  12. Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after topical application of various insecticides.

    PubMed

    Van Herk, W G; Vernon, R S; Tolman, J H; Saavedra, H Ortiz

    2008-04-01

    Ten insecticides representing seven chemical groups were applied at various concentrations topically by using a Potter Spray Tower to evaluate their relative toxicities on the European wireworm Agriotes obscurus L. (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Wireworms were stored at 15 degrees C after exposure to organophosphate (OP) (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), pyrethroid (tefluthrin), thianicotinoid (thiamethoxam, clothianidin), chloronicotinoid (imidacloprid, acetamiprid), phenyl pyrazole (fipronil), organochlorine (lindane), and spinosyn (spinosad) insecticides, and their postapplication health was evaluated weekly for up to 301 d. LC50, LC90, LT50, and LT90 values were calculated for each chemical except acetamiprid, and compared with those of lindane, clothianidin, and chlorpyrifos. Wireworms exposed to OPs died or recovered more quickly (LT50 < 20 d, LT90 < 50 d), than those exposed to all other insecticides tested except tefluthrin (LT50 = 25.5 d, LT90 = 66.5 d). Wireworms exposed to sublethal concentrations of all neonicotinoids quickly became moribund after application but made a full recovery. Wireworms exposed to fipronil at concentrations near the LC90 value showed no intoxication symptoms for up to 35 d, and they did not recover after symptoms developed. For each chemical, increasing the concentration increased the time required for wireworms to recover but decreased the time required to kill wireworms. Fipronil was highly toxic to wireworms (LC50 = 0.0001%), but acetamiprid (LC50 = 1.82%), imidacloprid (LC50 = 0.83%), tefluthrin (LC50 = 0.23%), diazinon (LC50 = 0.54%), and spinosad (LC50 = 0.51%) were not. The toxicity of both clothianidin (LC50 = 0.07%) and thiamethoxam (LC50 = 0.17%) were similar to those oflindane (LC50 = 0.06%) and chlorpyrifos (LC50 = 0.10%). PMID:18459401

  13. Attack Pattern and Reproductive Ecology of Tomicus brevipilosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Pinus yunnanensis in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Lu, Jun; Haack, Robert A.; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tomicus brevipilosus (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was recently discovered as a new pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. However, little was known on its reproductive biology and pattern of trunk attack on Yunnan pine. The objectives of this study were to better understand the reproductive biology of T. brevipilosus by investigating the seasonality of trunk attacks by parent adults for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., breeding attacks) and the within-tree pattern of these attacks. Our results showed that T. brevipilosus breeding attacks in P. yunnanensis generally started in early March and ended in early June in Anning County, Yunnan. T. brevipilosus exhibited two general patterns of infestation. From early March to mid-April, T. brevipilosus bred preferentially in the trunks of Yunnan pine trees that were already infested by Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig), colonizing spaces along the trunk (mostly in the mid- and lower trunk) that were not already occupied by the other two Tomicus species. Later, from about mid-April to early June, when there were no Yunnan pine trees newly infested by T. yunnanensis and T. minor, T. brevipilosus attacked Yunnan pine by itself, infesting the lower parts of the trunk first and then infesting progressively upward along the trunk into the crown. Infestation by T. brevipilosus extends the total period that P. yunnanensis trees are under attack by Tomicus beetles in southwestern China, which helps explain why Yunnan pine has suffered high levels of tree mortality in recent decades. PMID:25881631

  14. Diel Patterns of Colaspis brunnea and Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Southeastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-12-01

    A field study was conducted to increase our understanding of diel activity patterns of Colaspis brunnea (F.) and Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in key crop habitats. Within 24-h periods, C. brunnea was sampled in clover fields (primarily red clover, Trifolium pretense (L.), with some sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and downy brome, Bromus tectorum (L.)) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, fields, using a sweep-net, while whole-plant-count sampling was used to monitor C. crinicornis densities in field corn, Zea mays (L.). Sweep-net captures of C. brunnea were significantly greater at night than during the day, suggesting possible vertical movement within the canopy during a 24-h period. Colaspis crinicornis densities on corn plants were fairly constant throughout a 24-h period, but beetle activity (e.g., walking, mating) was significantly greater at night than during the day. Results suggest that both Colaspis species may be exhibiting similar increases in activity at night that facilitates movement from more protected to more exposed areas within a habitat. It is unclear what mechanisms drive this diel pattern, but vegetation architecture and associated interactions with environmental conditions may play a role. Sweep-netting in clover or soybean fields and use of whole-plant-counts in cornfields were effective sampling methods for Colaspis adults. However, because activity and behaviors of Colaspis beetles were influenced by time of day in this study, use of a consistent sampling time within a diel period would be recommended for future population studies or integrated pest management decision-making. PMID:26314034

  15. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  16. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions. PMID:16022292

  17. Organization and comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of bioluminescent Elateroidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Danilo T; Mitani, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-07-25

    Mitochondrial genome organization in the Elateroidea superfamily (Coleoptera), which include the main families of bioluminescent beetles, has been poorly studied and lacking information about Phengodidae family. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Neotropical Lampyridae (Bicellonycha lividipennis), Phengodidae (Brasilocerus sp.2 and Phrixothrix hirtus) and Elateridae (Pyrearinus termitilluminans, Hapsodrilus ignifer and Teslasena femoralis). All species had a typical insect mitochondrial genome except for the following: in the elaterid T. femoralis genome there is a non-coding region between NADH2 and tRNA-Trp; in the phengodids Brasilocerus sp.2 and P. hirtus genomes we did not find the tRNA-Ile and tRNA-Gln. The P. hirtus genome showed a ~1.6kb non-coding region, the rearrangement of tRNA-Tyr, a new tRNA-Leu copy, and several regions with higher AT contents. Phylogenetics analysis using Bayesian and ML models indicated that the Phengodidae+Rhagophthalmidae are closely related to Lampyridae family, and included Drilus flavescens (Drilidae) as an internal clade within Elateridae. This is the first report that compares the mitochondrial genomes organization of the three main families of bioluminescent Elateroidea, including the first Neotropical Lampyridae and Phengodidae. The losses of tRNAs, and translocation and duplication events found in Phengodidae mt genomes, mainly in P. hirtus, may indicate different evolutionary rates in these mitochondrial genomes. The mitophylogenomics analysis indicates the monophyly of the three bioluminescent families and a closer relationship between Lampyridae and Phengodidae/Rhagophthalmidae, in contrast with previous molecular analysis. PMID:27060405

  18. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  19. Ozone toxicity and walking response of populations of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, A H; Faroni, L R A; Silva, G N; Guedes, R N C

    2012-12-01

    Ozone is a recognized alternative to the fumigants methyl bromide and phosphine for the control of stored product insects. However, as with fumigants in general, the potential sublethal effects of ozone on targeted insect species may compromise its efficacy and has yet to be investigated. Here, we determined ozone toxicity of 30 field-collected populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and assessed the walking response of adult insects from these populations to sublethal ozone exposure. Time-mortality toxicity to ozone at 50 ppm concentration in a continuous 2 liter/min flow indicated uniform susceptibility among the populations studied without any indication of ozone resistance (toxicity ratios [at LT50] > two-fold). In contrast, there was significant variation in walking activity among the maize weevil populations, which was not correlated with ozone susceptibility. This was not surprising because of the relatively uniform susceptibility to ozone among the maize weevil populations. Respiration rate affected ozone toxicity but not walking activity, whereas body mass was negatively correlated with walking activity but was not correlated with ozone toxicity. Based on our data, lower respiration rates may potentially lead to reduced ozone uptake whereas larger body mass limits walking activity. Ozone seems a promising alternative fumigant with low short-term risk of resistance development because of the high susceptibility and low variability of response to this compound. Furthermore, ozone reduces walking activity of S. zeamais that implies it likely reduces the chances of insects escaping exposure at the early stages of fumigation. PMID:23356086

