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Sample records for play opposing roles

  1. UXT plays dual opposing roles on SARM-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sethurathinam, Shalini; Singh, Laishram Pradeepkumar; Panneerselvam, Porkodi; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2013-10-11

    Apoptosis is a vital defense mechanism for the clearance of infected cells. Ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), which exists in two isoforms (V1 and V2), interact with both apoptotic and cellular proteins. By yeast two-hybrid analysis, we found that UXT interacts with SARM (sterile α and HEAT armadillo motif-containing protein). Since SARM is a TLR adaptor which induces intrinsic apoptosis following immune activation, we were prompted to query whether UXT and SARM might co-regulate apoptosis. We found that the UXT isoforms elicit dual opposing regulatory effects on SARM-induced apoptosis; while UXT V1, co-expressed with SARM, caused a reduction in caspase 8 activity, UXT V2 strongly increased caspase 8 activity and enhanced SARM-induced apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway and depolarizing the mitochondria. PMID:24021647

  2. Members of the Penicillium chrysogenum Velvet Complex Play Functionally Opposing Roles in the Regulation of Penicillin Biosynthesis and Conidiation

    PubMed Central

    Kopke, Katarina; Hoff, Birgit; Bloemendal, Sandra; Katschorowski, Alexandra; Kamerewerd, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A velvet multisubunit complex was recently detected in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, the major industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. Core components of this complex are P. chrysogenum VelA (PcVelA) and PcLaeA, which regulate secondary metabolite production, hyphal morphology, conidiation, and pellet formation. Here we describe the characterization of PcVelB, PcVelC, and PcVosA as novel subunits of this velvet complex. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), we demonstrate that all velvet proteins are part of an interaction network. Functional analyses using single- and double-knockout strains clearly indicate that velvet subunits have opposing roles in the regulation of penicillin biosynthesis and light-dependent conidiation. PcVelC, together with PcVelA and PcLaeA, activates penicillin biosynthesis, while PcVelB represses this process. In contrast, PcVelB and PcVosA promote conidiation, while PcVelC has an inhibitory effect. Our genetic analyses further show that light-dependent spore formation depends not only on PcVelA but also on PcVelB and PcVosA. The results provided here contribute to our fundamental understanding of the function of velvet subunits as part of a regulatory network mediating signals responsible for morphology and secondary metabolism and will be instrumental in generating mutants with newly derived properties that are relevant to strain improvement programs. PMID:23264641

  3. SATB1 and SATB2 play opposing roles in c-Myc expression and progression of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohammed A; Hyodo, Toshinori; Akter, Khondker Ayesha; Kokuryo, Toshio; Uehara, Keisuke; Nagino, Masato; Senga, Takeshi

    2016-01-26

    Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 and 2 (SATB1/2) are nuclear matrix-associated proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. SATB2 acts as a tumor suppressor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and colon cancer, whereas SATB1 promotes the progression of numerous types of cancers. In this study, we examined the effects of SATB1 and SATB2 on the malignant characteristics of colorectal cancer cells. SATB1 and SATB2 expression were negatively correlated in colorectal cancer specimens. SATB1 expression was increased, whereas SATB2 expression was reduced, in colorectal cancer tissues compared to control tissues. Exogenous expression of SATB2 in colorectal cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor proliferation in mice. c-Myc was reduced by SATB2 expression, and exogenous expression of c-Myc in SATB2-expressing cells restored proliferation, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth of colorectal cancer cells. We also showed that c-Myc reduction by SATB2 was mediated by the inactivation of ERK5. In contrast, SATB1 promoted c-Myc expression. The expression of SATB1 in colorectal cancer tissues was positively correlated with c-Myc expression, and SATB1 knockdown reduced c-Myc expression in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, we showed that SATB1 knockdown in colorectal cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. Our results reveal interesting features of how the structural homologs SATB1 and SATB2 exert opposing functions in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26701851

  4. SATB1 and SATB2 play opposing roles in c-Myc expression and progression of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Mohammed A.; Hyodo, Toshinori; Akter, Khondker Ayesha; Kokuryo, Toshio; Uehara, Keisuke; Nagino, Masato; Senga, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 and 2 (SATB1/2) are nuclear matrix-associated proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. SATB2 acts as a tumor suppressor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and colon cancer, whereas SATB1 promotes the progression of numerous types of cancers. In this study, we examined the effects of SATB1 and SATB2 on the malignant characteristics of colorectal cancer cells. SATB1 and SATB2 expression were negatively correlated in colorectal cancer specimens. SATB1 expression was increased, whereas SATB2 expression was reduced, in colorectal cancer tissues compared to control tissues. Exogenous expression of SATB2 in colorectal cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor proliferation in mice. c-Myc was reduced by SATB2 expression, and exogenous expression of c-Myc in SATB2-expressing cells restored proliferation, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth of colorectal cancer cells. We also showed that c-Myc reduction by SATB2 was mediated by the inactivation of ERK5. In contrast, SATB1 promoted c-Myc expression. The expression of SATB1 in colorectal cancer tissues was positively correlated with c-Myc expression, and SATB1 knockdown reduced c-Myc expression in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, we showed that SATB1 knockdown in colorectal cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. Our results reveal interesting features of how the structural homologs SATB1 and SATB2 exert opposing functions in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26701851

  5. MOZ and BMI1 play opposing roles during Hox gene activation in ES cells and in body segment identity specification in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Bilal N; Downer, Natalie L; Phipson, Belinda; Vanyai, Hannah K; Kueh, Andrew J; McCarthy, Davis J; Smyth, Gordon K; Thomas, Tim; Voss, Anne K

    2015-04-28

    Hox genes underlie the specification of body segment identity in the anterior-posterior axis. They are activated during gastrulation and undergo a dynamic shift from a transcriptionally repressed to an active chromatin state in a sequence that reflects their chromosomal location. Nevertheless, the precise role of chromatin modifying complexes during the initial activation phase remains unclear. In the current study, we examined the role of chromatin regulators during Hox gene activation. Using embryonic stem cell lines lacking the transcriptional activator MOZ and the polycomb-family repressor BMI1, we showed that MOZ and BMI1, respectively, promoted and repressed Hox genes during the shift from the transcriptionally repressed to the active state. Strikingly however, MOZ but not BMI1 was required to regulate Hox mRNA levels after the initial activation phase. To determine the interaction of MOZ and BMI1 in vivo, we interrogated their role in regulating Hox genes and body segment identity using Moz;Bmi1 double deficient mice. We found that the homeotic transformations and shifts in Hox gene expression boundaries observed in single Moz and Bmi1 mutant mice were rescued to a wild type identity in Moz;Bmi1 double knockout animals. Together, our findings establish that MOZ and BMI1 play opposing roles during the onset of Hox gene expression in the ES cell model and during body segment identity specification in vivo. We propose that chromatin-modifying complexes have a previously unappreciated role during the initiation phase of Hox gene expression, which is critical for the correct specification of body segment identity. PMID:25922517

  6. Opposing roles of folate in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rycyna, Kevin J; Bacich, Dean J; O'Keefe, Denise S

    2013-12-01

    The US diet has been fortified with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects since 1998. The Physician Data Queries from the National Cancer Institute describe folate as protective against prostate cancer, whereas its synthetic analog, folic acid, is considered to increase prostate cancer risk when taken at levels easily achievable by eating fortified food or taking over-the-counter supplements. We review the present literature to examine the effects of folate and folic acid on prostate cancer, help interpret previous epidemiologic data, and provide clarification regarding the apparently opposing roles of folate for patients with prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted in Medline to identify studies investigating the effect of nutrition and specifically folate and folic acid on prostate carcinogenesis and progression. In addition, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database was analyzed for trends in serum folate levels before and after mandatory fortification. Folate likely plays a dual role in prostate carcinogenesis. There remains conflicting epidemiologic evidence regarding folate and prostate cancer risk; however, there is growing experimental evidence that higher circulating folate levels can contribute to prostate cancer progression. Further research is needed to clarify these complex relationships. PMID:23992971

  7. Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL proteins, play opposing roles in cell adhesion and coordination of cell and nuclear division

    SciTech Connect

    Prevorovsky, Martin; Grousl, Tomas; Stanurova, Jana; Rynes, Jan; Nellen, Wolfgang; Puta, Frantisek; Folk, Petr

    2009-05-01

    The CSL (CBF1/RBP-J{kappa}/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family is comprised of transcription factors essential for metazoan development, mostly due to their involvement in the Notch receptor signaling pathway. Recently, we identified two novel classes of CSL genes in the genomes of several fungal species, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. In this study, we characterized experimentally cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +}, the two CSL genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in order to elucidate the CSL function in fungi. We provide evidence supporting their identity as genuine CSL genes. Both cbf11{sup +} and cbf12{sup +} are non-essential; they have distinct expression profiles and code for nuclear proteins with transcription activation potential. Significantly, we demonstrated that Cbf11 recognizes specifically the canonical CSL response element GTG{sup A}/{sub G}GAA in vitro. The deletion of cbf11{sup +} is associated with growth phenotypes and altered colony morphology. Furthermore, we found that Cbf11 and Cbf12 play opposite roles in cell adhesion, nuclear and cell division and their coordination. Disturbed balance of the two CSL proteins leads to cell separation defects (sep phenotype), cut phenotype, and high-frequency diploidization in heterothallic strains. Our data show that CSL proteins operate in an organism predating the Notch pathway, which should be of relevance to the understanding of (Notch-independent) CSL functions in metazoans.

  8. Learning through Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Explains how role playing can provide enriching experiences that develop children's literacy and numeracy skills. Lists key ingredients of good role playing and suggests ways to plan them and prepare space for them. (SK)

  9. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  11. Opposing roles of Prostaglandin D2 receptors in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Eva M.; Radnai, Balazs; Jandl, Katharina; Stančić, Angela; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Högenauer, Christoph; Kump, Patrizia; Wenzl, Heimo; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Pieber, Thomas R.; Schuligoi, Rufina; Marsche, Gunther; Ferreirós, Nerea; Heinemann, Akos; Schicho, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Pro-resolution functions were reported for Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in colitis, but the role of its two receptors, DP and in particular CRTH2 are less well defined. We investigated DP and CRTH2 expression and function during human and murine ulcerative colitis (UC). Expression of receptors was measured by flow cytometry on peripheral blood leukocytes, and by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in colon biopsies of patients with active UC and healthy individuals. Receptor involvement in UC was evaluated in a mouse model of DSS colitis. DP and CRTH2 expression changed in leukocytes of patients with active UC in a differential manner. In UC patients, DP showed higher expression in neutrophils but lower in monocytes as compared to control subjects. In contrast, CRTH2 was decreased in eosinophils, NK and CD3+ T cells but not in monocytes and CD3+/CD4+ T cells. The decrease of CRTH2 on blood eosinophils clearly correlated with disease activity. DP correlated positively with disease activity in eosinophils but inversely in neutrophils. CRTH2 internalized upon treatment with PGD2 and 11-dehydroTXB2 in eosinophils of controls. Biopsies of UC patients revealed an increase of CRTH2-positive cells in the colonic mucosa and high CRTH2 protein content. The CRTH2 antagonist CAY10595 improved while the DP antagonist MK0524 worsened inflammation in murine colitis. DP and CRTH2 play differential roles in UC. Although expression of CRTH2 on blood leukocytes is downregulated in UC, CRTH2 is present in colon tissue where it may contribute to inflammation whereas DP likely promotes anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24929001

  12. Opposing roles of prostaglandin D2 receptors in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Eva M; Radnai, Balazs; Jandl, Katharina; Stančić, Angela; Parzmair, Gerald P; Högenauer, Christoph; Kump, Patrizia; Wenzl, Heimo; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Pieber, Thomas R; Schuligoi, Rufina; Marsche, Gunther; Ferreirós, Nerea; Heinemann, Akos; Schicho, Rudolf

    2014-07-15

    Proresolution functions were reported for PGD2 in colitis, but the role of its two receptors, D-type prostanoid (DP) and, in particular, chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), is less well defined. We investigated DP and CRTH2 expression and function during human and murine ulcerative colitis (UC). Expression of receptors was measured by flow cytometry on peripheral blood leukocytes and by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in colon biopsies of patients with active UC and healthy individuals. Receptor involvement in UC was evaluated in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium colitis. DP and CRTH2 expression changed in leukocytes of patients with active UC in a differential manner. In UC patients, DP showed higher expression in neutrophils but lower in monocytes as compared with control subjects. In contrast, CRTH2 was decreased in eosinophils, NK, and CD3(+) T cells but not in monocytes and CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells. The decrease of CRTH2 on blood eosinophils clearly correlated with disease activity. DP correlated positively with disease activity in eosinophils but inversely in neutrophils. CRTH2 internalized upon treatment with PGD2 and 11-dehydro TXB2 in eosinophils of controls. Biopsies of UC patients revealed an increase of CRTH2-positive cells in the colonic mucosa and high CRTH2 protein content. The CRTH2 antagonist CAY10595 improved, whereas the DP antagonist MK0524 worsened inflammation in murine colitis. DP and CRTH2 play differential roles in UC. Although expression of CRTH2 on blood leukocytes is downregulated in UC, CRTH2 is present in colon tissue, where it may contribute to inflammation, whereas DP most likely promotes anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24929001

  13. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25589035

  14. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, António; Tramontano, Angela; Rebordão, Maria Rosa; Amaral, Ana; Bravo, Pedro Pinto; Szóstek, Anna; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Mollo, Antonio; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i) to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP), Ghrelin (GHR) and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii) to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation), in equine corpus luteum (CL) from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated. PMID:25125800

  15. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  16. ROLE-PLAYING AND THE POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDFARB, JEAN; RIESSMAN, FRANK

    ROLE-PLAYING IS A VALUABLE TECHNIQUE FOR WORKING WITH DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE BECAUSE IT IS CONGENIAL WITH THE LOW-INCOME PERSON'S STYLE. ROLE-PLAYING ALLOWS THE PRACTITIONER TO REDUCE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN HIMSELF AND THE DISADVANTAGED, IT PERMITS MORE LEARNING ABOUT THE CULTURE OF THE LOW-INCOME PERSON FROM THE "INSIDE," AND IT IS AN EXCELLENT…

  17. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  18. Role-Playing Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert

    This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…

  19. A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricklin, Barry

    1975-01-01

    Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

  20. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through students'…

  1. Geriatrix: A Role-Playing Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Stephanie B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    To sensitize medical students to the complexities of geriatric patient care, the geriatrics faculty of Upstate Medical Center's Clinical Campus developed Geriatrix, a role-playing game. Students attempt to win points in a board game containing Fact, Concept, and Crisis Squares. Crises promote exposure to ethical dilemmas and invite intense debate…

  2. Transglutaminase 2 has opposing roles in the regulation of cellular functions as well as cell growth and death.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, H; Furutani, Y; Hitomi, K; Kojima, S

    2016-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is primarily known as the most ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family with Ca(2+)-dependent protein crosslinking activity; however, this enzyme exhibits multiple additional functions through GTPase, cell adhesion, protein disulfide isomerase, kinase, and scaffold activities and is associated with cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. TG2 is found in the extracellular matrix, plasma membrane, cytosol, mitochondria, recycling endosomes, and nucleus, and its subcellular localization is an important determinant of its function. Depending upon the cell type and stimuli, TG2 changes its subcellular localization and biological activities, playing both anti- and pro-apoptotic roles. Increasing evidence indicates that the GTP-bound form of the enzyme (in its closed form) protects cells from apoptosis but that the transamidation activity of TG2 (in its open form) participates in both facilitating and inhibiting apoptosis. A difficulty in the study and understanding of this enigmatic protein is that opposing effects have been reported regarding its roles in the same physiological and/or pathological systems. These include neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects, hepatic cell growth-promoting or hepatic cell death-inducing effects, exacerbating or having no effect on liver fibrosis, and anti- and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. The reasons for these discrepancies have been ascribed to TG2's multifunctional activities, genetic variants, conformational changes induced by the immediate environment, and differences in the genetic background of the mice used in each of the experiments. In this article, we first report that TG2 has opposing roles like the protagonist in the novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, followed by a summary of the controversies reported, and finally discuss the possible reasons for these discrepancies. PMID:27253408

