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1

Multiple instabilities and modes of glacial rhythmicity in the plio-Pleistocene: a general theory of late Cenozoic climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been noted that several distinct modes of glacial oscillation have existed during the past few million years, ranging from low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in the early Pliocene, through relatively high amplitude, predominantly near-40 ky period, oscillations in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, to the major near-100 ky period oscillations of the late Pleistocene. In addition to other plausible

Barry Saltzman; Mikhail Ya Verbitsky

1993-01-01

2

Interhemispheric correlation of late pleistocene glacial events  

SciTech Connect

A radiocarbon chronology shows that piedmont glacier lobes in the Chilean Andes achieved maxima during the last glaciation at 13,900 to 14,890, 21,000, 23,060, 26,940, 29,600, and {ge}33,500 carbon-14 years before present ({sup 14}C yr B.P.) in a cold and wet Subantarctic Parkland environment. The last glaciation ended with massive collapse of ice lobes close to 14,000 {sup 14}C yr B.P., accompanied by an influx of North Patagonian Rain Forest species. In the Southern Alps of New Zealand, additional glacial maxima are registered at 17,720 {sup 14}C yr B.P., and at the beginning of the Younger Dryas at 11,050 {sup 14}C yr B.P. These glacial maxima in mid-latitude mountains rimming the South Pacific were coeval with ice-rafting pulses in the North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, the last termination began suddenly and simultaneously in both polar hemispheres before the resumption of the modern mode of deep-water production in the Nordic Seas. Such interhemispheric coupling implies a global atmospheric signal rather than regional climatic changes caused by North Atlantic thermohaline switches or Laurentide ice surges. 51 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Lowell, T.V. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Heusser, C.J. [Clinton Woods, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Andersen, B.G. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)] [and others

1995-09-15

3

Pleistocene glacial evolution of Fuentes Carrionas (Cantabrian Range, NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuentes Carrionas is a massif situated at the N of Spain, between Castilla y Leon and Cantabria regions. It is the second highest mountain massif of the Cantabrian Range after Picos de Europa, with peaks over 2500 m.a.s.l. and valleys well over 1000 m.a.s.l. Fuentes Carrionas was glaciated during Quaternary, and even during the Holocene and as far as Little Ice Age the presence of glaciers, or at least permafrost is controversial. Results from glacial geomorphology analysis of Fuentes Carrionas Massif are presented. Based on the interpretation of glacial landforms, glacial evolution since the Last Glacial Maximum until Pleistocene deglaciation is described. Four different glacial equilibrium phases are identified, the last one divided into two pulsations. Deglaciation process took place between 36 ka BP and 11 ka BP. Local Last Glacial Maximum is dated back to 36-38 ka. BP, therefore earlier than LGM. Glaciers reached 15 km. long and occupied valleys down to 1250 m.a.s.l. during this phase. By European LGM (20-18 ka.BP) glaciers had substantially retreated to fronts about 1700 m.a.s.l. A final stage with two marked pulsations shows only small glaciers located at cirques above 2000 m.a.s.l. and, finally, only small cirque glaciers at North and Northeast orientation above 2200 m.a.s.l. Both these phases have been correlated to Oldest and Younger Dryas, although no dates have been done yet. A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction is proposed, based on ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude) rise. ELA has been calculated with the AAR method and 0.67 ratio. This reconstruction shows that temperatures ranged between 9°C and 10°C lower than present ones at the end of Pleistocene, depending on a precipitations variation between 30% higher and 20% lower than current ones. Further research will focus on these retreat phases, especially on Younger Dryas identification and reconstruction for this site and the rest of Cantabrian Range.

Pellitero, Ramon

2014-05-01

4

Intensified deep Pacific inflow and ventilation in Pleistocene glacial times.  

PubMed

The production of cold, deep waters in the Southern Ocean is an important factor in the Earth's heat budget. The supply of deep water to the Pacific Ocean is presently dominated by a single source, the deep western boundary current east of New Zealand. Here we use sediment records deposited under the influence of this deep western boundary current to reconstruct deep-water properties and speed changes during the Pleistocene epoch. In physical and isotope proxies we find evidence for intensified deep Pacific Ocean inflow and ventilation during the glacial periods of the past 1.2 million years. The changes in throughflow may be directly related to an increased production of Antarctic Bottom Water during glacial times. Possible causes for such an increased bottom-water production include increasing wind strengths in the Southern Ocean or an increase in annual sea-ice formation, leaving dense water after brine rejection and thereby enhancing deep convection. We infer also that the global thermohaline circulation was perturbed significantly during the mid-Pleistocene climate transition between 0.86 and 0.45 million years ago. PMID:11518963

Hall, I R; McCave, I N; Shackleton, N J; Weedon, G P; Harris, S E

2001-08-23

5

Late Pleistocene Glacial Geology of the Okpilak-Kongakut Rivers Region, Northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial mapping combined with cosmogenic exposure dating provides the first detailed assessment of the late Pleistocene glacial history in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska. Former ice limits were identified in the Okpilak, Jago, Aichillik, Egaksrak, and Kongakut River valleys. Relative-weathering data support our correlations with the well- studied glacial sequence of the central Brooks Range. Of the 16 boulders from

Nicholas L. Balascio; Darrell S. Kaufman; Jason P. Briner; William F. Manley

2005-01-01

6

Microfacies and diagenesis of older Pleistocene (pre-last glacial maximum) reef deposits, Great Barrier Reef,  

E-print Network

Expedition 325, 34 holes were drilled along five transects in front of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, microfacies, PleistoceneMicrofacies and diagenesis of older Pleistocene (pre-last glacial maximum) reef deposits, Great

Schöne, Bernd R.

7

"Pleistocene Park" - A Glacial Ecosystem in a Warming World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people if asked what association they have to the phrase - ice age, will answer - "Mammoth". But mammoths are not only big wooly elephants which went extinct in the beginning of Holocene. They were also part of a great ecosystem, the Northern Steppe or Mammoth Ecosystem, which was the world's largest ecosystem for hundreds thousand of years. This ecosystem, with extremely high rates of biocycling, could maintain animal densities which can be hardly found anywhere in the modern world. Northern steppe played an important role in shaping the glacial climate of the planet. High albedo grasslands reflected a much bigger portion of sun heat back to the atmosphere. Cold soils and permafrost served as sinks of carbon, helping to keep greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at low levels. In the beginning of Holocene, simultaneously with wave of human expansion, an extinction wave took place. Tens of megafauna species became extinct at that time worldwide, while ones that resisted the extinction substantially dropped in numbers. The Northern Steppe ecosystem became imbalanced. Without large numbers of herbivores grazing and trampling the pasture, trees, shrubs and moss invaded grasslands. Within just a few hundreds years the mammoth ecosystem was gone, replaced by much lower productivity ecosystems. Already 14 thousand year ago, by simply increasing hunting pressure, humans managed to dramatically change Earth's appearance. We propose that by artificially maintaining a high animal density and diversity on a limited territory for extended period of time, it will be possible to reverse the shift, reestablishing the productive Northern Steppe ecosystem. Moss, shrubs and tree sprouts are not able to resist grazing pressure so they will be quickly replaced by grasses and herbs. Animals digesting all aboveground biomass would accelerate nutrition cycling and consequently increase bioproductivity. Higher bioproductivity would increase evapotranspiration, keeping soils dry and runoff low. This would further increase nutrient availability in the soil. Water limitation would force roots grow deeper to cold soil horizons where these roots (carbon) will be sequestered for a long period of time. After high productivity and high diversity of animals in the ecosystem is reached, this ecosystem will once again be able to compete and to expand. To test this hypothesis, we have started the experiment named "Pleistocene Park". For over 15 years we have brought different herbivore species to the fenced area in the Kolyma river lowland, keep them at high density and see the ecosystem transformation. Now Pleistocene Park is size of 20 km2 and home for 7 big herbivores species. It is a small version of how the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem looked in the past and may look in the future. Pleistocene Park is a place where scientists can conduct in situ research and see how restoration of the ice age ecosystem may help mitigate future climatic changes. Arctic is a weakly populated region with no possibilities for agriculture. Modern civilization treats bigger part of the Arctic as wastelands. So why don't turn this "wasteland" into something that can strongly benefit our civilization in the future?

Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

2011-12-01

8

Multiple instabilities and modes of glacial rhythmicity in the Plio-Pleistocene: A general theory of late Cenozoic climatic change  

SciTech Connect

Several distinct modes of glacial oscillation have existed during the past few million years, ranging from low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in the early Pliocene, through relatively high amplitude, predominantly near 40 ky period, oscillations in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, to the major near 100 ky period oscillations of the late Pleistocene. In addition to other plausible mechanisms, this study illustrates another possible contributor based on the hypothesis that the slow-response climatic system is bistable and that two kinds of internal instability may be operative along with externally imposed forcing due to earth-orbital (Milankovitch) radiation changes and slow, tectonically-induced changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Within the framework of a dynamical model containing the possibility for these two instabilities, as well as for stable modes, the study shows (1) how Milankovitch radiative changes or stochastic forcing influencing ice sheets can induce aperiodic (chaotic) transitions between the possible stable and unstable modes, and (2) how progressive, long-term, tectonically-induced, changes in carbon dioxide, acting in concert with earth-orbital radiative variations in high Northern Hemisphere latitudes, can force systematic transitions between the modes. This is a minimum dynamical model of the late Cenozoic climatic changes, containing the main physical factors determining these changes: ice mass, bedrock depression, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, deep ocean thermohaline state, Milankovitch radiation forcing, and slow tectonically-induced carbon dioxide forcing. 34 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Saltzman, B.; Verbitsky, M.Ya. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1993-10-01

9

Pleistocene glacial cycle effects on the phylogeography of the Chinese endemic bat species, Myotis davidii  

PubMed Central

Background Global climatic oscillations, glaciation cycles and the unique geographic topology of China have profoundly influenced species population distributions. In most species, contemporary distributions of populations cannot be fully understood, except in a historical context. Complex patterns of Pleistocene glaciations, as well as other physiographic changes have influenced the distribution of bat species in China. Until this study, there had been no phylogeographical research on Myotis davidii, an endemic Chinese bat. We used a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and the demographic history of M. davidii. In particular, we compared patterns of genetic variation to glacial oscillations, topography, and environmental variation during the Pleistocene in an effort to explain current distributions in light of these historical processes. Results M. davidii comprises three lineages (MEP, SWP and SH) based on the results of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and phylogenetic analyses. The results of a STRUCTURE analysis reveal multi-hierarchical population structure in M. davidii. Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers reveal different levels of gene flow among populations. In the case of mtDNA, populations adhere to an isolation-by-distance model, whereas the individual assignment test reveals considerable gene flow between populations. MDIV analysis indicate that the split of the MEP and SWP/SH lineages, and from the SWP and SH lineages were at 201 ka BP and 158 ka BP, respectively. The results of a mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicate a population expansion event at 79.17 ka BP and 69.12 ka BP in MEP and SWP, respectively. Conclusions The complex demographic history, discontinuous extant distribution of haplotypes, and multiple-hierarchy population structure of M. davidii appear associated with climatic oscillations, topography and eco-environmental variation of China. Additionally, the three regions are genetically differentiated from one another in the entire sample set. The degree of genetic differentiation, based on the analysis of mtDNA and nDNA, suggests a male-mediated gene flow among populations. Refuges were in the MEP, SH and the lower elevations of SWP regions. This study also provides insights for conservation management units (MEP, SWP and SH). PMID:20618977

2010-01-01

10

The glacial North Atlantic Oscillation Flavio Justino and W. Richard Peltier  

E-print Network

The glacial North Atlantic Oscillation Fla´vio Justino and W. Richard Peltier Department of Physics and glacial boundary conditions, we demonstrate that the glacial North Atlantic Oscillation was characterized: Justino, F., and W. R. Peltier (2005), The glacial North Atlantic Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

Peltier, W. Richard

11

Late pleistocene chronology of glacial lake old crow and the north-west margin of the laurentide ice sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Pleistocene advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in the northern Cordillera diverted westward the regional preglacial arctic drainage of the Porcupine River, northern Yukon, Canada. Glacial advance caused flooding of glacial Lake Old Crow which occupied Old Crow Basin, originally inundated by the northward diversion of Peel River drainage by a lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that occupied

Grant D. Zazula; Alejandra Duk-Rodkin; Charles E. Schweger; Richard E. Morlan

2004-01-01

12

Pleistocene glacial cycle effects on the phylogeography of the Chinese endemic bat species, Myotis davidii  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Global climatic oscillations, glaciation cycles and the unique geographic topology of China have profoundly influenced species population distributions. In most species, contemporary distributions of populations cannot be fully understood, except in a historical context. Complex patterns of Pleistocene glaciations, as well as other physiographic changes have influenced the distribution of bat species in China. Until this study, there had

Yuyan You; Keping Sun; Lijie Xu; Lei Wang; Tinglei Jiang; Sen Liu; Guanjun Lu; Sean W Berquist; Jiang Feng

2010-01-01

13

Preboreal oscillation caused by a glacial Lake Agassiz flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Preboreal oscillation (PBO) has been attributed to increased meltwater, but the source of the meltwater and causative mechanism of the PBO has remained elusive. Here we attribute the source to a massive meltwater discharge event from an abrupt drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz, Canada, via the Mackenzie River into the Arctic Ocean. A maximum volume of 21,000 km3 was

Timothy G. Fisher; Derald G. Smith; John T. Andrews

14

The bifurcation structure and noise induced transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles  

E-print Network

The glacial cycles are attributed to the climatic response of the orbital changes in the irradiance to the Earth. These changes in the forcing are to small to explain the observed climate variations as simple linear responses. Non-linear amplifications are necessary to account for the glacial cycles. Here an empirical model of the non-linear response is presented. From the model it is possible to assess the role of stochastic noise in comparison to the deterministic orbital forcing of the ice ages. The model is based on the bifurcation structure derived from the climate history. It indicates the dynamical origin of the Mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) from the '41 kyr world' to the '100 kyr world'. The dominant forcing in the latter is still the 41 kyr obliquity cycle, but the bifurcation structure of the climate system is changed. The model indicates that transitions between glacial and interglacial climate are assisted by internal stochastic noise in the period prior to the last five glacial cycles, while the last five cycles are deterministic responses to the orbital forcing.

Peter D. Ditlevsen

2009-02-10

15

Extensive deposits on the Pacific plate from Late Pleistocene North American glacial lake outbursts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the major unresolved issues of the Late Pleistocene catastrophic-flood events in the northwestern United States (e.g., from glacial Lake Missoula) has been what happened when the flood discharge reached the ocean. This study compiles available 3.5-kHz high-resolution and airgun seismic reflection data, long-range sidescan sonar images, and sediment core data to define the distribution of flood sediment in deepwater areas of the Pacific Ocean. Upon reaching the ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River near the present-day upper continental slope, sediment from the catastrophic floods continued flowing downslope as hyperpycnally generated turbidity currents. The turbidity currents resulting from the Lake Missoula and other latest Pleistocene floods followed the Cascadia Channel into and through the Blanco Fracture Zone and then flowed west to the Tufts Abyssal Plain. A small part of the flood sediment, which was stripped off the main flow at a bend in the Cascadia Channel at its exit point from the Blanco Fracture Zone, continued flowing more than 400 km to the south and reached the Escanaba Trough, a rift valley of the southern Gorda Ridge. Understanding the development of the pathway for the Late Pleistocene flood sediment reaching Escanaba Trough provides insight for understanding the extent of catastrophic flood deposits on the Pacific plate.

Normark, W. R.; Reid, J. A.

2003-01-01

16

Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain  

SciTech Connect

We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL

2008-01-01

17

Oscillators and relaxation phenomena in Pleistocene climate theory  

PubMed Central

Ice sheets appeared in the northern hemisphere around 3?Ma (million years) ago and glacial–interglacial cycles have paced Earth's climate since then. Superimposed on these long glacial cycles comes an intricate pattern of millennial and sub-millennial variability, including Dansgaard–Oeschger and Heinrich events. There are numerous theories about these oscillations. Here, we review a number of them in order to draw a parallel between climatic concepts and dynamical system concepts, including, in particular, the relaxation oscillator, excitability, slow–fast dynamics and homoclinic orbits. Namely, almost all theories of ice ages reviewed here feature a phenomenon of synchronization between internal climate dynamics and astronomical forcing. However, these theories differ in their bifurcation structure and this has an effect on the way the ice age phenomenon could grow 3 Ma ago. All theories on rapid events reviewed here rely on the concept of a limit cycle excited by changes in the surface freshwater balance of the ocean. The article also reviews basic effects of stochastic fluctuations on these models, including the phenomenon of phase dispersion, shortening of the limit cycle and stochastic resonance. It concludes with a more personal statement about the potential for inference with simple stochastic dynamical systems in palaeoclimate science. PMID:22291227

Crucifix, Michel

2012-01-01

18

Oscillators and relaxation phenomena in Pleistocene climate theory.  

PubMed

Ice sheets appeared in the northern hemisphere around 3?Ma (million years) ago and glacial-interglacial cycles have paced Earth's climate since then. Superimposed on these long glacial cycles comes an intricate pattern of millennial and sub-millennial variability, including Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. There are numerous theories about these oscillations. Here, we review a number of them in order to draw a parallel between climatic concepts and dynamical system concepts, including, in particular, the relaxation oscillator, excitability, slow-fast dynamics and homoclinic orbits. Namely, almost all theories of ice ages reviewed here feature a phenomenon of synchronization between internal climate dynamics and astronomical forcing. However, these theories differ in their bifurcation structure and this has an effect on the way the ice age phenomenon could grow 3 Ma ago. All theories on rapid events reviewed here rely on the concept of a limit cycle excited by changes in the surface freshwater balance of the ocean. The article also reviews basic effects of stochastic fluctuations on these models, including the phenomenon of phase dispersion, shortening of the limit cycle and stochastic resonance. It concludes with a more personal statement about the potential for inference with simple stochastic dynamical systems in palaeoclimate science. PMID:22291227

Crucifix, Michel

2012-03-13

19

Polyploid evolution and Pleistocene glacial cycles: A case study from the alpine primrose Primula marginata (Primulaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies highlighted the role of Pleistocene climatic cycles in polyploid speciation and of southern Alpine refugia as reservoirs of diversity during glacial maxima. The polyploid Primula marginata, endemic to the southwestern Alps, includes both hexaploid and dodecaploid cytotypes that show no ecological or morphological differences. We used flow cytometry to determine variation and geographic distribution of cytotypes within and between populations and analyses of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA sequences from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region to infer the evolutionary history of the two cytotypes and the auto- vs. allopolyploid origin of dodecaploid populations. Results We did not detect any intermediate cytotypes or variation of ploidy levels within populations. Hexaploids occur in the western and dodecaploids in the eastern part of the distributional range, respectively. The cpDNA and nrDNA topologies are in conflict, for the former supports shared ancestry between P. marginata and P. latifolia, while the latter implies common origins between at least some ITS clones of P. marginata and P. allionii. Conclusions Our results suggest an initial episode of chloroplast capture involving ancestral lineages of P. latifolia and P. marginata, followed by polyploidization between P. marginata-like and P. allionii-like lineages in a southern refugium of the Maritime Alps. The higher proportion of ITS polymorphisms in dodecaploid than in hexaploid accessions of P. marginata and higher total nucleotide diversity of ITS clones in dodecaploid vs. hexaploid individuals sequences are congruent with the allopolyploid hypothesis of dodecaploid origin. PMID:22530870

2012-01-01

20

Provenance of Palouse Loess and Relation to Late Pleistocene Glacial Outburst Flooding, Washington State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eolian system of the Pacific Northwest is a product of long-term deflation of expansive sedimentary units by prevailing winds throughout the Quaternary. The Palouse loess is a deposit of wind-blown silt that covers approximately 10,000 sqare km up to 75 m thick. Late Quaternary units of the loess become finer texturally and thinner to the northeast, suggesting that they were derived from sedimentary basins south and west. The source of the loess has been inferred and hypothesized but never directly determined. A geochemical study of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene L1 unit of the Palouse loess and its possible sources was conducted to determine its provenance. There are two sedimentary units that lie upwind of the loess that may have contributed sediment via eolian deflation: 1) sand- and silt-rich slackwater sediment derived from late-Pleistocene outburst flooding of glacial Lake Missoula, and 2) sand- and silt-rich sediment from the Miocene-Pliocene Ringold Formation. Both are very similar in mineral composition, being derived from plutonic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks of the western United States and southern British Columbia. Major and trace element data determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of silt to very fine sand from loess and potential source sediments was used to pinpoint the exact source of the loess. A one-to-one relationship of major and trace elements exists between eolian and flood sediments, whereas Ringold Formation sediments have elevated Ti, P, Mg, and Ca oxides and lower K oxide values as well as scattered trace element values relative to Palouse loess. These trends may be due to the presence of basalt lithic grains in flood sediment that have been broken down and distributed throughout the loess. The Ringold Formation lacks appreciable amounts of basalt. The geochemical data from this study demonstrates that flood sediment is the dominant source of eolian material for the Palouse loess. The spatial distribution of the possible source sediments also suggests that flood slackwater sediment is the dominant source. Slackwater flood sediments rest in basins upwind of loess, where deflation is documented today. The Ringold Formation has limited exposure near the present day Columbia River and was eroded by outburst floods or covered by slackwater sediments. Its limited extent and exposure makes the Ringold Formation an less likely candidate for a source of the L1 loess. Study of the oldest units of Palouse loess will show whether or not the Ringold contributed a larger proportion of eolian material prior to the onset of glacial outburst flooding. This new provenance data will allow estimates to be made of the volume of dust ejected into the atmosphere from the Palouse eolian system since the last glacial maximum, which is essential to modeling of atmospheric dust fluxes that force climate fluctuations.

Sweeney, M. R.; Busacca, A. J.; Gaylord, D. R.; Zender, C. S.

2002-12-01

21

Late Pleistocene sedimentary history of multiple glacially dammed lake episodes along the Yarlung-Tsangpo river, southeast Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstructed lithologic column compiled from a series of lacustrine outcrops along a tributary of the Nyang River, a major tributary of the Yarlung-Tsangpo in southeast Tibet. The deposits were preserved between terraces at altitudes of 2950-3100 m asl. The stratigraphic record features at least two sets of coarsening-upward sequences depicting episodic aggradation and progradation of a glacially dammed lake related delta. Recognized facies changes illustrate the evolution cycles of depositional environments from pro-delta, delta front, to delta plain. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates reveal an aging-downward trend in stratigraphic order and provide an approximate timeline for the formation of glacially dammed lakes in late Pleistocene. This result reflects that the Zelunglung Glacier had progressively advanced to block the Yarlung-Tsangpo river and the dam materials had stepwise stacked up to an altitude of 3095 m asl during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 4 to 2.

Huang, Shao-Yi; Chen, Yue-Gau; Burr, George S.; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Lin, Yunung Nina; Yin, Gongming; Liu, Jingwei; Zhao, Shujun; Cao, Zhongquan

2014-09-01

22

Stochastic forcing of Pleistocene ice sheets: Implications for the origin of millennial-scale climate oscillations  

E-print Network

Stochastic forcing of Pleistocene ice sheets: Implications for the origin of millennial and occurrence of spectral peaks in the 1­9 kyr band is also comparable to the record of millennial oscillations, stochastic, ice sheets, millennial variability Citation: Hyde, W. T., and T. J. Crowley, Stochastic forcing

23

Bifurcation structure and noise-assisted transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glacial cycles are attributed to the climatic response of the orbital changes in the irradiance to the Earth. These changes in the forcing are too small to explain the observed climate variations as simple linear responses. Nonlinear amplifications of the orbital forcing are necessary to account for the glacial cycles. Here an empirical model of the nonlinear response is

Peter D. Ditlevsen

2009-01-01

24

Bifurcation structure and noise-assisted transitions in the Pleistocene glacial cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The glacial cycles are attributed to the climatic response of the orbital changes in the irradiance to the Earth. These changes in the forcing are too small to explain the observed climate variations as simple linear responses. Nonlinear amplifications of the orbital forcing are necessary to account for the glacial cycles. Here an empirical model of the nonlinear response

Peter D. Ditlevsen

2009-01-01

25

Two Middle Pleistocene Glacial-Interglacial Cycles from the Valle Grande, Jemez Mountains, northern New Mexico  

E-print Network

valley of the Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico, when a post-caldera eruption (South Mountain Alamos, NM 87544 ABSTRACT A long-lived middle Pleistocene lake formed in the Valle Grande, a large moat rhyolite) dammed the drainage out of the caldera. The deposits of this lake were cored in May 2004 (GLAD5

Anderson, R. Scott

26

Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

2004-01-01

27

Stratigraphic constraints on late Pleistocene glacial erosion and deglaciation of the Chukchi margin, Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least two episodes of glacial erosion of the Chukchi margin at water depths to ?450 m and 750 m have been indicated by geophysical seafloor data. We examine sediment stratigraphy in these areas to verify the inferred erosion and to understand its nature and timing. Our data within the eroded areas show the presence of glaciogenic diamictons composed mostly of reworked

Leonid Polyak; Dennis A. Darby; Jens F. Bischof; Martin Jakobsson

2007-01-01

28

Physiological and growth responses of C3 and C4 plants at the Pleistocene glacial maximum  

SciTech Connect

A C3 plant (Abutilon theophrasti) and a C4 plant (Amaranthus retroflexus) were grown from seed in the Duke University Phytotron under four CO2 concentrations (15 Pa, below the Pleistocene minimum), 27 Pa (pre-industrial), 35 Pa (current), and 70 Pa (future) to examine photosynthetic, growth and reproduction responses of annual plants to historic and future levels of CO2. Net photosynthesis and growth were greatly inhibited at 15 Pa and greatly stimulated at 70 Pa. in the C3 Abutilon but only slightly affected in the C4 Amaranthus. Flower bud initiation was not affected by CO2 treatment in either species but all flower buds in 15 Pa CO2 aborted in the C3 within two days of appearance while no inhibition of reproduction was observed at low CO2 in the C4. Differences in physiology, growth and reproduction to the low levels of atmospheric CO2 of the Pleistocene suggest that competitive interactions of C3 and C4 annuals have changed through geologic time. A major question concerning the survival and evolution of obligate C3 annuals during the CO2 minima of the Pleistocene is raised by the results of this study.