  20. Tropical Plant Extracts as Sources of Grain-Protectant Compounds Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D; Andrade, M S; Bicalho, K U; Silva, M F G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of organic plant extracts to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed for three tropical plant species: branches, leaves, and seeds of Annona montana (Annonaceae), branches of Aristolochia paulistana (Aristolochiaceae), and leaves and branches of Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae). The screening assay resulted that the extracts of A. montana seeds obtained with hexane (LC50 = 534.75 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 6.10 days) and with dichloromethane (LC50 = 424.67 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 5.03 days) were the most promising treatments, followed by the extract prepared from A. montana leaves with hexane (LC50 = 837.70 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 4.90 days). Moreover, extracts (at 1,500 mg kg(-1)) prepared from C. sylvestris branches with dichloromethane and A. paulistana with hexane caused significant mortality (37% and 41.5%, respectively) beyond sublethal effects on S. zeamais. Therefore, based on the biological assays, extraction yield, and evaluation of the chromatographic profile of the crude extracts by TLC, the hexane extract of A. montana seeds was selected and fractioned using liquid-liquid partitioning. The hydroalcoholic fraction caused mortality of 55.5%, significantly superior to dichloromethane fraction, which caused 35.5% of mortality. Chemical analyses ((1)H NMR, HPLC, and TLC) were performed, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in both active fractions, which have been associated with bioactivity. Therefore, extracts prepared from A. montana seeds (especially) is an interesting source of new compounds with promising grain-protectant properties. PMID:27193958

  1. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum. Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella. Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 104–106 living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  2. Late Miocene diversification of the genus Hydrochus (Coleoptera, Hydrochidae) in the west Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Ribera, Ignacio

    2011-05-01

    We provide a reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships, the geographical and temporal origin, and the mode of diversification of the Mediterranean species of the aquatic beetle family Hydrochidae (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). A total of ca. 3KB of sequence data of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 62 specimens of 21 species of Hydrochus, including all western Mediterranean species but one. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian methods and an evolutionary rate of 0.0115 substitutions/site/MY, and used an ultrametric calibrated tree to construct a Lineage Through Time (LTT) plot to test alternative models of diversification. A well resolved, well supported phylogeny showed that all western Mediterranean Hydrochus formed a clade, sister to a group including species with a central and eastern European distribution. The origin of the western Mediterranean clade was estimated to be at ca. 13MY, and the speciation events took place between this time and the end of the Messinian, at about 5.3MY. The LTT plot best fitted a model with a shift in the rate of diversification at ca. 8 MY, with a single speciation event (originating two Iberian endemics) subsequent to this period. We conclude that most of the western Mediterranean species of Hydrochidae, including the Ibero-Maghrebian endemics, are ancient elements likely to have remained in the same geographical area since their Miocene origin. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing the importance of Mediterranean long-term, Tertiary refugia as both cradles and museums of diversity. PMID:21354316

  3. Chemosensory Gene Families in Adult Antennae of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Wencai; Li, Fei; Jiang, Xiaojing; Hu, Jingjing; Qu, Mingjing

    2015-01-01

    Background The metallic green beetle, Anomala corpulenta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae), is a destructive pest in agriculture and horticulture throughout Asia, including China. Olfaction plays a crucial role in the survival and reproduction of A. corpulenta. As a non-model species, A. corpulenta is poorly understood, and information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying olfaction in A. corpulenta and other scarab species is scant. Methodology/Principle Findings We assembled separate antennal transcriptome for male and female A. corpulenta using Illumina sequencing technology. The relative abundance of transcripts with gene ontology annotations, including those related to olfaction in males and females was highly similar. Transcripts encoding 15 putative odorant binding proteins, five chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 43 odorant receptors, eight gustatory receptors, and five ionotropic receptors were identified. The sequences of all of these chemosensory-related transcripts were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and direct DNA sequencing. The expression patterns of 54 putative chemosensory genes were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Antenna-specific expression was detected for many of these genes, suggesting that they may have important functions in semiochemical detection. Conclusions The identification of a large number of chemosensory proteins provides a major resource for the study of the molecular mechanism of odorant detection in A. corpulenta and its chemical ecology. The genes identified, especially those that were expressed at high levels in the antennae may represent novel molecular targets for the development of population control strategies based on the manipulation of chemoreception-driven behaviors. PMID:25856077

  4. A Bacillus thuringiensis S-Layer Protein Involved in Toxicity against Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Guadalupe; Miranda-Rios, Juan; de la Riva, Gustavo; Pardo-López, Liliana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    The use of Bacillus thuringiensis as a biopesticide is a viable alternative for insect control since the insecticidal Cry proteins produced by these bacteria are highly specific; harmless to humans, vertebrates, and plants; and completely biodegradable. In addition to Cry proteins, B. thuringiensis produces a number of extracellular compounds, including S-layer proteins (SLP), that contribute to virulence. The S layer is an ordered structure representing a proteinaceous paracrystalline array which completely covers the surfaces of many pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we report the identification of an S-layer protein by the screening of B. thuringiensis strains for activity against the coleopteran pest Epilachna varivestis (Mexican bean beetle; Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We screened two B. thuringiensis strain collections containing unidentified Cry proteins and also strains isolated from dead insects. Some of the B. thuringiensis strains assayed against E. varivestis showed moderate toxicity. However, a B. thuringiensis strain (GP1) that was isolated from a dead insect showed a remarkably high insecticidal activity. The parasporal crystal produced by the GP1 strain was purified and shown to have insecticidal activity against E. varivestis but not against the lepidopteran Manduca sexta or Spodoptera frugiperda or against the dipteran Aedes aegypti. The gene encoding this protein was cloned and sequenced. It corresponded to an S-layer protein highly similar to previously described SLP in Bacillus anthracis (EA1) and Bacillus licheniformis (OlpA). The phylogenetic relationships among SLP from different bacteria showed that these proteins from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, B. anthracis, B. licheniformis, and B. thuringiensis are arranged in the same main group, suggesting similar origins. This is the first report that demonstrates that an S-layer protein is directly involved in toxicity to a coleopteran pest. PMID:16391064

  5. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

  6. Effect of irradiation on dispersal ability of male sweetpotato weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Norikuni; Kohama, Tsuguo; Ohno, Suguru

    2007-06-01

    We used the mark-and-recapture method in the field to test the effect of gamma radiation on the dispersal ability of the male sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), a serious sweetpotato pest in Japan. To evaluate the dispersal ability of male sweetpotato weevil, we released 27,218 males (13,302 males irradiated with a dose of 200 Gy and 13,916 nonirradiated males) in two replications (September and October 2005). Each replication lasted 5 d from the release of weevils to the removal of traps, and male weevils were released twice (1 and 3 d before trap setting). Forty pheromone traps were placed in lines corresponding to eight compass directions and five distance classes (20, 50,100, 200, and 500 m) in each replication. We captured 2,263 irradiated males (17.0%) and 2,007 nonirradiated males (14.4%) in the two replications. Six irradiated and eight nonirradiated males were captured in the traps 500 m far from the release point. All parameters to evaluate the dispersal ability of irradiated male sweetpotato weevil (recapture rate, dispersal distance, and dispersal direction) were similar to nonirradiated males in three of the four trials. However, parameters were different between irradiated males and nonirradiated males in one trial. Because the majority of parameters consistently show that the similarity of the dispersal ability, we considered that male sweetpotato weevil irradiated with a dose of 200 Gy possessed equal dispersal ability to that of nonirradiated males in the field. PMID:17598532