  3. Opposing Roles of Interferon-Gamma on Cells of the Central Nervous System in Autoimmune Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ottum, Payton A.; Arellano, Gabriel; Reyes, Lilian I.; Iruretagoyena, Mirentxu; Naves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the principal cause of autoimmune neuroinflammation in humans, and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), is widely used to gain insight about their immunopathological mechanisms for and the development of novel therapies for MS. Most studies on the role of interferon (IFN)-γ in the pathogenesis and progression of EAE have focused on peripheral immune cells, while its action on central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells has been less explored. In addition to the well-known proinflammatory and damaging effects of IFN-γ in the CNS, evidence has also endowed this cytokine both a protective and regulatory role in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Recent investigations performed in this research field have exposed the complex role of IFN-γ in the CNS uncovering unexpected mechanisms of action that underlie these opposing activities on different CNS-resident cell types. The mechanisms behind these two-faced effects of IFN-γ depend on dose, disease phase, and cell development stage. Here, we will review and discuss the dual role of IFN-γ on CNS-resident cells in EAE highlighting its protective functions and the mechanisms proposed. PMID:26579119

  4. Dual and Opposing Roles of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Defense-Associated Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianfeng; Wang, Wenming; Bittner, Florian; Schmidt, Nadine; Berkey, Robert; Zhang, Lingli; King, Harlan; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jiayue; Wen, Yinqiang; Tan, Liqiang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Qiong; Deng, Ziniu; Xiong, Xingyao; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2016-05-01

    While plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stress signaling and pathogen defense, they need to remove excessive ROS induced during stress responses in order to minimize oxidative damage. How can plants fine-tune this balance and meet such conflicting needs? Here, we show that XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE1 (XDH1) in Arabidopsis thaliana appears to play spatially opposite roles to serve this purpose. Through a large-scale genetic screen, we identified three missense mutations in XDH1 that impair XDH1's enzymatic functions and consequently affect the powdery mildew resistance mediated by RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8 (RPW8) in epidermal cells and formation of xanthine-enriched autofluorescent objects in mesophyll cells. Further analyses revealed that in leaf epidermal cells, XDH1 likely functions as an oxidase, along with the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF, to generate superoxide, which is dismutated into H2O2 The resulting enrichment of H2O2 in the fungal haustorial complex within infected epidermal cells helps to constrain the haustorium, thereby contributing to RPW8-dependent and RPW8-independent powdery mildew resistance. By contrast, in leaf mesophyll cells, XDH1 carries out xanthine dehydrogenase activity to produce uric acid in local and systemic tissues to scavenge H2O2 from stressed chloroplasts, thereby protecting plants from stress-induced oxidative damage. Thus, XDH1 plays spatially specified dual and opposing roles in modulation of ROS metabolism during defense responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:27152019

  5. Negative feedback between secretory and cytosolic phospholipase A2 and their opposing roles in ovalbumin-induced bronchoconstriction in rats.

    PubMed

    Offer, Sarit; Yedgar, Saul; Schwob, Ouri; Krimsky, Miron; Bibi, Haim; Eliraz, Abraham; Madar, Zecharia; Shoseyov, David

    2005-03-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids (PL) to produce arachidonic acid and lyso-PL. The PLA2 enzymes include the secretory (sPLA2) and cytosolic (cPLA2) isoforms, which are assumed to act synergistically in production of eicosanoids that are involved in inflammatory processes. However, growing evidence raises the possibility that in airways and asthma-related inflammatory cells (eosinophils, basophils), the production of the bronchoconstrictor cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) is linked exclusively to sPLA2, whereas the bronchodilator prostaglandin PGE2 is produced by cPLA2. It has been further reported that the capacity of airway epithelial cells to produce CysLT is inversely proportional to PGE2 production. This seems to suggest that sPLA2 and cPLA2 play opposing roles in asthma pathophysiology and the possibility of a negative feedback between the two isoenzymes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of a cell-impermeable extracellular sPLA2 inhibitor on bronchoconstriction and PLA2 expression in rats with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. It was found that OVA-induced bronchoconstriction was associated with elevation of lung sPLA2 expression and CysLT production, concomitantly with suppression of cPLA2 expression and PGE2 production. These were reversed by treatment with the sPLA2 inhibitor, resulting in amelioration of bronchoconstriction and reduced CysLT production and sPLA2 expression, concomitantly with enhanced PGE2 production and cPLA2 expression. This study demonstrates, for the first time in vivo, a negative feedback between sPLA2 and cPLA2 and assigns opposing roles for these enzymes in asthma pathophysiology: sPLA2 activation induces production of the bronchoconstrictor CysLT and suppresses cPLA2 expression and the subsequent production of the bronchodilator PGE2. PMID:15557087

  6. Opposing roles of RAGE and Myd88 signaling in extensive liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shan; Zhang, Qing Yin; Huang, Jianzhong; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Rosario, Rosa; Ananthakrishnan, Radha; Yan, Shi Fang; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Emond, Jean C.; Friedman, Richard A.; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    In extensive liver resection secondary to primary or metastatic liver tumors, or in living donor liver transplantation, strategies to quell deleterious inflammatory responses and facilitate regeneration are essential. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and myeloid differentiating factor 88 (Myd88) are implicated in the inflammatory response. To establish the contributions of RAGE vs. Myd88 signaling in extensive liver resection, we probed the effect of RAGE and/or Myd88, the latter primarily a key transducer of major toll-like receptors and also implicated in interleukin-1 (Il1) signaling, in a murine model of extensive (85%) hepatectomy. We report that, although Myd88 is thoroughly essential for survival via regulation of NF-κB and TNF-α, deletion of RAGE significantly improved survival compared to wild-type, Myd88-null, or RAGE-null/Myd88-null mice. RAGE opposes Myd88 signaling at multiple levels: by suppression of p65 levels, thereby reducing activation of NF-κB and consequent production of cyclin D1, and by suppression of Il6-mediated phosphorylation of Stat3, thereby down-regulating Pim1 and suppressing the hyperplastic response. Further, RAGE-dependent suppression of glyoxalase1, a detoxification pathway for pre-AGEs, enhances AGE levels and suppresses Il6 action. We conclude that blockade of RAGE may rescue liver remnants from the multiple signals that preclude adaptive proliferation triggered primarily by Myd88 signaling pathways.—Zeng, S., Zhang, Q. Y., Huang, J., Vedantham, S., Rosario, R., Ananthakrishnan, R., Yan, S. F., Ramasamy, R., DeMatteo, R. P., Emond, J. C., Friedman, R. A., Schmidt, A. M. Opposing roles of RAGE and Myd88 signaling in extensive liver resection. PMID:22075646

  7. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qunyuan; Ye, Jian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yanping; Hunborg, Pamela; Varvares, Mark A.; Hoft, Daniel F.; Hsueh, Eddy C.; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Immunoediting concept has provided critical insights suggesting dual functions of immune system during the cancer initiation and development. However, the dynamics and roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer remain unclear. Here we utilized two murine breast cancer models (4T1 and E0771) and demonstrated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased and involved in immune responses, but with distinct dynamic trends in breast cancer development. In addition to cell number increases, CD4+ T cells changed their dominant subsets from Th1 in the early stages to Treg and Th17 cells in the late stages of the cancer progression. We also analyzed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in primary breast cancer tissues from cancer patients. We observed that CD8+ T cells are the key effector cell population mediating effective anti-tumor immunity resulting in better clinical outcomes. In contrast, intra-tumoral CD4+ T cells have negative prognostic effects on breast cancer patient outcomes. These studies indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcomes, which provides new insights relevant for the development of effective cancer immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:25968569

  8. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Ma, Chunling; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ye, Jian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yanping; Hunborg, Pamela; Varvares, Mark A; Hoft, Daniel F; Hsueh, Eddy C; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-07-10

    The Cancer Immunoediting concept has provided critical insights suggesting dual functions of immune system during the cancer initiation and development. However, the dynamics and roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer remain unclear. Here we utilized two murine breast cancer models (4T1 and E0771) and demonstrated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased and involved in immune responses, but with distinct dynamic trends in breast cancer development. In addition to cell number increases, CD4+ T cells changed their dominant subsets from Th1 in the early stages to Treg and Th17 cells in the late stages of the cancer progression. We also analyzed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in primary breast cancer tissues from cancer patients. We observed that CD8+ T cells are the key effector cell population mediating effective anti-tumor immunity resulting in better clinical outcomes. In contrast, intra-tumoral CD4+ T cells have negative prognostic effects on breast cancer patient outcomes. These studies indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcomes, which provides new insights relevant for the development of effective cancer immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:25968569

  9. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole; Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging…

  10. Opposing Role for Egr3 in Nucleus Accumbens Cell Subtypes in Cocaine Action

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T. Chase; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Amgalan, Ariunzaya; Gancarz, Amy M.; Dietz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance in molecular signaling cascades and transcriptional regulation in nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neuron (MSN) subtypes, those enriched in dopamine D1 versus D2 receptors, is implicated in the behavioral responses to psychostimulants. To provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms occurring in MSN subtypes by cocaine, we examined the transcription factor early growth response 3 (Egr3). We evaluated Egr3 because it is a target of critical cocaine-mediated signaling pathways and because Egr3-binding sites are found on promoters of key cocaine-associated molecules. We first used a RiboTag approach to obtain ribosome-associated transcriptomes from each MSN subtype and found that repeated cocaine administration induced Egr3 ribosome-associated mRNA in NAc D1-MSNs while reducing Egr3 in D2-MSNs. Using Cre-inducible adeno-associated viruses combined with D1-Cre and D2-Cre mouse lines, we observed that Egr3 overexpression in D1-MSNs enhances rewarding and locomotor responses to cocaine, whereas overexpression in D2-MSNs blunts these behaviors. miRNA knock-down of Egr3 in MSN subtypes produced opposite behavioral responses from those observed with overexpression. Finally, we found that repeated cocaine administration altered Egr3 binding to promoters of genes that are important for cocaine-mediated cellular and behavioral plasticity. Genes with increased Egr3 binding to promoters, Camk2α, CREB, FosB, Nr4a2, and Sirt1, displayed increased mRNA in D1-MSNs and, in some cases, a reduction in D2-MSNs. Histone and the DNA methylation enzymes G9a and Dnmt3a displayed reduced Egr3 binding to their promoters and reduced mRNA in D1-MSNs. Our study provides novel insight into an opposing role of Egr3 in select NAc MSN subtypes in cocaine action. PMID:25995477

  11. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  12. CD109 Plays a Role in Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongwei; Tenenbaum, Howard; Glogauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts are large multinucleated cells that arise from the fusion of cells from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclastogenesis is mediated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) and involves a complex multistep process that requires numerous other elements, many of which remain undefined. The primary aim of this project was to identify novel factors which regulate osteoclastogenesis. To carry out this investigation, microarray analysis was performed comparing two pre-osteoclast cell lines generated from RAW264.7 macrophages: one that has the capacity to fuse forming large multinucleated cells and one that does not fuse. It was found that CD109 was up-regulated by>17-fold in the osteoclast forming cell line when compared to the cell line that does not fuse, at day 2 of the differentiation process. Results obtained with microarray were confirmed by RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses in the two cell lines, in the parental RAW264.7 cell line, as well as primary murine monocytes from bone marrow. A significant increase of CD109 mRNA and protein expression during osteoclastogenesis occurred in all tested cell types. In order to characterize the role of CD109 in osteoclastogenesis, CD109 stable knockdown cell lines were established and fusion of osteoclast precursors into osteoclasts was assessed. It was found that CD109 knockdown cell lines were less capable of forming large multinucleated osteoclasts. It has been shown here that CD109 is expressed in monocytes undergoing RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, when CD109 expression is suppressed in vitro, osteoclast formation decreases. This suggests that CD109 might be an important regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Further research is needed in order to characterize the role played by CD109 in regulation of osteoclast differentiation. PMID:23593435

  13. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  14. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  15. Role Playing as an Imaginative Experience for Language Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    This paper discusses the value of role play in facilitating children's language development and suggests strategies for using role play effectively in early childhood and intermediate classrooms. Role play requires the child (1) to listen and observe peer talk and action and to use language memory, attention and concentration behaviors; (2) to…

  16. Role-Play and Student Engagement: Reflections from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Role-play is viewed by scholars as an effective active learning strategy: it encourages participation among passive learners, adds dynamism to the classroom and promotes the retention of material. But what do students think of role-play? This study surveyed 144 students after a role-play activity in a history course and asked them to identify what…

  17. Rethinking Role Play in the Reception Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: In 2000 the so-called "Reception" class was re-conceived (in curricular terms, at least) as the second and final year of the Foundation Stage, a distinctive educational phase for children aged 3 until entry to key stage 1 at 5 or 6 years old. The "Curriculum guidance for the Foundation Stage" endorses a play-based, informal curriculum…

  18. Reality and Second-Language Role-Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David; Piper, Terry

    1983-01-01

    Although role playing is a well-established and useful method of second language instruction, its success is often undermined by assignment of roles alien to the students' needs and experience. Redefinition of role playing to include the roles an individual assumes in everyday life will help the teacher plan more appropriate activities. (MSE)

  19. Endangered Play, Endangered Development: A Constructivist View of the Role of Play in Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Piagetian and Vygotskian theories may be used as starting points to examine the role of play in development and learning from a constructivist perspective, including how children use play to deepen their understanding and skills, encounter new problems, and incorporate newly mastered skills into their play. Contemporary factors such as an emphasis…

  20. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    PubMed

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. PMID:25725575

  1. Opposing roles of STAT1 and STAT3 in IL-21 function in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chi-Keung; Andraski, Allison B; Spolski, Rosanne; Li, Peng; Kazemian, Majid; Oh, Jangsuk; Samsel, Leigh; Swanson, Phillip A; McGavern, Dorian B; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Freeman, Alexandra F; Milner, Joshua D; Holland, Steven M; Leonard, Warren J

    2015-07-28

    IL-21 is a type I cytokine essential for immune cell differentiation and function. Although IL-21 can activate several STAT family transcription factors, previous studies focused mainly on the role of STAT3 in IL-21 signaling. Here, we investigated the role of STAT1 and show that STAT1 and STAT3 have at least partially opposing roles in IL-21 signaling in CD4(+) T cells. IL-21 induced STAT1 phosphorylation, and this was augmented in Stat3-deficient CD4(+) T cells. RNA-Seq analysis of CD4(+) T cells from Stat1- and Stat3-deficient mice revealed that both STAT1 and STAT3 are critical for IL-21-mediated gene regulation. Expression of some genes, including Tbx21 and Ifng, was differentially regulated by STAT1 and STAT3. Moreover, opposing actions of STAT1 and STAT3 on IFN-γ expression in CD4(+) T cells were demonstrated in vivo during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection. Finally, IL-21-mediated induction of STAT1 phosphorylation, as well as IFNG and TBX21 expression, were higher in CD4(+) T cells from patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome, which is caused by STAT3 deficiency, as well as in cells from STAT1 gain-of-function patients. These data indicate an interplay between STAT1 and STAT3 in fine-tuning IL-21 actions. PMID:26170288

  2. A Role Play for Revising Style and Applying Management Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Role-playing is a well regarded learning activity. By participating in this activity, students can apply their knowledge through their assigned roles in a realistic but risk-free situation. The role play stimulates class discussion, dramatizes rhetorical principles about purpose, shows how to adapt a text to an audience of employees in a…

  3. Online Role-Play Environments for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carol; Shepherd, John

    2010-01-01

    As online environments and tools have evolved over the last 15-20 years, their use for role-based learning has expanded. This analysis draws on work for an Australian project that has been sharing and developing knowledge about the use of online role-plays in higher education. We describe the learning needs that online role-play can meet, and give…

  4. The role-playing: the art to catch the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Lanza, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    We present some interactive, immersive, authentic role-plays simulation designed to teach to different public: tertiary, secondary and primary students and an experience with a teachers group, after April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake. We will discuss about the basics of the role-play and its applications to the geosciences in outreach projects. Role-play is a powerful method to educate to risk mitigation with particular we will discuss our experience regarding seismic risk. Finally, we will present some data on the effectiveness of the role-play in different settings in which we used it.