Strain, B.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

29

Paleonutrient and productivity records from the subarctic North Pacific for Pleistocene glacial terminations I to V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study addresses fundamental questions of the mode and timing of orbital and millennial-scale changes in the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the subarctic North Pacific. Particular concerns are the vertical mixing, the present and past abundance of nutrients in surface waters despite strong stratification, and the North Pacific–North Atlantic seesaw of oscillations in sea surface temperature (SST). We do

Holger Gebhardt; Michael Sarnthein; Pieter M. Grootes; Thorsten Kiefer; Hartmut Kuehn; Frank Schmieder; Ursula Röhl

2008-01-01

30

Paleonutrient and productivity records from the subarctic North Pacific for Pleistocene glacial terminations I to V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study addresses fundamental questions of the mode and timing of orbital and millennial-scale changes in the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the subarctic North Pacific. Particular concerns are the vertical mixing, the present and past abundance of nutrients in surface waters despite strong stratification, and the North Pacific-North Atlantic seesaw of oscillations in sea surface temperature (SST). We do

Holger Gebhardt; Michael Sarnthein; Pieter M. Grootes; Thorsten Kiefer; Hartmut Kuehn; Frank Schmieder; Ursula Röhl

2008-01-01

31

Variability in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation through a glacial-interglacial cycle.  

PubMed

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most potent source of interannual climate variability. Uncertainty surrounding the impact of greenhouse warming on ENSO strength and frequency has stimulated efforts to develop a better understanding of the sensitivity of ENSO to climate change. Here we use annually banded corals from Papua New Guinea to show that ENSO has existed for the past 130,000 years, operating even during "glacial" times of substantially reduced regional and global temperature and changed solar forcing. However, we also find that during the 20th century ENSO has been strong compared with ENSO of previous cool (glacial) and warm (interglacial) times. The observed pattern of change in amplitude may be due to the combined effects of ENSO dampening during cool glacial conditions and ENSO forcing by precessional orbital variations. PMID:11222850

Tudhope, A W; Chilcott, C P; McCulloch, M T; Cook, E R; Chappell, J; Ellam, R M; Lea, D W; Lough, J M; Shimmield, G B

2001-02-23

32

Speciation of two desert poplar species triggered by Pleistocene climatic oscillations.  

PubMed

Despite the evidence that the Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have seriously affected the distribution of intraspecific diversity, less is known on its impact on interspecific divergence. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the divergence of two desert poplar species Populus euphratica Oliv. and P. pruinosa Schrenk. occurred during the Pleistocene. We sequenced 11 nuclear loci in 60 individuals from the two species to estimate the divergence time between them and to test whether gene flow occurred after species separation. Divergence time between the two species was estimated to be 0.66-1.37 million years ago (Ma), a time at which glaciation was at its maximum in China and deserts developed widely in central Asia. Isolation-with-Migration model also indicated that the two species had diverged in the presence of gene flow. We also detected evidence of selection at GO in P. euphratica and to a lesser extent at PhyB2. Together, these results underscore the importance of Pleistocene climate oscillations in triggering plant speciation as a result of habitats divergence. PMID:24065180

Wang, J; Källman, T; Liu, J; Guo, Q; Wu, Y; Lin, K; Lascoux, M

2014-02-01

33

Middle Pleistocene (?) buried glacial ice on Bylot Island, Canadian Arctic Archipleago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bylot Island is located north of Baffin Island (73°N, 80°W). More than the half of the island is covered by an ice cap and its outlet glaciers flowing towards the arctic lowland of the Lancaster formation. The study site comprises four main stratigraphic units. Overlying the shales (Tertiary) of the Lancaster Formation (500 m a.s.l.), a diamicton (unit 1) is covered by a “fossil forest-tundra” sequence (unit 2) containing abundant remains of trees and plants (Allard et al., submitted). Paleontological correlation of extinct species and reverse to normal palomagnetism polarities suggest a Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene age for this unit. A sequence (unit 3) of ice-contact proximal to distal glacio-fluvial sediments overlies the organic beds. Paleomagnetic analysis showed that the upper glacio-fluvial sediments were likely deposited during the Brunhes polarity chron (younger than 0.73 Ma). The uppermost unit (unit 4) consists in a lodgement till containing clasts of Paleozoic limestone erratics. Based on amino acid ratios of shells fragments in the drift, Klassen (1993) suggested that this “foreign drift” was probably deposited during an "old" Quaternary glaciation named “Baffin glaciation” During July 2009 several active-layer detachment slides at the head of large gullies exposed large massive ice bodies located at the junction between units 3 and 4. A preliminary analysis of the ice facies and ice crystals revealed the presence of two distinct types of massive ice: 1) clear-ice bodies with very few sediments and no organic inclusions. The ice crystals were large (cm) and air bubbles were observed at the junction of crystals. These characteristics could potentially indicate an englacial origin for these clear ice bodies. In some places, the ice was stratified with undulating layers of sands and gravels. These micro-structures are very similar to basal ice facies we observed at the Matanuska Glacier in Alaska. The exposed massive ice sections were a few tens of meter wide and about 2 to 4 m deep but the real width and thickness of these ice masses are unknown. The upper part of the clear ice and stratified massive ice bodies were always in contact with various types of glacio-fluvial sediments which suggest that their preservation were likely related to rapid burial of the ice and refreezing of the overlying sediments following permafrost aggradation. 2) large, white to milky, epigenetic ice wedges with a typical sub-vertical foliated structure. The ice wedges were formed in unit 4 and, in some places, penetrated into the clear massive ice bodies described above which created a sharp visual contrast between the two types of ice. This also indicates that ice wedge development post-date the massive ice burial. Based on the chrono-stratigraphic context and on the similarities between 1) the clear ice masses and the contemporary englacial ice facies (e.g. on Bylot Island); and 2) the cryostructures of the stratified massive ice at the study site and the contemporary basal ice cryostructures observed at the Matanuska glaciers, we propose that the massive ice bodies exposed on Bylot Island are related to a Middle Pleistocene glaciation.

Fortier, D.; Godin, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Allard, M.

2009-12-01

34

Effect of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the phylogeography and demography of red knobby newt (Tylototriton shanjing) from southwestern China.  

PubMed

Factors that determine the genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogeography and demography of Tylototriton shanjing was investigated from a mitochondrial perspective to address the role of the Quaternary ice ages in shaping phylogeographic history and genetic diversity of Yunnan. A total of 146 individuals from 19 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. We detected four maternal phylogenetic lineages corresponding to four population groups, and found that major glaciation events during the Pleistocene have triggered the intra-specific divergence. Coalescent simulations indicated that the populations retreated to different refugia located in southern Yunnan, northwestern Yunnan, the border region of western Yunnan with Myanmar, and middle-western Yunnan, respectively, during previous glacial periods in the Pleistocene, and these four refugia were not retained during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population expansions occurred during the last inter-glaciation, during which ice core and pollen data indicated that the temperature and precipitation gradually increased, and declines of population sizes started after the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum when the climate became cooler and dryer. The paleo-drainage system had no contribution to the current genetic structure and the rivers were not dispersal barriers for this salamander. PMID:23424644

Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Mingwang; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

2013-01-01

35

The hierarchical structure of glacial climatic oscillations: Interactions between ice-sheet dynamics and climate  

SciTech Connect

Abrupt climatic oscillations around the North Atlantic have been identified recently in Greenland ice cores as well as in North Atlantic marine sediment cores. The good correlation between the {open_quote}Dansgaard Oeschger events{close_quote} in the ice and the {open_quote}Heinrich events{close_quote} in the ocean suggests climate, in the North Atlantic region, underwent several massive reorganizations in the last glacial period. A characteristic feature seems to be their hierarchical structure. Every 7 to 10-thousand years, when the temperature is close to its minimum, the ice-sheet undergoes a massive iceberg discharge. This Heinrich event is followed by an abrupt warming. then by other oscillations, each lasting between one and two thousand years. These secondary oscillations do not have a clear signature in marine sediments but constitute most of the{open_quote} Dansgaard-Oeschger events{close_quote} found in the ice. A simplified model coupling an ice-sheet and an ocean basin, to illustrate how the interactions between these two components can lead to such a hierarchical structure. The ice-sheet model exhibits internal oscillations composed of growing phases and basal ice melting phases that induce massive iceberg discharges. These fresh water inputs in the ocean stop for a moment the thermohaline circulation, enhancing the temperature contrast between low- and high-latitudes. Just after this event, the thermohaline circulation restarts and an abrupt warming of high-latitude regions is observed. For some parameter values, these warmer temperatures have some influence on the ice-sheet, inducing secondary oscillations similar to those found in paleoclimatic records. Although the mechanism presented here may be too grossly simplified. it nevertheless underlines the potential importance of the coupling between ice-sheet dynamics and oceanic thermohaline circulation on the structure of the climatic records during the last glacial period. 33 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Paillard, D. [Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)

1995-04-01

36

A salt oscillator in the glacial northern Atlantic? part II: A 'scale analysis' model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proposal has been made by Broecker et al. (1990) that rapid changes on a time scale of a thousand years or so, seen over much of the last major glacial in the Greenland ice core record, represent significant climate changes and are caused by a salt oscillator in the glacial Atlantic. This proposal is examined in terms of a rudimentary quantitative model. Scale analysis asserts that heat transported to the high-latitude atmosphere when the thermohaline circulation is turned on, is large enough to produce the melting rates found by Fairbanks (1989) for the time interval around that of the Younger Dryas event and that these melting rates are of the same order of magnitude as the mass flux associated with water vapor flux to the Pacific Ocean estimated by Broecker (1989). Scale analysis also suggests that the salinity fluxes associated with 1) the water vapor flux mechanism, 2) the rapid melting episodes of Fairbanks, 3) possibly ice sheet growth events, 4) net transport by the thermohaline circulation and 5) net transport by turbulent eddy mixing are roughly of the same order of magnitude and therefore may be important mechanisms for producing salinity oscillations on a time scale of a few thousands of years, (see Broecker, 1990). By integration of simple salt conservation equations, it is found that model oscillations with a period of a few thousand years occur over a significant range of salinity fluxes; estimated fluxes fall well within the range for which oscillations exist. The model also suggests that there may exist close coupling between the European-Scandinavian ice sheets and the bimodal response of the oscillator; that is, significant increases or decreases in continental ice volume may accompany each complete cycle of the oscillator. In addition, it appears that continental ice may be required for the salt oscillator to function. A crucial element, which cannot adequately be investigated with the present model, concerns the local effect of salinity source/sinks associated with melt water production. The proximity of these source regions on the neighboring ice sheets to the local regions where production of deep water occurs may play a critical role in the functioning of the proposed salt oscillator. In addition, further treatment of thermodynamics is needed to investigate the feasibility of a salinity driven oscillator.

Birchfield, G. Edward; Broecker, Wallace S.

1990-12-01

37

Glacial isostatic adjustment and recent sea-level change: The influence of Pleistocene ice sheet evolution on tide-gauge measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution to the sea-level equation describing the redistribution of glacial melt water in the oceans is implemented in conjunction with the spectral-finite element method (Martinec, 2000) of modelling glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA). The main feature of this method is that it solves the field equations governing GIA in the time domain, where a radially symmetric, self-gravitating, incompressible earth model consisting of a fluid core, a Maxwell-viscoelastic lower and upper mantle, and an elastic lithosphere has been adopted in the present study. The additional contribution to sea-level caused by the variation of the Earth's rotation due to the ice-water mass redistribution is determined by means of the Liouville equation. For predicting the GIA-induced sea-level change, three different global models of the Pleistocene deglaciation and several viscosity stratifications are used. We compare the predicted postglacial sea-level change induced by the Pleistocene deglaciation with a set of globally distributed sea-level index points and evaluate the acceptability of the underlying earth and ice models. The best-fitting models are employed to remove the GIA-induced contribution to the recent sea-level change recorded by a set of Fennoscandian tide-gauge stations. In future studies, the reduced tide-gauge trends may serve as a datum when studying the relation between recent ice-mass change and absolute sea-level rise. Martinec,Z., 2000. Spectral-finite element method approach to three-dimensional viscoelstic relaxation in a spherical earth. Geophys. J. Int., 142, 117-141.

Hagedoorn, J.; Martinec, Z.; Wolf, D.; Klemann, V.

2004-05-01

38

El Niño-Southern Oscillation extrema in the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest engine of interannual climate variability on the planet, yet its past behavior and potential for future change are poorly understood and vigorously contested. Reconstructions of past ENSO are indispensable for testing climate models tasked with predicting future ENSO activity in a warming world, but suitable geologic archives are scarce, especially for the last glacial period. Here we reconstruct mean climate and ENSO variability in the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from oxygen isotopic ratios (?18O) of individual foraminifera retrieved from deep-sea sediments. Our results document coordinated adjustments of the tropical Pacific/ENSO system between two diametrically opposite states: an "amplified ENSO" state in the LGM associated with a reduced zonal temperature gradient, and a "damped ENSO" state in the Mid-Holocene with enhanced gradient. Orbital precession provided the switch between these states and acted as the dominant external driver of the tropical Pacific/ENSO system in the past 25,000 years. The linked response of the mean state and variability to orbital forcing provides an integrated framework for testing ENSO theory and models.

Koutavas, Athanasios; Joanides, Stephan

2012-12-01

39

Low but structured chloroplast diversity in Atherosperma moschatum (Atherospermataceae) suggests bottlenecks in response to the Pleistocene glacials  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The cool temperate rainforests of Australia were much reduced in range during the cold and dry glacial periods, although genetic evidence indicates that two key rainforest species, Nothofagus cunninghamii and Tasmannia lanceolata, survived within multiple locations and underwent only local range expansions at the end of the Last Glacial. To better understand the glacial response of a co-occurring but wind-dispersed and less cold-tolerant rainforest tree species, Atherosperma moschatum, a chloroplast phylogeographic study was undertaken. Methods A total of 3294 bp of chloroplast DNA sequence was obtained for 155 samples collected from across the species' range. Key Results The distribution of six haplotypes observed in A. moschatum was geographically structured with an inferred ancestral haplotype restricted to Tasmania, while three non-overlapping and endemic haplotypes were found on the mainland of south-eastern Australia. Last glacial refugia for A. moschatum are likely to have occurred in at least one location in western Tasmania and in Victoria and within at least two locations in the Great Dividing Range of New South Wales. Nucleotide diversity of A. moschatum was lower (? = 0·00021) than either N. cunninghamii (0·00101) or T. lanceolata (0·00073), and was amongst the lowest recorded for any tree species. Conclusions This study provides evidence for past bottlenecks having impacted the chloroplast diversity of A. moschatum as a result of the species narrower climatic niche during glacials. This hypothesis is supported by the star-like haplotype network and similar estimated rates of chloroplast DNA substitution for A. moschatum and the two more cold tolerant and co-occurring species that have higher chloroplast diversity, N. cunninghamii and T. lanceolata. PMID:21856633

Worth, James R. P.; Marthick, James R.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Vaillancourt, Rene E.

2011-01-01

40

Pleistocene Glaciations in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary evidence of two Pleistocene interglacials – Holsteinian (Karuküla) and Eemian (Prangli) and three glacials – Elsterian (Sangaste), Saalian (Ugandi) and Weichselian (Järva), are present in Estonia. Pleistocene chronostratigraphy is based on 69 sites and sections, studied by means of 14C, OSL\\/TL, 10Be and varved clay chronology methods.

Volli Kalm; Anto Raukas; Maris Rattas; Katrin Lasberg

2011-01-01

41

New insights into Late Pleistocene glacial and postglacial history of northernmost Ungava (Canada) from Pingualuit Crater Lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pingualuit Crater was formed by a meteoritic impact ca. 1.4 million years ago in northernmost Ungava (Canada). Due to its geographical position near the center of successive North American ice sheets and its favorable morphometry, the Pingualuit Crater Lake (water depth = 246 m) promises to yield a unique continuous sedimentary sequence covering several glacial\\/interglacial cycles in the terrestrial Canadian Arctic. In

Hervé Guyard; Guillaume St-Onge; Reinhard Pienitz; Pierre Francus; Bernd Zolitschka; Garry K. C. Clarke; Sonja Hausmann; Veli-Pekka Salonen; Patrick Lajeunesse; Grégoire Ledoux; Michel Lamothe

42

Did glacial advances during the Pleistocene influence differently the demographic histories of benthic and pelagic Antarctic shelf fishes? - Inferences from intraspecific mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Circum-Antarctic waters harbour a rare example of a marine species flock – the Notothenioid fish, most species of which are restricted to the continental shelf. It remains an open question as to how they survived Pleistocene climatic fluctuations characterised by repeated advances of continental glaciers as far as the shelf break that probably resulted in a loss of habitat for benthic organisms. Pelagic ecosystems, on the other hand, might have flourished during glacial maxima due to the northward expansion of Antarctic polar waters. In order to better understand the role of ecological traits in Quaternary climatic fluctuations, we performed demographic analyses of populations of four fish species from the tribe Trematominae, including both fully benthic and pelagic species using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and an intron from the nuclear S7 gene. Results Nuclear and cytoplasmic markers showed differences in the rate and time of population expansions as well as the likely population structure. Neutrality tests suggest that such discordance comes from different coalescence dynamics of each marker, rather than from selective pressure. Demographic analyses based on intraspecific DNA diversity suggest a recent population expansion in both benthic species, dated by the cyt b locus to the last glacial cycle, whereas the population structure of pelagic feeders either did not deviate from a constant-size model or indicated that the onset of the major population expansion of these species by far predated those of the benthic species. Similar patterns were apparent even when comparing previously published data on other Southern Ocean organisms, but we observed considerable heterogeneity within both groups with regard to the onset of major demographic events and rates. Conclusion Our data suggest benthic and pelagic species reacted differently to the Pleistocene ice-sheet expansions that probably significantly reduced the suitable habitat for benthic species. However, the asynchronous timing of major demographic events observed in different species within both "ecological guilds", imply that the species examined here may have different population and evolutionary histories, and that more species should be analysed in order to more precisely assess the role of life history in the response of organisms to climatic changes. PMID:17997847

Janko, Karel; Lecointre, Guillaume; DeVries, Arthur; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; Marshall, Craig

2007-01-01

43

Lineage-specific late pleistocene expansion of an endemic subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa , in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pleistocene glacial oscillations have significantly affected the historical population dynamics of temperate taxa. However,\\u000a the general effects of recent climatic changes on the evolutionary history and genetic structure of extant subtropical species\\u000a remain poorly understood. In the present study, phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses based on mitochondrial\\u000a and nuclear DNA sequences were used. The aim was to investigate whether Pleistocene

Jen-Pan Huang; Chung-Ping Lin

2011-01-01

44

Water versus ice: The competing roles of modern climate and Pleistocene glacial erosion in the Central Alps of Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have identified relationships between landscape form, erosion and climate in regions of landscape rejuvenation, associated with increased denudation. Most of these landscapes are located in non-glaciated mountain ranges and are characterized by transient geomorphic features. The landscapes of the Swiss Alps are likewise in a transient geomorphic state as seen by multiple knickzones. In this mountain belt, the transient state has been related to erosional effects during the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM). Here, we focus on the catchment scale and categorize hillslopes based on erosional mechanisms, landscape form and landcover. We then explore relationships of these variables to precipitation and extent of LGM glaciers to disentangle modern versus palaeo controls on the modern shape of the Alpine landscape. We find that in grasslands, the downslope flux of material mainly involves unconsolidated material through hillslope creep, testifying a transport-limited erosional regime. Alternatively, strength-limited hillslopes, where erosion is driven by bedrock failure, are covered by forests and/or expose bedrock, and they display oversteepened hillslopes and channels. There, hillslope gradients and relief are more closely correlated with LGM ice occurrence than with precipitation or the erodibility of the underlying bedrock. We relate the spatial occurrence of the transport- and strength-limited process domains to the erosive effects of LGM glaciers. In particular, strength-limited, rock dominated basins are situated above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM, reflecting the ability of glaciers to scour the landscape beyond threshold slope conditions. In contrast, transport-limited, soil-mantled landscapes are common below the ELA. Hillslopes covered by forests occupy the elevations around the ELA and are constrained by the tree line. We conclude that the current erosional forces at work in the Central Alps are still responding to LGM glaciation, and that the modern climate has not yet impacted on the modern landscape.

Schlunegger, Fritz; Norton, Kevin P.

2013-08-01

45

Tempo of genetic diversification in southern African rodents: The role of Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations as drivers for speciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the southern African faunal assemblages is thought to have been largely influenced by climatic oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene. These fluctuations presumably had a major impact in the form of vicariant diversification of taxa by causing simultaneous speciation/cladogenetic events due to habitat fragmentation. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the timing of diversification observed for several rodent lineages with three peaks of aridification described at approximately 2.8, 1.7 and 1.0 Mya. Our study included nine rodent taxa (Nannomys, Aethomys, Otomys, Myotomys, Rhabdomys and Mastomys for the Muridae, Saccostomus for the Nesomyidae, Cryptomys for the Bathyergidae, and Xerus for the Sciuridae) that showed intrageneric mitochondrial cytochrome b cladogenesis during the last 5 Ma. Phylogenetic analysis performed with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of all subgenera and genera. Most diversifications are also well supported and in agreement with previously published studies. Divergence dates between lineages were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and the 7 Myr split between different Apodemus species as well as the divergence between Tatera and Gerbillurus at 6.3 Myr were used as calibration points. Our results did not provide any convincing evidence of a correspondence between rodent diversification events and peaks in aridity during the Plio-Pleistocene. The nearly perfect linear correlation between cladogenesis and time, during the last 5 Myr, strongly suggests that the diversification of southern African rodent lineages is driven by complex interactions between different factors, including life history, climatic changes, and topographic barriers.

Montgelard, Claudine; Matthee, Conrad A.

2012-07-01

46

Oscillating glacial northern and southern deep water formation from combined neodymium and carbon isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While ocean circulation is driven by the formation of deep water in the North Atlantic and the Circum-Antarctic, the role of southern-sourced deep water formation in climate change is poorly understood. Here we address the balance of northern- and southern-sourced waters in the South Atlantic through the last glacial period using neodymium isotope ratios of authigenic ferromanganese oxides in thirteen

Alexander M. Piotrowski; Steven L. Goldstein; Sidney Hemming R; Richard G. Fairbanks; David R. Zylberberg

2008-01-01

47

El Niño-Southern Oscillation extrema in the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of past ENSO activity are indispensible for testing climate models tasked with future predictions, but suitable geologic archives are scarce, especially for the last glacial period and earlier. Here we reconstruct changes in ENSO variability in the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from the ?18O of individual G. ruber foraminifera (N>2000) retrieved from eastern Pacific sediments. We also evaluate changes in the mean state by comparing east and west equatorial Pacific SSTs based on Mg/Ca. Our results document coordinated adjustments of the tropical Pacific mean state and variability between two opposite states: (1) an amplified ENSO state with reduced zonal gradient in the LGM; and (2) a damped ENSO state with enhanced gradient in the Mid-Holocene . The correlation between zonal gradient and ENSO variance (inferred from individual ?18O) over the past 24,000 years is r=-0.67 (p<0.001) indicating strong linkage of the mean state and variability. ENSO variance from G. ruber ?18O also correlates strongly (r=0.7, p<0.001) with spring/fall (Mar/Sep) insolation, implying that precession has acted as the dominant external driver of the ENSO system in the past 24,000 years. In this context, the documented increase in ENSO activity from the middle to the late Holocene was a natural consequence of increasing March - decreasing September insolation, and should continue for the next ~4,000 years unless perturbed by anthropogenic factors.

Koutavas, A.; Joanides, S.

2012-12-01

48

Influence of Glacial Oscillations on Deformation in the Himalayas of Central Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that variations in surface loads associated with the evolution of ice caps or lakes can modulate the stress pattern inside the crust [e.g. Hampel et al., 2007; Luttrell et al., 2007; Turpeinen et al., 2008]. In particular these studies point out that such variations may be large enough to change the stress acting on faults and modify the timing of the seismic cycle and long-term slip rates. Glacial loads can impact the stress regime of mountain ranges in different ways, by simultaneously (1) loading with ice masses and (2) unloading it by bedrock erosion promoted by glacial processes. Furthermore, as a response to climate changes, major glacier retreats and advances occur with durations of a few kyrs, inducing fast rates of variation for the crustal stress field. An ongoing debate in Himalayan geodynamics concerns the deformation distribution inside the range and how the ~20 mm/yr of convergence that is accommodated by the orogen is partitioned between the different structures. In central Nepal, previous studies show that, over the Holocene, the MFT has accommodated ~20 mm/yr, i.e., the entire far-field convergence [Lavé and Avouac, 2001].These data support deformation models where the whole Himalayan range is overthrust along the MHT/MFT system. On the other hand, recent studies point to a Quaternary reactivation of the MCT, suggesting that the mode of deformation can substantially change at a time scale of 10-100 kyrs [e.g. Hodges et al., 2004]. The mechanisms that may lead to a shift from one behavior to another, however, are still poorly understood. We hypothesize that variations in crustal loads associated with changes in the glacial cover may induce variations in the stress pattern that are high enough to significantly modify the deformation regime of the Himalayas and the slip rate on the MCT. We first assess the range of variations in surface loads, associated with both ice loading and bedrock erosion. Then we develop thermomechanical models of the Himalayan range that incorporate the main structural and geodynamical features of the present orogen. They include an explicit description of both the MFT/MHT and MCT as discrete frictional interfaces, in order to assess the activity of both fault systems as a response to various loading and unloading scenarios. We test the implications of several hypotheses concerning the evolution and distribution of glacial cover in the high range in term of (1) timing of the loading and unloading events, (2) magnitude of the loads and (3) position of the load with respect to the main structures. Our results illustrate that loading/unloading in the high range significantly impact the stress pattern on the MCT and could modulate the slip rate by several mm/yr. An important controlling parameter on the response of the MCT is the unloading velocity, with rapid unloading tending to promote a short-lived slip acceleration on the MCT, in relation with a decrease in the normal stress on the fault plane. Slower evolution of the loads leads to more subdued and gradual responses. Those preliminary results suggest that, in cases of rapid unloading and sediment transport during deglaciations, the MCT could accommodate a non-negligible fraction of the long-term shortening.

Godard, V.; Burbank, D. W.