  7. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    PubMed

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors. PMID:21510220

  8. Observations on sex ratio and behavior of males in Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Scolytinae, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    H.W. Biedermann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungalfeeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera), and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC). These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries. PMID:21594184

  9. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. PMID:27385755

  10. Influence of preceding crop on wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) abundance in the coastal plain of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rebecca B; Abney, Mark R; Holmes, Gerald J; Schultheis, Jonathan R; Kennedy, George G

    2010-12-01

    Three studies were conducted to determine the effect of preceding crop on wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) abundance in the coastal plain of North Carolina. In all three studies, samples of wireworm populations were taken from the soil by using oat, Avena sativa L., baits. Treatments were defined by the previous year's crop and were chosen to reflect common crop rotations in the region. Across all three studies, eight wireworm species were recovered from the baits: Conoderus amplicollis (Gyllenhal), Conoderus bellus (Say), Conoderus falli (Lane), Conoderus lividus (Degeer), Conoderus scissus (Schaeffer), Conoderus vespertinus (F.), Glyphonyx bimarginatus (Schaeffer), and Melanotus communis (Gyllenhal). The effect of corn, Zea mays L.; cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.; fallow; soybean, Clycine max (L.) Merr.; sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.; and tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) was evaluated in a small-plot replicated study. M. communis was the most frequently collected species in the small-plot study and was found in significantly higher numbers following soybean and corn. The mean total number of wireworms per bait (all species) was highest following soybean. A second study conducted in late fall and early spring assessed the abundance of overwintering wireworm populations in commercial fields planted to corn, cotton, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), soybean, sweet potato, and tobacco in the most recent previous growing season. C. lividus was the most abundant species, and the mean total number of wireworms was highest following corn and soybean. A survey was conducted in commercial sweet potato in late spring and early summer in fields that had been planted to corn, cotton, cucurbit (Cucurbita pepo L.), peanut, soybean, sweet potato, or tobacco in the most recent previous growing season. C. vespertinus was the most abundant species, and the mean total number of wireworms per bait was highest following corn. PMID:21309229

  11. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  12. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  13. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured. PMID:22812119

  14. Effects of Periodically Repeated Heat Events on Reproduction and Ovary Development of Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Ting; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Wang, Ren; Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Insect development occurs within a specific temperature range. Constant temperature studies may produce misleading information on the eco-physiological impacts of temperature on the population dynamics of an insect species, as in most natural environments, temperature usually undergoes daily variation. In China, field surveys showed that the decline in the Agasicles hygrophila (Selman & Vogt) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population from early August to late September in summer resulted in difficulties in effectively controlling the population of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb (Amaranthaceae). Previous studies have largely ignored more natural, fluctuating conditions. In our study, we first investigated the impacts of different temperature conditions (25°C constant temperature for 20 h with a 4-h period of a high temperature of either 30°C, 33°C, 36°C, or 39°C) on adult reproduction and longevity, egg development time, egg hatch rate, female ovarian development, and oogenesis of A. hygrophila. Our results indicated that high temperatures of 30°C and 33°C did not affect the female ovarian development and oogenesis of A. hygrophila Contrarily, high temperatures of 36°C and 39°C negatively affected the population development of A. hygrophila. At 36°C and 39°C, the egg hatch rates were very low, and the egg development times significantly lengthened. The frequency of abnormal ovaries significantly rose at 39°C. We concluded that the decline in the A. hygrophila population during August and September may be related to the extreme high temperatures that frequently occur in summer. These results help provide a better understanding of A. hygrophila population dynamics under natural conditions. PMID:27270575

  15. Antioxidant responses of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) exposed to high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shize; Fu, Wenyan; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors, and is responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms. Induced thermal stress is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to oxidative damage. The ladybeetle, Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is considered a successful natural enemy because of its tolerance to high temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, we investigated the effect of high temperatures (35, 37, 39, 41 and 43 °C) on the survival and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in P. japonica adults. The results indicated that P. japonica adults could not survive at 43 °C. CAT, GST and TAC were significantly increased when compared to the control (25 °C), and this played an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. SOD and POD activity, as well as MDA, did not differ significantly at 35 and 37 °C compared to the control; however, there were increased levels of SOD, POD and MDA when the temperature was above 37 °C. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in P. japonica adults. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense system in predaceous coccinellids (the third trophic level). The findings provide useful information for predicting population dynamics and understanding the potential for P. japonica as a natural enemy to control pest insects under varied environmental conditions. PMID:25614965

  16. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. PMID:25308181

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Wu, Shaohui; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie; Jaronski, Stefan T

    2014-07-01

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grains, corn, sugar beets, and potatoes. Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particularly in the 'Golden Triangle' area of north-central Montana. Wireworm populations in field crops are increasing, but currently available insecticides provide only partial control, and no alternative management tools exist. In our study, three entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their efficacy against wireworms in spring wheat at two field locations (Ledger and Conrad, Montana, USA) in 2013. The three fungi (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Beauveria bassiana GHA, and Metarhizium robertsii DWR 346) were evaluated as seed-coat, in-furrow granular, and soil band-over-row drench applications in addition to imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600) seed treatment (as a chemical check), the approach currently being used by growers. Wireworm damage in these treatments was evaluated as standing plant counts, wireworm population surveys, and yield. The three fungi, applied as formulated granules or soil drenches, and the imidacloprid seed treatment all resulted in significantly higher plant stand counts and yields at both locations than the fungus-coated seed treatments or the untreated control. Significant differences were detected among the application methods but not among the species of fungi within each application method. All three fungi, when applied as granules in furrow or as soil drenches, were more effective than when used as seed-coating treatments for wireworm control, and provided an efficacy comparable or superior to imidacloprid. The fungi used in this study provided significant plant and yield protection under moderate wireworm pressure, supporting their value in the management of this pest. PMID:24944009

  18. Descriptions and key to the larvae of the Tasmanian endemic genus Hoplogonus Parry (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), and comparison with the sympatric Lissotes rudis Lea.

    PubMed

    Richards, Karen; Spencer, Chris P

    2014-01-01

    The stag beetle (Coleoptera: Lucaindae) genus Hoplogonus Parry is endemic to northeastern Tasmania and contains three recognised species. Descriptions of the imagines have been published previously, but not the larvae. Descriptions of the larvae of the three Hoplogonus species and the sympatric Lissotes rudis Lea (also Lucanidae) are presented and discussed, and a key to aid identification of Hoplogonus larvae is included. The classification of Hoplogonus within the tribe Platycerini is proposed, alongside Lissotes. PMID:25543792

  19. Genetic differentiation among populations of the beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae) in a fragmented and a continuous landscape.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, H; Rukke, B A; Jorde, P E; Ims, R A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic differentiation among local populations of the fungivorous beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied in two contrasting landscapes: one heavily fragmented with forest fragments of variable size surrounded by inhabitable agricultural fields, the other an old forest providing a continuous habitat. The genetic structure of the beetle within each of the two contrasting areas was investigated by means of protein electrophoresis, screening four polymorphic loci in 20 populations from each area. In both areas there were significant genetic differences among local populations, but on average differentiation in the fragmented area was three times greater than in the continuous one, strongly indicating a genetic isolation effect of habitat fragmentation. These genetic results are in accordance with previous studies on dispersal in this species. PMID:10886382

  20. Fourteen new species, one new genus, and eleven new country or state records for New World Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen new species and one new genus are described from the New World in Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri sp. nov., Trestonia skelleyi sp. nov. and Psapharochrus langeri sp. nov. from Bolivia; Eupogonius azteca sp. nov., Aegomorphus mexicanus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus albatus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus obscurus sp. nov. and Piruanycha wappesi sp. nov. from Mexico; Dolichestola egeri sp. nov. and Wappesellus cavus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia); Scleronotus virgatus sp. nov. from Venezuela; Oreodera casariae sp. nov. from Panama; Alampyris bicolor sp. nov. from Costa Rica; and Emphytoeciosoma flava sp. nov. from Peru. Additionally, eleven new country/state records are established in Lamiinae: three for Peru; three for Bolivia; one for Mexico; one for Uruguay; and two for Brazil (Rondônia) (state records). Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri, Eupogonius azteca, Aegomorphus mexicanus, Lamacoscylus albatus, Lamacoscylus obscurus, Piruanycha wappesi, Scleronotus virgatus, Alampyris bicolor, Emphytoeciosoma flava and Wappesellus are included in new or known keys. PMID:26249940

  1. Variation in diel activity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a soybean field and coal mine remnant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.