  5. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  6. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  7. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was analyzed and…

  8. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  9. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  10. Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of role-play focuses on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous online role-play at an Australian university within a WebCT bulletin board that was designed as an alternative to an existing face-to-face workshop to offer more flexible access for participants. Suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  11. Blended Learning Using Role-Plays, Wikis and Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruyters, Michele; Douglas, Kathy; Law, Siew Fang

    2011-01-01

    Student learning about legal skills in legal education is increasingly seen as important. These legal skills include advocacy and negotiation. These skills are often taught through role-play. This article discusses the combination of role-plays with online tools, including wikis and blogs, to assist students to master legal skills. The article…

  12. The Use of Role Play To Teach Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Nancy; Shaver, Lisa

    Role play (a dramatic technique in which individuals improvise behaviors that illustrate acts expected of persons involved in defined situations) has several advantages for the classroom. Role play: (1) involves little or no additional instructional costs; (2) allows students to practice behaviors and skills; (3) closes the gap between training…

  13. Understanding Public Land Management through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Alex P.

    2004-01-01

    Role-playing activities are an example of active learning that introduces students to "real-world" situations. This paper discusses the development and assessment of a role-play that involves an undergraduate geography class in a local public land management process. This particular case study is useful because it reflects broader themes and…

  14. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a…

  15. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  16. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  17. "Playing The Role": Classroom Performance Approaches to Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Dynamic classroom role-playing is an essential ingredient in interpretation and performance if the student actor is to learn the technical skills of believable characterization. One of the first classroom performance principles in playing the role is for the student actor to read the playscript with a critical eye to grasp the creative suggestions…

  18. ROLE-PLAYING WITH LOW-INCOME PEOPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDFARB, JEAN; RIESSMAN, FRANK

    ROLE-PLAYING, THE FLEXIBLE ACTING OUT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PROBLEMS IN A PERMISSIVE GROUP ATMOSPHERE, WAS AIMED AT DEVELOPING A FULL, INNER FEELING ABOUT A SITUATION FROM ACTING OUT HOW OTHER PEOPLE ACTUALLY FELT IN THE SITUATION. ROLE-PLAYING WAS ESPECIALLY USEFUL FOR LOW-INCOME GROUPS BECAUSE THEY EXPRESS THEMSELVES MORE READILY WHEN REACTING TO…

  19. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    PubMed

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy. PMID:22032796

  20. Opposing immunomodulatory roles of prostaglandin D2 during the progression of skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sarashina, Hana; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Omori, Keisuke; Aritake, Kosuke; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Hori, Masatoshi; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Narumiya, Shuh; Urade, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of PGD2 are extremely context dependent. It can have pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in clinically important pathological conditions. A greater mechanistic insight into the determinants of PGD2 activity during inflammation is thus required. In this study, we investigated the role of PGD2 in croton oil-induced dermatitis using transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing hematopoietic PGD synthase. Administration of croton oil caused tissue swelling and vascular leakage in the mouse ear. Compared with wild-type animals, TG mice produced more PGD2 and showed decreased inflammation in the early phase, but more severe manifestations during the late phase. Data obtained from bone marrow transplantation between wild-type and TG mice indicated that PGD2 produced by tissue resident cells in the TG mice attenuated early-phase inflammation, whereas PGD2 produced from hematopoietic lineage cells exacerbated late-phase inflammation. There are two distinct PGD2 receptors: D-prostanoid receptor (DP) and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). In TG mice, treatment with a DP antagonist exacerbated inflammation in the early phase, whereas treatment with a CRTH2 antagonist attenuated inflammation during the late phase. In vitro experiments showed that DP agonism enhanced vascular endothelial barrier formation, whereas CRTH2 agonism stimulated neutrophil migration. Collectively, these results show that when hematopoietic PGD synthase is overexpressed, tissue resident cell-derived PGD2 suppresses skin inflammation via DP in the early phase, but hematopoietic lineage cell-derived PGD2 stimulates CRTH2 and promotes inflammation during the late phase. DP-mediated vascular barrier enhancement or CRTH2-mediated neutrophil activation may be responsible for these effects. Thus, PGD2 represents opposite roles in inflammation, depending on the disease phase in vivo. PMID:24298012

  1. Opposing roles for caspase and calpain death proteases in L-glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Elphick, Lucy M.; Hawat, Mohammad; Toms, Nick J.; Meinander, Annika; Mikhailov, Andrey; Eriksson, John E.; Kass, George E.N.

    2008-10-15

    Oxidative glutamate toxicity in HT22 murine hippocampal cells is a model for neuronal death by oxidative stress. We have investigated the role of proteases in HT22 cell oxidative glutamate toxicity. L-glutamate-induced toxicity was characterized by cell and nuclear shrinkage and chromatin condensation, yet occurred in the absence of either DNA fragmentation or mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Pretreatment with the selective caspase inhibitors either benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (pan-caspase), N-acetyl-Leu-Glu-His-Asp-aldehyde (caspase 9) or N-acetyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-aldehyde (caspase 8), significantly increased L-glutamate-induced cell death with a corresponding increase in observed nuclear shrinkage and chromatin condensation. This enhancement of glutamate toxicity correlated with an increase in L-glutamate-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of caspase inhibition. Pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented ROS production, cell shrinkage and cell death from L-glutamate as well as that associated with the presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor. In contrast, the caspase-3/-7 inhibitor N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp aldehyde was without significant effect. However, pretreating the cells with the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO, but not the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074, prevented cell death. The cytotoxic role of calpains was confirmed further by: 1) cytotoxic dependency on intracellular Ca{sup 2+} increase, 2) increased cleavage of the calpain substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-AMC and 3) immunoblot detection of the calpain-selective 145 kDa {alpha}-fodrin cleavage fragment. We conclude that oxidative L-glutamate toxicity in HT22 cells is mediated via calpain activation, whereas inhibition of caspases-8 and -9 may exacerbate L-glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal damage through increased oxidative stress.

  2. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  3. Role Playing Using a Simulated Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, H. Patrick; Popvich, Nicholas G.

    1977-01-01

    Within a simulated Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee format, role play is used at Purdue University to illustrate to students the concepts of drug product evaluation and selection as these apply to a hospital formulary system. (Author/LBH)

  4. What Role Does Obstetrical Care Play in Childbirth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What role does obstetrical care play in childbirth? Skip sharing on ... has ruptured (the woman’s water breaks), but labor does not start within 24 to 48 hours When ...

  5. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  6. Opposing roles of H3- and H4-acetylation in the regulation of nucleosome structure—a FRET study

    PubMed Central

    Gansen, Alexander; Tóth, Katalin; Schwarz, Nathalie; Langowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Using FRET in bulk and on single molecules, we assessed the structural role of histone acetylation in nucleosomes reconstituted on the 170 bp long Widom 601 sequence. We followed salt-induced nucleosome disassembly, using donor–acceptor pairs on the ends or in the internal part of the nucleosomal DNA, and on H2B histone for measuring H2A/H2B dimer exchange. This allowed us to distinguish the influence of acetylation on salt-induced DNA unwrapping at the entry–exit site from its effect on nucleosome core dissociation. The effect of lysine acetylation is not simply cumulative, but showed distinct histone-specificity. Both H3- and H4-acetylation enhance DNA unwrapping above physiological ionic strength; however, while H3-acetylation renders the nucleosome core more sensitive to salt-induced dissociation and to dimer exchange, H4-acetylation counteracts these effects. Thus, our data suggest, that H3- and H4-acetylation have partially opposing roles in regulating nucleosome architecture and that distinct aspects of nucleosome dynamics might be independently controlled by individual histones. PMID:25589544

  7. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  8. Opposing Roles of Foliar and Glandular Trichome Volatile Components in Cultivated Nightshade Interaction with a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Murungi, Lucy Kananu; Kirwa, Hillary; Salifu, Daisy; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Plant chemistry is an important contributor to the interaction with herbivores. Here, we report on a previously unknown role for foliar and glandular trichome volatiles in their interaction with the specialist herbivore of solanaceous plants, the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. We used various bioassays and chemical analyses including coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) to investigate this interaction between cultivated African nightshades and T. evansi. We show that, whereas morphologically different cultivated African nightshade species released similar foliar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attracted T. evansi, VOCs released from exudates of ruptured glandular trichomes of one nightshade species influenced local defense on the leaf surface. VOCs from ruptured glandular trichomes comprising mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids deterred T. evansi oviposition. Of the fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids accounted for >40% of the oviposition deterrent activity. Our findings point to a defense strategy in a plant, based on opposing roles for volatiles released by foliar and glandular trichomes in response to attack by a specialist herbivore. PMID:27556560

  9. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-01-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increases proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play. PMID:27417481

  10. "Free Vote": Role-Playing Parliament in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lynn

    1977-01-01

    A Canadian political role-playing sequence helps secondary students understand the workings of Parliament and clarify their own values. The issue under debate is abolition or retention of capital punishment. Article describes rationale, teacher's instructions, roles, related legislature, rules of Parliamentary debate, public opinion polls, news…

  11. Role Play in Nutrition Education for the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach, Ellen S.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    The Curry and Arnaud model for role playing is described and discussed as it relates to nutrition education for young children. The components of the model are: (1) developing the role, (2) using thematic content, (3) displaying feelings (in socially acceptable ways), (4) distinguishing between reality and fantasy, and (5) forming interpersonal…

  12. Empathic Features and Absorption in Fantasy Role-Playing.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). PMID:26675155

  13. Adapting a Face-to-Face Role-Playing Simulation for Online Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Nathan; Shami, N. Sadat

    2006-01-01

    The rapid acceleration of online course offerings presents a design challenge for instructors who want to take materials developed for face-to-face settings and adapt them for asynchronous online usage. Broadcast lectures are relatively easy to transfer, but adapting content is harder when classes use small-group discussions, as in role-playing or…

  14. Playing by the Rules: Instruction and Acculturation in Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Bryn

    2008-01-01

    The open-ended, informal, and socially negotiated nature of role-playing games creates a distinct learning challenge for newcomers to the hobby. The explicit rules of the game provide only an incomplete framework for structuring the actions of players, and the expectations and mores of a given group will add other, unspoken rules that discourage…

  15. (Role) Playing Politics in an Environmental Chemistry Lecture Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, A. Meredith; Higgins, Daniel A.

    2007-02-01

    Mock congressional hearings are described as an active learning, role-playing activity for the environmental chemistry lecture course. Each student plays dual roles in this activity, alternately serving as a witness and committee member on hearing topics selected by the class. As witnesses, the students assume the roles of scientists, politicians, industrial representatives, and environmental group representatives and present both written and oral arguments for or against a particular issue. At other times, they play the role of congressional committee members and question the witnesses. Hearings are held on topics related to renewable and nonrenewable energy; hazardous waste; water, soil, and air pollution; water quality; and genetic engineering. This activity greatly enriches the educational experience for the students by allowing them to become actively engaged in learning and debating specific issues related to course materials.

  16. Opposing roles for JNK and Aurora A in regulating the association of WDR62 with spindle microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Nicholas R.; Yeap, Yvonne Y. C.; Zhao, Teresa T.; Yip, Yan Y.; Wong, Shu C.; Xu, Dan; Ang, Ching-Seng; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Xu, Zhiheng; Bogoyevitch, Marie A.; Ng, Dominic C. H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) is a spindle pole protein required for normal cell division and neuroprogenitor differentiation during brain development. Microcephaly-associated mutations in WDR62 lead to mitotic mislocalization, highlighting a crucial requirement for precise WDR62 spatiotemporal distribution, although the regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the WD40-repeat region of WDR62 is required for microtubule association, whereas the disordered C-terminal region regulates cell-cycle-dependent compartmentalization. In agreement with a functional requirement for the WDR62–JNK1 complex during neurogenesis, WDR62 specifically recruits JNK1 (also known as MAPK8), but not JNK2 (also known as MAPK9), to the spindle pole. However, JNK-mediated phosphorylation of WDR62 T1053 negatively regulated microtubule association, and loss of JNK signaling resulted in constitutive WDR62 localization to microtubules irrespective of cell cycle stage. In contrast, we identified that Aurora A kinase (AURKA) and WDR62 were in complex and that AURKA-mediated phosphorylation was required for the spindle localization of WDR62 during mitosis. Our studies highlight complex regulation of WDR62 localization, with opposing roles for JNK and AURKA in determining its spindle association. PMID:25501809

  17. Detection of faking on role-play tests of assertiveness.

    PubMed

    Kern, J M

    1994-04-01

    Faking and demand characteristics can represent significant threats to the validity of role-play tests of social competence. The present study examined whether faking could be detected via the global judgments of experienced and inexperienced assessors. 26 undergraduates low in assertiveness were induced to fake their performances on the Idiographic Role-play Test via instructions and information. Experienced judges successfully differentiated faking subjects from highly assertive subjects (n = 27) who had been provided with information and nonfaking instructions (98% accuracy). Inexperienced assessors correctly classified 79% of the subjects. Within the discussed limitations of this study, it appears that it is possible to detect faking on role-play tests of assertiveness. PMID:8197276

  18. Opposing roles of TGF-β and EGF in the regulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cano-González, Ana; López-Rivas, Abelardo

    2016-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast epithelial cells and plays an important role in mammary morphogenesis and breast cancer. In non-transformed breast epithelial cells TGF-β antagonizes epidermal growth factor (EGF) action and induces growth inhibition. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been reported to participate in lumen formation during morphogenesis of human breast epithelial cells. Our previous work indicated that sensitivity of human breast epithelial cells to TRAIL can be modulated through the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR). Here, we show that TGF-β opposes EGF-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced caspase-8 activation and apoptosis in non-transformed breast epithelial cells. Death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) formation by TRAIL was significantly reduced in cells treated with TGF-β. TGF-β treatment activates cytoprotective autophagy and down-regulates TRAIL-R2 expression at the cell surface by promoting the intracellular accumulation of this receptor. Lastly, we demonstrate that EMT is not involved in the inhibitory effect of TGF-β on apoptosis by TRAIL. Together, the data reveal a fine regulation by EGF and TGF-β of sensitivity of human breast epithelial cells to TRAIL which may be relevant during morphogenesis. PMID:27208428

  19. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  20. Development of Confidence in Child Behavior Management through Role Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Gerard C., Jr.; Ehrlichs, Melvin A.