2009-12-01

49

Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscillating glacial cycles over the past 2.4 million years are proposed to have had a major impact on the diversity of contemporary species communities. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships within Western Palearctic brown frogs and to test the influence of Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic changes on their evolution. We sequenced 1976bp of the

M. Veith; J. Kosuch; M. Vencesb

2003-01-01

50

Late Pleistocene ice margin fluctuations in the Nahanni National Park-UNESCO World Heritage Site and their impact on glacial lake formation and architecture of drainage systems across the Yukon-NWT continental divide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late Pleistocene the southern Mackenzie region was glaciated by ice masses from a Cordilleran and continental source (Laurentide). Stratigraphic and geomorphologic evidence indicate that the two glaciers occupied this region at different times during the Late Pleistocene. The continental ice sheet advanced over the foothills and up major valleys reaching its maximum extent, ca. 30 ka. B. P. This took place when Cordilleran glaciers were in their initial stages of development. The Laurentide Ice Sheet blocked the drainage of the South Nahanni River near Virginia Falls, forming a glacial lake which inundated an area of approximately 900 km2 at its maximum stand, and had an outlet to the southwest, across the continental divide into the Yukon Territory and eventually into the Pacific Ocean. Lacustrine sediments at various sites reach thicknesses ranging from 110 to 120 metres, at an elevation of around 700 m. Cordilleran glaciers advanced eastward and approximately 5000 years later blocked this southwestward drainage, rerouting it to the east and north along the Mackenzie Mountain front. The drainage was confined between the mountains and continental ice margin where it incised major canyons into the limestone bedrock, and produced a spectacular karst landscape, which today forms part of the Nahanni National Park. During the retreat of the Laurentide and advance of Cordilleran glaciers, glacial Lake Nahanni cut an outlet to the east at First Canyon. This outlet drained into a continuous northbound network of marginal meltwater channels joining the north-flowing drainage that eventually reached the Arctic Ocean, and during further retreat of the ice sheet established the Mackenzie River in its modern location. The presence of Laurentide ice in this region is evidenced by large granite boulders carried from the Canadian Shield. Erratics are found up to 100 km west of the mountain front. Neotectonic activity in the area is interpreted from exposures such as those seen at Virginia Falls. Here glaciolacustrine sediments of Lake Nahanni are found both above and below the falls, but those above the falls are offset along the fault by approximately 30 meters, indicating that the falls most likely formed or were tectonically reactivated in postglacial time. Pre-late Pleistocene terraces of the South Nahanni River lie above the upstream terraces found near Virginia Falls, and slope to the west, further providing evidence of postglacial rebound and tectonics.

Duk-Rodkin, A.; Barendregt, R. W.

2009-12-01

51

Phylogeography of Rhinichthys cataractae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): pre-glacial colonization across the Great Continental Divide and Pleistocene diversification within the Rio Grande drainage  

E-print Network

time estimates inferred between the population in the Arkansas River and the most recent common ancestor of the lineage comprised of populations in the Rio Grande drainage and Canadian River. The Raton-Clayton Volcanoes located between the upper... Arkansas and upper Canadian rivers are hypothesized to have been active during the Pleistocene (Calvin, 1987; Wisniewski and Pazzaglia, 2002). It is possible that the Raton-Clayton Volcanoes may have interrupted possible connections between the upper...

Kim, Dae Min

2013-09-16

52

El Nino-like climate teleconnections in new england during the late pleistocene  

PubMed

A glacial varve chronology from New England spanning the 4000-year period from 17,500 to 13,500 calendar years before the present was analyzed for evidence of climate variability during the late Pleistocene. The chronology shows a distinct interannual (3 to 5 years) band of enhanced variability suggestive of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections into North America during the late Pleistocene, when the Laurentide ice sheet was near its maximum extent and climatic boundary conditions were different than those of today. This interannual variability largely disappears by the young end of the 4000-year chronology, with only the highest frequency components (roughly 3-year period) persisting. This record provides evidence of ENSO-like climate variability during near-peak glacial conditions. PMID:10807572

Rittenour; Brigham-Grette; Mann

2000-05-12

53

Carbon cycle instability as a cause of the late Pleistocene ice age oscillations - Modeling the asymmetric response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dynamical model of the Pleistocene ice ages is presented, which incorporates many of the qualitative ideas advanced recently regarding the possible role of ocean circulation, chemistry, temperature, and productivity in regulating long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide variations. This model involves one additional term (and free parameter) beyond that included in a previous model (Saltzman and Sutera, 1987), providing the capacity for an asymmetric response. It is shown that many of the main features exhibited by the delta(O-18)-derived ice record and the Vostok core/delta(C-13)-derived carbon dioxide record in the late Pleistocene can be deduced as a free oscillatory solution of the model.

Saltzman, Barry; Maasch, Kirk A.

1988-01-01

54

Provenance and Depositional History of Late Pleistocene New Jersey Shelf Sediments.  

E-print Network

??Pleistocene New Jersey shelf sedimentology is strongly influenced by glacially driven sea level changes. A combination of regressive shoreline processes, subaerial exposure, fluvial downcutting, and… (more)

Turner, Roxie Jessica

2005-01-01

55

Correlation of Late-Pleistocene Lake-Level Oscillations in Mono Lake, California, with North Atlantic Climate Events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oxygen-18 (18O) values of sediment from the Wilson Creek Formation, Mono Basin, California, indicate three scales of temporal variation (Dansgaard-Oeschger, Heinrich, and Milankovitch) in the hydrologic balance of Mono Lake between 35,400 and 12,900 14C yr B.P. During this interval, Mono Lake experienced four lowstands each lasting from 1000 to 2000 yr. The youngest low-stand, which occurred between 15,500 and 14,000 14C yr B.P., was nearly synchronous with a desiccation of Owens Lake, California. Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data indicate that three of four persistent lowstands occurred at the same times as Heinrich events H1, H2, and H4. 18O data indicate the two highest lake levels occurred ???18,000 and ???13,100 14C yr B.P., corresponding to passages of the mean position of the polar jet stream over the Mono Basin. Extremely low values of total inorganic carbon between 26,000 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. indicate glacial activity, corresponding to a time when summer insolation was much reduced. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Burdett, J.W.; Kashgarian, M.; Rose, T.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Schwartz, M.

1998-01-01

56

Arctic ocean sediment texture and the Pleistocene climate cycle  

SciTech Connect

Arctic Ocean sediment texture accurately reflects the Plio-Pleistocene climate cycle. The precision of paleoclimate interpretation is improved when deglaciation is recognized as a distinct climate stage, overlapping both glacial and interglacial stages, and for the later Pleistocene, perhaps never completed. Oxygen isotope stratigraphy and foraminifera productivity are out of phase but can be understood in the context of the transitional nature of the glacial, deglacial and interglacial climate stages of the Arctic Ocean.

Clark, D.L.; Morris, T.H.

1985-01-01

57

Phylogeography of the Alcippe morrisonia (Aves: Timaliidae): long population history beyond late Pleistocene glaciations  

PubMed Central

Background The role of Pleistocene glacial oscillations in current biodiversity and distribution patterns varies with latitude, physical topology and population life history and has long been a topic of discussion. However, there had been little phylogeographical research in south China, where the geophysical complexity is associated with great biodiversity. A bird endemic in Southeast Asia, the Grey-cheeked Fulvetta, Alcippe morrisonia, has been reported to show deep genetic divergences among its seven subspecies. In the present study, we investigated the phylogeography of A. morrisonia to explore its population structure and evolutionary history, in order to gain insight into the effect of geological events on the speciation and diversity of birds endemic in south China. Results Mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) were represented by 1236 nucleotide sites from 151 individuals from 29 localities. Phylogenetic analysis showed seven monophyletic clades congruent with the geographically separated groups, which were identified as major sources of molecular variance (90.92%) by AMOVA. TCS analysis revealed four disconnected networks, and that no haplotype was shared among the geographical groups. The common ancestor of these populations was dated to 11.6 Mya and several divergence events were estimated along the population evolutionary history. Isolation by distance was inferred by NCPA to be responsible for the current intra-population genetic pattern and gene flow among geographical groups was interrupted. A late Pleistocene demographic expansion was detected in the eastern geographical groups, while the expansion time (0.2–0.4 Mya) was earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum. Conclusion It is proposed that the complicated topology preserves high genetic diversity and ancient lineages for geographical groups of A. morrisonia in China mainland and its two major islands, and restricts gene exchange during climate oscillations. Isolation by distance seems to be an important factor of genetic structure formation within geographical populations. Although glacial influence to population fluctuation was observed in late Pleistocene, it seems that populations in eastern China were more susceptible to climate change, and all geographical groups were growing stably through the Last Glacial Maximum. Coalescence analysis suggested that the ancestor of A. morrisonia might be traced back to the late Miocene, and the current phylogeographical structure of A. morrisonia is more likely to be attributable to a series geological events than to Pleistocene glacial cycles. PMID:19558699

Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Shouhsien; Liu, Naifa; Lei, Fumin

2009-01-01

58

Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since alligators patrolled Greenland swamps in the Eocene, the Earth's climate underwent significant cooling, which culminated in the Pleistocene Ice Age with recurring glaciations in vast regions of the Alps, Eurasia and North America, and overgrowth of polar icecaps in Antarctica and Greenland. During main Pleistocene glacial penetrations, the Alpine icecap invaded the low gradients of the Central Europe uplands

Giovanni Muttoni; Cipriano Carcano; Eduardo Garzanti; Manlio Ghielmi; Andrea Piccin; Roberta Pini; Sergio Rogledi; Dario Sciunnach

2003-01-01

59

Large Glacitectonic structures on the Dogger Bank, southern North Sea; Implications for glacial dynamics, glacial limits, and interplay between the British and Fennoscandinavian Ice Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently acquired 2D seismic data (sparker) acquired over the Dogger Bank (DB) reveal large glacitectonic structures associated with late-Pleistocene glacial incursion into the southern North Sea. The densely populated survey data (100m line spacing) collected for the purposes of offshore windfarm development on the DB, allow for pseudo-3D interpretation. The sparker data show discrete thrust faults extending from within ~5 m of the seabed to ~200 m depth, and consistently terminate at one of two décollement surfaces. Preliminary mapping and amplitude extraction maps reveal the thrusts to occur in a series of thrust blocks (5-8 faults), with each set encompassing an area of approximately 6 km along-strike and 2 km at right angles. The overall zone of thrusting is up to 16 x 6 km on the western edge of the DB. The strike of the faults indicates ice-flow from the west. Other deformation structures include: open, recumbent, and fault propagation folds, as well as back thrusts, and pop-up structures. The relief of the DB (dimensions) is entirely accounted for by what has historically been termed the 'DB Formation'. These new data reveal that this seismostratigraphic unit likely consists of deposits from a variety of glacially influenced depositional regimes. The observed thrusts penetrate through the 'DB formation', indicating this phase of intense deformation post-dated the initial construction of the bank. Less pronounced glacial deformation affects much of the rest of the DB, and the products of this deformation (push-moraine complexes?) were possibly integral to the construction of the bank itself. While the style and fabric (NS?) of this deformation is less clear, it is likely there were multiple incursions of glacial ice, from different directions (and sources?), into this area where late-Pleistocene glaciation limits are poorly understood. Several mechanisms for forming such glacitectonic features have been proposed, and the thrust blocks here may have been caused by sub-glacial (gravitational spreading), ice-marginal (push-moraine complex), or pro-glacial (ice-push) processes, or a combination of the three at an oscillating ice-margin. The thrusts appear to have no surface expression, suggesting the topography was removed either by late-stage glacial erosion or Holocene marine transgression. Work to date on the paleoenvironmental implications of the data has been preliminary. The exact style, pattern, and timing glacial deformation (and associated sedimentation) on the Dogger Bank and circum-southern North Sea, and glacial history of the region, will be the focus of a Ph.D studentship which commenced Sept. 2012.

Dove, Dayton; Cotterill, Carol; Long, Dave; Ruiter, Astrid; Phillips, Emrys; James, Leo; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik

2013-04-01

60

Guatemalan forest synthesis after Pleistocene aridity  

PubMed Central

Sediments from two lakes in the Peten Department, Guatemala, provide palynological evidence from Central America of late Pleistocene aridity and subsequent synthesis of mesic forests. Late Glacial vegetation consisted of marsh, savanna, and juniper scrub. An early Holocene temperate forest preceded a mesic tropical forest with Brosimum (ramon). Thus “primeval” rain forests of Guatemala are no older than 10,000 to 11,000 years and are considerably younger in the Peten due to Mayan disturbances. Among dated Neotropical sites, the Peten has the most mesic vegetation yet shown to have supplanted xeric vegetation present during the Pleistocene. The arid late Glacial-humid early Holocene transition appears to have been pantropical in the lowlands. The Peten was not a Pleistocene refugium for mesophytic taxa, as has been suggested. Thus genesis of extant rain forests in northern Central America and southern Mexico remains unexplained. Images PMID:16593498

Leyden, Barbara W.

1984-01-01

61

Miocene and Pliocene dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and Pleistocene population expansions  

PubMed Central

Background Factors promoting diversification in lichen symbioses remain largely unexplored. While Pleistocene events have been important for driving diversification and affecting distributions in many groups, recent estimates suggest that major radiations within some genera in the largest clade of macrolichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) vastly predate the Pleistocene. To better understand the temporal placement and sequence of diversification events in lichens, we estimated divergence times in a common lichen-forming fungal genus, Melanohalea, in the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence times were estimated using both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches to assess the temporal context of major radiation events within Melanohalea. In order to complement our understanding of processes impacting genetic differentiation, we also evaluated the effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles on population demographics of distinct Melanohalea lineages, differing in reproductive strategies. Results We found that divergence estimates, from both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches, suggest that diversification within Melanohalea occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene, although estimated of divergence times differed by up to 8.3 million years between the two methods. These results indicate that, in some cases, taxonomically diagnostic characters may be maintained among divergent lineages for millions of years. In other cases, similar phenotypic characters among non-sister taxa, including reproductive strategies, suggest the potential for convergent evolution due to similar selective pressures among distinct lineages. Our analyses provide evidence of population expansions predating the last glacial maximum in the sampled lineages. These results suggest that Pleistocene glaciations were not inherently unfavorable or restrictive for some Melanohalea species, albeit with apparently different demographic histories between sexually and vegetatively reproducing lineages. Conclusions Our results contribute to the understanding of how major changes during the Miocene and Pliocene have been important in promoting diversification within common lichen-forming fungi in the northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we provide evidence that glacial oscillations have influenced current population structure of broadly distributed lichenized fungal species throughout the Holarctic. PMID:22963132

2012-01-01

62

Glacial Tree Physiology: Using Stable Isotopes to Reconstruct Plant Responses to Environmental Change Since the Last Glacial Period  

E-print Network

experienced consistent oscillations in [CO2] between 180 and 270 ppm coinciding with glacial-interglacial cycles of the last ~1 million years. Studies of modern plants grown under glacial [CO2] show severe and consistent negative responses in physiology...

Gerhart Barley, Laci Manette

2013-05-31

63

Persistence across Pleistocene ice ages in Mediterranean and extra-Mediterranean refugia: phylogeographic insights from the common wall lizard  

PubMed Central

Background Pleistocene climatic oscillations have played a major role in structuring present-day biodiversity. The southern Mediterranean peninsulas have long been recognized as major glacial refugia, from where Northern Europe was post-glacially colonized. However, recent studies have unravelled numerous additional refugia also in northern regions. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the widespread Western Palaearctic lizard Podarcis muralis, using a range-wide multilocus approach, to evaluate whether it is concordant with a recent expansion from southern glacial refugia or alternatively from a combination of Mediterranean and northern refugia. Results We analyzed DNA sequences of two mitochondrial (cytb and nd4) and three nuclear (acm4, mc1r, and pdc) gene fragments in individuals from 52 localities across the species range, using phylogenetic and phylogeographic methods. The complex phylogeographic pattern observed, with 23 reciprocally monophyletic allo- parapatric lineages having a Pleistocene divergence, suggests a scenario of long-term isolation in multiple ice-age refugia across the species distribution range. Multiple lineages were identified within the three Mediterranean peninsulas – Iberia, Italy and the Balkans - where the highest genetic diversity was observed. Such an unprecedented phylogeographic pattern - here called “refugia within all refugia” – compasses the classical scenario of multiple southern refugia. However, unlike the southern refugia model, various distinct lineages were also found in northern regions, suggesting that additional refugia in France, Northern Italy, Eastern Alps and Central Balkans allowed the long-term persistence of this species throughout Pleistocene glaciations. Conclusions The phylogeography of Podarcis muralis provides a paradigm of temperate species survival in Mediterranean and extra-Mediterranean glacial refugia. Such refugia acted as independent biogeographic compartments for the long-term persistence of this species, for the differentiation of its genetic lineages, and for the short-distance post-glacial re-colonization of neighbouring areas. This finding echoes previous findings from recent phylogeographic studies on species from temperate ecoregions, thus suggesting the need for a reappraisal of the role of northern refugia for glacial persistence and post-glacial assembly of Holarctic biota. PMID:23841475

2013-01-01

64

Middle to Late Pleistocene ice extents, tephrochronology and paleoenvironments of the White River area, southwest Yukon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary deposits from two Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations and intervening non-glacial intervals exposed along the White River in southwest Yukon, Canada, provide a record of environmental change for much of the past 200 000 years. The study sites are beyond the Marine Isotope stage (MIS) 2 glacial limit, near the maximum regional extent of Pleistocene glaciation. Non-glacial deposits include up to 25 m of loess, peat and gravel with paleosols, pollen, plant and insect macrofossils, large mammal fossils and tephra beds. Finite and non-finite radiocarbon dates, and twelve different tephra beds constrain the chronology of these deposits. Tills correlated to MIS 4 and 6 represent the penultimate and maximum Pleistocene glacial limits, respectively. The proximity of these glacial limits to each other, compared to limits in central Yukon, suggests precipitation conditions were more consistent in southwest Yukon than in central Yukon during the Pleistocene. Conditions in MIS 5e and 5a are recorded by two boreal forest beds, separated by a shrub birch tundra, that indicate environments as warm or warmer than present. A dry, treeless steppe-tundra, dominated by Artemisia frigida, upland grasses and forbs existed during the transition from late MIS 3 to early MIS 2. These glacial and non-glacial deposits constrain the glacial limits and paleoenvironments during the Middle to Late Pleistocene in southwest Yukon.

Turner, Derek G.; Ward, Brent C.; Bond, Jeffrey D.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Froese, Duane G.; Telka, Alice M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Bigelow, Nancy H.

2013-09-01

65

African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene-Pleistocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental theories of African faunal evolution state that important evolutionary changes during the Pliocene-Pleistocene interval (the last ca. 5.3 million years) were mediated by changes in African climate or shifts in climate variability. Marine sediment sequences demonstrate that subtropical African climate periodically oscillated between markedly wetter and drier conditions, paced by earth orbital variations, with evidence for step-like (±0.2 Ma) increases in African climate variability and aridity near 2.8 Ma, 1.7 Ma, and 1.0 Ma, coincident with the onset and intensification of high-latitude glacial cycles. Analysis of the best dated and most complete African mammal fossil databases indicates African faunal assemblage and, perhaps, speciation changes during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, suggesting more varied and open habitats at 2.9-2.4 Ma and after 1.8 Ma. These intervals correspond to key junctures in early hominid evolution, including the emergence of our genus Homo. Pliocene-Pleistocene shifts in African climate, vegetation, and faunal assemblages thus appear to be roughly contemporary, although detailed comparisons are hampered by sampling gaps, dating uncertainties, and preservational biases in the fossil record. Further study of possible relations between African faunal and climatic change will benefit from the accelerating pace of important new fossil discoveries, emerging molecular biomarker methods for reconstructing African paleovegetation changes, tephra correlations between terrestrial and marine sequences, as well as continuing collaborations between the paleoclimatic and paleoanthropological communities.

deMenocal, Peter B.

2004-03-01

66

The mid-Pleistocene transition in the subtropical southwest Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructions of subtropical southwest Pacific climate variability over the Pleistocene were derived from coupled planktic foraminiferal ?18O-Mg\\/Ca measurements taken from a southern Coral Sea sediment core. A clear shift from ?40 kyr to ?100 kyr modes of reconstructed glacial-interglacial sea surface temperature (SST) variability is seen over the mid-Pleistocene transition, and these fluctuations are shown to have remained coherent with

T. Russon; M. Elliot; A. Sadekov; G. Cabioch; T. Corrège; P. De Deckker

2011-01-01

67

Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

2012-04-01

68

First ancient DNA sequences from the Late Pleistocene red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Crimea, Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Pleistocene has been a period of significant population and species turnover and extinctions among the large mammal fauna. Massive climatic and environmental changes during Pleistocene significantly influenced the distribution and also genetic diversity of plants and animals. The model of glacial refugia and habitat contraction to southern peninsulas in Europe as areas for the survival of temperate animal

Ana Stankovic; Adam Nadachowski; Karolina Doan; Krzysztof Stefaniak; Mateusz Baca; Pawel Socha; Piotr Weglenski; Bogdan Ridush

2010-01-01

69

Stability of North Atlantic water masses in face of pronounced climate variability during the Pleistocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical profiles from the North Atlantic Ocean suggest that the vertical ?13C structure of the water column at intermediate depths did not change significantly between glacial and interglacial time over much of the Pleistocene, despite large changes in ice volume and iceberg delivery from nearby landmasses. The most anomalous ?13C profiles are from the extreme interglaciations of the late Pleistocene.

M. E. Raymo; D. W. Oppo; B. P. Flower; D. A. Hodell; J. F. McManus; K. A. Venz; K. F. Kleiven; K. McIntyre

2004-01-01

70

Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680-600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600-620 ka), Guado San Nicola (ca. 380-350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345-355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy) attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle Pleistocene. This could have constrained human groups to migrate into such a propitious area. Regarding the local climate evolution during the glacial episodes, the supposed displacement from these sites could be linked to the environmental dynamics solely due to the aridity increase, rather than directly to the global climate changes.

Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Thun Hohenstein, U.; Peretto, C.

2013-03-01

71

Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680-600 ka), La Pineta (ca. 600-620 ka), Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380-350 ka) or Ceprano (ca. 345-355 ka) testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka). Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy), attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka). In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities during the Middle Pleistocene. This could have constrained human groups to migrate into such a propitious area. Regarding to the local climate evolution during the glacial episodes, the supposed displacement from these sites could be linked to the environmental dynamics solely due to the aridity increase rather than directly to the global climate changes.

Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Thun Hohenstein, U.; Peretto, C.

2012-10-01

72

Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance  

SciTech Connect

This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

73

The case for an ice shelf in the pleistocene Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Pleistocene glacial maxima, including the last glacial maximum, a thick floating ice shelf covered all or most of the deep Arctic Ocean. This conclusion is based on a preponderance of results from field and modeling studies. Of special importance are recent discoveries in the Arctic Ocean: the deep ice plowmarks on the submarine Yermak Plateau and Chukchi Borderland, and

Mikhail G. Grosswald; Terence J. Hughes

1999-01-01

74

The case for an ice shelf in the pleistocene Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Pleistocene glacial maxima, including the last glacial maximum, a thick floating ice shelf covered all or most of the deep Arctic Ocean. This conclusion is based on a preponderance of results from field and modeling studies. Of special importance are recent discoveries in the Arctic Ocean: the deep ice plowmarks on the submarine Yermak Plateau and Chukchi Borderland, and

Mikhail G. Grosswald; Terence J. Hughes

2008-01-01

75

The role of stochastic noise in the abrupt climatic transitions of the pleistocene  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of marine [delta][sup 18]O records suggest that the variations of the Earth's orbital parameters have induced and provided the timing of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. This dissertation analyses some statistical properties of the Pleistocene climate by estimating the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the [delta][sup 18]O record. The results allow to define statistically what were the [open quotes]typical conditions[close quotes] (in a probabilistic sense) of the Quaternary, to identify the modes of the PDF as the mean glacial and interglacial climatic states, and to clarify the meaning and the abruptness of the climatic transitions. A zero-dimensional Energy Balance Model is developed. The nonlinearity of the ice albedo-temperature feedback leads to multiple steady-state equilibria. The role of stochastic perturbations and their interaction with the orbital forcing in producing the periodic and abrupt climatic transitions of the late Pleistocene are illustrated. A stochastic sensitivity analysis is used to clarify the results, especially the selective amplification of the orbitally-induced 100 kyr cycle, and the predictability of the system on the time scales of the orbital cycles. From the analysis of GCM simulations and observational zonally- averaged data a one-dimensional EBM is then developed. The strong nonlinearity of this model and the occurrence of multiple equilibria is caused by the presence of the Thin Ice Cap Instability. A discussion of the features that stochastic perturbations would introduce, follows. Finally a GCM sensitivity study to atmospheric CO[sub 2] shows how the effects of varying CO[sub 2] concentrations can be included in simple EBMs. The role that stochastic perturbations, orbital forcing, and the known past concentrations of atmospheric CO[sub 2] have played in producing the abrupt climatic transitions of the late Pleistocene is discussed.

Matteucci, G.

1991-01-01

76

Patterns of Diversity, Areas of Endemism, and Multiple Glacial Refuges for Freshwater Crabs of the Genus Sinopotamon in China (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae)  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that the geographical distribution patterns of freshwater fishes and amphibians have been influenced by past climatic oscillations in China resulting from Pleistocene glacial activity. However, it remains unknown how these past changes have impacted the present-day distribution of Chinese freshwater crabs. This work describes the diversity and endemism of freshwater crabs belonging to Sinopotamon, a highly speciose genus endemic to China, and evaluates its distribution in terms of topography and past climatic fluctuations. Species diversity within Sinopotamon was found to be concentrated in an area from the northeastern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the Jiangnan Hills, and three areas of endemism were identified. Multiple regression analysis between current climatic variables and Sinopotamon diversity suggested that regional annual precipitation, minimum temperature in the coldest month, and annual temperature range significantly influenced species diversity and may explain the diversity patterns of Sinopotamon. A comparison of ecological niche models (ENMs) between current conditions and the last glacial maximum (LGM) showed that suitable habitat for Sinopotamon in China severely contracted during the LGM. The coincidence of ENMs and the areas of endemism indicated that southeast of the Daba Mountains, and central and southeastern China, are potential Pleistocene refuges for Sinopotamon. The presence of multiple Pleistocene refuges within the range of this genus could further promote inter- and intraspecific differentiations, and may have led to high Sinopotamon species diversity, a high endemism rate and widespread distribution. PMID:23308152

Fang, Fang; Sun, Hongying; Zhao, Qiang; Lin, Congtian; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhou, Junying; Ge, Feng; Liu, Naifa

2013-01-01

77

Glacial earthquakes.  