  2. Comparison of three types of traps baited with sexual pheromones for ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) in poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; González Audino, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America that only attacks standing live trees and is a serious problem for commercial poplar (Populus L.; Salicaceae) plantations in Argentina. The development of traps baited with synthetic pheromones that can be used for monitoring M. mutatus in infested poplar plantations is an important goal in preventive programs. Pioneer male M. mutatus emit a pheromone composed mainly by (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. In the current study, we tested their release rates from several polymeric reservoir systems, to develop and manufacture a pheromone-releasing device. The efficacy of three different types of traps was evaluated in the field. Single funnel traps equipped with cross-vanes (CIPEIN-CV) captured significantly more insects than multiple funnel traps (LINDGREN) and simple funnel traps (CIPEIN-F). PMID:19736767

  3. Maturation feeding and transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) by Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inoculated with Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).

    PubMed

    Maehara, Noritoshi; He, Xueyou; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    We examined the amount of maturation feeding and transmission of pinewood nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), to healthy pine (Pinus spp.) trees by pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) adults infected with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Inoculated beetles fed less than noninoculated beetles, probably because feeding by inoculated beetles began to decrease at about 4 d postinoculation and inoculated beetles ceased to feed for several days before their death. In inoculated beetles carrying >1,000 nematodes, some beetles died before nematode departure. The remaining heavily nematode-infested beetles lived until the beginning of nematode departure, but they had stopped feeding, preventing the nematodes from entering pine twigs. We suggest that microbial control of pine sawyer adults by B. bassiana may be effective in preventing transmission of pine wilt disease to healthy pine trees. PMID:17370808

  4. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  5. A new species of Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al., a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from Thailand (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Damaška, Albert; Konstantinov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Moss cushions represent an interesting, but poorly understood habitat, which hosts many species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). However, the diversity of moss-inhabiting flea beetles is not well studied, and collecting in tropical and subtropical locations that were not sampled in the past led to the discovery of many new species (Konstantinov et al. 2013). Here, a new species of a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from the genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. 2013 is described and illustrated. This genus is one of the recently described moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera and before this study, only one species was known (Konstantinov et al., 2013). This publication raises the number of flea beetle species that are known to occur in moss cushions around the world to 30, distributed among 15 genera. PMID:27394809

  6. Position specificity in Chitonomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) on Laccophilus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae): a molecular approach resolves a century-old debate.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Laboulbeniomycete species consistently on a precise portion of beetle integument was investigated in 13 species of Chitonomyces ectoparasitic on the aquatic diving beetle Laccophilus maculosus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). The phenomenon was called "position specificity" by Roland Thaxter in 1896, yet the mechanism has remained unknown. By using molecular analysis of the nucSSU rRNA gene and the 5.8S and partial ITS1 rRNA regions, 13 species of Chitonomyces reported to exhibit position specificity on Laccophilus maculosus were placed neatly into pairs of morphotypes, resulting in synonomies and recognition of six phylogenetic species (one species is a triplet). Each phylogenetic species was located at corresponding positions on male and female beetles that make contact during mating. In addition, ecological data and video footage of the mating behaviors of Laccophilus confirmed that sexual transmission is the mechanism behind this enigmatic phenomenon. PMID:22684291

  7. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities. PMID:23949861

  8. A synopsis of the genus Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Anthiini) known to occur in the Republic of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nearly one third of the described species of Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are known to inhabit the Republic of South Africa. A key and diagnostic notes are provided for their identification, as well as notes about way of life for some of the species based on observations in the Kruger National Park. Fifteen species and subspecies of the genus are recorded from the Republic of South Africa; adult specimens of each species and subspecies are illustrated and information about the distribution of each species in the Republic of South Africa is summarized and mapped: Cypholoba alstoni (Péringuey), Cypholoba alveolata (Brême), Cypholoba amatonga Péringuey, Cypholoba fritschi (Chaudoir), Cypholoba gracilis gracilis (Dejean), Cypholoba gracilis scrobiculata (Bertoloni), Cypholoba gracilis zuluana Basilewsky, Cypholoba graphipteroides graphipteroides (Guérin-Méneville), Cypholoba leucospilota semilaevis (Chaudoir), Cypholoba macilenta (Olivier), Cypholoba notata (Perroud), Cypholoba oberthueri seruana Strohmeyer, Cypholoba opulenta (Boheman), Cypholoba rutata (Péringuey), and Cypholoba tenuicollis aenigma (Dohrn). PMID:22539909

  9. Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of Flightless Beetles Belonging to the Genus Mesechthistatus Breuning, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial COI Gene Sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamine, Hiroshi; Takeda, Makio

    2008-01-01

    The longicorn beetles belonging to the genus MesechthistatusBreuning., 1950 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) cannot fly since their hindwings are atrophied. This slows down gene flow between local populations. Currently, it is considered that the genus contains four endemic species from the eastern Honshu Is., Japan, M. binodosus, M. furciferus, M. taniguchii and M. fujisanus, that are distributed parapatrically. Sequence analyses of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene suggests that lineages of mitochondrial haplotypes split approximately in the same era. However, this result is not consistent with the monophyly of morphological species. The estimated evolutionary rate of the COI gene in other insects suggests that mitochondrial haplotypes of Mesechthistatus differentiated at the end of the Pliocene epoch during the Tertiary era.

  10. Prionic Acid: An Effective Sex Attractant for an Important Pest of Sugarcane, Dorysthenes granulosus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae).

    PubMed

    Wickham, Jacob D; Lu, Wen; Jin, Tao; Peng, Zhengqiang; Guo, Dongfeng; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Chen, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Male Dorysthenes granulosus (Thomson, 1860) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) were caught in traps baited with racemic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid (prionic acid) during field screening trials in China that tested known cerambycid pheromones. This species is an important pest of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). In follow-up dose-response trials, plastic sachets loaded with 1 or 0.1 mg of prionic acid were equally attractive to male beetles, whereas lower doses were no better than controls. Two commercial prionic acid lures also were attractive, suggesting that traps baited with prionic acid can be rapidly incorporated into integrated pest management programs targeting this major pest. It is likely that this compound is a major component of the female-produced sex pheromone of D. granulosus because this species is in the same subfamily as Prionus californicus Motschulsky, 1845, the species from which prionic acid was originally identified. PMID:26362990

  11. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  12. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae and Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Tatyana; Mandelshtam, Mikhail; Petrov, Alexander; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Yunakov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of Ukrainian bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) is summarized as a baseline for future studies of the fauna, with a checklist including information on distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. One hundred twenty-two species are recorded from Ukraine, of which seven are recorded for the first time. One species is recorded for the first time from Europe. Previous records of 24 species are considered dubious and requiring confirmation. In contrast to the Palaearctic Catalogue (Knížek 2011b), we consider Anisandrus maiche to be first described by Kurentsov (1941) rather than by Eggers (1942); A. maiche (Eggers, 1942) is a junior synonym of A. maiche (Kurentsov, 1941).  PMID:25661778