    1990-01-01

    In a preclinical course in pediatric dentistry, 76 students were taught child behavior management through role playing of 7-10 common management situations. Pre- and postcourse measures of student confidence found that, although older students were more confident, all gained significantly from the training. Other student characteristics were also…

  1. Exploring the Concept of Sustainable Development through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchs, Arnaud; Blanchard, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is used in everyday life by the general public, alongside researchers, institutions, and private companies. Nevertheless, its definition is far from being unequivocal. Clarifying the outline of the concept seems necessary. We have created a role-play for this purpose. Our article aims at depicting its main…

  2. Role Play and Simulation: Returning to Teaching for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapper, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how simulation and role play can be important learning strategies that will create long-lasting understanding. Simulation involves participating in a very real learning experience that closely resembles an actual setting. These actual settings may be replicated by either employing models or mannequins or in the case of role…

  3. The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Marjori M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean War is often given a cursory glance, if that, in U.S. foreign relations today. This article provides all the information necessary to conduct a role-play in one class period to help students understand the events of the war. Introductory and follow-up questions are also included to stimulate discussion and to connect the events of a war…

  4. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  5. A Role Play on Export Decisions and the Exchange Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Explains that the goal of this exercise is to encourage an understanding of the effects of exchange rate changes and the use of forward rates. Provides a role play that involves students working in groups to decide whether to export a consignment of golf trollies to Italy and shortbread to Canada. (BSR)

  6. Try This: Role-Play Party: Talking about Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a stand-alone language-learning activity emphasizing speaking. Specifically, students will participate in role plays to describe occupations and job-related duties. The level of the activity is upper beginner or low intermediate and the time required is 45-60 minutes. The goals are: (1) to ask and answer small-talk questions…

  7. Reusable, Lifelike Virtual Humans for Mentoring and Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    Lifelike, interactive digital characters, serving as mentors and role-playing actors, have been shown to significantly improve learner motivation and retention. However, the cost of modeling such characters, authoring and editing their interactions, and delivering them over limited-bandwidth connections can be prohibitive. This paper describes a…

  8. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  9. [Anthropology play a key role in simulated portrait].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Biao

    2006-08-15

    The technology of simulated portrait played a key role in criminal cases' deterction recently, while anthropology is attached to it tightly. This paper analyzed and discussed the impact of anthropology in simulated portrait by means of studying the relationship between races, regions figures skeletons and physiognomy. PMID:17080677

  10. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  11. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  12. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and recreate the…

  13. Interdisciplinary Role Play between Social Work and Theater Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching BSW and MSW students beginning interviewing and relationship-building skills is essential in order to prepare them for practice with clients. In social work methods courses, role plays are commonly-used instructional strategies for helping foundation-level students acquire these initial practice skills. Despite the popularity of this…

  14. Role Playing and Mind Mapping Issues on Nitrate Contamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents mind-mapping and role-playing exercises designed to guide students in the exploration, expression, and integration of varying viewpoints and opinions of a controversial topic (nitrate contamination of water supply); illustrate the importance of applying soil fertility principles to environmental and agronomic management; and encourage…

  15. Using Online Role Play to Teach Internet Safety Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, J. M.; Oades, C. E.; Morris, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of Net-Detectives, a creative online role play activity aimed at 9-12 year olds. Net-Detectives forms part of Kidsmart, an Internet awareness programme aimed at school children. It was evaluated through a multiple method data collection using questionnaire surveys, follow up telephone interviews with teachers…

  16. The Role Play: More than Make-Believe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martin

    At the University of Akron's Community and Technical College, the major student project for "Principles of Advertising" is the development of ad campaigns for an assigned product. Two groups of students, playing the role of advertising agencies, compete with each other while the remaining students in the class act as the clients. Among the…

  17. Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria that instructors should be sensitive to when evaluating simulations or role-plays for use in international/comparative politics courses. The potential benefits and drawbacks to these interactive exercises are addressed as well as the special circumstances that must be taken into consideration to reap the full promise…

  18. Role-playing in nursing theory: engaging online students.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Cheryle; Adelman, Deborah S

    2010-04-01

    The teaching and learning of nursing theory, at all program levels, is challenging due to the complexity and abstract nature of its content, the dry nature in which the study of theory often is approached, a perception of disconnect from practice, and faculty discomfort and avoidance of the subject matter. Adapting creative educational strategies to the online environment is an ongoing challenge for educators. Role-play relates well to the constructivist basis of creating personal meaning based on the individual's experiences. This article examines the use of role-play as an educational strategy for teaching nursing theory in an online baccalaureate program. In a core professional issues course, students adopt the persona of a specific nursing theorist, interacting with other "nursing theorists" played by their peers. Student engagement and active learning reflect excitement and interest, and course evaluations have been extremely positive for this content and method. PMID:20055329

  19. Leptin plays a catabolic role on articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jia-peng; Chen, Wei-ping; Feng, Jie; Hu, Peng-fei; Shi, Zhong-li; Wu, Li-dong

    2010-10-01

    Leptin has been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of body weight. There is also evidence that this adipokine plays a key role in the process of osteoarthritis. However, the precise role of leptin on articular cartilage metabolism is not clear. We investigate the role of leptin on articular cartilage in vivo in this study. Recombinant rat leptin (100 μg) was injected into the knee joints of rats, 48 h later, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and protein levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), cathepsin D, and collagen II from articular cartilage were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Two important aggrecanases ADAMTS-4 and -5 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5) were also analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Besides, articular cartilage was also assessed for proteoglycan/GAG content by Safranin O staining. Leptin significantly increased both gene and protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, cathepsin D, and collagen II, while decreased bFGF markedly in cartilage. Moreover, the gene expression of ADAMTS-4 and -5 were markedly increased, and histologically assessed depletion of proteoglycan in articular cartilage was observed after treatment with leptin. These results strongly suggest that leptin plays a catabolic role on cartilage metabolism and may be a disadvantage factor involve in the pathological process of OA. PMID:19876764

  20. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  1. Opposing roles of miR-21 and miR-29 in the progression of fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Simona; Gibertini, Sara; Curcio, Maurizio; Savadori, Paolo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix deposition progressively replacing muscle fibres is the endpoint of most severe muscle diseases. Recent data indicate major involvement of microRNAs in regulating pro- and anti-fibrotic genes. To investigate the roles of miR-21 and miR-29 in muscle fibrosis in Duchenne muscle dystrophy, we evaluated their expression in muscle biopsies from 14 patients, and in muscle-derived fibroblasts and myoblasts. In Duchenne muscle biopsies, miR-21 expression was significantly increased, and correlated directly with COL1A1 and COL6A1 transcript levels. MiR-21 expression was also significantly increased in Duchenne fibroblasts, more so after TGF-β1 treatment. In Duchenne fibroblasts the expression of miR-21 target transcripts PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SPRY-1 (Sprouty homolog 1) was significantly reduced; while collagen I and VI transcript levels and soluble collagen production were significantly increased. MiR-29a and miR-29c were significantly reduced in Duchenne muscle and myoblasts, and miR-29 target transcripts, COL3A1, FBN1 and YY1, significantly increased. MiR-21 silencing in mdx mice reduced fibrosis in the diaphragm muscle and in both Duchenne fibroblasts and mdx mice restored PTEN and SPRY-1 expression, and significantly reduced collagen I and VI expression; while miR-29 mimicking in Duchenne myoblasts significantly decreased miR-29 target transcripts. These findings indicate that miR-21 and miR-29 play opposing roles in Duchenne muscle fibrosis and suggest that pharmacological modulation of their expression has therapeutic potential for reducing fibrosis in this condition. PMID:25892183

  2. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  3. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Paul

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a tendency for students to become overly political. An unexpected benefit of these games is the boost that they give to student self- confidence. Overall, they seem to work well with a wide range of students, ranging from ninth grade to graduate school, and students exposed to this game comment repeatedly on how the games changed their attitudes toward the scientific process.

  4. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  5. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  6. Rockin' Role Plays. A Collection of the Finest for Mediation Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara A.; Corley, Sarah V.

    This guide offers suggestions for implementing role plays to teach conflict resolution skills and provides a variety of role plays useful in different settings. It describes how to effectively prepare for role plays, how to implement role play strategies, and how to debrief and provide feedback to role play participants. Potential problems are…

  7. Simulating Social and Political Influences on Hazard Analysis through a Classroom Role Playing Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, T. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    Geological hazard mitigation is a complicated process that involves both detailed scientific research and negotiations between community members with competing interests in the solution. Geological hazards classes based around traditional lecture methods have difficulty conveying the decision-making processes that go into these negotiations. To address this deficiency, we have spent five years developing and testing a role- playing exercise based on mitigation of a dam outburst hazard on Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. In our exercise, students are asked to undertake one of five different roles and decide the best way to mitigate the hazard. Over the course of their discussion students are challenged to reach a consensus decision despite the presence of strongly opposed positions. Key to the success of the exercise are (1) the presence of a facilitator and recorder for each meeting, (2) the provision of unique information for each interested party, and (3) the division of the class into multiple meeting groups, such that everyone is required to participate and individual groups can evolve to different conclusions. The exercise can be completed in a single hour and twenty minute classroom session that is divided into four parts: an introduction, a meeting between members of the same interested party to discuss strategy, a meeting between different interested parties, and a debriefing session. This framework can be readily translated to any classroom hazard problem. In our experience, students have responded positively to the use of role-playing to supplement lectures.

  8. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  9. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology. PMID:22974351

  10. Does epigenetics play a role in human asthma?

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and other allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases of childhood. According to the World Health Organization, asthma affects >7.0 million children under 18 in the United States, with an economic burden that is estimated to exceed that of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS combined. Despite much research, the natural history of asthma and its pathogenesis are still in many ways elusive. This review discusses our current understanding of the role epigenetic processes play in asthma pathogenesis, focusing on genome-wide, population-based studies. PMID:26778244

  11. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-05-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation [Wos87] in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  12. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation (Wos87) in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  13. Mitophagy plays a central role in mitochondrial ageing.

    PubMed

    Diot, Alan; Morten, Karl; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying ageing have been discussed for decades, and advances in molecular and cell biology of the last three decades have accelerated research in this area. Over this period, it has become clear that mitochondrial function, which plays a major role in many cellular pathways from ATP production to nuclear gene expression and epigenetics alterations, declines with age. The emerging concepts suggest novel mechanisms, involving mtDNA quality, mitochondrial dynamics or mitochondrial quality control. In this review, we discuss the impact of mitochondria in the ageing process, the role of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species production, in nuclear gene expression, the accumulation of mtDNA damage and the importance of mitochondrial dynamics and recycling. Declining mitophagy (mitochondrial quality control) may be an important component of human ageing. PMID:27352213

  14. TFIIH plays an essential role in RNA polymerase I transcription.

    PubMed

    Iben, Sebastian; Tschochner, Herbert; Bier, Mirko; Hoogstraten, Deborah; Hozák, Pavel; Egly, Jean Marc; Grummt, Ingrid

    2002-05-01

    TFIIH is a multisubunit protein complex that plays an essential role in nucleotide excision repair and transcription of protein-coding genes. Here, we report that TFIIH is also required for ribosomal RNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro. In yeast, pre-rRNA synthesis is impaired in TFIIH ts strains. In a mouse, part of cellular TFIIH is localized within the nucleolus and is associated with subpopulations of both RNA polymerase I and the basal factor TIF-IB. Transcription systems lacking TFIIH are inactive and exogenous TFIIH restores transcriptional activity. TFIIH is required for productive but not abortive rDNA transcription, implying a postinitiation role in transcription. The results provide a molecular link between RNA polymerase I transcription and transcription-coupled repair of active ribosomal RNA genes. PMID:12015980

  15. The Role of Adults in Facilitating the Play of Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that adults have a responsibility and opportunity to support preschoolers' play by: (1) manifesting positive attitudes toward play; (2) establishing exciting play environments; and (3) offering ideas and play objects. Explores how best to accomplish these supports. (HTH)

  16. Opposing Roles of Tyrosine Kinase Receptors Mer and Axl Determine Clinical Outcomes in Experimental Immune-Mediated Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yuxuan; Priest, Stephen O; Shao, Wen-Hai

    2016-09-15

    Glomerulonephritis is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, with considerable morbidity and mortality. There remains a major unmet need for successful management of lupus nephritis. TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases (Mer and Axl) play an important role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the kidney. Mer is constitutively expressed in the glomeruli; Axl expression is inducible in glomeruli under inflammatory conditions. To investigate the distinct functions of Axl and Mer in lupus nephritis, we compared the severity of nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis in wild-type (WT), Axl-knockout (KO), Mer-KO, and Axl/Mer-KO mice. Mer-KO mice developed severe glomerulonephritis, with significantly decreased survival and increased blood urea nitrogen levels compared with WT mice given the same treatment. However, nephrotoxic serum-treated Axl-KO mice had significantly increased survival rates and improved renal function compared with similarly treated WT, Mer-KO, and Axl/Mer-KO mice. Interestingly, mice lacking both Axl and Mer developed kidney inflammation comparable to WT mice. Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased Stat3 phosphorylation and caspase-1 activation in the kidneys of nephritic Mer-KO mice. In contrast, Axl-deficient nephrotoxic serum-injected mice showed decreased Akt phosphorylation and Bcl-xL upregulation. Thus, the reciprocal activation of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases has a major impact on the outcome of renal inflammation. PMID:27527599

  17. Glucocorticoids Play a Key Role in Circadian Cell Cycle Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Dickmeis, Thomas; Lahiri, Kajori; Nica, Gabriela; Vallone, Daniela; Santoriello, Cristina; Neumann, Carl J; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2007-01-01

    Clock output pathways play a pivotal role by relaying timing information from the circadian clock to a diversity of physiological systems. Both cell-autonomous and systemic mechanisms have been implicated as clock outputs; however, the relative importance and interplay between these mechanisms are poorly understood. The cell cycle represents a highly conserved regulatory target of the circadian timing system. Previously, we have demonstrated that in zebrafish, the circadian clock has the capacity to generate daily rhythms of S phase by a cell-autonomous mechanism in vitro. Here, by studying a panel of zebrafish mutants, we reveal that the pituitary–adrenal axis also plays an essential role in establishing these rhythms in the whole animal. Mutants with a reduction or a complete absence of corticotrope pituitary cells show attenuated cell-proliferation rhythms, whereas expression of circadian clock genes is not affected. We show that the corticotrope deficiency is associated with reduced cortisol levels, implicating glucocorticoids as a component of a systemic signaling pathway required for circadian cell cycle rhythmicity. Strikingly, high-amplitude rhythms can be rescued by exposing mutant larvae to a tonic concentration of a glucocorticoid agonist. Our work suggests that cell-autonomous clock mechanisms are not sufficient to establish circadian cell cycle rhythms at the whole-animal level. Instead, they act in concert with a systemic signaling environment of which glucocorticoids are an essential part. PMID:17373855

  18. Opposing tissue-specific roles of angiotensin in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implications for obesity-related hypertension.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, Nicole K; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-12-15

    Metabolic disease, specifically obesity, has now become the greatest challenge to improving cardiovascular health. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists as both a circulating hormone system and as a local paracrine signaling mechanism within various tissues including the brain, kidney, and adipose, and this system is strongly implicated in cardiovascular health and disease. Growing evidence also implicates the RAS in the control of energy balance, supporting the concept that the RAS may be mechanistically involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and obesity hypertension. Here, we review the involvement of the RAS in the entire spectrum of whole organism energy balance mechanisms, including behaviors (food ingestion and spontaneous physical activity) and biological processes (digestive efficiency and both aerobic and nonaerobic resting metabolic rates). We hypothesize that opposing, tissue-specific effects of the RAS to modulate these various components of energy balance can explain the apparently paradoxical results reported by energy-balance studies that involve stimulating, versus disrupting, the RAS. We propose a model in which such opposing and tissue-specific effects of the RAS can explain the failure of simple, global RAS blockade to result in weight loss in humans, and hypothesize that obesity-mediated uncoupling of endogenous metabolic rate control mechanisms can explain the phenomenon of obesity-related hypertension. PMID:26491099