PubMed

We have detected dozens of previously unknown, moderate earthquakes beneath large glaciers. The seismic radiation from these earthquakes is depleted at high frequencies, explaining their nondetection by traditional methods. Inverse modeling of the long-period seismic waveforms from the best-recorded earthquake, in southern Alaska, shows that the seismic source is well represented by stick-slip, downhill sliding of a glacial ice mass. The duration of sliding in the Alaska earthquake is 30 to 60 seconds, about 15 to 30 times longer than for a regular tectonic earthquake of similar magnitude. PMID:14512505

Ekström, Göran; Nettles, Meredith; Abers, Geoffrey A

2003-10-24

78

The Role of Glacial Erosion in Limiting Ice Sheet Extents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to identify and quantify feedbacks between ice dynamics and glacial erosion. Whilst geological and geomorphological evidence indicates that ice sheets generally oscillate in time with orbital forcing, their extents are not necessarily a direct function of the amplitude of this forcing. Benthic ?18O records document glacial-interglacial fluctuations and indicate that maximum Pleistocene global ice volume occurs around 400 ka. However, geomorphological evidence in a number of regions is contradictory, with the most extensive ice masses often occurring 100's of kyrs prior to peaks in the ?18O record. For example, the glacial landforms of Patagonia preserve a record of just such behaviour with each successive glacial advance since 1.15 Ma covering an area less extensive than the previous expansion. This implies that other processes are modifying the linkages between ice sheets and climate. We ask: Could glacial erosion of bedrock have caused ice sheets to self-regulate their extents? Ground-breaking experiments by Oerlemans (1984) demonstrated that erosion induced margin retreat was indeed possible. He showed that retreat could be achieved but only where eroding ice streams were smaller in width than the wavelength of lithospheric response. In Patagonia however, the scales of retreat are much larger than this lithospheric wavelength - but could erosion still be an important factor? We use the GLIMMER 3-D thermomechanical ice sheet model (Payne, 1999) with an added erosion component to simulate long-term landscape evolution under theoretical ice sheets (Jamieson et al., 2007). We show that models of glacial erosion can generate feedbacks on a significant scale such that ice sheets can self-limit their extents over periods of 105 - 106 years regardless of the flexural response of the land surface. Erosion around the ELA enables increasingly efficient ice drainage, and the mass balance of the ice sheet thus shifts towards a more negative state. At the same time, the thermal regime of the ice alters and the drawdown and capture of warm ice into 'streams' causes more focussed selective erosion. The main control on the pattern of retreat is the pre-existing topography, which strongly controls erosion patterns. Ice streams retreat progressively in response to lowering valley floors and the impact of erosion induced self-limiting remains over successive glacial cycles. References: Jamieson, S.S.R., Hulton, N.R.J. and Hagdorn, M., 2007. Modelling landscape evolution under ice sheets. Geomorphology, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.02.047. Oerlemans, J., 1984. Numerical experiments on large-scale glacial erosion. Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 20: 107-126. Payne, A.J., 1999. A thermomechanical model of ice flow in West Antarctica. Climate Dynamics, 15(2): 115-125.

Jamieson, S.; Hulton, N.

2007-12-01

79

A major change in North Atlantic deep water circulation during the Early Pleistocene transition 1.6 million years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global ocean-climate system has been highly sensitive to the formation and advection of deep water in the North Atlantic but its evolution over the Pliocene-Pleistocene global cooling is not fully understood. In particular, changes in the sources and mixing of prevailing deep waters are not well constrained. Here we present new records of the bottom-water radiogenic neodymium isotope (ϵNd) variability obtained from three DSDP/ODP sites at water depths between 2100 and 5000 m in the Northeast Atlantic to reconstruct changes in deep water circulation over the past 4 million years. Prior to 1.6 million years ago (Ma), we find ϵNd values primarily oscillating between -9 and -11 at all sites, consistent with enhanced vertical mixing of water masses. At 1.6 Ma, the ϵNd signatures synchronously shifted to less radiogenic values around -12 at different water depths and water mass signatures gradually became more distinct. Since then values and amplitudes of "glacial/interglacial" ϵNd oscillations have been similar to the Late Quaternary at each site. This change 1.6 Ma reflects a major reorganization of deep water circulation in the Northeast Atlantic towards a more stratified water column with distinct water masses accompanying the enhanced response of climate to the Earth's obliquity forcing during the Early Pleistocene transition.

Khélifi, N.; Frank, M.

2013-12-01

80

Amphibian DNA shows marked genetic structure and tracks pleistocene climate change in northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The glacial refugia paradigm has been broadly applied to patterns of species dynamics and population diversification. However, recent geological studies have demonstrated striking Pleistocene climate changes in currently semiarid northeastern Brazil at time intervals much more frequent than the climatic oscillations associated with glacial and interglacial periods. These geomorphic data documented recurrent pulses of wet regimes in the past 210,000 years that correlate with climate anomalies affecting multiple continents. While analyzing DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2) and one nuclear marker (cellular-myelocytomatosis proto-oncogene) in the forest-associated frogs Proceratophrys boiei and Ischnocnema gr. ramagii, we found evidence of biological responses consistent with these pluvial maxima events. Sampled areas included old, naturally isolated forest enclaves within the semiarid Caatinga, as well as recent man-made fragments of humid coastal Atlantic forest. Results show that mtDNA lineages in enclave populations are monophyletic or nearly so, whereas nonenclave populations are polyphyletic and more diverse. The studied taxa show evidence of demographic expansions at times that match phases of pluvial maxima inferred from geological data. Divergence times between several populations fall within comparatively drier intervals suggested by geomorphology. Mitochondrial and nuclear data show local populations to be genetically structured, with some high levels of differentiation that suggest the need of further taxonomic work. PMID:17941838

Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Bates, John M

2007-12-01

81

Late Pleistocene climate inferred from the reconstruction of the Taylor River glacier complex, southern Sawatch Range, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice surface topography of a late Pleistocene glacier complex, herein named the Taylor River Glacier Complex (TRGC), was reconstructed on the basis of detailed mapping of glacial landforms combined with analyses of aerial photos and topographic maps. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the TRGC covered an area of 215 km2 and consisted of five valley or outlet glaciers that

Keith A. Brugger

2006-01-01

82

Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of cold, short growing seasons with relatively low precipitation and low atmospheric CO2 that increased plant moisture stress, limiting the ability of vegetation to stabilize active dune sand. The apparent coexistence of large mobile dunes with boreal forest taxa suggests a Late Pleistocene environment with few modern analogs. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

2011-01-01

83

Synchronous, high-frequency oscillations in tropical sea surface temperatures and North Atlantic Deep Water production during the last glacial cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopic measurements of G. sacculifer and C. wuellerstorfi in a core from the western equatorial Atlantic imply that there are parallel, suborbital oscillations in surface water hydrography and deep water circulation occurring during oxygen isotope stages 2 and 3. Low values of G. sacculifer delta18O accompany high values of C. wuellerstorfi delta13C, linking warmer sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in

W. B. Curry; D. W. Oppo

1997-01-01

84

Synchronous, high-frequency oscillations in tropical sea surface temperatures and North Atlantic Deep Water production during the Last Glacial Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopic measurements of G. sacculifer and C. wuellerstorfi in a core from the western equatorial Atlantic imply that there are parallel, suborbital oscillations in surface water hydrography and deep water circulation occurring during oxygen isotope stages 2 and 3. Low values of G. sacculifer ?18O accompany high values of C. wuellerstorfi ?13C, linking warmer sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in

W. B. Curry; D. W. Oppo

1997-01-01

85

Different orbital rhythms in the Asian summer monsoon records from North and South China during the Pleistocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we construct a Pleistocene astronomical timescale for the Nihewan fluvio-lacustrine sediments (North China), via tuning a stacked summer monsoon index generated from grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility records to orbital obliquity and precession. Combining the summer monsoon records retrieved from the Nihewan and the Chinese loess deposits in North China on the one hand, and those from the stalagmites and the marine deposits in South China on the other, the Asian summer monsoon records from North and South China appear to show different orbital rhythms during the Pleistocene. The monsoon records from both the Nihewan Basin and Chinese Loess Plateau are equally characterized by dominant obliquity (41 kyr) before ~ 0.9 Ma and dominant eccentricity (100 kyr) after this time, closely following the marine ? 18O record. In contrast, the ? 18O record of stalagmites from South China (Wang et al., 2001, 2008b; Cheng et al., 2009) and the iron oxide proxy record from the South China Sea (Zhang et al., 2007, 2009; Ao et al., 2011), which are considered as a proxy indicator of the Asian summer monsoon intensity in South China, reveal a dominant cyclicity of precession (23 kyr) over the past 1.8 Myr, closely following the solar insolation curve instead. We further present a possible interpretation of the different orbital rhythms in the Asian summer monsoon records from North and South China. The orbital rhythm in the summer monsoon records from North China is mainly modulated by the migration of the Asian summer monsoon due to changes in sea level and Northern Hemisphere ice volume during glacial-interglacial cycles. Strong summer monsoon may have reached North China mainly during interglacial periods. During glacial periods when the sea level was low and Northern Hemisphere ice volume was large, the southeasterly migration of summer monsoon would make North China beyond the reach of the summer monsoon. Thus the summer monsoon records from North China primarily show a cyclic oscillation similar to the glacial-interglacial climate cycles as indicated by cycle-by-cycle correlation between monsoon and marine oxygen isotope records. However, the summer monsoon always prevailed over South China during both glacial and interglacial periods. Therefore, the orbital-scale variability of the summer monsoon in South China shows a direct response to the orbital variations in the low-latitude summer insolation, without significant influence from the migration of monsoon during glacial-interglacial cycles.

Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Xiao, Guoqiao; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Qin, Li; Liu, Xiaodong; Qiang, Xiaoke; Chang, Hong; Zhao, Hui

2012-01-01

86

Viscosity of the asthenosphere from glacial isostatic adjustment and subduction dynamics at the northern Cascadia subduction zone, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late glacial sea level curves located in the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) fore arc in southwestern British Columbia show that glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) was rapid when the Cordilleran Ice Sheet collapsed in the late Pleistocene. GIA modeling with a linear Maxwell rheology indicates that the observations can be equally well fit across a wide range of asthenospheric thicknesses, provided

Thomas S. James; Evan J. Gowan; Ikuko Wada; Kelin Wang

2009-01-01

87

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (F(ST)= 0.129), introns (?(ST)= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?(ST)= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed. PMID:22833800

Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

2012-06-01

88

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed. PMID:22833800

Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

2012-01-01

89

Quaternary evolution of glaciated gneiss terrains: pre-glacial weathering vs. glacial erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vast areas previously covered by Pleistocene ice sheets consist of rugged bedrock-dominated terrain of innumerable knolls and lake-filled rock basins - the ‘cnoc-and-lochan' landscape or ‘landscape of areal scour'. These landscapes typically form on gneissose or granitic lithologies and are interpreted (1) either to be the result of strong and widespread glacial erosion over numerous glacial cycles; or (2) formed by stripping of a saprolitic weathering mantle from an older, deeply weathered landscape. We analyse bedrock structure, erosional landforms and weathering remnants and within the ‘cnoc-and-lochan' gneiss terrain of a rough peneplain in NW Scotland and compare this with a geomorphologically similar gneiss terrain in a non-glacial, arid setting (Namaqualand, South Africa). We find that the topography of the gneiss landscapes in NW Scotland and Namaqualand closely follows the old bedrock-saprolite contact (weathering front). The roughness of the weathering front is caused by deep fracture zones providing a highly irregular surface area for weathering to proceed. The weathering front represents a significant change in bedrock physical properties. Glacial erosion (and aeolian erosion in Namaqualand) is an efficient way of stripping saprolite, but is far less effective in eroding hard, unweathered bedrock. Significant glacial erosion of hard gneiss probably only occurs beneath palaeo-ice streams. We conclude that the rough topography of glaciated ‘cnoc-and-lochan' gneiss terrains is formed by a multistage process: 1) Long-term, pre-glacial chemical weathering, forming deep saprolite with an irregular weathering front; 2) Stripping of weak saprolite by glacial erosion during the first glaciation(s), resulting in a rough land surface, broadly conforming to the pre-existing weathering front (‘etch surface'); 3) Further modification of exposed hard bedrock by glacial erosion. In most areas, glacial erosion is limited, but can be significant beneath palaeo-ice stream. The roughness of glaciated gneiss terrains is crucial for modelling of the glacial dynamics of present-day ice sheets. This roughness is shown here to depend on the intensity of pre-glacial weathering as well as glacial erosion during successive glaciations.

Krabbendam, Maarten; Bradwell, Tom

2014-07-01

90

Antemortem trauma and survival in the late Middle Pleistocene human cranium from Maba, South China  

PubMed Central

Paleopathological assessment of the late Middle Pleistocene archaic human cranium from Maba, South China, has documented a right frontal squamous exocranially concave and ridged lesion with endocranial protrusion. Differential diagnosis indicates that it resulted from localized blunt force trauma, due to an accident or, more probably, interhuman aggression. As such it joins a small sample of pre-last glacial maximum Pleistocene human remains with probable evidence of humanly induced trauma. Its remodeled condition also indicates survival of a serious pathological condition, a circumstance that is increasingly documented for archaic and modern Homo through the Pleistocene. PMID:22106311

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Schepartz, Lynne A.; Liu, Wu; Trinkaus, Erik

2011-01-01

91

Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the location and composition of Iberian vegetation types during the whole Pleistocene and Holocene periods shows a complex patched landscape with persistence of different types of ecosystems, even during glacial times. In addition, recent, high-resolution palaeoecological records are changing the traditional picture of post-glacial vegetation succession in the Iberian Peninsula. The main available charcoal and pollen sequences include, coniferous and deciduous forest, steppes, shrublands, savannahs and glacial refugia during the Pleistocene for Meso-thermophytes (phytodiversity reservoirs), in different proportions. This panorama suggests an environmental complexity that relates biotic responses to climate changes forced by Milankovitch cycles, suborbital forcings and by the latitudinal and physiographic particularities of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, many factors are critical in the course of vegetational developments and strong regional differences are observed since the Early Pleistocene. Currently, the flora of Iberia is located in two biogeographical/climatic regions: the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean. The first one includes northern and northwestern areas of the peninsula, where post-glacial responses of vegetation are very similar to Central Europe, although with some particularities due to its proximity to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean region. The second one comprises the main territory of Iberia and shows more complex patterns and singularities, now and in the past. Steppe landscapes dominated extensive areas over all the territory during the cold spells of the Quaternary, especially during the Late Pleistocene up to the Last Glacial Maximum, but differences in composition of the dominant taxa (Compositae versus Artemisia) are observed since the Early Pleistocene, probably related to moisture regional gradients. Coastal shelves and intramountainous valleys, even in continental areas, are spots of floristic diversity and nuclei of population expansion during climatic ameliorations of the Pleistocene. The floristic composition, location and structure of glacial tree populations and communities may have been a primary control on these developments and on the origin and composition of Holocene scenarios. Refugial populations would have been a source, but not the only one, for the early Lateglacial oak expansions for example. From Middle to Late Holocene, inertial, resilient, and rapid responses of vegetation to climatic change are described, any time with regional and local differences. The role of fire, pastoralism, agriculture and other anthropogenic disturbances such as mining during the Copper, Bronze, Iberic, and Roman times must be also considered as an important factor of the current vegetation distribution. In fact, the Iberian Peninsula constitutes a territory where climatic, geological, biogeographical and historical conditions have converged to produce environmental heterogeneity, large biological diversity and ecosystem richness. A note of singularity: in comparison with other Mediterranean peninsulas, Iberia was, doubtless, particularly suitable for the survival and permanence of sclerophyllous elements of any kind (including Ibero-Maghrebian scrubs such as Maytenus, Periploca, Ziziphus,Withania, Lycium, and Calicotome), currently, during the Holocene, and even during glacial stages of the Pleistocene. However, no macro-remains of these taxa have been documented until Late Holocene chronologies, but the survival of other thermophilous species, such as Olea, reveals the existence of glacial refugia in the southernmost areas of Iberia. Over all, and dealing with plant species, the Iberian Peninsula is a land of survival.

González Sampériz, Penélope

2010-05-01

92

Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial\\/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above ?75 m human populations

John S. Compton

2011-01-01

93

Espizua, L. (2004). Pleistocene glaciations in the Mendoza Andes, Argentina. In Quaternary Glaciations Extent  

E-print Network

Quaternary glaciations of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. In Quaternary Glaciations ­ Extent and Chronology, Part III (J. Ehlers and P. Gibbard, Eds.), pp. 151­163. Elsevier. Meglioli, A. (1992). Glacial geology-Ar chronology of Pleistocene glaciations in Patagonia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116, 434

Sheldon, Nathan D.

94

Pleistocene Precipitation Balance in the Amazon Basin Recorded in Deep Sea Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrigenous sediments from Ceara Rise in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean record Pleistocene Amazon Basin climate variability. Iron oxides and oxyhydroxides in this region originate mainly from chemically leached Amazon lowland soils. Concentrations of goethite and hematite in the terrigenous fraction consistently peak during transitions from glacial to interglacial periods, suggesting an increased proportion of erosive products derived from the

Sara E. Harris; Alan C. Mix

1999-01-01

95

Late Pleistocene potential distribution of the North African sengi or elephant-shrew  

E-print Network

Late Pleistocene potential distribution of the North African sengi or elephant-shrew Elephantulus Desert was recently proposed as the agent of vicariant speciation in the North African elephant studies. Key words: sengi, elephant-shrew, vicariant speciation, ecological niche modelling, Last Glacial

96

Middle Pleistocene glaciation in Patagonia dated by cosmogenic-nuclide measurements on outwash gravels  

E-print Network

Middle Pleistocene glaciation in Patagonia dated by cosmogenic-nuclide measurements on outwash in revised form 16 June 2009 Accepted 18 June 2009 Available online xxxx Editor: M. Harrison Keywords: cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating Marine Isotope Stage 8 glacial chronology southern South America

97

What caused glacial abrupt climate changes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last glacial period was punctuated by abrupt climate changes that are widely considered to result from millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, the origin of these AMOC reorganizations remains poorly understood. The climatic connection between both hemispheres suggested by proxies indicates that the Southern Ocean (SO) could regulate this variability through changes in winds and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here, we investigate this hypothesis by using a coupled climate model in an experimental setup inspired by proxy data, in which CO2 and SO wind-stress respond to AMOC variations. The evolution of the simulated climatic patterns matches the amplitude and timing of the largest events that occurred during the last glacial period. Our results indicate that glacial abrupt climate events are part of an internal interhemispheric oscillation and provide an explanation for the pervasive Antarctic-like climate signal found in proxy records worldwide.

Banderas Carreño, Rubén; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa

2014-05-01

98

Glacial Ordovician new evidence in the Pakhuis Formation, South Africa : sedimentological investigation and palaeo-environnemental reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) an ice sheet covered a great part of the Gondwana. In Africa, several studies present the stratigraphy and the complexity of these glacial records. The different glacial landsystems correspond to several glacial cycles, related to rapid ice front oscillations and are grouped into two major ice-sheet advances, separated by a major ice sheet recession. The

E. Portier; Jf. Buoncristiani; Jf. Deronzier

2009-01-01

99

Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 3755 Glacial variability over the last two million years: an extended  

E-print Network

, skewness, and timescale associated with the glacial cycles all exhibit an approximately linear trend over is thought to owe to a gradual cooling trend over the last 4 Ma (Shackleton and Hall, 1984; Raymo, 1994 transition so much as they exhibit a steady progression over the entire Pleistocene. The mean, variance

Huybers, Peter

100

Late Pleistocene deglaciation chronology in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula using cosmic-ray produced 21Ne in quartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Pleistocene glaciations in the NW Iberian Peninsula over Serra de Queixa and Serra de Xurés, all with granite substrata, were studied by mass spectrometry using cosmogenic 21Ne. Rock cores were drilled in glacial polished surfaces and push-moraine boulders, and were analyzed to determine their integral exposure time to cosmic rays. First results, which are consistent with the relative geomorphologic model estimates, allow the identification of at least three different glacial stages, with the latest terminating about 15 ka BP.

Fernandez Mosquera, D.; Marti, K.; Romani, J. R. Vidal; Weigel, A.

2000-10-01

101

Testing hypotheses of Pleistocene population history using coalescent simulations: phylogeography of the pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea).  

PubMed

In this paper, we use mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequences to test Pleistocene refugial hypotheses for the pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea). Pygmy nuthatches are a common resident of long-needle pine forests in western North America and demonstrate a particular affinity with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Palaeoecological and genetic data indicate that ponderosa pine was isolated in two Pleistocene refugia corresponding to areas in the southern Sierra Nevada in the west and southern Arizona and New Mexico in the east. We use coalescent simulations to test the hypothesis that pygmy nuthatches tracked the Pleistocene history of their preferred habitat and persisted in two refugia during the periods of glacial maxima. Coalescent simulation of population history does not support the hypothesis of two Pleistocene refugia for the pygmy nuthatch. Instead, our data are consistent with a single refuge model. Nucleotide diversity is greatest in the western populations of southern and coastal California. We suggest that the pygmy nuthatch expanded from a far western glacial refuge into its current distribution since the most recent glacial maximum. PMID:17015345

Spellman, Garth M; Klicka, John

2006-12-22

102

Testing hypotheses of Pleistocene population history using coalescent simulations: phylogeography of the pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea)  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we use mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequences to test Pleistocene refugial hypotheses for the pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea). Pygmy nuthatches are a common resident of long-needle pine forests in western North America and demonstrate a particular affinity with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Palaeoecological and genetic data indicate that ponderosa pine was isolated in two Pleistocene refugia corresponding to areas in the southern Sierra Nevada in the west and southern Arizona and New Mexico in the east. We use coalescent simulations to test the hypothesis that pygmy nuthatches tracked the Pleistocene history of their preferred habitat and persisted in two refugia during the periods of glacial maxima. Coalescent simulation of population history does not support the hypothesis of two Pleistocene refugia for the pygmy nuthatch. Instead, our data are consistent with a single refuge model. Nucleotide diversity is greatest in the western populations of southern and coastal California. We suggest that the pygmy nuthatch expanded from a far western glacial refuge into its current distribution since the most recent glacial maximum. PMID:17015345

Spellman, Garth M; Klicka, John

2006-01-01

103

Phylogeographic heterogeneity of the brown macroalga Sargassum horneri (Fucaceae) in the northwestern Pacific in relation to late Pleistocene glaciation and tectonic configurations.  

PubMed

Pleistocene glacial oscillations and associated tectonic processes are believed to have influenced the historical abundances and distribution of organisms in the Asia Northwest Pacific (ANP). Accumulating evidence indicates that factors shaping tempospatial population dynamics and distribution patterns of marine taxa vary with biogeographical latitude, pelagic behaviour and oceanographic regimes. To detect what kinds of historical and contemporary factors affected genetic connectivity, phylogeographic profiles of littoral macroalga Sargassum horneri in the ANP were analysed based on mitochondrial (Cox3) and chloroplast (rbcL) data sets. Five distinct clades were recovered. A strong signature of biogeographical structure was revealed (?(CT) = 0.487, P < 0.0001) derived from remarkable differentiation in clade distribution, as clade I is restricted to Chinese marginal seas (Yellow-Bohai Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea), whereas clades II-V are discontinuously scattered around the main Islands of Japan. Furthermore, two secondary contact regions were identified along the south Japan-Pacific coastline. This significant differentiation between the two basins may reflect historical glacial isolation in the northwestern Pacific, which is congruent with the estimates of clade divergence and demographic expansion during the late Quaternary low sea levels. Analysis of molecular variance and the population-pair statistic F(ST) also revealed significant genetic structural differences between Chinese marginal seas and the Japanese basin. This exceptional phylogeographic architecture in S. horneri, initially shaped by historical geographic isolation during the late Pleistocene ice age and physical biogeographical barriers, can be complicated by oceanographic regimes (ocean surface currents) and relocating behaviour such as oceanic drifting. PMID:21851438

Hu, Zi-Min; Uwai, Shinya; Yu, Shen-Hui; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ajisaka, Tetsuro; Duan, De-Lin

2011-09-01

104

Pleistocene collapse of the west antarctic ice sheet  

PubMed

Some glacial sediment samples recovered from beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet at ice stream B contain Quaternary diatoms and up to 10(8) atoms of beryllium-10 per gram. Other samples contain no Quaternary diatoms and only background levels of beryllium-10 (less than 10(6) atoms per gram). The occurrence of young diatoms and high concentrations of beryllium-10 beneath grounded ice indicates that the Ross Embayment was an open marine environment after a late Pleistocene collapse of the marine ice sheet. PMID:9651249

Scherer; Aldahan; Tulaczyk; Possnert; Engelhardt; Kamb

1998-07-01

105

Pleistocene human footprints from the Willandra Lakes, Southeastern Australia.  

PubMed

Human and other hominid fossil footprints provide rare but important insights into anatomy and behavior. Here we report recently discovered fossil trackways of human footprints from the Willandra Lakes region of western New South Wales, Australia. Optically dated to between 19-23 ka and consisting of at least 124 prints, the trackways form the largest collection of Pleistocene human footprints in the world. The prints were made by adults, adolescents, and children traversing the moist surface of an ephemeral soak. This site offers a unique glimpse of humans living in the arid inland of Australia at the height of the last glacial period. PMID:16343597

Webb, Steve; Cupper, Matthew L; Robins, Richard

2006-04-01

106

Earth's glacial record and its tectonic setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciations have occurred episodically at different time intervals and for different durations in Earth's history. Ice covers have formed in a wide range of plate tectonic and structural settings but the bulk of Earth's glacial record can be shown to have been deposited and preserved in basins within extensional settings. In such basins, source area uplift and basin subsidence fulfill the tectonic preconditions for the initiation of glaciation and the accomodation and preservation of glaciclastic sediments. Tectonic setting, in particular subsidence rates, also dictates the type of glaciclastic facies and facies successions that are deposited. Many pre-Pleistocene glaciated basins commonly contain well-defined tectonostratigraphic successions recording the interplay of tectonics and sedimentation; traditional climatostratigraphic approaches involving interpretation in terms of either ice advance/retreat cycles or glacio-eustatic sea-level change require revision. The direct record of continental glaciation in Earth history, in the form of classically-recognised continental glacial landforms and "tillites", is meagre; it is probable that more than 95% of the volume of preserved "glacial" strata are glacially-influenced marine deposits that record delivery of large amounts of glaciclastic sediment to offshore basins. This flux has been partially or completely reworked by "normal" sedimentary processes such that the record of glaciation and climate change is recorded in marine successions and is difficult to decipher. The dominant "glacial" facies in the rock record are subaqueous debris flow diamictites and turbidites recording the selective preservation of poorly-sorted glaciclastic sediment deposited in deep water basins by sediment gravity flows. However, these facies are also typical of many non-glacial settings, especially volcanically-influenced environments; numerous Archean and Proterozoic diamictites, described in the older literature as tillites, have no clearly established glacial parentage. The same remarks apply to many successions of laminated and thin-bedded facies interpreted as "varvites". Despite suggestions of much lower values of solar luminosity (the weak young sun hypothesis), the stratigraphic record of Archean glaciations is not extensive and may be the result of non-preservation. However, the effects of very different Archean global tectonic regimes and much higher geothermal heat flows, combined with a Venus-like atmosphere warmed by elevated levels of CO 2, cannot be ruled out. The oldest unambiguous glacial succession in Earth history appears to be the Early Proterozoic Gowganda Formation of the Huronian Supergroup in Ontario; the age of this event is not well-constrained but glaciation coincided with regional rifting, and may be causally related to, oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere just after 2300 Ma. New evidence that oxygenation is tectonically, not biologically driven, stresses the intimate relationship between plate tectonics, evolution of the atmosphere and glaciation. Global geochemical controls, such as elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels, may be responsible for a long mid-Proterozoic non-glacial interval after 2000 Ma that was terminated by the Late Proterozoic glaciations just after 800 Ma. A persistent theme in both Late Proterozoic and Phanerozoic glaciations is the adiabatic effect of tectonic uplift, either along collisional margins or as a result of passive margin uplifts in areas of extended crust, as the trigger for glaciation; the process is reinforced by global geochemical feedback, principally the drawdown of atmospheric CO 2 and Milankovitch "astronomical" forcing but these are unlikely, by themselves, to inititiate glaciation. The same remarks apply to late Cenozoic glaciations. Late Proterozoic glacially-influenced strata occur on all seven continents and fall into two tectonostratigraphic types. In the first category are thick sucessions of turbidites and mass flows deposited along active, compressional plate margi

Eyles, N.