  13. Taxonomy of the genus Diochus Erichson, 1839 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Staphylininae, Diochini) in China with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Lingzi; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the taxonomy of the genus Diochus Erichson, 1839 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Staphylininae, Diochini) from China. Four new species are described: Diochus bicornutus sp. nov. from Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang, Guangxi and Yunnan, D. ampullaceus sp. nov. from Guangxi, D. bisegmentatus sp. nov. from Hainan and Yunnan, and D. membranaceus sp. nov. from Fujian. All other species previously reported from China are redescribed based on the examination of the holotypes, except the holotype of D. antennatus (Motschulsky, 1858), which was missing. Line drawings of the now missing holotype of D. antennatus (Motschulsky, 1858) are provided. A lectotype is designated for D. conicollis (Motschulsky, 1858). The Chinese fauna of the genus Diochus is now represented by eight species (four doubtfully recorded) and a key to all the Chinese species is provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZ-CAS). PMID:27395610

  14. Obrieniolus, a new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from the Peruvian Andes and its phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    del Río, M. Guadalupe; Lanteri, Analía A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Obrieniolus del Río is described based on the new species Obrieniolus robustus del Río, endemic to Peru. This genus is easily recognized by the black, denuded and shiny integument, with imbricate microsculpture and the rounded body, with short, cordiform and moderately convex elytra. According to a cladistic analysis based on 69 continuous and discrete morphological characters, the new genus is the sister taxon of a group formed by Amitrus Schoenherr, Trichocyphus Heller, Amphideritus Schoenherr, Asymmathetes Wibmer & O’Brien and Galapaganus Lanteri. The paper includes habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, mouthparts, and other external features of taxonomic value, and a dichotomous key to the genera of Naupactini distributed in the South American Transition Zone. PMID:21747674

  15. Rhopalomma stefaniae gen. et sp. n., the first ommatid beetle from the Upper Jurassic in Australia (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Ommatidae).

    PubMed

    Ashman, Lauren G; Oberprieler, Rolf G; Ślipiński, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The first Upper Jurassic fossil of the family Ommatidae (Coleoptera: Archostemata) from Australia is described and illustrated from a single specimen discovered at the Talbragar Fish Bed. Rhopalomma stefaniae gen. et sp. n. is classified in Ommatidae based on the length and insertion of the antennae, the tuberculate cuticle, the pattern of elytral striae, the complete epipleura and the presence of scutellary strioles. Due to the lack of preservation of crucial characters, Rhopalomma cannot be assigned to a subfamily and is therefore classified as Ommatidae incertae sedis. Rhopalomma fills an important gap in the fossil record of the family, indicating that Ommatidae occurred in Australia from the Lower Jurassic to the present day. Australia is the only place in the world where this family is found in both the fossil record and the living fauna. PMID:26249943

  16. The genus Anthia Weber in the Republic of South Africa, Identification, distribution, biogeography, and behavior (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866

  17. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  18. Effect of photoperiod on developmental fitness in Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Luo, Min; Guo, Jian-Ying; Chen, Hong-Song; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Ophraella communa LeSage (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important biological control agent of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., in China. Development and fecundity of O. communa, and hatch rate of progeny eggs were studied at five photoperiods (8:16, 10:14, 12:12, 14:10, and 16:8 [L:D] h). The highest survival rate of eggs was 92% at the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h, and those of both larvae and pupae were observed at the photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h (85 and 96%). The shortest developmental durations of larvae and pupae were observed at photoperiods of 14:10 and 16:8 (L:D) h. Fecundity was 1,159-1,976 eggs per female from photoperiods of 8:16 to 16:8 (L:D) h. The hatch rates of progeny eggs were 67-92% from photoperiods of 8:16 to 16:8 (L:D) h, and photoperiods did not affect developmental duration of progeny eggs. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (r0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 16:8 (L:D) h (0.2219 d(-1), 721 hatched eggs and 1.2484 d(-1), respectively) and 14:10 (L:D) h (0.2133 d(-1), 605.6 hatched eggs and 1.2378 d(-1), respectively). Their minimum values were observed at the photoperiod of 8:16 (L:D) h, which were 0.1731 d(-1), 212.2 hatched eggs and 0.1890 d(-1), respectively. The shortest T value was 29.7 d at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h and the longest was 31.4 d at a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. Our study shows that O. communa could survive and reproduce successfully at different photoperiods, thus may expand its distribution to regions with different photoperiods. PMID:25203359

  19. Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H. axyridis results in their consumption of harmless native insects, including even other ladybird beetles. A study of the natural enemies of H. axyridis in Denmark revealed the presence of nematodes. The present study describes this nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development and ecology. Methods Adult harlequin ladybird beetles were collected from March to November from four localities in Copenhagen on different plant species. In addition, groups of last-instar larvae and pupae (n = 50) were examined for the presence of nematodes. Living and recently dead nematodes were removed from adult H. axyridis in 0.5% saline solution, the nematodes were then heat killed (at 75C), fixed in 5% formalin and transferred to glycerin on slides for further examination and measurements. Results A new species of Allantonematidae (Tylenchida), Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp., is described from adults of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis in Denmark. The new species is characterized by a straight stylet lacking basal thickenings, a bursa and a forked tail tip in the vermiform (infective) females and juvenile males. The new species is compared with P. coccinellinae previously described from ladybird beetles in France. Parasitism resulted in depletion of the fat body and partial or complete atrophy of the reproductive organs of the beetles. Infections occurred throughout the year with rates of parasitism reaching up to 35%. The rate increased to 60% when field

  20. Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A

  1. Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

    2011-04-01

    Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites

  2. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houping; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-08-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were susceptible to B. bassiana and M. anisoplae. Significant time-mortality response was found for each isolates. Isolate B. bassiana GHA killed A. planipennis adults at a faster rate compared with other isolates tested, with the lowest average time-to-death values. The LC50 values estimated under direct immersion method ranged from 1.7 x 10(5) to 1.9 x 10(7), 3.5 x 10(4) to 5.3 x 10(5), and 4.1 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) conidia/ml for B. basissiana and from 3.2 x 10(6) to 1.1 x 10(7), 4.5 x 10(3) to 4.5 x 10(5), and 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.2 x 10(5) conidia/ml for M. anisopliae at 4, 5, and 6 d after treatment, respectively. By days 5 and 6, B. bassiana GHA outperformed all other isolates tested except ARSEF 7234, followed by ARSEF 7152, 6393, and 7180. Significant concentration-mortality response was also observed for two B. bassiana GHA formulations, BotaniGard ES and Mycotrol O, and M. anisopliae F52 when insects were treated through foliar exposure. The LC50 values ranged from 114.5 to 309.6, 18.4 to 797.3, and 345.3 to 362.0 conidia/cm2 for BotaniGard, Mycotrol, and M. anisopliae F52, respectively. Based on the results of these bioassays, the efficacy of both B. bassiana GHA formulations and M. anisopliae F52 were similar against adult A. planipennis. The potential use of entomopathogenic fungi for management of A. planipennis in North America is discussed. PMID:16937660