  19. DICER-LIKE2 plays a primary role in transitive silencing of transgenes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mlotshwa, Sizolwenkosi; Pruss, Gail J; Peragine, Angela; Endres, Matthew W; Li, Junjie; Chen, Xuemei; Poethig, R Scott; Bowman, Lewis H; Vance, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes play a pivotal role in RNA silencing in plants, processing the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers silencing into the primary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that mediate it. The siRNA population can be augmented and silencing amplified via transitivity, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR)-dependent pathway that uses the target RNA as substrate to generate secondary siRNAs. Here we report that Arabidopsis DCL2-but not DCL4-is required for transitivity in cell-autonomous, post-transcriptional silencing of transgenes. An insertion mutation in DCL2 blocked sense transgene-induced silencing and eliminated accumulation of the associated RDR-dependent siRNAs. In hairpin transgene-induced silencing, the dcl2 mutation likewise eliminated accumulation of secondary siRNAs and blocked transitive silencing, but did not block silencing mediated by primary siRNAs. Strikingly, in all cases, the dcl2 mutation eliminated accumulation of all secondary siRNAs, including those generated by other DCL enzymes. In contrast, mutations in DCL4 promoted a dramatic shift to transitive silencing in the case of the hairpin transgene and enhanced silencing induced by the sense transgene. Suppression of hairpin and sense transgene silencing by the P1/HC-Pro and P38 viral suppressors was associated with elimination of secondary siRNA accumulation, but the suppressors did not block processing of the stem of the hairpin transcript into primary siRNAs. Thus, these viral suppressors resemble the dcl2 mutation in their effects on siRNA biogenesis. We conclude that DCL2 plays an essential, as opposed to redundant, role in transitive silencing of transgenes and may play a more important role in silencing of viruses than currently thought. PMID:18335032

  20. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Børsheim, Elisabet; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers' attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies. PMID:23691283

  1. Significant roles played by interleukin-10 in outcome of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mobini, Masoud; Mortazavi, Maryam; Nadi, Somayeh; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Pourtalebi, Somayeh; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Imbalanced immune responses against fetus alloantigens can lead to abnormality in pregnancy. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays key roles in regulation of immune responses against self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance to these antigens. Therefore, alteration in expression of IL-10 during pregnancy may result in several pathologic conditions such as preterm labor. IL-10 leads to a normal pregnancy via several molecular mechanisms including development of tolerogenic dendritic cells, T regulatory lymphocytes and activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway in the target cells. This review has collected recent data regarding the status of IL-10 expression during term and preterm deliveries and also its molecular mechanisms that lead to a normal pregnancy. PMID:27081455

  2. Field Effects in the CNS Play Functional Roles

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Shennan A.; Faber, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    An endogenous electrical field effect, i.e., ephaptic transmission, occurs when an electric field associated with activity occurring in one neuron polarizes the membrane of another neuron. It is well established that field effects occur during pathological conditions, such as epilepsy, but less clear if they play a functional role in the healthy brain. Here, we describe the principles of field effect interactions, discuss identified field effects in diverse brain structures from the teleost Mauthner cell to the mammalian cortex, and speculate on the function of these interactions. Recent evidence supports that relatively weak endogenous and exogenous field effects in laminar structures reach significance because they are amplified by network interactions. Such interactions may be important in rhythmogenesis for the cortical slow wave and hippocampal sharp wave–ripple, and also during transcranial stimulation. PMID:20508749

  3. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  4. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  5. TLR3 Plays Significant Roles against HBV-Associated HCC

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-lan; Xu, Yu-yin; Chen, Li; Wang, Gui-lan; Shen, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a pattern-recognizing receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in survival by being able to recognize various viral components including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The role of TLR3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is not well understood. To investigate the ability of TLR3 in regulating HBV replication in HCC, 80 cases of human HCC were collected and their tissue microarray was made. In HCC cells, the expression and location of TLR3, hepatitis-associated virus, and interstitial immunoreactive cells were assayed with immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis of tumor cells was also detected by TUNEL stain. Correlations between TLR3 expression and HBV infection, interstitial immunoreactive cells, and cells apoptosis in HCC were investigated. In addition, we explored whether TLR3 agonist dsRNA can inhibit HepG2.2.15 cells secreting HBV. We found that the cytoplasmic expression of TLR3 in HCC is positively related to HBsAg infection and HCC with cirrhosis and promotes interstitial immunoreactive cells infiltration and cancer cells apoptosis. In HepG2.2.15 cells, dsRNA inhibited the secretion of HBV and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that TLR3 signaling activity may be involved in immune responses against HBV in HCC. PMID:25983748

  6. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongxia; Zhang, Qing-Song; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Reiser, Brendan; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Braun, Stephen E.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX) in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype. PMID:24758934

  7. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12785.001 PMID:27458800

  8. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. PMID:27458800

  9. Active Learning in the Classroom: The Use of Group Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzerow, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Describes group role-playing activities that have been used to teach about education, criminology, and sex roles. Suggests that role play helps students to absorb and retain many of the insights about the issues involved. (DB)

  10. Teens at Risk: Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egendorf, Laura K., Ed.; Hurley, Jennifer A., Ed.

    Contributions in this collection present opposing viewpoints about factors that put teens at risk; illustrate how society can deal with teenage crime and violence; show how to prevent teen pregnancy; and present the roles of the media and government in teen substance abuse. The following essays are presented: (1) "A Variety of Factors Put Teens at…

  11. Role-Play and Language Socialization among Bilingual Korean Children in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Seongwon

    2008-01-01

    This article examines children's role-play within the framework of language socialization, as well as the relations between (a) utterances made by young bilingual Korean children within the role-play frame and (b) metacommunicative utterances about the play. It analyzes the language features that children use to set up the context of role-play and…

  12. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  13. Hepatic ERK activity plays a role in energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Feng, Bin; Li, Yujie; He, Qin; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-08-15

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38, have been reported to play important roles in energy homeostasis. In this study, we show that the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is increased in the livers of diet induced and genetically obese mice. Activation of ERK in the livers of lean mice by over-expressing the constitutively active MAPK kinase 1 (MEK CA) results in decreased energy expenditure, lowered expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, increases fasting hyperglycemia and causes systemic insulin resistance. Interestingly, hepatic glycogen content is markedly increased and expression of G6Pase gene is decreased in mice over-expressing MEK CA compared to control mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), therefore hepatic glucose output is not likely the major contributor of hyperglycemia. One potential mechanism of decreased expression of G6Pase gene by MEK CA is likely due to ERK mediated phosphorylation and cytosolic retention of FOXO1. Adipocytes isolated from MEK CA mice display increased lipolysis. Circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in these mice are also increased, which possibly contribute to systemic insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia. Consistent with these results, knocking down ERK expression in the liver of diet induced obese (DIO) mice improves systemic insulin and glucose tolerance. These results indicate that increased hepatic ERK activity in DIO mice may contribute to increased liver glycogen content and decreased energy expenditure in obesity. PMID:23732116

  14. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  15. IFT46 plays crucial roles in craniofacial and cilia development.

    PubMed

    Park, Inji; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Chowon; Ismail, Tayaba; Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Jeen-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kang, Beom Sik; Lee, Dong-Seok; Park, Tae-Joo; Park, Mae-Ja; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Lee, Hyun-Shik

    2016-08-26

    The intraflagellar transport (IFT) system is essential for bidirectional movement of ciliary components from the basal body to the tip beneath the ciliary sheath and is conserved for cilia and flagella formation in most vertebrates. IFT complex A is involved in anterograde trafficking, whereas complex B is involved in retrograde trafficking. IFT46 is well known as a crucial component of IFT complex B, however, its developmental functions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the novel functions of IFT46 during vertebrate development, especially, ciliogenesis and neurogenesis, because IFT46 is strongly expressed in both multiciliated cells of epithelial and neural tissues. Knockdown of IFT46 using morpholino microinjections caused shortening of the body axis as well as the formation of fewer and shorter cilia. Furthermore, loss of IFT46 down-regulated the expression of the neural plate and neural tube markers, thus may influence Wnt/planar cell polarity and the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway during neurogenesis. In addition, loss of IFT46 caused craniofacial defects by interfering with cartilage formation. In conclusion, our results depict that IFT46 plays important roles in cilia as well as in neural and craniofacial development. PMID:27320864

  16. The Multifaceted Roles Neutrophils Play in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Fridlender, Zvi G; Granot, Zvi

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils are myeloid cells that constitute 50-70 % of all white blood cells in the human circulation. Traditionally, neutrophils are viewed as the first line of defense against infections and as a major component of the inflammatory process. In addition, accumulating evidence suggest that neutrophils may also play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. The possible involvement of neutrophils in cancer prevention and promotion was already suggested more than half a century ago, however, despite being the major component of the immune system, their contribution has often been overshadowed by other immune components such as lymphocytes and macrophages. Neutrophils seem to have conflicting functions in cancer and can be classified into anti-tumor (N1) and pro-tumor (N2) sub-populations. The aim of this review is to discuss the varying nature of neutrophil function in the cancer microenvironment with a specific emphasis on the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil mobilization, recruitment and activation. PMID:24895166

  17. HERG Protein Plays a Role in Moxifloxacin-Induced Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hai-Yan; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Shi, Ting-Ting; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on HERG channel protein and glucose metabolism. HERG expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The whole-cell patch clamp method was used to examine the effect of moxifloxacin on HERG channel currents. A glucose tolerance test was used to analyze the effects of moxifloxacin on blood glucose and insulin concentrations in mice. Results show that HERG protein was expressed in human pancreatic β-cells. Moxifloxacin inhibited HERG time-dependent and tail currents in HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 of moxifloxacin inhibition was 36.65 μmol/L. Moxifloxacin (200 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels and increased insulin secretion in wild-type mice at 60 min after the start of the glucose tolerance test. In contrast, moxifloxacin did not significantly alter blood glucose and insulin levels in HERG knockout mice. Serum glucose levels increased and insulin concentrations decreased in HERG knockout mice when compared to wild-type mice. The moxifloxacin-induced decrease in blood glucose and increase in insulin secretion occurred via the HERG protein; thus, HERG protein plays a role in insulin secretion. PMID:26649323

  18. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Heather M.; Padin, Avelina C.; Kuo, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2016-01-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women’s susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women’s mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments. PMID:26272539

  19. Aluminum-induced pulmonary fibrosis: do fibers play a role?

    PubMed

    Gilks, B; Churg, A

    1987-07-01

    A 50-yr-old man with a history of 19 yr of work in the aluminum smelting industry, including 14 years in the potrooms, was found to have diffuse interstitial fibrosis, slightly more severe in the upper zones. He died of respiratory insufficiency 5 yr after initial presentation. Analysis of lung by electron optical techniques revealed 15,000,000,000 nonfibrous particles and 1,300,000,000 fibrous particles of aluminum oxide/g dry lung, values representing approximately a 1,000-fold increase over background exposure. The nonfibrous particles had a geometric mean diameter of 0.4 mu, and the fibers had a geometric mean length of 1.0 mu, a width of 0.06 mu, and an aspect ratio of 16. X-ray diffraction demonstrated alpha but not gamma aluminum oxide. These studies indicate that previous suggestions relating aluminum-induced fibrosis to the presence of gamma aluminum oxide are not correct. Although pulmonary fibrosis in this case may be a response to a very high total aluminum particle burden, the presence of large numbers of fibers raises the possibility that fibers play a role in aluminum fibrosis. PMID:3605831

  20. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments. PMID:26272539

  1. Extra Microchromosomes Play Male Determination Role in Polyploid Gibel Carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Sex is generally determined by sex chromosomes in vertebrates, and sex chromosomes exhibit the most rapidly-evolving traits. Sex chromosome evolution has been revealed previously in numerous cases, but the association between sex chromosome origin and the reproduction mode transition from unisexual to sexual reproduction remains unclear. Here, we have isolated a male-specific sequence via analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism from polyploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio), a species that not only has the ability to reproduce unisexually but also contains males in wild populations. Subsequently, we have found through FISH analysis that males have several extra microchromosomes with repetitive sequences and transposable elements when compared to females. Moreover, we produced sex-reversed physiological females with a male-specific marker by using estradiol hormone treatment, and two gynogenetic families were established from them. In addition, the male incidence rates of two gynogenetic families were revealed to be closely associated with the extra microchromosome number of the sex-reversed physiological females. These results suggest that the extra microchromosomes in males might resemble a common feature of sex chromosomes and might play a significant role in male determination during the evolutionary trajectory of the reproduction mode transition from unisexual to sexual reproduction in the polyploid fish. PMID:27017622

  2. Opposing roles of RNF8/RNF168 and deubiquitinating enzymes in ubiquitination-dependent DNA double-strand break response signaling and DNA-repair pathway choice

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligases ring finger protein (RNF) 8 and RNF168 transduce the DNA double-strand break (DSB) response (DDR) signal by ubiquitinating DSB sites. The depletion of RNF8 or RNF168 suppresses the accumulation of DNA-repair regulating factors such as 53BP1 and RAP80 at DSB sites, suggesting roles for RNF8- and RNF168-mediated ubiquitination in DSB repair. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the RNF8- and RNF168-dependent DDR-signaling and DNA-repair pathways. The choice of DNA-repair pathway when RNF8- and RNF168-mediated ubiquitination-dependent DDR signaling is negatively regulated by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) is reviewed to clarify how the opposing roles of RNF8/RNF168 and DUBs regulate ubiquitination-dependent DDR signaling and the choice of DNA-repair pathway. PMID:26983989

  3. Tim Wirth: playing a leading role. Newsmaker interview.

    PubMed

    Pickett, S

    1995-01-01

    An interview with Timothy Wirth, who has been Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs, is presented. The US played a new role as a partner at several recent UN conferences that focused on a multiplicity of issues that harbinger the 21st century. The 4th World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995 underscored the importance of women as agents of change, confirmed the importance of nongovernmental organizations in affecting global change in governance, and revealed the strength of women's groups in developing countries. The US made some pledges at the 1994 UN Population and Development Conference in Cairo as laid down in the program of action. US financial commitment to population stabilization increased as did the commitment from Japan and other developed countries. Egypt, Indonesia, Tunisia, and Mexico with effective family planning programs are also sharing their experiences with other developing countries. The US has an interest in investing in foreign assistance in view of runaway population growth in countries like Haiti. Haiti's excess population would be heading for Florida. The President's Council on Sustainable Development's task force on population and consumption concluded that the US should commit itself to population stabilization because of the high consumption rate of the average American, the number of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, and the problem of teenage pregnancies. Consumption rather than investment should taxed, subsidies should be removed from the use of natural resources and agriculture, and environmental degradation should be priced properly. Poverty is at the root of economic deprivation and environmental destruction. Micro-enterprises have been successful in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, which experiences could be used by the US as well. The broader empowerment of women could also encourage political change, which, in turn could bring about full access to family planning and support to women and their families