1993-09-01

107

New exposure ages for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be exposure ages presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic exposure method always yielding the youngest minimum ages. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the ages from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B., 2011. Last deglaciation in northwestern Spain: New chronological and geomorphologic evidence from the Sanabria region. Geomorphology 135, 48-65. Palacios, D., Andrés, N., Úbeda, J., Alcalá, J., Marcos, J., Vázquez-Selem, L., 2012. The importance of poligenic moraines in the paleoclimatic interpretation from cosmogenic dating. Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, EGU2012-3759-1. Pérez-Alberti, A., Valcárcel-Díaz, M., Martini, I.P., Pascucci, V., Andrucci, S., 2011. Upper Pleistocene glacial valley-junction sediments at Pias, Trevinca Mountains, NW Spain. In: Martini, I.P., French, H.M., Pérez-Alberti, A. (Eds.), Ice-Marginal and Periglacial Processes and Sediments. Geological Society (London) Special Publication 354, pp. 93-110. Research funded by the projects LIMNOCLIBER (REN2003-09130-C02-02), IBERLIMNO (CGL2005-20236-E/CLI), LIMNOCAL (CGL2006-13327-C04-01) and GRACCIE (CSD2007-00067) of the Spanish Inter-Ministry Commission of Science and Technology (CICYT). Additional funding was provided by the Fundación Patrimonio Natural de Castilla y León through the project "La investigacion en el Lago de Sanabria dentro del proyecto CALIBRE: perspectivas y posibilidades", and by the projects Consolider Ingenio 2006 (CSD2006-0041, Topo-Iberia), 2003 PIRA 00256, HF02.4, and RISKNAT (2009SGR520). L. Rodríguez-Rodríguez has developed her research under a Severo Ochoa Programme fellowship (FICYT- Asturias).

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

2013-04-01

108

Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

Peplow, Mark

2010-03-01

109

The role of deep ocean circulation in setting glacial climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene involve changes in the circulation of the deep ocean in important ways. This review seeks to establish what were the robust patterns of deep-sea water mass changes and how they might have influenced important parts of the last glacial cycle. After a brief review of how tracers in the modern ocean can be used to understand the distribution of water masses, I examine the data for biogeochemical, circulation rate, and conservative tracers during glacial climates. Some of the robust results from the literature of the last 30 years include: a shoaled version of northern source deep water in the Atlantic, expanded southern source water in the abyss and deep ocean, salt (rather than heat) stratification of the last glacial maximum (LGM) deep-sea, and several lines of evidence for slower overturning circulation in the southern deep cell. We combine these observations into a new idea for how the ocean-atmosphere system moves from interglacial to glacial periods across a single cycle. By virtue of its influence on the melting of land-based ice around Antarctica, cooling North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) leads to a cold and salty version of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). This previously underappreciated feedback can lead to a more stratified deep ocean that operates as a more effective carbon trap than the modern, helping to lower atmospheric CO2 and providing a mechanism for the deep ocean to synchronize the hemispheres in a positive feedback that drives the system to further cooling.

Adkins, Jess F.

2013-09-01

110

Evidence against a Pleistocene desert refugium in the Lower Colorado River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assemblage of chaparral, woodland and select desert elements refutes the hypothesis that the Lower Colorado River Basin served as a late Pleistocene refugium for Sonoran Desert flora. The rapid arrival of most missing desert species by the early Holocene suggests they did not have far to migrate. They probably survived the last glacial period as smaller, disparate populations in dry microsites within chaparral and pinyon–juniper–oak woodlands. Diploid and tetraploid races of Larrea tridentata were present during the Pleistocene, but hexaploids did not appear until the mid-Holocene. This demonstrates that individualistic responses to climate involved genetic variants, in this case cytotypes, and not just species.

Holmgren, Camille A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Peñalba, M. Cristina; Delgadillo, José; Zuravnsky, Kristin; Hunter, Kimberly L.; Rylander, Kate A.; Weiss, Jeremy L.

2014-01-01

111

Isotopes reveal limited effects of middle Pleistocene climate change on the ecology of mid-sized mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand how past climatic change influenced mammalian communities, we used fossils from the Pit Locality of Porcupine Cave, to evaluate how two taxa responded to climatic events spanning two glacial–interglacial transitions of the middle Pleistocene in Colorado. We analyzed the isotopes of carbon, oxygen and strontium in 84 specimens of rabbits and marmots to infer (1) if feeding

Robert S. Feranec; Elizabeth A. Hadly; Adina Paytan

2010-01-01

112

Different orbital rhythms in the Asian summer monsoon records from North and South China during the Pleistocene  

E-print Network

Different orbital rhythms in the Asian summer monsoon records from North and South China during summer monsoon North China South China solar insolation glacial­interglacial cycles Pleistocene Here we), via tuning a stacked summer monsoon index generated from grain size and low-field magnetic sus

Utrecht, Universiteit

113

Phylogeography of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia: Pleistocene isolation, population expansion and secondary contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the impact of Pleistocene glacial cycles on geographical distribution and genetic structure of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia using sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b gene segments. Phylogenies revealed four distinct but shallow structured lineages in Eriocheir s. s. Three lineages dominated the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea

Jiawu Xu; Tin-Yam Chan; Ling Ming Tsang; Ka Hou Chu

2009-01-01

114

Glacial modification of granite tors in the Cairngorms, Scotland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A range of evidence indicates that many granite tors in the Cairngorms have been modified by the flow of glacier ice during the Pleistocene. Comparisons with SW England and the use of a space-time transformation across 38 tor groups in the Cairngorms allow a model to be developed for progressive glacial modification. Tors with deeply etched surfaces and no, or limited, block removal imply an absence of significant glacial modification. The removal of superstructure and blocks, locally forming boulder trains, and the progressive reduction of tors to stumps and basal slabs represent the more advanced stages of modification. Recognition of some slabs as tor stumps from which glacial erosion has removed all superstructure allows the original distribution of tors to be reconstructed for large areas of the Cairngorms. Unmodified tors require covers of non-erosive, cold-based ice during all of the cold stages of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. Deformation beneath cold-based glacier ice is capable of the removal of blocks but advanced glacial modification requires former wet-based glacier ice. The depth of glacial erosion at former tor sites remains limited largely to the partial or total elimination of the upstanding tor form. Cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages (Phillips et al., 2006) together with data from weathering pit depths (Hall and Phillips, 2006), from the surfaces of tors and large erratic blocks require that the glacial entrainment of blocks from tors occurred in Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4-2, 6 and, probably, at least one earlier phase. The occurrence of glacially modified tors on or close to, the main summits of the Cairngorms requires full ice cover over the mountains during these Stages. Evidence from the Cairngorms indicates that tor morphology can be regarded as an important indicator of former ice cover in many formerly glaciated areas, particularly where other evidence of ice cover is sparse. Recognition of the glacial modification of tors is important for debates about the former existence of nunataks and refugia. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.M.

2006-01-01

115

Mid-Pleistocene Orbital and Millennial Scale Climate Change in a 200 ky lacustrine sediment core from SW North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How anthropogenic climate change will affect hydroclimate of the arid regions of SW North America over the next century is a concern. Model projections suggest permanent “dust bowl-like” conditions; however, any anthropogenic change will be superimposed on long-term natural climate variability. We use the paleoclimatic record from an 82-m deep lacustrine sediment core (VC-3) from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico to examine continental climate variations spanning two glacial cycles through the middle Pleistocene from MIS 14 to MIS 10 (552 ka to ~360 ka). Both orbital and millennial-scale variations are evident in multiple proxies, and a strong relationship occurs between the warmest temperatures in the record and periods of extended aridity. We suggest that these periods of aridity are characterized by decreased winter as well as summer precipitation amounts. A new group of organic geochemical proxies (MBT and CBT) allow us to reconstruct the annual mean air temperature (MAT) of the Valles Caldera watershed as well as the watershed soil pH down the length of the core. We compare these proxies to climatically sensitive pollen taxa and other core properties. The MAT record of VC-3 shows considerable glacial-interglacial variation and significant variability within individual glacial and interglacial periods. The warmest interglacial MATs (5 to 7°C) compare favorably with modern MATs of ~5°C in the Valle Grande. MIS 11 has three warm substages, based on MAT estimates (2°C warmer than the cool substages), warm (Juniperus, Quercus, Rosaceae) vs. cool (Abies, Picea, Artemisia) pollen taxa and variation in aquatic productivity proxies (TOC, Si:Ti). The three warm substages of MIS 11 appear to correspond to the three precessional peaks that occur during this interval. Glacial MATs range from -5 to +2°C, with multiple millennial-scale temperature oscillations evident. Several of the interstadials show a distinct pattern of relatively slower temperature increases and progressive declines in cold boreal taxa pollen percentages (Picea, Abies), while others are characterized by abrupt warmings and decreases in boreal taxa pollen. Maximum interstadial temperatures are followed by abrupt coolings of as much as 6 to 7°C, and rapid increases in Picea and Abies pollen. These results show that the continental climate of SW North America had a strong response to millennial-scale climate change as well as to orbital forcing, even during a time of muted precessional cycles (MIS 11).

Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Brown, E. T.; Berke, M. A.; Smith, S.; Goff, F. E.; Hurley, L. L.; Cisneros Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J. L.; Fessenden, J. E.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Allen, C. D.

2009-12-01

116

Glacial integrative modelling.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes. PMID:14558899

Ganopolski, Andrey

2003-09-15

117

Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust  

E-print Network

Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with potential consequences for melting of Earth's interior. A numerical model of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that explicitly includes melt transport is used to calculate the melting effects that would be caused by Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations. Model results interpreted in the context of an analytical approximation predict sea-level induced variations in crustal thickness on the order of hundreds of meters. The specifics of the response depend on rates of sea-level change, mid-ocean ridge spreading rates, and mantle permeability. Spectral analysis of the bathymetry of the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows significant spectral energy near 23, 41, and 100 ky periods, consistent with model results and with the spectral content of Pleistocene sea-level variability. These results support the hypothesis that sea-floor topography records the magmatic response to changes in sea level, reinforcing the...

Crowley, John W; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

2014-01-01

118

Alaska PaleoGlacier Atlas: A Geospatial Compilation of Pleistocene Glacier Extents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska PaleoGlacier (APG) Atlas is a recently released, web-based summary of Pleistocene glaciation across Alaska. Students can access a gallery of maps depicting the extent of glaciers during the late Wisconsin glaciation in Alaska as well as the maximum extent reached during the last 3 million years by valley glaciers, ice caps, and the northwestern Cordilleran Ice Sheet. a set of links is also provided to sites on galcial geology and glacial geospatial data.

Manley, William

119

The role of diatoms, dissolved silicate and Antarctic glaciation in glacial\\/interglacial climatic change: a hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theory is proposed to explain global cooling at the onset of Pleistocene glacial periods. Atmospheric CO2 drawdown is considered to be the driving force behind global cooling, brought about by heightened productivity at the equatorial divergences and along continental margins, particularly in upwelling regions. Eutrophication appears to be triggered when global warming during late interglacial periods causes accelerated

David E. Pollock

1997-01-01

120

Cryptic lineages in a small frog: the post-glacial history of the spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer (Anura: Hylidae)  

E-print Network

Cryptic lineages in a small frog: the post-glacial history of the spring peeper, Pseudacris; received in revised form 13 May 2002 Abstract The spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) is believed to have reserved. Keywords: Pseudacris; Phylogeography; Gene flow; North America; Pleistocene; Secondary contact

Lougheed, Stephen

121

Cryptic lineages in a small frog: the post-glacial history of the spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer (Anura: Hylidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) is believed to have been a primary herpetological invader of eastern North America following the most recent period of glacial retreat. We examined the phylogeographic pattern and population structure of P. crucifer to determine whether the distribution of haplotypic variants reflect post-Pleistocene recolonization dynamics. A number of geographically isolated evolutionary lineages were supported by both

James D. Austin; Stephen C. Lougheed; Lindsay Neidrauer; Andrew A. Chek; Peter T. Boaga

2002-01-01

122

Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants respond to Pleistocene climatic change as species, not as associations or biomes. This has been demonstrated unequivocally by paleobotanical data for temperate latitudes. In the far richer vegetations of the tropics species populations also fluctuated independently in response to climatic forcing, from their longlasting glacial states to the patterns of brief interglacials like the present and back again. We

P. A. Colinvaux; P. E. De Oliveira; M. B. Bush

2000-01-01

123

Aeolian dust in East Antarctica (EPICA-Dome C and Vostok): Provenance during glacial ages over the last 800 kyr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeolian mineral dust archived in Antarctic ice cores represents a key proxy for Quaternary climate evolution. The longest and most detailed dust and climate sequences from polar ice are provided today by the Vostok and by the EPICA-Dome C (EDC) ice cores. Here we investigate the geographic provenance of dust windborne to East Antarctica during Early and Middle Pleistocene glacial

B. Delmonte; P. S. Andersson; M. Hansson; H. Schöberg; J. R. Petit; I. Basile-Doelsch; V. Maggi

2008-01-01

124

Sedimentary and Paleoclimatic Controls on Caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) Assemblages during the Last Interglacial-to-Glacial Transition in Southern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Ontario, Canada, has late Pleistocene deposits that contain evidence for climatic cooling during the last interglacial\\/glacial transition and much of the succeeding Wisconsin glaciation. Fossils of lacustrine and riverine caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) are abundant and well-preserved in these deposits. We examined 26 samples from the interglacial section exposed in the Don Valley Brickyard and compared their caddisfly assemblages with

Nancy E. Williams; Nicholas Eyles

1995-01-01

125

Glacial geomorphic evidence for a late climatic change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a series of preliminary reports, we documented evidence of former glacial epochs on Mars. Apparent glacial landforms seemed to be concentrated primarily at middle to high southern latitudes. We now have additional evidence supporting the view that Martian glaciation appears to have been more extensive than previously recognized. The growth and collapse of ice sheets on Mars seems closely analogous to the growth and decline of Earth's great Pleistocene ice sheets. This implies that climate change was probably somewhat comparable on the two planets, although in the case of Mars the entire planet seems to have changed rapidly to a cold, dry present-day environment after the collapse of the ice sheets.

Kargel, J. S.; Strom, R. G.

1992-01-01

126

Stratigraphy of Late Pleistocene formations of the Mezen river valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphy of Late Pleistocene formations of the Mezen river valley A.V. Maksimov, L.R. Semenova A.P. Karpinski All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), St.-Petersburg, Russia In recent years received extensive and contradictory evidence on the genesis, age and area of spreading of quaternary formations in NW Russia. The reason for this - the heterogeneity of investigated objects and methods of research. Within a valley of the river Mezen quaternary sediments are distributed everywhere. In outcrops opened sediments relating to the fifth and sixth stages of Middle Pleistocene, Upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Thickness of the quaternary sediments varies over a wide range, generally increasing from west to east. The authors have studied quaternary formations, opened in outcrops in valley of river Mezen (downstream) and its right tributary Peza, as well as in marine coastal cliffs. The aim of the study was to demonstrate specific features of the lithological composition of quaternary sediments from various (in age and origin) moraine complexes of the Russian NW and to reconstruction of paleogeographic sedimentary environments in the Late Pleistocene. Such attention to glacial sediments was dictated by the fact that they bear the most valuable information pertaining to the type and composition of provenances and to the geodynamic settings of feeding and sedimentation zones. To achieve these goals following tasks were set: 1. Lithostratigraphic subdivision of the section of Quaternary sediments. 2. Correlation of local stratigraphic units with stratigraphic scheme adjacent areas using the geochronological, paleontological and paleoclimatic data. 3. Reconstruction of the main geological events Late Pleistocene NW European part of Russia. First for glacial sediments in valley of the river Mezen applied lithological method, for determining the origin of formations. Was studied lithological composition of the sediments and were correlated geological sections. Also was conducted geochronological research. Based on these results, it was found that: - the glaciers of the Baltic Shield and the Czech lip penetrated into the valley of the river Mezen in Valdai time, forming moraines of different lithology; - sea waters penetrated to the valley of the river Mezen in Leningrad and Mikulino time. In Mikulino time the basin was deeper.

Maksimov, Anton; Semenova, Ljudmila

2014-05-01

127

Glacial Legacies of New York State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glacial Legacies of New York State is a presentation of digital images illustrating the origins of the glacial record in New York. Designed for classroom use, Glacial Legacies has a complementing narrative for each slide, images of glacial features in New York, classic examples of glacial features from around the country, and diagrams of glacial processes.

2001-04-09

128

11, 9791022, 2014 Glacial and  

E-print Network

in OS if available. On the glacial and inter-glacial thermohaline circulation and the associatedPaper|DiscussionPaper|DiscussionPaper|DiscussionPaper| Abstract The change of the thermohaline circulation (THC) between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 kyrPaper|DiscussionPaper|DiscussionPaper|DiscussionPaper| 1 Introduction The thermohaline circulation (THC) is the large time- and spatial-scales ocean cir

Döös, Kristofer

129

Insights into the western tropical Pacific's role in late Pleistocene hydroclimate variability: 160ky Borneo stalagmite ?18O record (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of multiple physical mechanisms at play throughout the Late Pleistocene makes it difficult to confidently attribute climate variability to particular forcings. The tropical Pacific's role in past climate change is especially ambiguous because most tropical records lack the resolution, length, and chronological control to completely resolve rapid variability - including abrupt climate change events, ice age terminations, and sea level shifts - against a background of orbital-scale variations. Stalagmites from Gunung Mulu, located in northern Borneo, allow for the construction of reproducible centennial-scale records of hydrologic variability that are precisely-dated and continuous throughout most of the late Pleistocene. Comparison of such records to other regional and global paleorecords as well as relevant simulations from numerical climate models provide valuable insights into the mechanisms responsible for western tropical Pacific hydroclimate variability on centennial to multi-millennial scales. Here we present a large compilation of overlapping U/Th-dated Gunung Mulu stalagmite ?18O records spanning the last 160ky. The composite records demonstrate the complex response of northern Borneo convection to both high-latitude and low-latitude forcings and external insolation. The ice-volume-corrected Borneo ?18O records show little correspondence between regional convective activity and either global sea level shifts (e.g. 1) or Sunda Shelf areal exposure. This result stands in marked contrast to a recently published Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) data-model synthesis that implicates sea level as a dominant driver of tropical Indo-Pacific hydroclimate variability (2). Alternatively, when precessional signals are not muted, the composite Borneo ?18O record varies in phase with equatorial fall insolation, suggesting that precessional forcing is the dominant cause of tropical western Pacific hydroclimate variability on orbital timescales. This is best illustrated across Termination II, when the oscillation of equatorial fall insolation is large and out of phase with ice sheet decay (e.g. 3). During this transition, Borneo stalagmite ?18O begins a shift to more negative ?18O values at 128.8 × 0.9 kybp, almost directly overlapping the equatorial fall insolation cycle. The muted response of tropical western Pacific hydrology to global temperature change and sea level rise relative to precessional insolation represents an important observational constraint on the sequence of climate feedbacks responsible for glacial terminations. 1. M. Medina-Elizalde. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 362, 310 (Jan, 2013). 2. P. N. DiNezio, J. E. Tierney. Nature Geoscience 6, 485 (Jun, 2013). 3. A. L. Thomas et al. Science 324, 1186 (May, 2009).

Carolin, S. A.; Cobb, K.; Adkins, J. F.; Clark, B.; Lejau, S.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Malang, J.; Tuen, A. A.

2013-12-01

130

Ecological Structure of Recent and Last Glacial Mammalian Faunas in Northern Eurasia: The Case of Altai-Sayan Refugium  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelkova Ricankova, Vera; Robovsky, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

131

Ecological structure of recent and last glacial mammalian faunas in northern Eurasia: the case of Altai-Sayan refugium.  

PubMed

Pleistocene mammalian communities display unique features which differ from present-day faunas. The paleocommunities were characterized by the extraordinarily large body size of herbivores and predators and by their unique structure consisting of species now inhabiting geographically and ecologically distinct natural zones. These features were probably the result of the unique environmental conditions of ice age ecosystems. To analyze the ecological structure of Last Glacial and Recent mammal communities we classified the species into biome and trophic-size categories, using Principal Component analysis. We found a marked similarity in ecological structure between Recent eastern Altai-Sayan mammalian assemblages and comparable Pleistocene faunas. The composition of Last Glacial and Recent eastern Altai-Sayan assemblages were characterized by the occurrence of large herbivore and predator species associated with steppe, desert and alpine biomes. These three modern biomes harbor most of the surviving Pleistocene mammals. None of the analyzed Palearctic Last Glacial faunas showed affinity to the temperate forest, taiga, or tundra biome. The Eastern part of the Altai-Sayan region could be considered a refugium of the Last Glacial-like mammalian assemblages. Glacial fauna seems to persist up to present in those areas where the forest belt does not separate alpine vegetation from the steppes and deserts. PMID:24454791

Pavelková ?i?ánková, V?ra; Robovský, Jan; Riegert, Jan

2014-01-01

132

A high-resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is the oldest extant lake in Europe and exhibits an outstanding degree of endemic biodiversity. Here, we provide new high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from a 10 m core (Co1262) through the Late Glacial to Holocene and discuss past climate and lake hydrology (TIC, ?13Ccalcite, ?18Ocalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, ?13Corganic, Rock Eval pyrolysis). The data identifies 3 main zones: (1) the Late Glacial-Holocene transition represented by low TIC and TOC contents, (2) the early to mid-Holocene characterised by high TOC and increasing TOC/N and (3) the Late Holocene-Present which shows a marked decrease in TIC and TOC. In general, an overall trend of increasing ?18Ocalcite from 9 ka to present suggests progressive aridification through the Holocene, consistent with previous records from Lake Ohrid and the wider Mediterranean region. Several proxies show commensurate excursions that imply the impact of short-term climate oscillations, such as the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. This is the best-dated and highest resolution archive of past Late Glacial and Holocene climate from Lake Ohrid and confirms the overriding influence of the North Atlantic in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The data presented set the context for the International Continental scientific Drilling Program Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid project cores recovered in spring-summer 2013, potentially dating back into the Lower Pleistocene, and will act as a recent calibration to reconstruct climate and hydrology over the entire lake history.

Lacey, Jack H.; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie J.; Vane, Christopher H.; Wagner, Bernd

2014-05-01

133

Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

1985-01-01

134

Polar front shift and atmospheric CO2 during the glacial maximum of the Early Paleozoic Icehouse  

PubMed Central

Our new data address the paradox of Late Ordovician glaciation under supposedly high pCO2 (8 to 22× PAL: preindustrial atmospheric level). The paleobiogeographical distribution of chitinozoan (“mixed layer”) marine zooplankton biotopes for the Hirnantian glacial maximum (440 Ma) are reconstructed and compared to those from the Sandbian (460 Ma): They demonstrate a steeper latitudinal temperature gradient and an equatorwards shift of the Polar Front through time from 55°–70° S to ?40° S. These changes are comparable to those during Pleistocene interglacial-glacial cycles. In comparison with the Pleistocene, we hypothesize a significant decline in mean global temperature from the Sandbian to Hirnantian, proportional with a fall in pCO2 from a modeled Sandbian level of ?8× PAL to ?5× PAL during the Hirnantian. Our data suggest that a compression of midlatitudinal biotopes and ecospace in response to the developing glaciation was a likely cause of the end-Ordovician mass extinction. PMID:20696937

Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.; Armstrong, Howard A.; Williams, Mark; Paris, Florentin; Zalasiewicz, Jan A.; Sabbe, Koen; Nolvak, Jaak; Challands, Thomas J.; Verniers, Jacques; Servais, Thomas

2010-01-01

135

Is Gene Flow Promoting the Reversal of Pleistocene Divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli)?  

PubMed Central

The Pleistocene glacial cycles left a genetic legacy on taxa throughout the world; however, the persistence of genetic lineages that diverged during these cycles is dependent upon levels of gene flow and introgression. The consequences of secondary contact among taxa may reveal new insights into the history of the Pleistocene’s genetic legacy. Here, we use phylogeographic methods, using 20 nuclear loci from regional populations, to infer the consequences of secondary contact following divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli). Analysis of nuclear data identified two geographically-structured genetic groups, largely concordant with results from a previous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study. Additionally, the estimated multilocus divergence times indicate a Pleistocene divergence, and are highly concordant with mtDNA. The previous mtDNA study showed a paucity of sympatry between clades, while nuclear patterns of gene flow show highly varied patterns between populations. The observed pattern of gene flow, from coalescent-based analyses, indicates southern populations in both clades exhibit little gene flow within or between clades, while northern populations are experiencing higher gene flow within and between clades. If this pattern were to persist, it is possible the historical legacy of Pleistocene divergence may be preserved in the southern populations only, and the northern populations would become a genetically diverse hybrid species. PMID:23152877

Manthey, Joseph D.; Klicka, John; Spellman, Garth M.

2012-01-01

136

Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1991a, Pleistocene tills in the New York City region: new evidence confirms multiple (three and possibly four) glaciations from two  

E-print Network

Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1991a, Pleistocene tills in the New York City region: new glacial flow from the NNE to SSW. To Cite This Abstract: Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1991a with Programs, v. 23, no. 1, p. 123. Filename: JESCM1991a.doc #12;

Merguerian, Charles

137

Late Pleistocene divergence between eastern and western populations of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) inferred by the 'isolation with migration' coalescent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Late Pleistocene, glaciers sundered many species into multiple glacial refugia where populations diverged in allopatry. Although deeply divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages often reflect the number of refugia occupied, it is unlikely that popula- tions that split during the recent Wisconsin glaciations will have reached reciprocal monophyly. We examined mtDNA control region sequences from eastern and western populations

JEFFREY L. PETERS; WILLIAM GRETES; KEVIN E. OMLAND

2005-01-01

138

Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses--including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw--are generally consistent with empirical evidence. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials.