  3. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence

  4. The gut microbiota of larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the major pests of palms. The larvae bore into the palm trunk and feed on the palm tender tissues and sap, leading the host tree to death. The gut microbiota of insects plays a remarkable role in the host life and understanding the relationship dynamics between insects and their microbiota may improve the biological control of insect pests. The purpose of this study was to analyse the diversity of the gut microbiota of field-caught RPW larvae sampled in Sicily (Italy). Results The 16S rRNA gene-based Temporal Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) of the gut microbiota of RPW field-trapped larvae revealed low bacterial diversity and stability of the community over seasons and among pools of larvae from different host trees. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region confirmed low complexity and assigned 98% of the 75,564 reads to only three phyla: Proteobacteria (64.7%) Bacteroidetes (23.6%) and Firmicutes (9.6%) and three main families [Enterobacteriaceae (61.5%), Porphyromonadaceae (22.1%) and Streptococcaceae (8.9%)]. More than half of the reads could be classified at the genus level and eight bacterial genera were detected in the larval RPW gut at an abundance ≥1%: Dysgonomonas (21.8%), Lactococcus (8.9%), Salmonella (6.8%), Enterobacter (3.8%), Budvicia (2.8%), Entomoplasma (1.4%), Bacteroides (1.3%) and Comamonas (1%). High abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was also detected by culturing under aerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), that are known to establish symbiotic associations with insects relying on sugar-based diets, were not detected. Conclusions The RPW gut microbiota is composed mainly of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria with a fermentative metabolism. These bacteria are supposedly responsible for palm tissue fermentation in the tunnels where RPW larvae thrive and might have a key role in the insect

  5. Effect of pesticides on adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) survival in growing medium.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Timmons, Nicholas R; Goebel, Jessica M; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-10-01

    The rove beetle Atheta coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is a natural enemy (biological control agent) commercially available for control of certain greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips. This study assessed the compatibility of pesticides (insecticides and fungicides) used in greenhouses with A. coriaria adults. Treatments were applied to 473-ml deli squat containers half-filled with a growing medium. We evaluated the effects of the pesticides when releases of A. coriaria adults were performed both before and after application of the designated pesticide solutions. All three of the neonicotinoid-based insecticides (clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with < or = 3.2 adults recovered (out of 20) among all three treatments across all experiments. In addition, the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos at the low (0.25 fl oz/100 gal) and high (0.50 fl oz/100 gal) label rates; the plant-derived essential oil product (Indoor Pharm) containing soybean and rosemary oil; and the insecticide/miticide chlorfenpyr were directly harmful to A. coriaria adults with recovery rates -8.6 (out of 20) among all the treatments. The fungicides (azoxystrobin, fosetyl-aluminum, and mefenoxam) were not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults, with < or = 17.7 adults recovered (out of 20) across all experiments. The insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, flonicamid, Metarhizium anisopliae strain52, and spinosad) and insect growth regulator azadirachtin were also not directly toxic to A. coriaria adults. Furthermore, many of these same treatments did not inhibit the ability of adult A. coriaria to consume fungus gnat (Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila) larvae in a feeding behavior experiment. Although the neonicotinoid-based insecticides were directly harmful to adult A. coriaria, when adults were released 48, 72, or 96 h after application, survival increased dramatically over

  6. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  7. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22

  8. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fossen, Erlend I.; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N.; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular

  9. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) in Peregrina Canyon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Jones, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps) within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%), Eumolpinae (3.6%), Cryptocephalinae (2.2%), Chrysomelinae (2.2%), and finally Criocerinae (1.3%). The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%), Cryptocephalinae (9.7%), Eumolpinae (9.7%), Chrysomelinae (6.5%) and Criocerinae (5.2%). The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals), Centralaphthona diversa (Baly) (248), Margaridisa sp.1 (219), Acallepitrix sp.1 (134), Longitarsus sp.1 (104), Heterispa vinula (Erichson) (91), Epitrix sp.1 (84) and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72). Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance) and 52 were singletons (2.33%). The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site

  10. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  11. Preharvest quarantine treatments of Chlorantraniliprole,Clothianidin, & Imidacloprid-based insecticides for control of Japanese beetle Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae)& other scarab larvae in the root zone of field-grown nurserytrees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is an important quarantine pest of nurseries. Nursery plant movement from P. japonica-infested regions is regulated by the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan (DJHP), which classifies states by risk categories. Treatm...

  12. Re-description and first host and biology records of Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a natural enemy of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a pest of Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Gumovsky, Alex; De Little, Dave; Rothmann, Sergio; Jaques, Lorena; Mayorga, Sandra Elizabeth Ide

    2015-01-01

    Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania. PMID:26249097

  13. Host range validation, molecular identification, and release and establishment of a Chinese biotype of the Asian leaf beetle Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae:Criocerinae) for control of Dioscorea bulbifera L. in ...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dioscorea bulbifera, an Asian vine, is invasive in the southeastern USA. It rarely flowers but propagates from potato-like bulbils formed in leaf axils, which persist into the subsequent growing season. Lilioceris cheni Gressitt and Kimoto, a foliage-feeding beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Crio...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of systemic insecticides for Control of Anoplophora glabripennis and Plectrodera scalator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Miller, Deborah L; Bauer, Leah S

    2006-02-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is one of the most serious nonnative invasive forest insects discovered in North America in recent years. A. glabripennis is regulated by federal quarantines in the United States and Canada and is the subject of eradication programs that involve locating, cutting, and chipping all infested trees. Other control methods are needed to aid in eradication and to form an integrated management program in the event eradication fails. We conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the toxicity of two systemic insecticides, azadirachtin and imidacloprid, for potential control of A. glabripennis and the cottonwood borer, Plectrodera scalator (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a closely related native cerambycid. Larvae of both cerambycid species were fed artificial diet with dilutions of azadirachtin or imidacloprid for 14 wk. Both insecticides exhibited strong antifeedant effects and some toxicity against A. glabripennis and P. scalator larvae. For A. glabripennis, the highest larval mortality at the end of the bioassay was 60% for larvae fed artificial diet treated with azadirachtin (50 ppm) or imidacloprid (1.6 ppm). For P. scalator, the highest larval mortality at the end of the bioassay was 100% for larvae fed artificial diet treated with azadirachtin (50 ppm) or imidacloprid (160 ppm). At 14 wk, the LC50 values for P. scalator were 1.58 and 1.78 ppm for azadirachtin and imidacloprid, respectively. Larvae of both species gained weight when fed diet treated with formulation blanks (inert ingredients) or the water control but lost weight when fed diet treated with increasing concentrations of either azadirachtin or imidacloprid. In a separate experiment, A. glabripennis adults were fed maple twigs treated with high and low concentrations of imidacloprid. A. glabripennis adult mortality reached 100% after 13 d on twigs treated with 150 ppm imidacloprid and after 20 d on twigs treated with 15 ppm imidacloprid

  15. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets

    PubMed Central

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L.; Kress, W. John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleia kuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairnia arcuata and Pitcairnia brittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleia kuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleia histrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleia kuprewiczae from Cephaloleia histrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  16. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of a highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha gen. n.) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria sp. n.) and provisionally assigned to Tillomorphini. Three other new species of ant mimic longhorned beetles are described and illustrated: Calliclytus macoris sp. n. (Tillomorphini), Tilloclytus baoruco sp. n., and Tilloclytus neiba sp. n. (Anaglyptini). An identification key and distribution map to all known Hispaniolan species of these two tribes are presented. PMID:21852922

  17. Larvae and pupae of two North American darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Stenochiinae), Glyptotus cribratus LeConte and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim, with notes on ecological and behavioural similarities.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Warren E

    2014-01-01

    THIS STUDY DESCRIBES AND ILLUSTRATES THE LARVAE AND PUPAE OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN DARKLING BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae) in the subfamily Stenochiinae, Glyptotus cribratus LeConte from the southeastern United States, and Cibdelis blaschkei Mannerheim from California. Both species inhabit forested regions where adults and larvae occur in soft rotten dry wood of dead branches on living trees or in sections recently fallen from them. Species identity was confirmed by rearing of adults and pupae and the discovery of both in pupal cells with associated exuvia. Specimen label data and notes on habitats are provided. Antipredator defense structures and behaviour are noted for larvae and pupae of both species. PMID:25009432