  4. Predicting procedural pain after ureteroscopy: does hydrodistention play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep; Alazem, Kareem; Li, Ina; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify perioperative predictors of immediate pain after ureteroscopy, specifically evaluating the impact of hydrodistention from irrigation on pain. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent ureteroscopy for the treatment of calculi. Data recorded for these patients included their maximum pain score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), average flow rate of irrigant used during the procedure, patient and stone characteristics, operative procedure, and details of patients' immediate, post-operative course. Spearman's rho was used to determine the relationship between non-parametric, continuous variables. Then, a linear regression was performed to assess which variables could predict the peak pain score. Results: A total of 131 patients were included in the study. A non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that maximum pain score was negatively correlated with being male (r = −0.18, p=0.04), age (r = −0.34, p<0.001), and post-op foley placement (r = −0.20, p=0.02) but positively correlated with the preoperative pain score (r = 0.41, p<0.001), time in the PACU (r = 0.19, p = 0.03), and the morphine equivalent dose (MED) of narcotics administered in the PACU (r = 0.67, p<0.001). On linear regression, the significant variables were age, preoperative pain score, and stent placement. For every ten-year increase in age post-operative pain score decreased by 4/10 of a point (p = 0.03). For every 1 point increase in preoperative pain score there was a 3/10 of a point increase in the maximum pain score (p = 0.01), and leaving a stent in place post-operatively was associated with a 1.6 point increase in the maximum pain score. Conclusions: Hydrodistention does not play a role in post-ureteroscopy pain. Patients who are younger, have higher preoperative pain scores, or who are stented will experience more post-operative pain after ureteroscopy. PMID:27564284

  5. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  6. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  7. A Case Study of an Online Role Play for Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Maureen

    Role play is a powerful technique for skills and attitude development. It is now possible to combine the advantages of face-to-face role play with the potential of the online environment. This paper reports on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous, online role play conducted within a teaching course for academic staff. The following key…

  8. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  9. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  10. Oh, Garbage! Decisions about Waste Disposal. Creative Role-Playing Exercises in Science and Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Pearson, Janice

    This document is one of a series of role plays that focus on science-related social issues of concern in contemporary public policy formation. The role plays are designed to help students develop information-processing and decision making skills needed to deal effectively with such issues. The role plays guide students in analyzing science related…

  11. Opposing roles of nuclear receptor HNF4α isoforms in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Vuong, Linh M; Chen, Gang; Briançon, Nadege; Bolotin, Eugene; Lytle, Christian; Nair, Meera G; Sladek, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    HNF4α has been implicated in colitis and colon cancer in humans but the role of the different HNF4α isoforms expressed from the two different promoters (P1 and P2) active in the colon is not clear. Here, we show that P1-HNF4α is expressed primarily in the differentiated compartment of the mouse colonic crypt and P2-HNF4α in the proliferative compartment. Exon swap mice that express only P1- or only P2-HNF4α have different colonic gene expression profiles, interacting proteins, cellular migration, ion transport and epithelial barrier function. The mice also exhibit altered susceptibilities to experimental colitis (DSS) and colitis-associated colon cancer (AOM+DSS). When P2-HNF4α-only mice (which have elevated levels of the cytokine resistin-like β, RELMβ, and are extremely sensitive to DSS) are crossed with Retnlb(-/-) mice, they are rescued from mortality. Furthermore, P2-HNF4α binds and preferentially activates the RELMβ promoter. In summary, HNF4α isoforms perform non-redundant functions in the colon under conditions of stress, underscoring the importance of tracking them both in colitis and colon cancer. PMID:27166517

  12. Opposing roles of the two isoforms of ErbB3 binding protein 1 in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyo Rim; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2016-09-15

    The different functions of the two isoforms of ErbB3 binding protein 1 (Ebp1), p48 and p42, have recently become the focus of interest as they reveal contradictory roles in cell growth promoting ability. The conformational change that crystal structure of p42 was shown to lack α helices at the amino-terminus present in p48 represents the differential binding partners and protein modifications of two Ebp1 isoforms. N-terminal specific phosphorylation by CDK2 and deregulation of the p53 tumor suppressor through specific interaction with HDM2 and Akt activation is postulated to contribute to p48-mediated tumorigenesis. The short isoform p42 Ebp1, which is actual binding partner of ErbB3 has been implicated as a tumor suppressor with many binding partners such as Rb, HDAC2, Sin3A and the p85 subunit of PI3K with HSP70/CHIP, inhibiting its own antiproliferative activity or inhibiting PI3K activity. The aim of the current review is to provide a summary on distinctive cellular functions of two Ebp1 proteins and their molecular partners that might be responsible for the unique functions of each isoform of Ebp1. PMID:27130196

  13. Associations of collectivism with relationship commitment, passion, and mate preferences: opposing roles of parental influence and family allocentrism.

    PubMed

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists' greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents' preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents' preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed. PMID:25719563

  14. Opposing roles of nuclear receptor HNF4α isoforms in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Vuong, Linh M; Chen, Gang; Briançon, Nadege; Bolotin, Eugene; Lytle, Christian; Nair, Meera G; Sladek, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    HNF4α has been implicated in colitis and colon cancer in humans but the role of the different HNF4α isoforms expressed from the two different promoters (P1 and P2) active in the colon is not clear. Here, we show that P1-HNF4α is expressed primarily in the differentiated compartment of the mouse colonic crypt and P2-HNF4α in the proliferative compartment. Exon swap mice that express only P1- or only P2-HNF4α have different colonic gene expression profiles, interacting proteins, cellular migration, ion transport and epithelial barrier function. The mice also exhibit altered susceptibilities to experimental colitis (DSS) and colitis-associated colon cancer (AOM+DSS). When P2-HNF4α-only mice (which have elevated levels of the cytokine resistin-like β, RELMβ, and are extremely sensitive to DSS) are crossed with Retnlb-/- mice, they are rescued from mortality. Furthermore, P2-HNF4α binds and preferentially activates the RELMβ promoter. In summary, HNF4α isoforms perform non-redundant functions in the colon under conditions of stress, underscoring the importance of tracking them both in colitis and colon cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10903.001 PMID:27166517

  15. Associations of Collectivism with Relationship Commitment, Passion, and Mate Preferences: Opposing Roles of Parental Influence and Family Allocentrism

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (referred to as family allocentrism), which drove commitment up (Study 2). Along similar lines, Study 1 found that collectivists’ greater acceptance of parental influence on mate choice contributed to their reduced relationship passion, whereas Study 2 found that their greater family allocentrism may have enhanced their passion. Study 2 also revealed that collectivists may have reported a smaller discrepancy between their own preferences for mates high in warmth and trustworthiness and their perception of their parents’ preferences for these qualities because of their stronger family allocentrism. However, their higher tolerance of parental influence may have also contributed to a smaller discrepancy in their mate preferences versus their perceptions of their parents’ preferences for qualities signifying status and resources. Implications for the roles of collectivism, parental influence, and family allocentrism in relationship quality and mate selection will be discussed. PMID:25719563

  16. Opposing roles of NF-κB in anti-cancer treatment outcome unveiled by cross-species investigations.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hua; Kase, Julia; Dörr, Jan R; Milanovic, Maja; Lenze, Dido; Grau, Michael; Beuster, Gregor; Ji, Sujuan; Reimann, Maurice; Lenz, Peter; Hummel, Michael; Dörken, Bernd; Lenz, Georg; Scheidereit, Claus; Schmitt, Clemens A; Lee, Soyoung

    2011-10-15

    In malignancies, enhanced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity is largely viewed as an oncogenic property that also confers resistance to chemotherapy. Recently, NF-κB has been postulated to participate in a senescence-associated and possibly senescence-reinforcing cytokine response, thereby suggesting a tumor-restraining role for NF-κB. Using a mouse lymphoma model and analyzing transcriptome and clinical data from lymphoma patients, we show here that therapy-induced senescence presents with and depends on active NF-κB signaling, whereas NF-κB simultaneously promotes resistance to apoptosis. Further characterization and genetic engineering of primary mouse lymphomas according to distinct NF-κB-related oncogenic networks reminiscent of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtypes guided us to identify Bcl2-overexpressing germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL as a clinically relevant subgroup with significantly superior outcome when NF-κB is hyperactive. Our data illustrate the power of cross-species investigations to functionally test genetic mechanisms in transgenic mouse tumors that recapitulate distinct features of the corresponding human entity, and to ultimately use the mouse model-derived genetic information to redefine novel, clinically relevant patient subcohorts. PMID:21979374

  17. Could borate have played a role in the RNA World?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grew, E. S.; Bada, J. L.; Hazen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Two scenarios have been proposed for boron to play a critical role in the stabilization of ribose and other sugars in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) World, >3.8 Ga ago. One scenario envisages oligomeric RNA being synthesized in subaerial intermountane desert valleys in which groundwater was enriched in borate from breakdown of tourmaline (Benner et al. 2012 doi: 10.1021/ar200332w). In the alternative scenario, borates are enriched in hydrothermal environments (<150°C) in oceanic crust where ferromagnesian minerals are altered to brucite, serpentine and other minerals that can extract borate from the circulating seawater (Holm et al. 2006 doi:10.1186/1467-4866-7-7). Both scenarios presume that (1) B concentrations in non-marine water or sea water were about the same at >3.8 Ma as they are today and (2) plate tectonics was the prevailing regime. The postulated non-marine borate deposits would have been associated with continental collision and subduction with volcanism releasing B, whereas in the second scenario, ocean floor caught up in an early phase of subduction is considered a favorable site for borate formation. Because borate deposits are typically ephemeral and poorly preserved, the lack of evidence in the geologic record for these scenarios does not invalidate them. For example, the oldest reported non-marine borate deposits analogous to the type postulated in first scenario are only 20 Ma, but metamorphosed borates of Precambrian age have been interpreted to have non-marine evaporite precursors, the oldest being 2.4-2.1 Ga in the Liaoning-Jilin area, China. The first B minerals so far reported in the geologic record are metamorphic dravite-schorl tourmalines in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt (southern West Greenland), where there is good evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction. The precursors to the Isua tourmalines are reported to include B-bearing marine clay minerals and detrital tourmaline. The relatively high Li contents in zircon from Jack

  18. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  19. Distance Learning and Role Play: A Web-Bard Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolloff, Mary Ann; Rahimzadeh, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    As most any high school or college English teacher can verify, it is the rare group of students that approaches the study of Shakespeare with anything other than a mixture of anxiety over the difficulty of making sense of the plays' language and annoyance that, once again, they will be forced to engage in an activity they find both unjustifiably…

  20. Broca's Area Plays a Causal Role in Morphosyntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Meseguer, Enrique; Barber, Horacio; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that Broca's area is important for syntax, this may simply be a by-product of greater working memory and/or cognitive control demands for more complex syntactic structures. Here we report an experiment with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether Broca's area plays a causal…

  1. The Role of Play in the Accultural Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Renatta M.

    Play, possibly the dominant socializing agent for children's social competence and identity development, is heavily influenced by media-defined images. It is important for media images of minority cultures to be filtered by parents' reactions and comments in order to counter prevalent negative images. Children's interaction with the media is…

  2. Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Toward a Disabled Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Jeffery, Katherine McMillan

    The effects of emotional role playing on interpersonal attitudes toward the disabled are explored. Three treatment groups (role players, vicarious role players, and controls) were involved. Role playing consisted of traveling about the campus in a wheel chair for an hour. Results indicated that, compared to the control experience, both direct and…

  3. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  4. Opposing Roles of Membrane and Soluble Forms of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison L.; Sims, Gary P.; Brewah, Yambasu A.; Rebelatto, Marlon C.; Kearley, Jennifer; Benjamin, Ebony; Keller, Ashley E.; Brohawn, Philip; Herbst, Ronald; Coyle, Anthony J.; Kolbeck, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager−/−) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflammatory cytokines, and a reduction in viral load. To assess the contribution of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) to RSV-induced disease, wild-type and ager−/− mice were given doses of sRAGE following RSV infection. Of interest, sRAGE treatment prevented RSV-induced weight loss and neutrophilic inflammation to a degree similar to that observed in ager−/− mice. Our work further elucidates the roles of RAGE in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections and highlights the opposing roles of membrane and sRAGE in modulating the host response to RSV infection. PMID:22262795

  5. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  6. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use. PMID:17927543

  7. A Michigan Faculty Group Plays Role of Watchdog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    2008-01-01

    New administrative offices for diversity are popping up at universities around the country, and one can usually count on them to cast minority-recruiting efforts in a favorable light. There is still, however, a role for the old-school rabble-rousers, as a new report from a faculty committee at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor makes clear.…

  8. Role Playing in the History of Economic Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Describes a one-semester economics course in which students assume the role of key figures in the development of economic thought, ranging from the mercantilists through the early neoclassicists. Structures class discussion thematically rather than chronologically, so characters are conversationally engaged in each class. (DSK)

  9. On Two Roles Decision Support Systems Can Play in Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Gregory E.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the computer system in group decision making. Two systems used in solving negotiating problems--NEGO and MEDIATOR--and three procedures that can be utilized to develop group decision support systems are analyzed, based on multicriteria decision analysis and mathematical programming models. (Author/LRW)

  10. Student feedback about the use of role plays in Sparshanam, a medical humanities module

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Background: At KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal, a Medical Humanities module for first year medical students has been conducted. Role plays are used to explore social, medical and sexual issues in the Nepalese context. The present study obtained student feedback about the role plays used in the module, the difficulties faced, and obtained suggestions for further improvement. Method: The module was conducted from January to August 2011 using a total of 15 role plays. Student feedback was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Informal discussions were held and a questionnaire was circulated among the first year students who had participated in the module. Results: Ninety-eight of the 100 students in the module participated in the study. The overall opinion regarding the role plays was positive. Students stated role plays helped to make module objectives concrete and interesting, made students identify with the problem being investigated and improved communication skills. Role plays were designed to address important health issues in Nepal and prepare students for addressing these issues in future practice. A lack of sufficient time for preparing the role plays and initial problems with group dynamics were mentioned by the respondents during the study. Conclusions: Student feedback about the use of role plays during the module was positive. Role plays helped in making module objectives more concrete and interesting, improved communication skills and addressed important health issues in Nepal. Role plays are not resource intensive and can be considered for use in medical schools in developing nations. PMID:24358816

  11. Autophagy plays a role in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in an endurance exercise-trained condition.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jeong-Sun; Jeon, Sei-Il; Park, Je-Young; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Seong-Cheol; Cho, Ki-Jung; Jeong, Jong-Moon

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is tightly regulated by two major processes: mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial degradation by autophagy (mitophagy). Research in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training has been well established, while the mechanisms regulating mitophagy and the interplay between mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation following endurance exercise training are not yet well defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term inhibition of autophagy in response to acute endurance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in an exercise-trained condition. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice performed five daily bouts of 1-h swimming per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure autophagy flux in mouse skeletal muscle, mice were treated with or without 2 days of 0.4 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal colchicine (blocking the degradation of autophagosomes) following swimming exercise training. The autophagic flux assay demonstrated that swimming training resulted in an increase in the autophagic flux (~100 % increase in LC3-II) in mouse skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial fusion proteins, Opa1 and MFN2, were significantly elevated, and mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, was also increased in trained mouse skeletal muscle, suggesting that endurance exercise training promotes both mitochondrial fusion and fission processes. A mitochondrial receptor, Bnip3, was further increased in exercised muscle when treated with colchicine while Pink/Parkin protein levels were unchanged. The endurance exercise training induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis marker proteins, SDH, COX IV, and a mitochondrial biogenesis promoting factor, PGC-1α but this effect was abolished in colchicine-treated mouse skeletal muscle. This suggests that autophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial biogenesis and this coordination between these opposing processes is involved in the cellular

  12. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    PubMed

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey. PMID:24101438

  13. What Roles Can Scientists Play in Public Discourse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    What is a useful and proper role for scientists in the public arena? How can we best discriminate where the boundary lies between expert knowledge and values or political opinion, and how can we properly honor that line? What can we expect in the way of reception for our interventions, and how can we increase their efficacy? Involvement in public policy debates is a common and accepted role for scientists in many disciplines. In the sciences related to public health, it is taken for granted that experts will talk about the implications of their research for public policy, whether in regard to smoking, diet, or disease spread. There is also a remarkable track record of geoscientists taking a lead role in the public arena and actually affecting public policy—F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina collaborated on ozone depletion research at the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Irvine and then went on to make outstanding public contributions, as have James Hansen (at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies); Robert Watson (first at NASA, then at the University of East Anglia); and, of course, the late Stephen Schneider (first at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, then Stanford) on climate. Some “public” geoscientists have restricted their activities to interpreting science for the wider public, while others have endorsed specific policy initiatives (see Figure 1). I firmly believe that the quality of public discourse and the information reaching policy makers were better for their interventions.