Zhang, Xu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Purcell, Conor

2014-08-01

139

The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Du?e (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration characterized the climate variability of MIS 3. Mild climate conditions in early MIS 3 caused large-scale deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and ice-free conditions with Betula-dominated vegetation (including tree birch) persisted over large parts of Fennoscandia, possibly interrupted by glaciation, during major part of MIS 3 till ca 35 ka BP. Overall, MIS 5 was mostly mild with warmest or peak interglacial conditions at the very start during MIS 5e. MIS 4-2 was mostly cold with most extreme or peak glacial conditions in the closing phase during MIS 2. This points to a subdivision of the last climate cycle into an early, overall mild interglacial half and a late, overall cold glacial half, each with duration of ca 50 ka. This review also shows that the climate variability in central and northern Europe during the LI-G cycle was mostly in degrees of continentality with major shifts in winter temperature and precipitation values; summer temperatures, on the other hand, remained largely unchanged. It points to the waxing and waning of sea-ice over the North Atlantic Ocean as a possible characteristic feature of the Late Pleistocene. The present compilation, based on long terrestrial sequences, high-resolution multi-proxy data from the oceans, and quantified paleo-climate data, strongly favors a definition of entire Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 as the Last Interglacial similar as in the original marine stratigraphy and the stratigraphy at La Grande Pile in France. The proxy-based climate data places the start of the Last Glacial at the base of MIS 4 and the northwest European Pleniglacial. It shows that the division between the Eemian (MIS 5e) and the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-a) is not useful, as not relevant from a climate point of view.

Helmens, Karin F.

2014-02-01

140

Geomorphic controls on Pleistocene knickpoint migration in Alpine valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent insights into sub-glacial bedrock stress conditions suggest that the erosional efficiency of glaciers may reduce markedly following a major erosional cycle [Leith et al., 2013]. This implies that the formation of large glacial valleys within the Alps is likely to have occurred shortly after the onset of 100 ky glacial-interglacial cycles (at the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (MPR)). The majority of landscape change since this time may have therefore been driven by sub-aerial processes. This hypothesis is supported by observations of hillslope and channel morphology within Canton Valais (Switzerland), where major tributary valleys display a common morphology along their length, hinting at a shared geomorphic history. Glaciers currently occupy the headwaters of many catchments, while the upper reaches of rivers flow across extensive alluvial planes before abruptly transitioning to steep channels consisting of mixed bedrock and talus fan deposits. The rivers then converge to flow out over the alluvial plane of the Rhone Valley. Characteristically rough topographies within the region are suggested to mark the progressive transition from a glacial to fluvially-dominated landscape, and correlate well with steepened river channel sections determined from a 2.5 m resolution LiDAR DEM. We envisage a landscape in which ongoing tectonic uplift drives the emergence of Alpine bedrock through massive sedimentary valley infills (currently concentrated in the Rhone Valley), whose elevation is fixed by the consistent fluvial baselevel at Lake Geneva. As fluvial incision ceases at the onset of glaciation, continued uplift causes the formation of knickpoints at the former transition from bedrock to sedimentary infill. These knickpoints will then propagate upstream during subsequent interglacial periods. By investigating channel morphologies using an approach based on the steady-state form of the stream power equation, we can correlate steepened channel reaches (degraded knickpoints) across most major tributaries south of the Rhone River. The timing of apparent uplift events correlates well with that of cool Marine Isotope Stages derived from global oxygen isotope data up to the beginning of MIS 12. A weak correlation up to the beginning of MIS 18 suggests initial glacial incision may have occurred some time during MIS 14 - 20, and valley development has since been driven by fluvial processes. Leith, K., J. R. Moore, F. Amann, and S. Loew (2013), Sub-glacial extensional fracture development and implications for Alpine valley evolution, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., doi:10.1002/2012JF002691.

Leith, Kerry; Fox, Matt; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Brosda, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael; Loew, Simon

2014-05-01

141

Live birth among Iguanian lizards predates Pliocene–Pleistocene glaciations  

PubMed Central

Among tetrapods, viviparity is estimated to have evolved independently within Squamata (lizards and snakes) more than 100 times, most frequently in species occupying cold climate environments. Because of this relationship with cold climates, it is sometimes assumed that many origins of squamate viviparity occurred over the past 2.5–4 Myr during the Pliocene–Pleistocene glaciations; however, this hypothesis is untested. Divergence-dating analysis on a 733-species tree of Iguanian lizards recovers 20 independent lineages that have evolved viviparity, of which 13 multispecies groups derived live birth prior to glacial advances (8–66 Myr ago). These results place the transitions from egg-laying to live birth among squamates in a well-supported historical context to facilitate examination of the underlying phenotypic and genetic changes associated with this complex shift in reproduction. PMID:19812068

Schulte, James A.; Moreno-Roark, Franck

2010-01-01

142

The consequences of pleistocene climate change on lowland neotropical vegetation  

SciTech Connect

Palynological reconstructions indicate that lowland tropical America was subject to intense cooling during the last ice-age. The descent of presently montane taxa into the lowlands of Amazonia and Minas Gerais indicate temperature depressions ranging from 5[degrees]C to 9[degrees]C cooler-than-present. The strengthened incursion of southerly airmasses caused a reassortment of vegetation throughout Amazonia. Presently allopatric species are found to have been sympatric as novel forest assemblages and formed and dissolved. Modest drying, perhaps a 20% reduction in precipitation, accounts for all the records that show a Pleistocene expansion of savanna. No evidence is found to support the fragmentation of Amazonian forests during glacial times, and the hypothesis of forest refuges as an explanation of tropical speciation is rejected on empirical grounds.

De Oliveira, P.E.; Colinvaux, P.A. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City (Panama))

1994-06-01

143

Pleistocene changes in the fauna and flora of South america.  

PubMed

In recent years, the view that Pleistocene climatic events played a major role in the evolution of the biotas of southern, primarily tropical continents has begun to displace the previously held conviction that these areas remained relatively stable during the Quaternary. Studies of speciation patterns of high Andean plant and avian taxa (7-14) have led to the conclusion that Pleistocene climatic events were the factors that ultimately shaped the patterns now observed in the paramo-puna and the related Patagonian flora and fauna. The final uplift of the Andes at the end of the Tertiary automatically limits the age of the high Andean habitats and their biotas to the Quaternary. Within this period, the number of ecological fluctuations caused by the glaciations could easily have provided the mechanism behind the patterns now present in these habitats (Appendix, 1; Figs. 1 and 2; Table 1). In glacial periods, when vegetation belts, were lowered, organisms in the paramo-puna habitat were allowed to expand their ranges. In interglacial periods, these taxa were isolated on disjunct peaks, where differentiation could occur. At times of ice expansion, glacial tongues and lakes provided local barriers to gene exchange, whereas in warm, interglacial times, dry river valleys were a major deterrent to the interbreeding of populations on different mountains (Fig. 2; Table 2). A preliminary analysis of about 10 to 12 percent of the total South American avifauna (14), subsequent to the study of the high Andean biota, suggested that the birds of all the major habitats of the continent possess, with about equal frequency, similar stages of speciation. This correspondence in levels of evolution indicated that the avifauna of vegetation zones which were thought to have been more stable (for example, tropical rainforests) are as actively speciating as are those of the more recent paramo-puna habitats. More intensive work on lowland tropical taxa (16, 19-21) and recent work on montane forest elements (40) now justify the conclusion that the floras and faunas of these areas were also greatly affected by Pleistocene climatic shifts. In the broad region of South America that lies within the tropics, a series of humid-arid cycles (Appendix, 6, 8-10) drastically and repeatedly altered vegetation patterns during the Quaternary. Both montane and lowland rainforests were fragmented during dry periods and were able to reexpand during humid phases. Speciation of forest elements was initiated-and sometimes completed-in isolated patches of the fragmented forest. Secondary contact, with hybridization or reunition of populations that did not become reproductively isolated, occurred in periods of reexpansion. These biological data, combined with supportive geological evidence (Appendix, 1-11), show that climatic events during the last million or so years have affected the biota of South America as much as the Pleistocene glacial changes affected the biotas of Eurasia and North America. Since most of South America lies within tropical latitudes, it is suggested here that part of the diversity of species in the tropical areas of this continent is due to two historical factors: the lack of wholesale elimination of species (compared with northern and high latitudes), and ample opportunity for speciation in successive periods of ecological isolation. The apparent paradox of the wealth of species in the "stable tropics" is partially explained by the fact that the tropics have probably been quite unstable, from the point of view of their biotas, during the Pleistocene and perhaps part of the Tertiary. PMID:17812182

Vuilleumier, B S

1971-08-27

144

Pleistocene Calabrian and Sicilian bioprovinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Pleistocene, southern Calabria was the area through which several mammalian taxa dispersed into the Sicilian island via the Straits of Messina. The rich fossil record of Sicily allowed for the construction of a fairly detailed bio-chronological frame that is dated by correlation of vertebrate bearing deposits with marine deposits. At present five Faunal Complexes (F.C.), characterised by the

Laura Bonfiglio; Gabriella Mangano; Antonella Cinzia Marra; Federico Masini; Marco Pavia; Daria Petruso

2002-01-01

145

Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

Ekman, Sten R.

1998-09-01

146

Hominin variability, climatic instability and population demography in Middle Pleistocene Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a population model for Middle Pleistocene Europe that is based on demographic "sources" and "sinks". The former were a small number of "core" or populations in glacial refugia in southern Europe from which hominins expanded northwards in interstadial and interglacial periods; occupation outside glacial refugia would have been restricted to warm or temperate periods, and populations at the northern limit of the Middle Pleistocene range would have been "sink" populations in that they depended upon recruitment from source populations further south. Southwest Asia would also have been a likely source of immigrant, source populations. We argue as an alternative to an "ebb and flow" model in which groups retreated to refugia when conditions worsened that local extinction outside refugia would have been frequent. In extreme situations, Europe may have been a population "sink" (i.e. unpopulated) that was replenished from source populations in Southwest Asia. We suggest that this pattern of repeated colonisation and extinction may help explain the morphological variability of European Middle Pleistocene hominins, particularly Homo heidelbergensis and its apparent non-lineal evolution towards Homo neanderthalensis.

Dennell, Robin W.; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José M.

2011-06-01

147

A Glacial Chronology for the Fish Creek Drainage of Boulder Mountain, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado Plateau physiographic province has several mountain ranges and high plateaus that supported valley glaciers and small ice caps during the late Quaternary. Although the glacial deposits in these ranges have been studied to some degree, there are only three quantitative age determinations for glacial deposits from all of the ranges on the Colorado Plateau. The timing of late Pleistocene glacial advance for this large and unique physiographic province remains largely unknown. Boulder Mountain, located on the western edge of the Plateau in south central Utah, has a well-preserved record of late Pleistocene glaciation. The mountaintop is a relatively flat volcanic upland ˜180 km2 in area at an elevation of ˜3300 m. Glacial evidence on the summit surface in the form of freshly polished and striated bedrock outcrops, sculpted whaleback ridges and massive rouches moutonnées indicate that a thick ice cap occupied the mountaintop sometime in the recent past. Several reentrants around the mountaintop have deeply carved glacial valleys and steep sided latero-terminal moraine sets that were deposited by outlet glaciers spilling off the main ice cap. Using 3He exposure age dating and a correction for non-cosmogenic 3He, we determined corrected 3He exposure ages for pyroxenes from basaltic-andesite boulders on the most well preserved moraines in the Fish Creek drainage of Boulder Mountain. 3He exposure ages indicate a last glacial maximum (LGM) advance at 21,800 to 20,600 3He years and a later and smaller advance at 16,500 to 15,400 3He years. Our chronology is similar to other cosmogenic records from mountain ranges in the western U.S. (e.g. Wind River Range, Wyoming; Wallowa Mountains, Oregon) and is consistent with previous suggestions of a regional synchroneity of mountain glacier fluctuations during the LGM and associated deglaciation for ranges significantly south of the Laurentide margin.

Marchetti, D. W.; Cerling, T. E.; Lips, E.

2004-12-01

148

Dynamics of Pleistocene population extinctions in Beringian brown bears.  

PubMed

The climatic and environmental changes associated with the last glaciation (90,000 to 10,000 years before the present; 90 to 10 ka B.P.) are an important example of the effects of global climate change on biological diversity. These effects were particularly marked in Beringia (northeastern Siberia, northwestern North America, and the exposed Bering Strait) during the late Pleistocene. To investigate the evolutionary impact of these events, we studied genetic change in the brown bear, Ursus arctos, in eastern Beringia over the past 60,000 years using DNA preserved in permafrost remains. A marked degree of genetic structure is observed in populations throughout this period despite local extinctions, reinvasions, and potential interspecies competition with the short-faced bear, Arctodus simus. The major phylogeographic changes occurred 35 to 21 ka B.P., before the glacial maximum, and little change is observed after this time. Late Pleistocene histories of mammalian taxa may be more complex than those that might be inferred from the fossil record or contemporary DNA sequences alone. PMID:11910112

Barnes, I; Matheus, P; Shapiro, B; Jensen, D; Cooper, A

2002-03-22

149

Ages and inferred causes of late Pleistocene glaciations on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glacial landforms on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, show that the summit area of the volcano was covered intermittently by ice caps during the Late Pleistocene. Cosmogen 36Cl dating of terminal moraines and other glacial landforms indicates that the last two ice caps, called Older Makanaka and Younger Makanaka, retreated from their maximum positions approximately 23ka and 13ka, respectively. The margins and equilibrium line altitudes of these ice caps on the remote, tropical Pacific island were nearly identical, which would seem to imply the same mechanism for ice growth. But modelling of glacier mass balance, combined with palaeotemperature proxy data from the subtropical North Pacific, suggests that the causes of the two glacial expansions may have been different. Older Makanaka airatop Mauna Kea was likely wetter than today and cold, whereas Younger Makanaka times were slightly warmer but significantly wetter than the previous glaciation. The modelled increase in precipitation rates atop Mauna Kea during the Late Pleistocene is consistent with that near sea level inferred from pollen data, which suggests that the additional precipitation was due to more frequent and/ or intense tropical storms associated with eastward-moving cold fronts. These conditions were similar to modern La Ni??a (weak ENSO) conditions, but persisted for millennia rather than years. Increased precipitation rates and the resulting steeper temperature lapse rates created glacial conditions atop Mauna Kea in the absence of sufficient cooling at sea level, suggesting that if similar correlations existed elsewhere in the tropics, the precipitation-dependent lapse rates could reconcile the apparent difference between glacial-time cooling of the tropics at low and high altitudes. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pigati, J.S.; Zreda, M.; Zweck, C.; Almasi, P.F.; Elmore, D.; Sharp, W.D.

2008-01-01

150

Studies in the PostGlacial History of British Vegetation. XI. Late-Glacial Deposits in Cornwall  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of profiles at the china-clay pits at Hawks Tor, Bodmin Moor, Cornwall, a stratigraphy was found resembling that typical of the late-Glacial Allerod oscillation. Gravelly-soil layers showing solifluction phenomena overlie the organic muds and peats of a small channel, and these gravels are in turn thickly overlaid with peat. Pollen-analyses from this site, reinforced by series from

Ann P. Conolly; H. Godwin; Eleanor M. Megaw

1950-01-01

151

Middle pleistocene humans from africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of human evolution in the Middle Pleistocene remain poorly understood. There is general consensus that by the onset\\u000a of this time period, populations ofHomo erectus were dispersed from Africa into Eurasia, including the Far East. In the western part of this range (perhaps in Africa),Homo erectus then produced a daughter lineage exhibiting more advanced characters of the face, braincase

G. P. Rightmire

2000-01-01

152

Is gene flow promoting the reversal of pleistocene divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli)?  

PubMed

The Pleistocene glacial cycles left a genetic legacy on taxa throughout the world; however, the persistence of genetic lineages that diverged during these cycles is dependent upon levels of gene flow and introgression. The consequences of secondary contact among taxa may reveal new insights into the history of the Pleistocene's genetic legacy. Here, we use phylogeographic methods, using 20 nuclear loci from regional populations, to infer the consequences of secondary contact following divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli). Analysis of nuclear data identified two geographically-structured genetic groups, largely concordant with results from a previous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study. Additionally, the estimated multilocus divergence times indicate a Pleistocene divergence, and are highly concordant with mtDNA. The previous mtDNA study showed a paucity of sympatry between clades, while nuclear patterns of gene flow show highly varied patterns between populations. The observed pattern of gene flow, from coalescent-based analyses, indicates southern populations in both clades exhibit little gene flow within or between clades, while northern populations are experiencing higher gene flow within and between clades. If this pattern were to persist, it is possible the historical legacy of Pleistocene divergence may be preserved in the southern populations only, and the northern populations would become a genetically diverse hybrid species. PMID:23152877

Manthey, Joseph D; Klicka, John; Spellman, Garth M

2012-01-01

153

Pleistocene phylogeography and phylogenetic concordance in cold-adapted spring snails (Bythinella spp.).  

PubMed

Previous studies on Pleistocene phylogeography of European taxa are biased towards (i) vertebrates, (ii) terrestrial taxa, (iii) single species, and (iv) taxa that survived the Pleistocene in southern refugia. Relatively little is known about whether evolutionary patterns of vertebrate and terrestrial taxa are also applicable to freshwater invertebrates, whether cold-adapted freshwater species could survive in extensive permafrost areas without retreating into refugia, and whether Pleistocene phylogeographical patterns are influenced by phylogeny. Here, the widespread and species-rich European spring snail genus Bythinella Moquin-Tandon, 1856 is utilized in an attempt to mitigate this bias. These strongly cold-adapted freshwater animals mostly occur in springs--highly isolated habitats that are relatively unaffected by anthropogenic influences. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA sequence data were conducted in 458 specimens from 142 populations occurring throughout Europe. The study provides evidence that most Bythinella spp. survived the Pleistocene in restricted northern glacial refugia that largely correspond to refugia previously recognized for other European biota. However, survival of Bythinella spp. in extensive permafrost areas outside of refugia can likely be rejected. Low dispersal ability and the isolation and fragmentation of spring habitats, as well as the distribution of perennial springs within permafrost regions, may account for this result. Tests involving a total of 29 nominal species showed that phylogenetically closely related Bythinella species did not occupy similar refugia. This lack of phylogenetic concordance could possibly be explained by the stochasticity of survival and dispersal in spring snails. PMID:19254305

Benke, M; Brändle, M; Albrecht, C; Wilke, T

2009-03-01

154

Exceptional record of mid-Pleistocene vertebrates helps differentiate climatic from anthropogenic ecosystem perturbations.  

PubMed

Mid-Pleistocene vertebrates in North America are scarce but important for recognizing the ecological effects of climatic change in the absence of humans. We report on a uniquely rich mid-Pleistocene vertebrate sequence from Porcupine Cave, Colorado, which records at least 127 species and the earliest appearances of 30 mammals and birds. By analyzing >20,000 mammal fossils in relation to modern species and independent climatic proxies, we determined how mammal communities reacted to presumed glacial-interglacial transitions between 1,000,000 and 600,000 years ago. We conclude that climatic warming primarily affected mammals of lower trophic and size categories, in contrast to documented human impacts on higher trophic and size categories historically. Despite changes in species composition and minor changes in small-mammal species richness evident at times of climatic change, overall structural stability of mammal communities persisted >600,000 years before human impacts. PMID:15197254

Barnosky, Anthony D; Bell, Christopher J; Emslie, Steven D; Goodwin, H Thomas; Mead, Jim I; Repenning, Charles A; Scott, Eric; Shabel, Alan B

2004-06-22

155

Exceptional record of mid-Pleistocene vertebrates helps differentiate climatic from anthropogenic ecosystem perturbations  

PubMed Central

Mid-Pleistocene vertebrates in North America are scarce but important for recognizing the ecological effects of climatic change in the absence of humans. We report on a uniquely rich mid-Pleistocene vertebrate sequence from Porcupine Cave, Colorado, which records at least 127 species and the earliest appearances of 30 mammals and birds. By analyzing >20,000 mammal fossils in relation to modern species and independent climatic proxies, we determined how mammal communities reacted to presumed glacial–interglacial transitions between 1,000,000 and 600,000 years ago. We conclude that climatic warming primarily affected mammals of lower trophic and size categories, in contrast to documented human impacts on higher trophic and size categories historically. Despite changes in species composition and minor changes in small-mammal species richness evident at times of climatic change, overall structural stability of mammal communities persisted >600,000 years before human impacts. PMID:15197254

Barnosky, Anthony D.; Bell, Christopher J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Goodwin, H. Thomas; Mead, Jim I.; Repenning, Charles A.; Scott, Eric; Shabel, Alan B.

2004-01-01

156

10Be in glacial marine sediment of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, a potential tracer of depositional environment and sediment chronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beryllium isotopes ( 9Be and 10Be) distribution in Holocene and late Pleistocene glacial ice and sediment facies from sub-ice stream and sub-ice shelf settings of the Ross sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and from the open Ross Sea are presented, to assess the temporal and spatial variability of these tracers. Significant variation is detected (>one order of magnitude) among Holocene post-glacial deposits. Late Pleistocene diamictons from bathymetric lows in the Ross Sea show depleted concentrations that are less variable among sites and distinctly lower than bank deposits of similar age. In general, sub-ice shelf and ice stream sediments are the most depleted in 10Be. 10Be with its longer half-life and different pathways compared apparant to 14C is found to be a sensitive marker for evaluating the complex spatial and temporal relationships between texturally similar sediments formed by different depositional processes.

Sjunneskog, C.; Scherer, R.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

2007-06-01

157

Pleistocene palaeoecology of the eastern Darling Downs.  

E-print Network

??Several late Pleistocene fossil localities in the Kings Creek catchment, Darling Downs, southeastern Queensland, Australia, were examined in detail to establish an accurate, dated palaeoecological… (more)

Price, Gilbert J.

2006-01-01

158

Glacial Features of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The glacial landforms of North Dakota are revealed through photographs of an end moraine, glacial erratic, eskers, ice thrust masses, an ice-walled lake plain, a kame, kettle lakes, a meltwater channel, outwash, and till. Each image is accompanied by a brief description of the location, how the landform originated, and its composition. The descriptions point out that some features have commercial value as sources of sand and gravel.

159

A Pleistocene coastal alluvial fan complex produced by Middle Pleistocene glacio-fluvial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coarse-grained alluvial fan sequence at Lipci, Kotor Bay, in western Montenegro, provides a sedimentary record of meltwater streams draining from the Orjen Massif (1,894 m a.s.l.) to the coastal zone. At Lipci sedimentary evidence and U-series ages have been used alongside offshore bathymetric imagery and seismic profiles to establish the size of the fan and constrain the nature and timing of its formation. Establishing the depositional history of such coastal fans is important for our understanding of cold stage sediment flux from glaciated uplands to the offshore zone, and for exploring the impact of sea level change on fan reworking. There is evidence of at least four phases of Pleistocene glaciation on the Orjen massif, which have been U-series dated and correlated to MIS 12, MIS 6, MIS 5d-2 and the Younger Dryas. A series of meltwater channels delivered large volumes of coarse- and fine-grained limestone sediment from the glaciated uplands into the Bay of Kotor. At the southern margin of the Orjen massif, a series of large (>700 m long) alluvial fans has developed. Some of these extend offshore for up to 600 m. Lipci fan lies downstream of end moraines in the valley immediately above, which were formed by an extensive outlet glacier of the Orjen ice cap during MIS 12. The terrestrial deposits are part of the fan apex (50 m a.s.l.) that lies at the foot of a steep bedrock channel, but the majority of the fan is now more than 25 m below sea level. The terrestrial fan sediments are strongly cemented by multiple generations of calcite precipitates: the oldest U-series ages are infinite indicating that the fan is >350 ka in age. These ages are in agreement with alluvial sedimentary evidence and U-series ages from other fluvial units on Mount Orjen. The terrestrial portion of the Lipci fan surface contains several channels. These are well preserved due to cementation with calcium carbonate. Submarine imagery indicates that the now submerged portion of the fan also contains deeply incised (up to 10 m) channels which are similar in morphology to those exposed onshore. It is likely that strong cementation of the fan sediments, and associated channel forms, has protected them from coastal erosion during several regression-transgression cycles. These records provide important opportunities to correlate the Pleistocene terrestrial glacial and fluvial records with the marine archive.

Adamson, Kathryn; Woodward, Jamie; Hughes, Philip; Giglio, Federico; Del Bianco, Fabrizio

2014-05-01

160

Surface Water Variations During Late Pleistocene Sapropel Formation in the Mediteranean Sea: Results of Isotope and Geochemical Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of Mediterranean sapropels has been attributed to orbitally-induced climate change and associated watermass circulatory modulation. The development of deep-water anoxia and enhanced surface productivity, two potential consequences of flow modification, are important conditionings for sapropel formation. These processes would have been affected by changes in surface water circulation that are driven by variations in temperature and salinity. These constraints may be used to understand the mechanism of sapropel formation across the entire basin. To assess surface water salinity and temperature variations, samples were selected along a basin-wide transect (ODP Sites 977, 975, 963, 964, 969, and 967). Single-species planktonic foraminifera were isolated, split and analyzed for O-18 and Mg/Ca ratios. Throughout the Late Pleistocene high amplitude oscillations (as much as 4ppt) in the O-18values are associated with glacial/interglacial transitions suggesting major changes in surface salinities. Throughout the transect, relative salinity minima are associated with sapropel formation. Oxygen isotope averages generally co-vary along the W-E salinity gradient with notable anomalies that may be attributed to local circulation (Site 974) and significant Nile discharge (Site 967). Sea-surface temperatures derived from Mg/Ca ratios generally follow O-18 signatures. There is a slight decoupling associated with deglaciation where O-18 minima lead maximum Mg/Ca ratios. Overall, sapropel events are coeval with sea surface warming which, when combined with lower salinities, contribute to reduced deep ventilation. Such conditions are evident at Sites 967 and 969, where critical components of deep and intermediate waters are formed. Differential salinity and temperature gradients between eastern and western basins suggests modes of differential sedimentary organic preservation across the transect.

Howell, M. W.; Miller, J.; Schrag, D.; Billups, K.

2001-12-01

161

Pleistocene glaciation in the blue ridge province, southern appalachian mountains, north Carolina.  

PubMed

Glacial polish, grooves, and striations discovered at an elevation of 1370 meters in the headwaters of Boone Fork on Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina, indicate the former, existence of alpine glaciation at a latitude of 36 degrees 07'N. The Boone Fork glacier was located 890 kilometers south of the previously recognized southern limit of alpine glaciation in the Appalachian Mountains, and 350 kilometers southeast of the nearest point on the Laurentide ice sheet. This find has significant implications for studies of Pleistocene geomorphology, paleobiology, and paleoclimatology in the eastern United States. PMID:17736977

Berkland, J O; Raymond, L A

1973-08-17

162

Trace fossils from the Upper Pleistocene glaciolacustrine laminated sediments of Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed studies of trace fossils have been carried out in five sections of glaciolacustrine varved sediments (Balbieri\\vskis 2 and 3 outcrops, clay pits of Pašamin?, Kr?na and Taurag?). Trace fossils Gordia isp., Helminthoidichnites isp. and Galaciichnium liebegastensis are relatively common, and Cochlichnus anguineus, Warvichnium ulbrichi and curved ridges are rare. These trace fossils are typical of the Mermia ichnofacies. Their occurrence is related to the warmer climate of the Late Pleistocene North European glacial interphasials or interoscillations. The trace fossils can be used for recognition of lacustrine subfacies and climatic warming.