  18. Prosthetops wolybergensis sp. nov.--a giant amongst the 'minute moss beetles', with new data on other members of the genus (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetops wolfbergensis sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Western and Northern Cape regions of South Africa; the new species, at up to 4.2 mm total length, apparently being the longest 'minute moss beetle' described to date. Prosthetops species are characteristic inhabitants of temporary rainwater pools and seepages on exposed plateau in the Cape fold mountains, and on rock outcrops beside streams and rivers. New collection records and ecological data are given for members of the genus, and the female of Prosthetops pronotus Perkins & Balfour-Browne, 1994 is described and illustrated for the first time. PMID:26217855

  19. A review of the primary types of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae), with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Hawks, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The species of the Hawaiian stag beetle genus Apterocyclus Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are reviewed following an examination of all primary types. Although the continued existence of the species is unknown and some possibly are extinct there are five recently extant species, including one species that is described here as new. The holotypes for all available names are pictured, and synonymies discussed and updated. Lectotypes are designated for Apterocyclus honoluluensis Waterhouse and A. munroi Sharp. A key to species and a revised catalog for the genus are provided. PMID:25152674

  20. A new species of bromeliad-feeding Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Costa Rica: evidence from DNA barcodes, larval and adult morphology and insect diets.

    PubMed

    García-Robledo, Carlos; Staines, Charles L; Kress, W John

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Cephaloleia Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) includes 214 species distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. Cephaloleia beetles feed mostly on plants from the order Zingiberales. The interactions between Cephaloleia beetles and their Zingiberales host plants is proposed as one of the oldest and most conservative associations. Here we describe a new species of Cephaloleia (Cephaloleiakuprewiczae sp. n.) that feeds on two species of bromeliads (Pitcairniaarcuata and Pitcairniabrittoniana, Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae). Cephaloleiakuprewiczae was previously described as Cephaloleiahistrionica. This study includes evidence from DNA barcodes (COI), larval and adult morphology and insect diets that separates Cephaloleiakuprewiczae from Cephaloleiahistrionica as a new species. PMID:25685006

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Diabrotica beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inferred from analysis of combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Clark, T L; Meinke, L J; Foster, J E

    2001-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of thirteen Diabrotica (representing virgifera and fucata species groups) and two outgroup Acalymma beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were inferred from the phylogenetic analysis of a combined data set of 1323 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and the entire second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of 362 characters. Species investigated were D. adelpha, D. balteata, D. barberi, D. cristata, D. lemniscata, D. longicornis, D. porracea, D. speciosa, D. undecimpunctata howardi, D. u. undecimpunctata, D. virgifera virgifera, D. v. zeae, D. viridula, and outgroup A. blandulum and A. vittatum. Maximum parsimony (MP), minimum evolution (ME), and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of combined COI and ITS-2 sequences clearly place species into their traditional morphological species groups with MP and ME analyses resulting in identical topologies. Results generally confer with a prior work based on allozyme data, but within the virgifera species group, D. barberi and D. longicornis strongly resolve as sister taxa as well as monophyletic with the neotropical species, D. viridula, D. cristata and D. lemniscata also resolve as sister taxa. Both relationships are not in congruence with the prior allozyme-based hypothesis. Within the fucata species group, D. speciosa and D. balteata resolve as sister taxa. Results also strongly supported the D. virgifera and D. undecimpunctata subspecies complexes. Our proposed phylogeny provides some insight into current hypotheses regarding distribution status and evolution of various life history traits for Diabrotica. PMID:11520353

  2. Developmental Biology and Effects of Adult Diet on Consumption, Longevity, and Fecundity of Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J.

    2015-01-01

    The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field. PMID:26106090

  3. Impact of the newly arrived seed-predating beetle Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.

  4. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent. PMID:26656102

  5. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems. PMID:23786053

  6. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  7. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems. PMID:24073897

  8. Seasonality of Laboulbenia phaeoxanthae (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) and its host Phaeoxantha aequinoctialis (Coleoptera, Carabidae) at a central Amazonian blackwater floodplain.

    PubMed

    Zerm, Matthias; Adis, Joachim

    2004-05-01

    Terrestrial invertebrates in central Amazonian floodplains must cope with annual long-term inundation. Parasites should be affected mainly indirectly through the specific life-cycles of their hosts. We studied the temporal structure of a beetle-fungus system at a central Amazonian blackwater floodplain (Rio Negro, Brazil). The host species Phaeoxantha aequinoctialis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) showed a seasonal, univoltine life-cycle triggered by the annual flood pulse. Infestation frequency of its fungal parasite, Laboulbenia phaeoxanthae (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales), varied seasonally. However, the seasonality was opposed in host and parasite: the lowest infestation frequencies were observed during periods of highest beetle abundance and vice versa. Periods of lowest beetle abundance coincided with the end of the old generation, those with highest abundance with the appearance of new adults. The resulting annual patterns of a slow spread in the host population resembled the few records of temporal patterns from temperate regions. It is explicitly demonstrated that older adult female beetles are more frequently infested than younger ones. Future studies may reveal whether this is simply the result of specific host life-cycles (driven by a flood pulse, winter, or other factors), or might also be related to potentially easier infestation in older individuals. PMID:15230009

  9. Developmental Biology and Effects of Adult Diet on Consumption, Longevity, and Fecundity of Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-01-01

    The chrysomelid beetle Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurs primarily in the Great Plains region of the United States. Little is known about the biology and ecology of this species, but over the last decade, it has become increasingly common in the corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, agroecosystem of southeastern Nebraska. As part of a larger comprehensive project to understand the natural history and pest potential of this species, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the developmental biology, morphological characters of immature stages, and the effect of adult diet on consumption, longevity, and fecundity. Females readily deposited egg clusters in the soil, and percentage egg hatch was high under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were confirmed to be soil-dwelling stages. C. crinicornis has relatively short egg, pupal, and adult stages with the majority of its life cycle spent in the larval stage. Results of choice and no-choice adult feeding experiments indicate that diets of corn or soybean leaves did not significantly affect consumption, longevity, or fecundity of adult C. crinicornis, suggesting that corn and soybean leaves are similarly suitable food sources for adults. The ability to effectively utilize tissues from very different plant families as adult food sources suggests that C. crinicornis is polyphagous in the field. PMID:26106090

  10. [Effects of environmental factors over aquatic hemimetabola and Coleoptera diversity in the Xichu's basin, Guanajuato, México].

    PubMed

    Torres-García, Ulises; Pérez-Valladares, Cloe X; Herrería-Diego, Yvonne; Pineda-López, Raúl F

    2014-04-01

    Lotic systems, in particular temporal streams, represent an important proportion of continental waters, but are poorly studied. This is particularly clear in central Mexico, where temporal streams are abundant and remain poor studied despite their great potential for high diversity and the important energy within these ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze the environmental variables and scales at which these variables have effects on aquatic insect assemblages in a semiarid fluvial system in Central Mexico. A total of 89 genera were registered, the order Coleoptera showing the highest richness. Peak values for alpha diversity were found on permanent sites in the dry season (1D = 10.63), the more stable environment in permanent streams during the dry season might accounted for this pattern. Assemblages at our study sites showed low similarity (Ij < 0.45) indicating high genera replacement among sites, possibly related to differences in hydroperiod. Partition analysis indicates that variation in genera composition among rivers contributed a large proportion of the diversity (37%). Results from the canonical correspondence analysis point to mesohabitat, velocity, ecological quality, and hydrological order, as the most important variables explaining diversity patterns. In addition, hydrological condition and intermittency were important factors related to diversity (-21-22%). The results suggest that permanent sites function has species sources for intermittent sites, highlighting the need for conservation planning at the landscape level in the Xichu's basin. PMID:25189070

  11. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  12. Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil. PMID:20388264