  14. Does hypoxia play a role in infantile hemangioma?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Sophie; Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H J; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2016-05-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by rapid growth during infancy, followed by spontaneous involution over 5-10 years. Certain clinical observations have led to the suggestion that IH is triggered and maintained by hypoxia. We review the literature on the possible role of hypoxia in the etiology of IH, in particular, (1) the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream targets including GLUT-1 and VEGF; (2) the pathophysiological link between IH and retinopathy of prematurity; (3) hypoxic events in the early life including placental insufficiency, pre-eclampsia and low birthweight that have the potential to promote hypoxic stress; and (4) the evidence supporting the development of IH independent of HIF-1α. We also discuss these observations in the context of recent evidence of the crucial role of stem cells and the cytokines niche that governs their proliferation and inevitable differentiation, offering novel insights into the biology of IH. We propose that various triggers may simultaneously up-regulate HIF-1α, which is downstream of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically angiotensin II, which promotes production of HIF-1α. These developments shed light to the understanding of this enigmatic condition. PMID:26940670

  15. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  16. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  17. CGRP and Migraine: Could PACAP Play a Role Too?

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Eric A.; Russo, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects about 12% of the population. In the past decade, the role of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine has been firmly established by clinical studies. CGRP administration can trigger migraines, and CGRP receptor antagonists ameliorate migraine. In this review, we will describe multifunctional activities of CGRP that could potentially contribute to migraine. These include roles in light aversion, neurogenic inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization of nociceptive pathways, cortical spreading depression, and regulation of nitric oxide production. Yet clearly there will be many other contributing genes that could act in concert with CGRP. One candidate is pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), which shares some of the same actions as CGRP, including the ability to induce migraine in migraineurs and light aversive behavior in rodents. Interestingly, both CGRP and PACAP act on receptors that share an accessory subunit called receptor activity modifying protein-1 (RAMP1). Thus, comparisons between the actions of these two migraine-inducing neuropeptides, CGRP and PACAP, may provide new insights into migraine pathophysiology. PMID:24210136

  18. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C(+)TCRβ(+) NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C(+)TCRβ(+) NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  19. ASXL1 plays an important role in erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Yamamoto, Shohei; Sheng, Mengyao; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Runze; Chen, Shi; Shi, Lihong; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2016-01-01

    ASXL1 mutations are found in a spectrum of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that Asxl1+/− mice develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) overlapping diseases (MDS/MPN). Although defective erythroid maturation and anemia are associated with the prognosis of patients with MDS or MDS/MPN, the role of ASXL1 in erythropoiesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients with ASXL1 mutations exhibited more severe anemia with a significantly increased proportion of bone marrow (BM) early stage erythroblasts and reduced enucleated erythrocytes compared to CMML patients with WT ASXL1. Knockdown of ASXL1 in cord blood CD34+ cells reduced erythropoiesis and impaired erythrocyte enucleation. Consistently, the BM and spleens of VavCre+;Asxl1f/f (Asxl1∆/∆) mice had less numbers of erythroid progenitors than Asxl1f/f controls. Asxl1∆/∆ mice also had an increased percentage of erythroblasts and a reduced erythrocyte enucleation in their BM compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, Asxl1∆/∆ erythroblasts revealed altered expression of genes involved in erythroid development and homeostasis, which was associated with lower levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3. Our study unveils a key role for ASXL1 in erythropoiesis and indicates that ASXL1 loss hinders erythroid development/maturation, which could be of prognostic value for MDS/MPN patients. PMID:27352931

  20. ASXL1 plays an important role in erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Yamamoto, Shohei; Sheng, Mengyao; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Runze; Chen, Shi; Shi, Lihong; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2016-01-01

    ASXL1 mutations are found in a spectrum of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that Asxl1(+/-) mice develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) overlapping diseases (MDS/MPN). Although defective erythroid maturation and anemia are associated with the prognosis of patients with MDS or MDS/MPN, the role of ASXL1 in erythropoiesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients with ASXL1 mutations exhibited more severe anemia with a significantly increased proportion of bone marrow (BM) early stage erythroblasts and reduced enucleated erythrocytes compared to CMML patients with WT ASXL1. Knockdown of ASXL1 in cord blood CD34(+) cells reduced erythropoiesis and impaired erythrocyte enucleation. Consistently, the BM and spleens of VavCre(+);Asxl1(f/f) (Asxl1(∆/∆)) mice had less numbers of erythroid progenitors than Asxl1(f/f) controls. Asxl1(∆/∆) mice also had an increased percentage of erythroblasts and a reduced erythrocyte enucleation in their BM compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, Asxl1(∆/∆) erythroblasts revealed altered expression of genes involved in erythroid development and homeostasis, which was associated with lower levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3. Our study unveils a key role for ASXL1 in erythropoiesis and indicates that ASXL1 loss hinders erythroid development/maturation, which could be of prognostic value for MDS/MPN patients. PMID:27352931

  1. Gangs. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of juvenile gangs. Some youths join gangs of their own free choice, to satisfy ego or greed. Others are…

  2. Piezo1 plays a role in erythrocyte volume homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Faucherre, Adèle; Kissa, Karima; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Jopling, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitivity is an inherent property of virtually all cell types, allowing them to sense and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Stretch-activated ion channels represent a class of mechanosensitive proteins which allow cells to respond rapidly to changes in membrane tension; however their identity has remained elusive. The piezo genes have recently been identified as a family of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels. We set out to determine the role of piezo1 during zebrafish development. Here we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of piezo1 impairs erythrocyte survival without affecting hematopoiesis or differentiation. Our results demonstrate that piezo1 is involved in erythrocyte volume homeostasis, disruption of which results in swelling/lysis of red blood cells and consequent anemia. PMID:23872304

  3. NADPH oxidase 2 plays a role in experimental corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elsa C; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Chan, Elsie; Ngo, Darleen; Wang, Jiang-Hui; Peshavariya, Hitesh M; Dusting, Gregory J; Liu, Guei-Sheung

    2016-05-01

    Corneal neovascularization, the growth of new blood vessels in the cornea, is a leading cause of vision impairment after corneal injury. Neovascularization typically occurs in response to corneal injury such as that caused by infection, physical trauma, chemical burns or in the setting of corneal transplant rejection. The NADPH oxidase enzyme complex is involved in cell signalling for wound-healing angiogenesis, but its role in corneal neovascularization has not been studied. We have now analysed the role of the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase in corneal neovascularization in mice following chemical injury. C57BL/6 mice aged 8-14 weeks were cauterized with an applicator coated with 75% silver nitrate and 25% potassium nitrate for 8 s. Neovascularization extending radially from limbal vessels was observed in corneal whole-mounts from cauterized wild type mice and CD31+ vessels were identified in cauterized corneal sections at day 7. In contrast, in Nox2 knockout (Nox2 KO) mice vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), Flt1 mRNA expression, and the extent of corneal neovascularization were all markedly reduced compared with their wild type controls. The accumulation of Iba-1+ microglia and macrophages in the cornea was significantly less in Nox2 KO than in wild type mice. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that Nox2 is implicated in the inflammatory and neovascular response to corneal chemical injury in mice and clearly VEGF is a mediator of this effect. This work raises the possibility that therapies targeting Nox2 may have potential for suppressing corneal neovascularization and inflammation in humans. PMID:26814205

  4. Transition to university: the role played by emotion.

    PubMed

    McMillan, W

    2013-08-01

    Students experience transition to university as challenging. Recent studies implicate emotion in university success. This article reports on a pilot study to examine the extent to which school to university transition is experienced as emotional. Understanding the role of emotion in this transition can inform mechanisms for student support. This qualitative study used focus group interviews to elicit insider accounts of transition. The pilot cohort consisted of a tutorial group of twenty-eight students from within the class of one hundred and eight-first-year students at one Faculty of Dentistry in South Africa. Three focus group interviews were conducted. Issues identified in the literature as significant were used to analyse the data. Eleven descriptive tags related to transition and associated with emotion were identified from the data. These were clustered into four themes - 'academic challenges', 'friends and family', 'outside constraints' and 'identity'. Findings suggest that emotions are a natural part of the experience of transition. Drawing on insights of students' emotional needs, it is suggested that students in transition need a roadmap and a guide. A framework, to be used as a roadmap, is suggested. Peer mentoring is discussed as a mechanism for mediating the framework and thus for supporting students in the transition. PMID:23815694

  5. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    PubMed

    Portes, M

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization. PMID:12178199

  6. Immunoglobulin E plays an immunoregulatory role in lupus.

    PubMed

    Dema, Barbara; Charles, Nicolas; Pellefigues, Christophe; Ricks, Tiffany K; Suzuki, Ryo; Jiang, Chao; Scheffel, Jorg; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Hoffman, Victoria; Jablonski, Mathieu; Sacré, Karim; Gobert, Delphine; Papo, Thomas; Daugas, Eric; Crampton, Steve; Bolland, Silvia; Rivera, Juan

    2014-10-20

    The (patho)physiological role of IgE in nonallergic inflammatory diseases is not well understood. Here, we explored the effect of IgE deficiency on the inflammatory response in FcγRIIB-deficient mice as well as in mice carrying both a deletion of FcγRIIB and the chromosomal translocation of Y-linked autoimmune acceleration (Yaa) that hastens and results in a more aggressive lupuslike disease in these mice. The findings show that deficiency of IgE delays disease development and severity as demonstrated by reduced autoantibody production and amelioration of organ pathologies. This was associated with decreased numbers of plasma cells and reduced levels of IgG2b and IgG3. Unexpectedly, the loss of IgE also caused a striking decrease of immune cell infiltration in secondary lymphoid organs with a marked effect on the presence of dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils in these organs and decreased activation of basophils. The presence of autoreactive IgE in human systemic lupus erythematosus subjects was also associated with increased basophil activation and enhanced disease activity. These findings argue that IgE facilitates the amplification of autoimmune inflammation. PMID:25267791

  7. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Ko, Je Yeong; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer’s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer’s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(−/−) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development. PMID:25722189

  8. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and Histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrated that Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS. PMID:25757804

  9. Cell-Surface and Secreted Isoforms of CSF-1 Exert Opposing Roles in Macrophage-Mediated Neural Damage in Cx32-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ranu; Stanley, E. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in myelin-mutant mouse models of the inherited and incurable nerve disorder, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, have demonstrated that low-grade secondary inflammation implicating phagocytosing macrophages amplifies demyelination, Schwann cell dedifferentiation and perturbation of axons. The cytokine colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) acts as an important regulator of these macrophage-related disease mechanisms, as genetic and pharmacologic approaches to block the CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling result in a significant alleviation of pathological alterations in mutant peripheral nerves. In mouse models of CMT1A and CMT1X, as well as in human biopsies, CSF-1 is predominantly expressed by endoneurial fibroblasts, which are closely associated with macrophages, suggesting local stimulatory mechanisms. Here we investigated the impact of cell-surface and secreted isoforms of CSF-1 on macrophage-related disease in connexin32-deficient (Cx32def) mice, a mouse model of CMT1X. Our present observations suggest that the secreted proteoglycan isoform (spCSF-1) is predominantly expressed by fibroblasts, whereas the membrane-spanning cell-surface isoform (csCSF-1) is expressed by macrophages. Using crossbreeding approaches to selectively restore or overexpress distinct isoforms in CSF-1-deficient (osteopetrotic) Cx32def mice, we demonstrate that both isoforms equally regulate macrophage numbers dose-dependently. However, spCSF-1 mediates macrophage activation and macrophage-related neural damage, whereas csCSF-1 inhibits macrophage activation and attenuates neuropathy. These results further corroborate the important role of secondary inflammation in mouse models of CMT1 and might identify specific targets for therapeutic approaches to modulate innate immune reactions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mouse models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy have indicated that low-grade secondary inflammation involving phagocytosing macrophages amplifies demyelination, Schwann cell

  10. Does lysozyme play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD?

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jerome; Shteyngart, Bronislava

    2015-06-01

    Elastic fiber injury is an important process in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly with regard to the development of pulmonary emphysema. Damage to these fibers results in uneven distribution of mechanical forces in the lung, leading to dilatation and rupture of alveolar walls. While the role of various enzymes and oxidants in this process has been well-documented, we propose that a previously unsuspected agent, lysozyme, may contribute significantly to the changes in elastic fibers observed in this disease. Studies from our laboratory have previously shown that lysozyme preferentially binds to elastic fibers in human emphysematous lungs. On the basis of this finding, it is hypothesized that the attachment of lysozyme to these fibers enhances their susceptibility to injury, and further impairs the transfer of mechanical forces in the lung, leading to increased alveolar wall damage and enhanced progression of COPD. The hypothesized effects of lysozyme are predicated on its interaction with hyaluronan (HA), a long-chain polysaccharide that is found in close proximity to elastic fibers. By preventing the binding of HA to elastic fibers in COPD, lysozyme may interfere with the protective effect of this polysaccharide against enzymes and oxidants that degrade these fibers. Furthermore, the loss of the hydrating effect of HA on these fibers may impair their elastic properties, greatly increasing the probability of their fragmentation in response to mechanical forces. The proposed hypothesis may explain why the content of HA is significantly lower in the lungs of COPD patients. It may also contribute to the design of clinical trials involving the use of exogenously administered HA as a potential treatment for COPD. PMID:25769706

  11. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit. PMID:12289910

  12. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs: role-play and students' interest in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise Kofoed, Mikkel

    2006-11-01

    Role-play as a way of teaching is seldom used in physics. One reason is that role-play is usually constructed so as to contain some sort of conflict and conflicts do not often appear in the course of normal physics teaching. When it comes to the role of physics in war, role-play is an ideal way of presenting content to students. By taking part in role-play students become actively engaged in the teaching situation, developing their interest in physics. They also get a chance to understand the ethical issues involved. This article presents an example of a role-play based educational programme concerning the development of, the decisions behind, and the use of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs during World War II. Some early research results are presented from evaluating the educational programme in lower and upper secondary schools in Denmark.

  13. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  14. E-learning Constructive Role Plays for EFL Learners in China's Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat

    2011-01-01

    Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…

  15. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  16. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  17. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  18. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  19. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  20. Breathing Life into History: Using Role-Playing to Engage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Murthy, Shalini A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternately referred to as historical role-playing, dramatic improvisation, sociodrama, or first-person characterization, role playing is a teaching strategy that often uses official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, specific event, or breathe life into a character from history. Historical…

  1. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  2. What Students Need: Exploring Teachers' Views via Imagined Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Nejad, Masomeh Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Role-playing is an unscripted dramatic technique that encourages participants to improvise behaviors that illustrate expected actions of persons involved in defined situations. However, among various uses in developing professionals, the use of role-playing in teacher education is rather rare. To give all students the opportunity to participate in…

  3. Using Role-Play and Case Studies to Improve Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Classroom management is a concern for preservice teachers (Charles, 2008). Teacher educators struggle to find the most effective ways to teach preservice teachers classroom management. Role-playing, combined with classroom management content, may offer a productive approach. As such, this study focused on the use of role-play with case studies to…

  4. Online Role-Plays: Combining Situational and Interactional Authenticity in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Martins, Maria de Lurdes; Moreira, Gillian; Moreira, António

    2013-01-01

    Role-plays have been almost ubiquitous in foreign language classes and their potential has been widely recognised. In the last decade, the dissemination of Web 2.0 has created a wide range of possibilities for this type of activity, including conducting online role-plays between institutions, the opportunity to combine synchronous and asynchronous…

  5. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  6. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  7. The Effects of Children's Stories on Behavior and Attitudes: Modeling and Vicarious Role Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Bray, Robert M.