Uchman, Alfred; Gaigalas, Algirdas; Kazakauskas, Vaidotas

2008-01-01

163

A low-order dynamical model of global climatic variability over the full Pleistocene  

SciTech Connect

A previously formulated dynamical model of the late Pleistocene ice ages (based on the hypothesis that the global CO{sub 2} system can provide the instability to drive a natural oscillation involving feedbacks between the cryosphere, atmosphere, and ocean) is extended to include (1) additive earth orbital forcing (summer insolation changes at 65{degree}N) and (2) tectonic forcing in the form of a postulated variation in the multiplicative parameters (rate constants) of the model system. The structural (e.g., bifurcation) properties of the model are examined in detail to reveal the regions of parameter space wherein the geologically inferred features of the full Pleistocene can be simulated, including the observed chronology, the phase relationships between ice, CO{sub 2}, and North Atlantic Deep Water formation, and the mid-Pleistocene transition.

Maasch, K.A.; Saltzman, B. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1990-02-20

164

Could brown bears (Ursus arctos) have survived in Ireland during the Last Glacial Maximum?  

PubMed

Brown bears are recorded from Ireland during both the Late Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene. Although most of the Irish landmass was covered by an ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Irish brown bears are known to have hybridized with polar bears during the Late Pleistocene, and it is suggested that the Irish brown bear population did not become extinct but instead persisted in situ through the LGM in a southwestern ice-free refugium. We use historical population modelling to demonstrate that brown bears are highly unlikely to have survived through the LGM in Ireland under any combination of life-history parameters shown by living bear populations, but instead would have rapidly become extinct following advance of the British-Irish ice sheet, and probably recolonized Ireland during the end-Pleistocene Woodgrange Interstadial from a closely related nearby source population. The time available for brown bear-polar bear hybridization was therefore restricted to narrow periods at the beginning or end of the LGM. Brown bears would have been extremely vulnerable to extinction in Quaternary habitat refugia and required areas substantially larger than southwestern Ireland to survive adverse glacial conditions. PMID:23676655

Leonard, Saoirse A; Risley, Claire L; Turvey, Samuel T

2013-08-23

165

Glacial-interglacial organic carbon record fromthe Makassar Strait, Indonesia: implications for regional changes in continental vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies convincingly show that climate in the Western Pacific Warm Pool and other equatorial\\/tropical regions was significantly colder (by B3-4? C) during glacial periods, prompting a reexamination of the late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of these regions. This study examines changes in continental vegetation during the last two deglaciations (Terminations I and II) using a sediment core (MD9821-62) recovered from the

Katherine Visser; Robert Thunell; Miguel A. Goni

166

Sedimentary architecture of the Amundsen Sea Embayment shelf, West Antarctica, from pre-glacial to glacial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the sedimentary architecture and characteristics of Antarctic shelves provide clues of past ice sheet advance-retreat cycles and help improve constraints for paleo-ice dynamic models since early glacial periods. A first seismostratigraphic analysis of the Amundsen Sea Embayment shelf and slope of West Antarctica reveals insights into the structural architecture of the continental margin and shows stages of sediment deposition, erosion and transport history from pre-glacial times to early glaciation and to the most recent glacial periods. The shelf geometry consists of a large pre- and syn-rift basin in the middle shelf region between outcropping basement of the inner shelf and basement ridges and highs beneath the outer shelf. A middle shelf sub-basin exists which may have formed as a result of motion along an early West Antarctic Rift System branch. At least 4 km of pre-glacial strata has been eroded from the present inner shelf and coastal hinterland by ice sheet advances since the onset of glaciation. Some of the eroded sediments were deposited as a progradational wedge extending the outer shelf by 25 to 65 km oceanward of the pre-glacial shelf-break. Comparing the observed seismic characteristics with those of other Antarctic shelf sequences, we assign an Early Cretaceous age for bottom sedimentary unit ASS-1, a Late Cretaceous to Oligocene age for unit ASS-2, an Early to Mid-Miocene age for unit ASS-3, a Mid-Miocene age for unit ASS-4, a Late Miocene to Early Pliocene age for unit ASS-5, and a Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the top unit ASS-6. The survival of buried grounding zone wedges in the upper part of unit ASS-5 of the outer shelf is consistent with the onset of a long warming phase and a retreated ice sheet in the early Pliocene as observed for the Ross Sea shelf and reconstructed from paleo-ice sheet models. Our data also reveal that the paleo-ice flow paths of the central Pine Island Trough system have remained stationary across the middle and outer shelf since early glacial advances. This study and its stratigraphic constraints will serve as a basis for future drilling operations required for an improved understanding of processes and mechanisms leading to West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreats, such as the rapid ice retreat presently observed in the Amundsen Sea Embayment.

Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Larter, Robert; Nitsche, Frank

2013-04-01

167

Thermohaline circulation crisis and impacts during the mid-Pleistocene transition.  

PubMed

The mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) marked a fundamental change in glacial-interglacial periodicity, when it increased from ~41-thousand-year to 100-thousand-year cycles and developed higher-amplitude climate variability without substantial changes in the Milankovitch forcing. Here, we document, by using Nd isotopes, a major disruption of the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) system during the MPT between marine isotope stages (MISs) 25 and 21 at ~950 to 860 thousand years ago, which effectively marks the first 100-thousand-year cycle, including an exceptional weakening through a critical interglacial (MIS 23) at ~900 thousand years ago. Its recovery into the post-MPT 100-thousand-year world is characterized by continued weak glacial THC. The MPT ocean circulation crisis facilitated the coeval drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and high-latitude ice sheet growth, generating the conditions that stabilized 100-thousand-year cycles. PMID:24968939

Pena, Leopoldo D; Goldstein, Steven L

2014-07-18

168

Coastal staircase sequences reflecting sea-level oscillations and tectonic uplift during the Quaternary and Neogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many coasts feature sequences of Quaternary and Neogene shorelines that are shaped by a combination of sea-level oscillations and tectonics. We compiled a global synthesis of sea-level changes for the following highstands: MIS 1, MIS 3, MIS 5e and MIS 11. Also, we date the apparent onset of sequences of paleoshorelines either from published data or tentatively extrapolating an age for the uppermost, purported oldest shoreline in each sequence. Including the most documented MIS 5e benchmark, we identify 926 sequences out of which 185 also feature Holocene shorelines. Six areas are identified where elevations of the MIS 3 shorelines are known, and 31 feature elevation data for MIS 11 shorelines. Genetic relationships to regional geodynamics are further explored based on the elevations of the MIS 5e benchmark. Mean apparent uplift rates range from 0.01 ± 0.01 mm/yr (hotspots) to 1.47 ± 0.08 mm/yr (continental collision). Passive margins appear as ubiquitously uplifting, while tectonic segmentation is more important on active margins. From the literature and our extrapolations, we infer ages for the onset of formation for ~ 180 coastal sequences. Sea level fingerprinting on coastal sequences started at least during mid Miocene and locally as early as Eocene. Whether due to the changes in the bulk volume of seawater or to the temporal variations in the shape of ocean basins, estimates of eustasy fail to explain the magnitude of the apparent sea level drop. Thus, vertical ground motion is invoked, and we interpret the long-lasting development of those paleoshore sequences as the imprint of glacial cycles on globally uplifted margins in response to continental compression. The geomorphological expression of the sequences matches the amplitude and frequency of glacial cyclicity. From middle Pleistocene to present-day, moderately fast (100,000 yrs) oscillating sea levels favor the development of well identified strandlines that are distinct from one another. Pliocene and Lower Pleistocene strandlines associated with faster cyclicity (40,000 yrs) are more compact and easily merge into rasas, whereas older Cenozoic low-frequency eustatic changes generally led to widespread flat-lying coastal plains.

Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Johnson, Markes E.; Melnick, Daniel; Witt, Cesar; Pochat, Stéphane; Nexer, Maëlle; Delcaillau, Bernard; Pinegina, Tatiana; Poprawski, Yohann; Authemayou, Christine; Elliot, Mary; Regard, Vincent; Garestier, Franck

2014-05-01

169

Modeling the 100-kyr glacial-interglacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations during the last twenty-five years have demonstrated that the astronomically related 19, 23 and 41-kyr quasi-periodicities actually occur in long records of the Quaternary climate. But the same investigations identified also the largest climatic cycle as being about 100-kyr long. This cycle, the most striking feature of the Quaternary paleoclimate records, is characterized by long glacial periods followed by a short interglacial (˜ 10 to 15 kyr long). Different sources for this so-called 100-kyr cycle have been found in the astronomical parameters and in the insolation itself. The most popular astronomical one is certainly the eccentricity with the largest spectral components around 100-kyr being 94 945, 123 297, 99 590 and 131 248 years (Berger, 1978). For insolation, it is known that there is only a very weak signal around 100-kyr coming from eccentricity itself. Moreover, the 100-kyr signal in eccentricity is fading away in the upper Pleistocene, at the same time that it appears to be stronger and stronger in paleoclimate records. Therefore, eccentricity cannot be related to either the orbital forcing or to the climate response by any simple linear mechanism. Actually, the variance components centered near the 100-kyr cycle seem to be in phase with the eccentricity cycle, but its exceptional strength in the climate record demands a non-linear amplification. It was already suggested that this can be done by the ice sheet (Imbrie and Imbrie, 1980), the carbon cycle (Shackleton, 2000) and/or the ocean circulation (Imbrie et al., 1993), all arguments which imply that climate model must be used to test the origin of this 100-kyr cycle in paleoclimate records. Such a model has been developed in Louvain-la-Neuve for the Northern Hemisphere and used to perform sensitivity analyses to the astronomically-driven insolation changes and to the atmospheric CO 2 concentration over the Quaternary. Assuming a CO 2 concentration decreasing linearly from 320 ppmv at 3 Myr BP (late Pliocene) to 200 ppmv at the Last Glacial Maximum, the model simulates the intensification of glaciation around 2.75 Myr BP, the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene 41-kyr cycle, the emergence of the 100-kyr cycle around 900 kyr BP, and the glacial-interglacial cycles of the last 600 kyr ( Berger and Loutre, 2004). Simulations with different CO 2 reconstructions over the last 1 Myr have confirmed that the model can sustain the glacial-interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene ( Berger et al., 2004). Although the model results agree pretty well with the reconstruction in phase and amplitude over the last 400 kyr, before MIS-11 it neither keeps enough ice during the interglacials nor produces the reduced amplitude of the glacial-interglacial cycles as shown in deep-sea ( Imbrie et al., 1984) and ice cores ( EPICA, 2004).

Berger, A.; Loutre, M. F.

2010-07-01

170

Glacial landforms of the southern Ungava Bay region (Canada): implications for the late-glacial dynamics and the damming of glacial Lake Naskaupi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laurentide ice sheet played an important role in the late Pleistocene climate, notably through discharges of icebergs and meltwater. In this context, the Ungava Bay region in northern Quebec-Labrador appears particularly important, especially during the last deglaciation when the retreating ice margin dammed major river valleys, creating large proglacial lakes (e.g., McLean, aux Feuilles). The history of these lakes is closely related to the temporal evolution of the Labrador-Quebec ice dome. There are, however, large uncertainties regarding the position of its ice divide system through time, thereby limiting our understanding of the history of these glacial lakes. Here we focus on glacial and deglacial landforms present in the George River valley, south of Ungava Bay, in order to bring additional constraints on the late-glacial ice dynamics of this region, which also comprised glacial Lake Naskaupi. This work is based on surficial mapping using aerial photos and satellite imagery, combined with extensive fieldwork and sediment sampling. Our investigation showed significant differences in the distribution of glacial landforms across the region. The area east of the George River is characterized by well-developed Naskaupi shorelines while the elevated terrains show a succession of geomorphological features indicative of cold-based ice or ice with low basal velocities. In the easternmost part of this sector, ice flow directional data indicate that the ice was flowing towards ENE, against the regional slope. Eskers show paleocurrent directions indicating a general ice retreat from east to west. In the western part of this sector, near the George River valley, eskers are absent and the region is covered by felsenmeer and ground moraine that likely reflect the presence of a residual ice mass that was no longer dynamic. The presence of a stagnant ice represents the best mechanism to explain the formation of glacial lakes in the George River valley and its main tributaries. In contrast, the area west of the George River valley shows very few shorelines, implying that Lake Naskaupi was mostly in contact with the decaying ice margin. The abundance ice-marginal meltwater channels allowed the reconstruction of the general ice retreat pattern. The area is also characterized by abundant WNW-trending drumlins and crag-and-tails indicating an important ice flow towards Ungava Bay. These glacial lineations may be linked with eskers further to west that terminated into the postglacial Iberville Sea, forming large ice-contact deltas. This setting suggests that this landform assemblage likely developed during the deglaciation. Our results thus underlie important differences in the subglacial regime across the ice divide of the Labrador sector during the late-glacial and early deglacial interval. The so-called horseshoe unconformity appear to delineate an inner area characterized by warm-based conditions that allowed a massive deglacial ice flow to developed in Ungava Bay, while the area under and proximal to the divide in the east appears to have evolved towards cold-based ice conditions, resulting with a stagnant ice mass that dammed the major proglacial lakes.

Dube-Loubert, Hugo; Roy, Martin

2014-05-01

171

Sudbury Breccia and suevite as glacial indicators transported 800 km to Kentland Astrobleme, Indiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A glacial erratic whose place of origin is known by direct comparison with bedrock is known as an indicator. In 1971, while visiting the known astrobleme at Kentland, Indiana, Peredery recognized and sampled in the overlying glacial drift deposits a distinctive boulder of Sudbury suevite (black member, Onaping Formation) that normally occurs within the Sudbury Basin as an impact fall-back or wash-in deposit. The rock was sampled (but later mislaid) from a farmer's cairn next to a cleared field. Informal reports of this discovery prompted the other authors to recently reconnoiter the Kentland locality in an attempt to relocate the original boulder. Several breccia blocks were sampled but laboratory examination proved most of these probably to be diamictites from the Precambrian Gowganda Formation, which outcrops extensively in the southern Ontario. However, one sample was confirmed as typical Sudbury Breccia, which outcrops in the country rock surrounding the Sudbury Basin. Thus two glacial indicators were transported by Pleistocene continental glaciers about 820 km over a tightly proscribed path and, curiously, from one astrobleme to another. Brecciated boulders in the Illinois/Indiana till plain are usually ascribed to the Gowganda or Mississagi formations in Ontario. But impact-generated rocks need not be confused. The carbonaceous matrix of the suevite, for example, was sufficiently distinctive to assign it to the upper portion of the black Onaping. The unique and restricted source area of these indicators provide an accurate and reliable control for estimating Pleistocene ice movement.

Mchone, John F.; Dietz, Robert S.; Peredery, Walter V.

1992-01-01

172

Early human-plant interactions based on palaeovegetation simulations of Africa over glacial-interglacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greater understanding of African palaeovegetation environments over the Pleistocene (1.6 Mya) is important for evaluating potential catalysts underlying the anatomical, social and demographic changes observed in early human populations. We used a state-of-the-art fully-coupled earth system model (HADLEY-GCM3) to simulate typical glacial and interglacial environments likely encountered by late-Pleistocene humans. Our simulations indicate that tropical broadleaf forests of central Africa were not severely restricted by expanding grasslands during the last glacial maximum, although the carbon content of stem and density of leaf components were substantially reduced. We interpret a natural eastern migration corridor between southern Africa and the Rift Valley based on simulations of a no-analogue vegetation assemblage characterised by a unique combination of grass and low density forest. We postulate that early human populations in southern Africa were isolated from northern groups during warm interglacials, and that trans-African migration was facilitated during glacial cycles via a more openly forested eastern corridor.

Cowling, S. A.; Cox, P. M.; Jones, C. D.; Maslin, M. A.; Spall, S. A.

2003-04-01

173

Glacial History of a Modern Invader: Phylogeography and Species Distribution Modelling of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus  

PubMed Central

Background The tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and a vector of human diseases. In the last 30 years, it has spread from its native range in East Asia to Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Although this modern invasion has been the focus of many studies, the history of the species’ native populations remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of Pleistocene climatic changes in shaping the current distribution of the species in its native range. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and species distribution of Ae. albopictus native populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Individuals from 16 localities from East Asia were analyzed for sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes. No phylogeographic structure was observed across the study area. Demographic analyses showed a signature of population expansion that started roughly 70,000 years BP. The occurrence of a continuous and climatically suitable area comprising Southeast China, Indochinese Peninsula, and Sundaland during LGM was indicated by species distribution modelling. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which, during the last glacial phase, Ae. albopictus did not experience a fragmentation phase but rather persisted in interconnected populations and experienced demographic growth. The wide ecological flexibility of the species probably played a crucial role in its response to glacial-induced environmental changes. Currently, there is little information on the impact of Pleistocene climatic changes on animal species in East Asia. Most of the studies focused on forest-associated species and suggested cycles of glacial fragmentation and post-glacial expansion. The case of Ae. albopictus, which exhibits a pattern not previously observed in the study area, adds an important piece to our understanding of the Pleistocene history of East Asian biota. PMID:22970238

Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Bellini, Romeo; Somboon, Pradya; Urbanelli, Sandra

2012-01-01

174

Reorganization of ice sheet flow patterns in Arctic Canada and the mid-Pleistocene transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for the evolution of Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) basal thermal regime patterns during successive glaciations is poorly preserved in the geologic record. Here we explore a new approach to constrain the distribution of cold-based ice across central Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic over many glacial-interglacial cycles by combining till geochemistry and cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) data. Parts of the landscaped with geomorphic evidence for limited glacial erosion are covered by till characterized by high chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and CRN concentrations requiring complicated burial-exposure histories. Till from regions scoured by glacial erosion have CIA values indistinguishable from local bedrock and CRN concentrations that can be explained by simple exposure following deglaciation. CRN modeling results based on these constraints suggest that the weathered tills were deposited by 1.9 to 1.2 Ma, and by that time the fiorded Baffin Island coastline must have developed close to its modern configuration as piracy of ice flow by the most efficient fiord systems resulted in a major shift in the basal thermal regime across the northeastern LIS. The resultant concentration of ice flow in fewer outlet systems may help explain the cause of the mid-Pleistocene transition from 41- to 100-kyr glacial cycles.

Refsnider, Kurt A.; Miller, Gifford H.

2010-07-01

175

Increased sensitivity of the Plio-Pleistocene northwest Pacific to obliquity forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insolation-driven changes in poleward heat transport and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations can explain aspects of the rise of obliquity-paced climate variability during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. Based on an alkenone-based sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction of the Kuroshio Current Extension (KCE), we propose here that emergence of this region as the primary locus of ocean-atmosphere heat transfer in the Pacific Ocean promoted Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). Our record shows that with intensification of NHG at 2.7 Ma, the KCE cooled 2-4?°C during glacial intervals, likely in NH winter/spring. These high-amplitude 41-kyr SST cycles slightly lead ?O18 variations, ruling out global ice-volume changes as the primary cause. The lead of SST over ?O18 cycles matches the phasing between these two proxies observed in the tropics, supporting changes in CO2 concentrations as a unifying mechanism of ocean surface temperature change. However, the amplitude of the KCE SST cycle is twice that of the tropical records, pointing to an additional, regional process. We infer that cooling of the North Pacific sea surface by the East Asian winter monsoon and associated westerlies intensified during glacial intervals. This transfer of heat and moisture from the ocean to the atmosphere potentially furthered glacial formation by accelerating snow fall in North America. Therefore, these results might also support a role for tropical-extratropical heat balance in enhancing glacial growth via the obliquity pacing.

Venti, Nicholas L.; Billups, Katharina; Herbert, Timothy D.

2013-12-01

176

Glacial discharge along the west Antarctic Peninsula during the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The causes for rising temperatures along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Holocene have been debated, particularly in light of instrumental records of warming over the past decades. Suggested mechanisms range from upwelling of warm deep waters onto the continental shelf in response to variations in the westerly winds, to an influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on sea surface temperatures. Here, we present a record of Holocene glacial ice discharge, derived from the oxygen isotope composition of marine diatoms from Palmer Deep along the west Antarctic Peninsula continental margin. We assess atmospheric versus oceanic influences on glacial discharge at this location, using analyses of diatom geochemistry to reconstruct atmospherically forced glacial ice discharge and diatom assemblage ecology to investigate the oceanic environment. We show that two processes of atmospheric forcing--an increasing occurrence of La Niña events and rising levels of summer insolation--had a stronger influence during the late Holocene than oceanic processes driven by southern westerly winds and upwelling of upper Circumpolar Deepwater. Given that the evolution of El Niño-Southern Oscillation under global warming is uncertain, its future impacts on the climatically sensitive system of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet remain to be established.

Pike, Jennifer; Swann, George E. A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Snelling, Andrea M.

2013-03-01

177

Molecular biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends  

PubMed Central

The climatic cycles with subsequent glacial and intergalcial periods have had a great impact on the distribution and evolution of species. Using genetic analytical tools considerably increased our understanding of these processes. In this review I therefore give an overview of the molecular biogeography of Europe. For means of simplification, I distinguish between three major biogeographical entities: (i) "Mediterranean" with Mediterranean differentiation and dispersal centres, (ii) "Continental" with extra-Mediterranean centres and (iii) "Alpine" and/or "Arctic" with recent alpine and/or arctic distribution patterns. These different molecular biogeographical patterns are presented using actual examples. Many "Mediterranean" species are differentiated into three major European genetic lineages, which are due to glacial isolation in the three major Mediterranean peninsulas. Postglacial expansion in this group of species is mostly influenced by the barriers of the Pyrenees and the Alps with four resulting main patterns of postglacial range expansions. However, some cases are known with less than one genetic lineage per Mediterranean peninsula on the one hand, and others with a considerable genetic substructure within each of the Mediterranean peninsulas, Asia Minor and the Maghreb. These structures within the Mediterranean sub-centres are often rather strong and in several cases even predate the Pleistocene. For the "Continental" species, it could be shown that the formerly supposed postglacial spread from eastern Palearctic expansion centres is mostly not applicable. Quite the contrary, most of these species apparently had extra-Mediterranean centres of survival in Europe with special importance of the perialpine regions, the Carpathian Basin and parts of the Balkan Peninsula. In the group of "Alpine" and/or "Arctic" species, several molecular biogeographical patterns have been found, which support and improve the postulates based on distribution patterns and pollen records. Thus, genetic studies support the strong linkage between southwestern Alps and Pyrenees, northeastern Alps and Carpathians as well as southeastern Alps and the Dinaric mountain systems, hereby allowing conclusions on the glacial distribution patterns of these species. Furthermore, genetic analyses of arctic-alpine disjunct species support their broad distribution in the periglacial areas at least during the last glacial period. The detailed understanding of the different phylogeographical structures is essential for the management of the different evolutionary significant units of species and the conservation of their entire genetic diversity. Furthermore, the distribution of genetic diversity due to biogeographical reasons helps understanding the differing regional vulnerabilities of extant populations. PMID:17439649

Schmitt, Thomas

2007-01-01

178

Molecular biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends.  

PubMed

The climatic cycles with subsequent glacial and intergalcial periods have had a great impact on the distribution and evolution of species. Using genetic analytical tools considerably increased our understanding of these processes. In this review I therefore give an overview of the molecular biogeography of Europe. For means of simplification, I distinguish between three major biogeographical entities: (i) "Mediterranean" with Mediterranean differentiation and dispersal centres, (ii) "Continental" with extra-Mediterranean centres and (iii) "Alpine" and/or "Arctic" with recent alpine and/or arctic distribution patterns. These different molecular biogeographical patterns are presented using actual examples. Many "Mediterranean" species are differentiated into three major European genetic lineages, which are due to glacial isolation in the three major Mediterranean peninsulas. Postglacial expansion in this group of species is mostly influenced by the barriers of the Pyrenees and the Alps with four resulting main patterns of postglacial range expansions. However, some cases are known with less than one genetic lineage per Mediterranean peninsula on the one hand, and others with a considerable genetic substructure within each of the Mediterranean peninsulas, Asia Minor and the Maghreb. These structures within the Mediterranean sub-centres are often rather strong and in several cases even predate the Pleistocene. For the "Continental" species, it could be shown that the formerly supposed postglacial spread from eastern Palearctic expansion centres is mostly not applicable. Quite the contrary, most of these species apparently had extra-Mediterranean centres of survival in Europe with special importance of the perialpine regions, the Carpathian Basin and parts of the Balkan Peninsula. In the group of "Alpine" and/or "Arctic" species, several molecular biogeographical patterns have been found, which support and improve the postulates based on distribution patterns and pollen records. Thus, genetic studies support the strong linkage between southwestern Alps and Pyrenees, northeastern Alps and Carpathians as well as southeastern Alps and the Dinaric mountain systems, hereby allowing conclusions on the glacial distribution patterns of these species. Furthermore, genetic analyses of arctic-alpine disjunct species support their broad distribution in the periglacial areas at least during the last glacial period. The detailed understanding of the different phylogeographical structures is essential for the management of the different evolutionary significant units of species and the conservation of their entire genetic diversity. Furthermore, the distribution of genetic diversity due to biogeographical reasons helps understanding the differing regional vulnerabilities of extant populations. PMID:17439649

Schmitt, Thomas

2007-01-01

179

Mammal diversity during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

Fossil record data on the mammal diversity and species richness are of importance for the reconstruction of the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition. In Eastern Europe, the transformations during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition consisted mainly in changes in zonal structure and local fauna composition (Markova & Kolfschoten 2008). We investigated the species richness and the analogues of the ?, ? diversity indexes (in the sense of Whittaker 1972) of large and medium size mammals for 13 climate-stratigraphic units dating to the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, from the Hasselo Stadial (44-39 kBP) to the Subatlantic period and the present day. The biological diversity of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene thermal optimum was investigated in more detail using information about all mammalian taxa (PALEOFAUNA database; Markova 1995). One of our results show that the ?, ? diversity values show only a negative correlation with the temperature conditions during the Late Pleistocene, the period that is characterized by the so-called 'Mammoth Fauna' complex. For the Holocene faunas the diversity indexes are nearly independent from physical conditions; the ? diversity index decreased and the ? diversity index increased. The relatively low ? diversity and high ? diversity indexes for the present-day faunas are referred to the decrease of the population number of some forest species in historical time and the increase of the dominance of unspecialized species or the species connected with intra-zonal ecosystems. The study shows furthermore the occurrence of several East European 'centers' with a high mammal diversity, which are relatively stable during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The orientation of the boundaries between the large geographical mammal assemblages depended, particularly in the northwestern part of Eastern Europe, on the expansion of the Scandinavian ice sheet. PMID:25236416

Puzachenko, Andrei Yurievich; Markova, Anastasia Konstantinovna

2014-08-01

180

The early rise and late demise of New Zealand's last glacial maximum.  