  13. Incidence of turf-damaging white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and associated pathogens and parasitoids on Kentucky golf courses.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Carl T; Potter, Daniel A

    2010-12-01

    Root-feeding grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were sampled from damaged areas of 61 irrigated roughs on 32 Kentucky golf courses to determine species composition and natural enemy incidence, the first such survey in the United States' transitional turfgrass climatic zone. Masked chafers (Cyclocephala lurida Bland and C. borealis Arrow) and Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) accounted for ≈73 and 26% of grubs found in an autumn survey, with Cyclocephala spp. predominating at most sites, although mixed infestations were common. Only a few Phyllophaga spp., and no exotic species other than P. japonica were found. Cyclocephala spp. also predominated in seasonal and statewide surveys regardless of whether a course had cool- or warm-season grass fairways. Pathogenic bacteria, Paenibacillus and Serratia spp., and the autumn-active parasitoid Tiphia pygidialis Allen were the main enemies associated with Cyclocephala spp. Predominant enemies of P. japonica were Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Metarhizium spp. in autumn, and eugregarines, Stictospora sp. (probably S. villani Hays and Clopton) and Tiphia vernalis Rohwer in spring. Entomopathogenic nematodes and the microsporidian Ovavesicula popilliae Andreadis & Hanula were nearly absent in our samples. No predictive relationships were found between soil parameters and proportionate abundance of Cyclocephala or P. japonica, or with natural enemy incidence at particular sites. Although incidence of individual enemies was generally low (<20%; often <5%) in these point-in-time surveys, collectively and over their hosts' prolonged development they may take a significant toll on grub populations. PMID:22182549

  14. Screening of tropical isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae for virulence to the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Yan, Wei; Qin, Weiquan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Guangchang; Li, Fuheng

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of the palm tree in tropical regions of the world. One strain of Metarhizium sp. ZJ-1, isolated from Chinese soils, was evaluated for growth characteristics, and screened for its virulence to R. ferrugineus larvae in laboratory conditions. An approximately 685-bp fragment was amplified by ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) PCR from strain ZJ-1, further phylogenetic analysis revealed that 93 % similarity to Metarhizium anisopliae. Inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL caused 100 % mortality of R. ferrugineus, LT50 levels of ZJ-1 were 1.66 days (1 × 10(8) conidia/mL), indicating that the conidia of strain ZJ-1 were highly virulent. These results suggest that M. anisopliae ZJ-1 has potential as an effective and persistent biological control agent for R. ferrugineus. PMID:27468401

  15. Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Javier; Urzúa, Alejandro; Tampe, Jocelyne; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44'9″S, 72°35'25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm³ and 1.58 × 10(-2) mg/cm³). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents. PMID:27110756

  16. Use of Biomechanical Analyses of Cranial Variation to Interpret Feeding Components of the Niche in Larval Dytiscid Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, E.; Wall, W. P.; Shepley, T.

    2005-05-01

    Dytiscid larvae are obligatory predators with most using extra-oral digestion to feed on aquatic invertebrates and small vertebrates. Three aspects of cranial morphology are presented here to illustrate the strong selective force feeding success has on cranial morphology. First, distortion gird analysis of ontogenetic allometry revealed significant changes in Agabus disintegratus during larval development. These differences are most likely the result of ontogenetic shifts in prey preferences in A. disintegratus leading to anisomorphic increases in mandibular musculature during development. Second, evolutionary allometry of lateral head shape in larvae of Matus bicarinatus, Coptotomus lenticus, and Thermonectus basilaris revealed prognathic, hypoprognathic and hyperprognathic patterns of orientation. This variation in cranial architecture may be an indicator of differences in prey regimes exploited by each taxon. And third, geometric analysis of mandibular shape to predict the food habits of Acilius mediatus, Agabus punctatus, and Rhantus calidus revealed significant differences in camber, arc, and angle of attack. These data indicate that mandibular geometry may be strongly influenced by prey choice. Biomechanical methods could have predictive value for identifying larval food habits. This project was supported by a Faculty Research Grant, Office of Research Services, GC&SU. Aquatic Coleoptera Laboratory Contribution No. 61

  17. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies. PMID:23068179

  18. Chemical Composition of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Abdominal Glands and the Influence of 1,4-benzoquinones on its Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, M J; Sant'Ana, J; de Oliveira, M W M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Caumo, M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and quantify the compounds present in the abdominal glands of Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and to evaluate the influence of these compounds on its behavior. The extraction of volatiles present in the abdominal glands was made by dissection (10 individuals per sex) and by air entrainment (200 insects per sex), and they were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and gas chromatograph-electroantennography detector (GC-EAD). The influence of these volatiles on the behavior of conspecifics was evaluated in a four-arm olfactometer. Twenty-three compounds were identified from male and female abdominal gland extracts, of which six were quinones: the 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and the 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone were the major components, and 1,4 benzoquinone and three hydroquinones were registered for the first time for this species. The GC-EAD analysis using the crude extracts from abdominal glands showed that male and female antennae responded to the three major benzoquinones. For the olfactometer bioassays, both genders were repelled either by the abdominal gland extracts or by synthetic solutions containing the three benzoquinones. The results suggest that the 1,4-benzoquinones play a role as a repellent to A. diaperinus. PMID:26470358

  19. A case of ecological specialization in ladybirds: Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), potential biocontrol agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Mendel, Z; Branco, M

    2014-06-01

    Specialization is an important attribute of a biological control agent. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera Matsucoccidae), is an invasive species in Southeast France and the North of Italy. Iberorhyzobius rondensis Eizaguirre (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a recently described ladybird species. Both adults and larvae are predaceous, feeding on egg masses of M. feytaudi, and are strongly attracted to M. feytaudi's sex pheromone. To evaluate the potential of I. rondensis as a biocontrol agent of the scale, we studied its niche breadth and prey range with emphasis on pine forests and hemipterans as tested prey. In this study, I. rondensis was found to achieve complete development only when fed on M. feytaudi egg masses (92.9% survival) and an artificial prey: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (27.6% survival). From the 2nd instar onwards, complete development could be achieved using other prey species, although larvae had significantly higher mortality and slower development. In choice tests, M. feytaudi was the preferred prey. Surveys of the ladybird populations in the Iberian Peninsula revealed that it was found exclusively on Pinus pinaster Aiton, the sole host of M. feytaudi. The unusual specialization of I. rondensis, among other predaceous ladybirds, makes it an appropriate candidate for classical biological control of M. feytaudi. PMID:24666751

  20. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on the development, reproduction, and predation of the predatory ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Tan, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Fan

    2013-12-01

    The polyphagous predatory ladybird Cheilomenes. sexmaculata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is distributed throughout southern China and has been investigated as a potential biological control agent against herbivorous insects in various agroecosystems. In the current study, we evaluated the preimaginal development, eclosion rate, reproduction, fertility, adult longevity, and prey consumption of C. sexmaculata under five temperature and five photoperiod regimens. The results showed that preadult developmental duration decreased significantly with increasing temperature and amount of daylight. Adult eclosion rate was highest at 35 degrees C and under conditions of complete darkness. Higher temperatures shortened the duration of copulation and preoviposition, prolonged the duration of oviposition, and increased the level of fecundity. Hatchability was highest at 30 degrees C. By contrast, the shortest copulation and oviposition duration and lowest level of fecundity and hatchability occurred with a completely dark photoperiod. Temperature and the gender of C. sexmaculata influenced adult longevity. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of photoperiod and gender on adult longevity. Furthermore, prey consumption by fourth instar larvae and adult females both increased with increasing temperature and photoperiod. Our results reveal the high thermal and light sensitivities of C. sexmaculata, which highlight the importance of environment regulation in the mass rearing of this natural enemy for application as a biological control in agroecosystems in China. PMID:24498765