    Stories were read to 62 male third grade children from two elementary schools in Urbana, Illinois. They were randomly assigned to one of four story conditions: vicarious role playing, symbolic modeling, a combination of the two, and a control condition. The basis of the present experiment is the assumption that vicarious role playing is similar to…

  8. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients provide similar opportunities for skill demonstration. This study examined the correspondence of treatment adherence and competence ratings obtained in real client and role-played sessions for 91 clinicians trained in Motivational Interviewing (MI), using data from a multi-site trial examining three methods of clinician training (Martino et al., 2011). Results indicated overall poor integrity rating correspondence across the two session types, as indicated by weak correlations (r = .05–.27). Clinicians were rated significantly more MI adherent overall and specifically used more advanced MI strategies in role-played than real client sessions at several assessment time points (d = 0.36, 0.42). Real clients, in comparison to the role-play actor, demonstrated greater motivation at the beginning of the session (d = 1.09), discussion of unrelated topics (d = 0.70), and alliance with the clinician (d = 0.72). These findings suggest that MI integrity rating data obtained from real client and role-played sessions may not be interchangeable. More research is needed to improve the procedures and psychometric strength of treatment integrity assessment based on role-played sessions. PMID:23205626

  9. You Must Participate: Violating Research Ethical Principles through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the use of role-play to teach research ethics in three semesters of a research methods class. Small groups of students were assigned one of nine ethical norms discussed in the course textbook and the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Each group role-played the violation of their assigned ethic to the class. The…

  10. Rules out of Roles: Differences in Play Language and Their Developmental Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongho; Kellogg, David

    2007-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic approach from the work of Hoey (1991) and a dual processing model from Wray (2000), this paper compares the language produced by the same classes of children when they are engaged in role-play and when they are playing rule-based games. We find that role-play tends to be richer in "frozen" pair parts, where the responses…

  11. Using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Neelke; Kroesen, J Otto

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of role plays in ethics education for engineering students. After presenting a rough taxonomy of different objectives, we illustrate how role plays can be used to broaden students' perspectives. We do this on the basis of our experiences with a newly developed role play about a Dutch political controversy concerning pig transport. The role play is special in that the discussion is about setting up an institutional framework for responsible action that goes beyond individual action. In that sense, the role play serves a double purpose. It not only aims at teaching students to become aware of the different dimensions in decision making, it also encourages students to think about what such an institutional framework for responsible action might possibly look like. PMID:22183420

  12. Role-play for medical students learning about communication: Guidelines for maximising benefits

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, Debra; Tierney, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Background Role-play is widely used as an educational method for learning about communication in medical education. Although educational theory provides a sound rationale for using this form of simulation, there is little published evidence for its effectiveness. Students' prior experiences of role-play may influence the way in which they engage in this method. This paper explores students' experiences with the aim of producing guidelines for maximising the benefits of role-play within this learning context. Methods First-year undergraduate medical students participated in a role-play session as part of their communication programme. Before and after the session, students completed questionnaires. In the pre-session questionnaire, students were asked about their experiences of role-play and asked to identify helpful and unhelpful elements. Immediately after the session, students answered similar questions in relation to the role-play activity they had just completed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Results 284 students completed evaluation forms. Although 63 (22.2%) had prior unhelpful experiences, most students (n = 274; 96.5%) found this experience helpful. Summary findings were that students reported the key aspects of helpful role-play were opportunities for observation, rehearsal and discussion, realistic roles and alignment of roles with other aspects of the curriculum. Unhelpful aspects were those that evoked strong negative emotional responses and factors that contributed to a lack of realism. Conclusion Role-play was valued by students in the acquisition of communication skills even though some had prior unhelpful experiences. Guidelines for effective role-play include adequate preparation, alignment of roles and tasks with level of practice, structured feedback guidelines and acknowledgment of the importance of social interactions for learning. PMID:17335561

  13. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  14. The Red Hat Society: Exploring the role of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives.

    PubMed

    Mackay Yarnal, Careen

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on play. Yet, the role of play in older adults' lives has received limited attention. Strikingly absent is research on play and older women. Missing from the literature is how older women use play as a liminal context for social interaction and communitas. This is odd because by 2030 one in four American women will be over the age of sixty-five. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the roles of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives. The focus is the Red Hat Society, a social group for women over age 50 that fosters play and fun. Using qualitative interviews with focus groups and participant observation of a regional Red Hat Society event, the study highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses of current conceptualizations of play, liminality, and communitas. PMID:17000619

  15. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it. PMID:11778708

  16. Exercise and Drinking May Play a Role in Vision Impairment Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise and Drinking May Play a Role in Vision Impairment Risk Mar. 20, 2014 In 2020, the ... 477–85. Related Stories Age-Related Macular Degeneration Vision Simulator Mar 01, 2016 What Is Optical Coherence ...

  17. Bringing the U.S. Senate to Your Classroom: A Role Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Advocates role playing for teaching a unit on the legislative branch of government. Students were divided into political parties, sat on committees, and produced legislation. Concludes that experiencing the governmental process enhances citizen participation. (GG)

  18. Charting the Experiential Territory: Clarifying Definitions and Uses of Computer Simulation, Games, and Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Andrew Hale; Mann, Stuart; Corsun, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a classification scheme for computer simulation, role playing, and educational games. Discusses outcomes of each when applied in business and management education and training. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

  19. Simulating Dynamics: Using Role-Playing to Teach the Process of Bankruptcy Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Patricia Brumfield

    1987-01-01

    A course focusing on bankruptcy reorganization uses simulation and role-playing to increase the depth and speed of students' comprehension of the substantive concepts inherent in reorganization proceedings and their place in the process. (MSE)

  20. Study Shows Just How Big a Role Cellphones Play in Car Crashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Role Cellphones Play in Car Crashes In-vehicle videos highlight other distractions, such as reading, writing ... for the better numbers, including safety improvements in vehicles and roads. "Despite this improvement, though, the U.S. ...

  1. Brief Report: Alternative Splicing of Extra Domain A (EIIIA) of Fibronectin Plays a Tissue-Specific Role in Hematopoietic Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Malara, Alessandro; Gruppi, Cristian; Celesti, Giuseppe; Romano, Bina; Laghi, Luigi; De Marco, Luigi; Muro, Andrés F; Balduini, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a major extracellular matrix protein implicated in cell adhesion and differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) environment. Alternative splicing of FN gene results in the generation of protein variants containing an additional EIIIA domain that sustains cell proliferation or differentiation during physiological or pathological tissue remodeling. To date its expression and role in adult hematopoiesis has not been explored. In our research, we demonstrate that during physiological hematopoiesis a small fraction of BM derived FN contains the EIIIA domain and that mice constitutively including (EIIIA(+/+) ) or excluding (EIIIA(-/-) ) the EIIIA exon present comparable levels of hematopoietic stem cells, myeloid and lymphoid progenitors within BM. Moreover, only minor alterations were detected in blood parameters and in hematopoietic frequencies of BM granulocytes/monocytes and B cells. As opposed to other tissues, unique compensatory mechanisms, such as increased FN accumulation and variable expression of the EIIIA receptors, Toll like receptor-4 and alpha9 integrin subunit, characterized the BM of these mice. Our data demonstrate that FN is a fundamental component of the hematopoietic tissue and that the EIIIA exon may play a key role in modulating hematopiesis in conditions of BM stress or diseases. Stem Cells 2016;34:2263-2268. PMID:27090359

  2. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  3. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  4. FtsH11 Proteases play a critical role in high temperature stress tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FtsHs (Filamentous temperature sensitive H), ATP-dependent zinc metalloproteases of the AAA-superfamily, play essential roles in the turn over of thylakoid proteins damaged by high light stress during photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH11, one of the 12 FtsH members in Arabidopsis, plays critic...

  5. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  6. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and…

  7. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  8. The ULT trxG Fatcors play a role in Arabidopsis Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic modifiers that play key roles in eukaryotic development by promoting active or repressive gene expression states, respectively. Although PcG proteins have well-defined roles in controlling developmental transitions, cell fate de...

  9. The Role Played by Grandparents in Family Support and Learning: Considerations for Mainstream and Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The twenty-first century family faces many demographic changes. Despite this, the importance of intergenerational relationships remains. This article initially reviews the literature surrounding the role that grandparents play in their children's families, highlighting a growing body of research demonstrating the important support role that…

  10. Whipping Them in: Role-Playing Party Cohesion with a Chief Whip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Philip; Stuart, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We have used a role-play exercise to help students understand the role of the whips in British parliamentary politics, a subject with which students often struggle. In itself, this proved a valuable learning and teaching tool, but we found it became even more useful when we incorporated a practitioner into the exercise. This overcame some of the…

  11. Using Social Networking for Online Role-Plays to Develop Students' Argumentative Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard; Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    Social networking sites may include argumentative writing about particular issues in which participants adopt competing perspective and discourses on those issues. This study examined roles and discourses adopted by high school students participating in an online role-play conducted on a Ning platform regarding their school's Internet policies on…

  12. Science and Math through Role-Play Centers in the Elementary School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes role-play centers in which children can do math problems, invent, experiment, write with a purpose, and act out adult career roles. Examples of centers include a doctor's office, a supermarket, a fix-it or inventor's workshop, a post office, a pet store, a zoo, a veterinary clinic, a museum, and a restaurant. (DKM)

  13. Reforming Higher Education in the United States: What Role Can States Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    21st Century Policy Review, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This interview with George J. Funario, Deputy Secretary of the Maryland Higher Education Commission, examines the roles that states can play in reforming higher education, drawing on Maryland's experience. The importance of educating minority group members is emphasized, and the role of the federal government in making a financial commitment is…

  14. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  15. Psychometric Characteristics of Role-Play Assessments of Social Skill in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellack, Alan S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Thomas-Lohrman, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature documenting that people with schizophrenia have marked impairments in social role functioning and social skill. One of the most widely employed strategies for assessing social skill has been role-play tests: simulated social interactions that are videotaped for subsequent behavioral coding. There has been…

  16. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official...

  17. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official...

  18. NEUTROPHILS PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LPS-INDUCED AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-045 (GAVETT) GPRA # 10108

    Neutrophils Play a Critical Role in the Development of LPS-Induced Airway Disease.
    Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, and David A. Schwartz

    ABSTRACT
    We investigated the role of neutrophils...

  19. Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the possible relationships among children's extracurricular toy-playing habits, sex-role orientations, spatial abilities, and science achievement. Data were gathered from 282 midwestern, suburban, fifth-grade students. It was found that boys had significantly higher spatial skills than girls. No significant differences in spatial ability were found among students with different sex-role orientations. No significant differences in science achievement were found between girls and boys, or among students with the four different sex-role orientations. Students who had high spatial ability also had significantly higher science achievement scores than students with low spatial ability. Femininely oriented boys who reported low playing in the two-dimensional, gross-body-movement, and proportional-arrangement toy categories scored significantly higher on the test of science achievement than girls with the same sex-role and toy-playing behavior.

  20. WRKY76 is a rice transcriptional repressor playing opposite roles in blast disease resistance and cold stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    OsWRKY76 encodes a group IIa WRKY transcription factor of rice. The expression of OsWRKY76 was induced within 48h after inoculation with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), and by wounding, low temperature, benzothiadiazole, and abscisic acid. Green fluorescent protein-fused OsWRKY76 localized to the nuclei in rice epidermal cells. OsWRKY76 showed sequence-specific DNA binding to the W-box element in vitro and exhibited W-box-mediated transcriptional repressor activity in cultured rice cells. Overexpression of OsWRKY76 in rice plants resulted in drastically increased susceptibility to M. oryzae, but improved tolerance to cold stress. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of OsWRKY76 suppresses the induction of a specific set of PR genes and of genes involved in phytoalexin synthesis after inoculation with blast fungus, consistent with the observation that the levels of phytoalexins in the transgenic rice plants remained significantly lower than those in non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, overexpression of OsWRKY76 led to the increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes such as peroxidase and lipid metabolism genes. These results strongly suggest that OsWRKY76 plays dual and opposing roles in blast disease resistance and cold tolerance. PMID:24043853

  1. WRKY76 is a rice transcriptional repressor playing opposite roles in blast disease resistance and cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yokotani, Naoki; Sato, Yuko; Tanabe, Shigeru; Chujo, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Takafumi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko

    2013-11-01

    OsWRKY76 encodes a group IIa WRKY transcription factor of rice. The expression of OsWRKY76 was induced within 48h after inoculation with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), and by wounding, low temperature, benzothiadiazole, and abscisic acid. Green fluorescent protein-fused OsWRKY76 localized to the nuclei in rice epidermal cells. OsWRKY76 showed sequence-specific DNA binding to the W-box element in vitro and exhibited W-box-mediated transcriptional repressor activity in cultured rice cells. Overexpression of OsWRKY76 in rice plants resulted in drastically increased susceptibility to M. oryzae, but improved tolerance to cold stress. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of OsWRKY76 suppresses the induction of a specific set of PR genes and of genes involved in phytoalexin synthesis after inoculation with blast fungus, consistent with the observation that the levels of phytoalexins in the transgenic rice plants remained significantly lower than those in non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, overexpression of OsWRKY76 led to the increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes such as peroxidase and lipid metabolism genes. These results strongly suggest that OsWRKY76 plays dual and opposing roles in blast disease resistance and cold tolerance. PMID:24043853

  2. Role-Play Experience Facilitates Reading the Mind of Individuals with Different Perception

    PubMed Central

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red). Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read), according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own. PMID:24023966

  3. Analyzing Members' Motivations to Participate in Role-Playing and Self-Expression Based Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya

    With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.

  4. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  5. Skills Development Using Role-Play in a First-Year Pharmacy Practice Course

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the usefulness of a role-play model in developing students’ patient-care skills in a first-year undergraduate pharmacy practice course. Design. A role-play model was developed and implemented in workshops across 2 semesters of a year-long course. Students performed different roles, including that of a pharmacist and a patient, and documented case notes in a single interaction. Assessment. Student perceptions of the usefulness of the approach in acquiring skills were measured by surveying students during both semesters. All student assessments (N=130 in semester1; N=129 in semester 2) also were analyzed for skills in verbal communication, information gathering, counselling and making recommendations, and accurately documenting information. A majority of students found the approach useful in developing skills. An analysis of student assessments revealed that role-playing was not as effective in building skills related to accurate documentation as it was in other areas of patient care. Conclusions. Role play is useful for developing patient-care skills in communication and information gathering but not for documentation of case notes. PMID:21829258

  6. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated…

  7. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  8. To What Extent Might Role Play Be a Useful Tool for Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Helen

    2012-01-01

    To most children in primary school role-play is just something you do, and something you enjoy. It is part-and-parcel of being at school, part of the normal classroom activity. So, why can it not just be a normal part of learning mathematics? Can we study learners "in role", and make judgments about what they learn, and how they learn? This is the…

  9. Role-play facilitates children’s mindreading of those with atypical color perception

    PubMed Central

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children’s mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8–11 years) were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a “manager” who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager’s instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition × communication partner condition) to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with restricted color

  10. From board to bedside – training the communication competences of medical students with role plays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. Methods We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called “difficult interactions”. Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Results Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor’s role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient’s role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students’ most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor’s role at least once. The students’ answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of