PubMed

Recent debate on records of southern midlatitude glaciation has focused on reconstructing glacier dynamics during the last glacial termination, with different results supporting both in-phase and out-of-phase correlations with Northern Hemisphere glacial signals. A continuing major weakness in this debate is the lack of robust data, particularly from the early and maximum phase of southern midlatitude glaciation (?30-20 ka), to verify the competing models. Here we present a suite of 58 cosmogenic exposure ages from 17 last-glacial ice limits in the Rangitata Valley of New Zealand, capturing an extensive record of glacial oscillations between 28-16 ka. The sequence shows that the local last glacial maximum in this region occurred shortly before 28 ka, followed by several successively less extensive ice readvances between 26-19 ka. The onset of Termination 1 and the ensuing glacial retreat is preserved in exceptional detail through numerous recessional moraines, indicating that ice retreat between 19-16 ka was very gradual. Extensive valley glaciers survived in the Rangitata catchment until at least 15.8 ka. These findings preclude the previously inferred rapid climate-driven ice retreat in the Southern Alps after the onset of Termination 1. Our record documents an early last glacial maximum, an overall trend of diminishing ice volume in New Zealand between 28-20 ka, and gradual deglaciation until at least 15 ka. PMID:25071171

Rother, Henrik; Fink, David; Shulmeister, James; Mifsud, Charles; Evans, Michael; Pugh, Jeremy

2014-08-12

181

Vegetation of the Central Beringian Lowlands: Evidence of a Glacial Refugium Found in IODP Expedition 323 Sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lowlands of central Beringia may have acted as a glacial refugium for boreal vegetation, which expanded into eastern and western Beringia as climate changed and glaciers retreated. Persistence of trees, shrubs and mesic-adapted vegetation in the vicinity of the modern Bering Strait and Bering Sea Shelf could have presented a barrier to migrating fauna during Pleistocene glacial stages. These hypotheses have been difficult to test, because sampling has been restricted to lacustrine sediment and peat deposits accessible in eastern and western Beringia. Pollen analysis of cores from IODP Expedition 323 (Bering Sea Expedition) sites U1339 and U1343, on the edge of the Bering Sea Shelf, permits reconstruction of the terrestrial vegetation of adjacent south-central Beringia. Palynological assemblages extracted from sediment that accumulated during Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 6 are dominated by grass (Poaceae ? 15%) and sedge (Cyperaceae ? 20%). Spruce (Picea ? 5%), birch (Betula ? 10%) and alder (Alnus ? 5%) are also consistently present throughout glacial/interglacial cycles, suggesting that small populations of trees and shrubs remained in central Beringia during glacial maxima. These results support the refugium hypothesis. Although it is possible that some of the boreal plant pollen deposited during glacial stages is derived from interglacial sediment reworked by rivers flowing across the emergent shelf, we postulate that such sources only contribute about 1-5% of the total sediment found at these Bering slope sites. Thus we consider the palynological assemblages from IODP Expedition 323 a robust proxy for the glacial vegetation of central Beringia.

Westbrook, R.; Fowell, S. J.; Bigelow, N. H.; VanLaningham, S.

2011-12-01

182

Managing the effects of accelerated glacial melting on volcanic collapse and debris flows: Planchon-Peteroa Volcano, Southern Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciated mountains are among the most sensitive environments to climatic changes, and recent work has shown that large-scale glacial melting, including at the end of the Pleistocene, caused a significant increase in the incidence of large volcanic sector collapse and debris flows on then-active volcanoes. With current accelerated rates of glacial melting, glaciated active volcanoes are at an increasing risk of sector collapse, debris flow and landslide. These catastrophic events are Earth's most damaging erosion phenomenon, causing extensive property damage and loss of life. This paper illustrates these effects in well-studied settings, focusing on the end-Pleistocene to Holocene glaciovolcanic growth and destruction of the cone of the active volcano Planchon-Peteroa in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone at latitude 35° 15' S, along the border between Chile and Argentina. The development of the volcano over the last 14,000 years illustrates how glacial melting and magmatic activity can trigger landslides and sector collapses. Planchon had a large sector collapse that produced a highly mobile and erosive debris avalanche 11,000 years BP, and other slope instabilities during the end-Pleistocene/early Holocene deglaciation. The summit amphitheater left after the sector collapse was subject to alternating periods of glaciation and melting-induced lake formation. Breaching of the moraine dams then formed lahars and landslides originating at the western edge of the summit amphitheater, and the deposits are preserved along the western flank of the volcano. Deep incision of moraine deposits further down the western slope of the volcano indicates that the lahars and landslides were water-rich and had high erosive power. As illustrated by Planchon-Peteroa, the interplay among glacial growth and melting, magmatic activity, and slope stability is complex, but must be accounted for in volcanic hazard assessment. Planchon-Peteroa currently has the southernmost temperate zone mountain glacier in the Andes. Accelerated glacial melting at present rates of climate change could lead to a recurrence of many of these post-Pleistocene events. A framework for augmenting hazard assessments and countermeasures is also proposed based on the types of hazards presented by accelerated glacial melting. Glacial melting may lead to volcanic hazards in areas not previously considered at risk, and hence there may be a low level of preparedness. Compared to the end-Pleistocene accelerated glacial melting and sector collapses, present-day glacial melting in volcanic terrain has the potential to affect large human populations. Human settlements, hydropower production, forestry, mining and wilderness tourism are all concentrated near some glaciated volcanic areas. For example, the area covered by the debris avalanche from Volcan Planchon currently supports a rich agricultural economy in Chile. Effective risk management is needed to address the issues of changing patterns in vulnerability, the nature and redistribution of hazards, and the potential socioeconomic consequences of glaciovolcanic events. Since these events are infrequent, local communities frequently do not have a memory of past occurrences, and therefore have a low awareness of the potential effects. Systematic and structured impact assessment allows objective risk analysis, uncertainty analysis, and a framework for balancing countermeasures and contingency measures with public need and acceptance. An impact assessment approach similar to that used in land use planning is presented here, with the following major elements: (i) hazard characterization; (ii) consequence characterization; (iii) risk assessment; (iv) risk control and countermeasures; and (v) risk communication. The emphasis is on effective risk communication, supported by facts, in order to address the increased hazards posed by accelerated glacial melting on volcanic cone stability. Decision makers must then weigh societal acceptance of the risk control and countermeasures against their costs and consequences.

Tormey, Daniel

2010-11-01

183

Last Glacial Maximum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short lecture on CLIMAP project (see PowerPoint) 20 minutes Powerpoint (PowerPoint 444kB Nov7 10) Group activity - Reading for CLIMAP study assumptions, 20 minutes to read, 20 minutes for discussion Student Handout (Microsoft Word 50kB Nov7 10) Students break into groups (4 per group is good division of work) with 2 students per paper. Split the assumptions between students. Each group skims the CLIMAP papers for the assumptions (modern and/or LGM) used in the CLIMAP model-based reconstruction of the LGM. In the groups, students compare the assumptions between papers. Resources: CLIMAP (1976), The surface of the ice-age earth, Science, 191(4232), 1131-1137 and CLIMAP (1984), The last interglacial ocean, Quaternary Research, 21(2), 123. Class Discussion - Summarize assumptions used in CLIMAP studies. Group activity Exploring CLIMAP LGM Reconstructions, 40 minutes for model data, 20 minutes for discussion (Could be modified with as a "jigsaw" activity with a larger class). Learn more about the jigsaw teaching method. Students work on this activity in pairs; one person will create LGM maps, the other modern. Students should sit together with their computer monitors close together to compare. The students will use the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library to access the CLIMAP reconstruction and produce maps using the tools available on this web site. In a web browser, go to http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/ This is the main page for the CLIMAP Model output for the LGM 18,000 BP. In the middle of the page is the label "Datasets and variables" with two data sets below http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.LGM/ and http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.CLIMAP/.MOD/. Each student clicks on the link they are assigned to. There are several data sets listed for each period and the students will examine each data set and compare the LGM and Modern. As a class, go through each data set allowing pairs to compare the maps then summarize the results as a class. The worksheet has a table for the students and the PowerPoint has table for summarizing. Class Discussion - Summarize differences between modern and LGM in the CLIMAP model output. Discuss how the assumptions of the CLIMAP model studies may have influenced the results. Extra activities The students can explore the data further using the data selection and filters in the IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library. For the two SST data sets, click on "Data Selection" and narrow the data to the just the tropics (23.5º N-S). Click on "Filters" then select XY next to "Average over." The next window gives you the average over the tropics close to the top of the page. In the next class, the students repeat the Readings exercise by reading the COHMAP and MARGO papers to see how the scientific knowledge has progressed since the original CLIMAP studies. COHMAP Members, (1988), Climatic Changes of the Last 18,000 Years: Observations and Model Simulations, Science, 241(4869), 1043-1052. MARGO (2009), Constraints on the magnitude and patterns of ocean cooling at the Last Glacial Maximum, Nature Geoscience, 2(2), 127-132.

Delong, Kristine

184

Vicariance biogeography in the Pleistocene and speciation in North American wood warblers: a test of Mengel's model.  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that habitat fragmentation during the Pleistocene initiated speciation events in many songbird genera. One such vicariance model for avian speciation in the Pleistocene was developed by R. M. Mengel for North American birds. This model suggests that the first Pleistocene glacial advance reduced the area of an extensive, eastern North American deciduous forest, forcing adaptation by some species to boreal forest. This, in turn, facilitated the development of transcontinental range expansions during interglacials. Subsequent glacial advances repeatedly fragmented the ranges of these species into eastern and western populations; western isolates speciated to form the multispecies groups observed among various North American birds. We used mtDNA restriction site data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the black-throated green warbler complex-the group that Mengel considered the best fit to his model. Contrary to Mengel's model, the phylogeny indicates that not all western endemics were derived from an eastern ancestor. Instead, our results imply a mix, wherein some western endemics were budded off an eastern source, as Mengel posits, while others probably resulted from intermontane isolations in the west. PMID:11607307

Bermingham, E; Rohwer, S; Freeman, S; Wood, C

1992-01-01

185

Did the West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse during late Pleistocene interglacials: A reassessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since John Mercer's provocative paper, "West Antarctic ice sheet and CO2 Greenhouse effect: a threat of disaster" (Nature 271:321-325; 1978), researchers have grappled with questions regarding whether, when, how frequently, and, especially, how quickly the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has disintegrated and reformed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene (and whether and when it may again in the future). Oxygen isotope records, being global averages, are insufficient to answer these questions, because (1) the WAIS signal is relatively small, and (2) antiphased behavior between the poles of the precession cycle will tend to cancel part of the signal, as outlined by Raymo et. al. (Science 313, 492-495, 2006). Previously, Antarctica lacked proximal, well-dated Pleistocene and Pliocene marine geologic records, so eustatic, mostly tropical sea-level records were used to infer past WAIS collapses. The first direct evidence of past Pleistocene WAIS collapse came from diatoms recovered from beneath the WAIS on the Whillans Ice Stream (UpB). Scherer (GPC, 4, 395-412, 1991) and Scherer et al. (Science, 281, 82-85, 1998) interpreted these results as most likely reflecting WAIS retreat during MIS-11, but could not rule out other interglacials, including MIS-5e, the penultimate interglacial discussed by Mercer. More recently, proximal evidence of WAIS retreat (or collapse) during early Pleistocene MIS-31 came from drilling at Cape Roberts (CRP-1) and the ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf project (AND-1B) (Scherer et al., GRL, 35, doi:10.1029/2007GL032254, 2008). These diatom results provide evidence of ice sheet retreat events, but no constraint on the rate of ice sheet "collapse," which is critical to assessing the threat of future collapse. These results provided impetus and constraints for new coupled climate/ice sheet models, which are yielding significant insights (Pollard and DeConto, Nature, in press). The ANDRILL-MIS site contains no clear evidence of WAIS collapse events subsequent to MIS-31, but there is poor age control in the recovered diamictons. Furthermore, evidence of significant interglacials may have been lost in glacial erosion. A reassessment of diatom data from UpB indicates that the Pleistocene diatoms identified from beneath the WAIS are compatible with MIS-31 deposition as well as late Pleistocene marine deposition. This, once again, leaves the question of the configuration of the WAIS during MIS-11, MIS-5e and other late Pleistocene interglacials open for discussion.

Scherer, R. P.

2009-04-01

186

Glacial Earthquakes in Greenland and Antarctica  

E-print Network

Glacial Earthquakes in Greenland and Antarctica Meredith Nettles and G¨oran Ekstr¨om Lamont Glacial earthquakes are a new class of seismic events, first discovered as signals in long of Greenland, where they are spatially related to large outlet glaciers. Glacial earthquakes show a strong

Jellinek, Mark

187

DATING GLACIAL LANDFORMS Jason P. Briner  

E-print Network

D DATING GLACIAL LANDFORMS Jason P. Briner Department of Geological Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Definition Dating glacial landforms. Applying geochronological tools (e.g., relative- and absolute-dating methods, etc.) to glacial landforms (e.g., moraines) to yield the timing of past glaciation

Briner, Jason P.

188

A 10Be Chronology of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Glaciation in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the retreat of glaciers in East Africa has been monitored over the last century, longer-term records of African glacier fluctuations are scarce. The Rwenzori Mountains, located on the border of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, host the largest glacial system in Africa and provide an opportunity for extensive investigation of past glaciations. We mapped and applied surface exposure (10Be) dating to glacial moraines deposited since the end of the last ice age in the Rwenzori Mountains to test the feasibility of 10Be dating at this site and to develop a chronology of glacial fluctuations. Our study is the first to use 10Be dating of glacial features in Africa and is possible because the Rwenzori host quartz-rich lithologies. By comparing the timing of Rwenzori glacial advances with other paleoclimate records from East Africa, we also will examine the climatic conditions which influenced tropical glacier fluctuations. Osmaston (1989) mapped moraines in the Rwenzori Mountains, documenting three stages of Pleistocene and Holocene glaciations, the Mahoma, Omurubaho and Lac Gris stages. The Mahoma stage moraines are estimated to be older than 17,980 ± 780 yr BP (D. M. Livingstone, 1962) by basal 14C dating of sediments from Lake Mahoma, situated in large lateral moraine at 2990 m asl. The age of the Omurubaho stage moraine is estimated from a basal 14C age (7,730 ± 150 yr BP) Lower Kitandara Lake (3990 m asl) and dammed by an Omurubaho stage moraine. The Lac Gris moraines are estimated at ~150-700 yr BP (de Heinzelin, 1953; Bergström, 1955) based on rates of lichen growth and plant colonization on moraines about 200 m below current glacial positions on Mt. Stanley. Though considerable uncertainty remains for the ages of these glacier deposits, these three stages most likely represent ages from the LGM to the LIA. We present two new 10Be ages of boulders from two moraines in the Nyamagusani Valley, ~4000 m asl. Sample KOP-2 (4033 m asl) is from the innermost moraine on the valley floor and yielded a 10Be age of 9,750 ± 110 yrs. Sample LA-1 (3870 masl) is from a moraine located ~1.8 km down valley and is 10,590 ± 120 yrs. Although the 10Be production rate is not well known in this region, these preliminary ages are in stratigraphic order and suggest glacial advance in the Rwenzori during late glacial to Early Holocene time. In June 2012, we sampled boulders from multiple valleys in the Rwenzori. We are currently processing fifteen samples from Nyamagusani to test the reproducibility of boulder ages on individual landforms and to test the age of Omurubaho stage moraines.

Baber, M.; Kelly, M. A.; Russell, J. M.; Loomis, S. E.

2012-12-01

189

Cosmogenic Be10 ages of Angel Lake and Lamoille moraines and late Pleistocene slip rate of the rangefront normal fault, Ruby Mountains, Basin and Range, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Be-10 cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure dating to quantify the timing of late Pleistocene glacial advances and to estimate the rangefront normal fault slip rate along the Ruby Mountains in the Basin and Range, Nevada. Ten Be-10 CRN exposure ages from the Angel Lake terminal moraine in Hennen Canyon limit deposition to between 15.4-23.1 ka (average = 18.2 ka;

R. W. Briggs; S. G. Wesnousky; F. J. Ryerson; R. C. Finkel; A. Meriaux

2004-01-01

190

Evidence for a Younger Dryas glacial advance in the Andes of northwestern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposits of push moraine, outwash and glaciolacustrine sediments, recovered from two areas in the northwestern Venezuelan Andes document the latest Pleistocene advance of Mérida ice. Underlying peats provide maximum ages on till and outwash evidently emplaced during the Younger Dryas (YD) climatic event. One example recovered from the Humboldt Massif, where the farthest extent of YD ice buried peat in the surface of Late Glacial till, provides a within-glacier advance age of 12.4 ka cal BP. The peat lies on moraine deposited during a stillstand event when the Humboldt Glacier retreated to the area of Lago Verde at ˜ 4000 m a.s.l. Approximately 0.5 km upvalley, toward Lago Suero, YD till buries peat deposited in glaciolacustrine sediments of presumed Late Glacial age. Farther north, in the Mucuñuque-Mucubají Catchment of the eastern cordillera, a push moraine of possible YD age buries older till of Late Glacial age; ˜ 0.2 km upvalley, outwash of YD age buries glaciolacustrine peat and organic-rich alluvial sediment dated to 13.7 and 13.3 ka cal BP. The latest Mérida advance documented here is approximately synchronous with the YD cold event of Europe and the North Atlantic Region (ca. 11.6-12.7 ka cal BP). The YD event in both areas of the northwestern Venezuelan Andes nearly reestablished earlier Late Glacial ice positions, and termination appears to have been abrupt; the valleys in both areas were evacuated of YD ice without emplacement of recessional moraines as during the main deglaciation. At the Humboldt site, equilibrium line altitudes (ELA's) for the Late Glacial were about 50 m lower than during the inferred YD; in the Mucuñuque-Mucubají catchment, ELA's for the Late Glacial (~ 3900 m a.s.l.) are difficult to establish given the absence of lateral moraines.

Mahaney, William C.; Milner, M. W.; Kalm, Volli; Dirszowsky, Randy W.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Beukens, Roelf P.

2008-04-01

191

Migration of the Antarctic Polar Front through the mid-Pleistocene transition: evidence and climatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Polar Front is an important biogeochemical divider in the Southern Ocean. Laminated diatom mat deposits record episodes of massive flux of the diatom Thalassiothrix antarctica beneath the Antarctic Polar Front and provide a marker for tracking the migration of the Front through time. Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1091, 1093 and 1094 are the only deep piston cored record hitherto sampled from the sediments of the circumpolar biogenic opal belt. Mapping of diatom mat deposits between these sites indicates a glacial-interglacial front migration of up to 6 degrees of latitude in the early/mid Pleistocene. The mid-Pleistocene transition marks a stepwise minimum 7° northward migration of the locus of the Polar Front sustained for about 450 kyr until an abrupt southward return to a locus similar to its modern position and further south than any mid-Pleistocene locus. This interval from a "900 ka event" that saw major cooling of the oceans and a ? 13C minimum through to the 424 ka Mid-Brunhes Event at Termination V is also seemingly characterised by 1) sustained decreased carbonate in the sub-tropical south Atlantic, 2) reduced strength of Antarctic deep meridional circulation, 3) lower interglacial temperatures and lower interglacial atmospheric CO 2 levels (by some 30 per mil) than those of the last 400 kyr, evidencing less complete deglaciation. This evidence is consistent with a prolonged period lasting 450 kyr of only partial ventilation of the deep ocean during interglacials and suggests that the mechanisms highlighted by recent hypotheses linking mid-latitude atmospheric conditions to the extent of deep ocean ventilation and carbon sequestration over glacial-interglacial cycles are likely in operation during the longer time scale characteristic of the mid-Pleistocene transition. The cooling that initiated the "900 ka event" may have been driven by minima in insolation amplitude related to eccentricity modulation of precession that also affected low latitude climates as marked by threshold changes in the African monsoon system. The major thresholds in earth system behaviour through the mid-Pleistocene transition were likely governed by an interplay of the 100 kyr and 400 kyr eccentricity modulation of precession.

Kemp, A. E. S.; Grigorov, I.; Pearce, R. B.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

2010-08-01

192

Arsenic Geochemistry and Hydrostratigraphy in Midwestern U.S. Glacial Deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic concentrations exceeding the U.S. EPA's 10 ??g/L standard are common in glacial aquifers in the midwestern United States. Previous studies have indicated that arsenic occurs naturally in these aquifers in association with metal-(hydr)oxides and is released to groundwater under reducing conditions generated by microbial oxidation of organic matter. Despite this delineation of the arsenic source and mechanism of arsenic mobilization, identification of arsenic-impacted aquifers is hindered by the heterogeneous and discontinuous nature of glacial sediments. In much of the Midwest, the hydrostratigraphy of glacial deposits is not sufficiently characterized to predict where elevated arsenic concentrations are likely to occur. This case study from southeast Wisconsin presents a detailed characterization of local stratigraphy, hydrostratigraphy, and geochemistry of the Pleistocene glacial deposits and underlying Silurian dolomite. Analyses of a single core, water chemistry data, and well construction reports enabled identification of two aquifers separated by an organic-rich aquitard. The upper, unconfined aquifer provides potable water, whereas arsenic generally exceeds 10 ??g/L in the deeper aquifer. Although coring and detailed hydrostratigraphic characterization are often considered impractical, our results demonstrate that a single core improved interpretation of the complex lithology and hydrostratigraphy. This detailed characterization of hydrostratigraphy facilitated development of well construction guidelines and lays the ground work for further studies of the complex interactions among aquifer sediments, hydrogeology, water chemistry, and microbiology that lead to elevated arsenic in groundwater. Copyright ?? 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

Root, T.L.; Gotkowitz, M.B.; Bahr, J.M.; Attig, J.W.

2010-01-01

193

Environmental changes at the Holocene-Late Pleistocene transition: Sedimentation on Akademicheskii Ridge (Lake Baikal, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Akademicheskii Ridge of Lake Baikal represents a 300 m deep underwater rise, which separates the Central Basin (1647 m water depth) and the North Basin (970 m water depth) of 640 km long lake. The large distance to the turbid load of particle-carrying tributaries and coastal areas as well as the absence of slide induced turbidites are responsible for low sedimentation rates. A large number of short cores (approx. 120 cm) was used to study in detail the Holocene-Late Pleistocene transition, using lithological composition, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils, pollen and spores, chemistry, grain size and mineral composition. Holocene sediments show sedimentation rates from 0.015 to 0.25 mm y-1 and are mainly composed of biogenic material with rare admixtures of aeolian and ice-rafted terrigenous particles [1]. The sediments are characterized by abundant microfossils, such as diatoms, spicules of sponges, chrysophyte cysts, pollen and spores. Holocene diatom assemblages are representated by Aulacoseira baicalensis, A. skvortzowii, Cyclotella minuta, C. baicalensis, Synedra acus var.radians, Stephanodiscus meyerii, Crateriportula inconspicuus and Cyclostephanos dubius [2]. Concentrations of Corg.,Ntot.,and Sibiog.indicate clearly higher productivity of the lake during the Holocene [1]. Late Pleistocene sediments are composed of clastic, fine-grained, clayey material, mainly of terrigenous origin. This includes also aeolian particles and rare ice-transported sandy material and rock debris. A peak of the diatom species Stephanodiscus flabellatus, observed within the upper part of clayey sediments, defines the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition [2]. Very low contents of microfossils (diatoms, spicules of sponges, chrysophyte cysts etc.) within Late Pleistocene deposits indicate lower productivity of Lake Baikal. Glacial melt-water dominated the sediment transport processes within the lake during this time. The main minerals of the sand fraction are quartz, feldspars and mica. The heavy mineral assemblage contains amphiboles, pyroxenes, epidote, sphene, magnetite, garnet and chloritoide. Within the Holocene, contents of chloritoide are low (0.6-1.2 %), but they are distinctly higher within the Late Pleistocene sediments (3.2-14.6 %) [1]. An increase of chloritoide in sediments points towards an intensification of aeolian transport by stronger winds and longer-lasting periods of ice cover during the Late Pleistocene [3]. Results of pollen analyses support these findings. They indicate that mountain slopes of the catchment of Lake Baikal were mostly uncovered by vegetation. A polymineral composition is characteristic for the clay fraction of Late Pleistocene deposits: hydro-mica, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. This is caused by extensive glaciation of the catchment of the lake during this time [4], generating increased transport of terrigenous material to the lake by glacial melt water [5]. References [1] Vologina, E.G. and Sturm, M. 2009. Types of Holocene deposits and regional pattern of sedimentation in Lake Baikal. Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 1-6. [2] Bradbury, J.P., Bezrukova, Ye.V., Chernyaeva, G.P. et al. 1994. A synthesis of post-glacial diatom records from Lake Baikal. J. Paleolimnol. 10, 213-252.

Vologina, Elena G.; Sturm, Michael

2010-05-01

194

Gulf coastal Pleistocene units and time stratigraphy; reevaluation and problems of Atlantic correlation  

SciTech Connect

Outdated glacial subdivisions and misinterpretations of alluvial interfluve ridges as marine terraces hampered advances in coastal stratigraphy. One problem involves C.W. Cooke's extension of his Atlantic shorelines along the NE Gulf into the Mississippi Embayment. The mirage of an inter-Wisconsinan interglacial gave way to beliefs in high glacial Wisconsinan sea levels that were assumed to have resulted in barriers and intensive alluvial aggradation on the TX-LA coastal plain. Without vertical definitions, Fisk assigned formation status to alluvial and brackish-marine sediments that directly underlie four coastwise Pleistocene terraces in SW Louisiana. The youngest (Prairie) and associated formations were recently (re)defined and correlated with other coastal areas. Brackish and marine deposits in the subsurface have been correlated with Fisk's second youngest coastwise surface. Detailed facies analyses of cores from hundreds of drillholes indicated that, in sharp contrast with Plio-Pleistocene barriers on the Atlantic coast, only a single, Sangamonian (Sg) barrier shore complex remains on the NE Gulf coastal plain after intensive uplift/erosion. Few isolated remnants of pre-Sg Pleistocene alluvial units occur, including flora elements in peat lenses at one location. An early, low Sg sea level stand near Apalachicola is marked by transgressive deposits at c. [minus]37.5m. Thin NE Gulf Sg sequence includes the fine-grained, open marine-to-estuarine Biloxi, the regressive, shallow subtidal-to-supratidal, mainland Gulfport barrier and the alluvial Prairie Formations. These are correlatable Gulfwide. Contrary to widespread assumption, the Gulfport-Ingleside barriers were not islands but mainland strandplains. The Sg complex correlates with oxygen isotope Stage 5 units of the Mid/South Atlantic coastal plain and shelf. Thick LA-TX shelf/slope intervals display about ten fourth-order cycles within 4 primary ones.

Otvos, E.G. (Gulf Coast Research Lab., Ocean Springs, MS (United States). Geology Section)

1993-03-01

195

Persistent 400,000-year variability of Antarctic ice volume and the carbon cycle is revealed throughout the Plio-Pleistocene.  

PubMed

Marine sediment records from the Oligocene and Miocene reveal clear 400,000-year climate cycles related to variations in orbital eccentricity. These cycles are also observed in the Plio-Pleistocene records of the global carbon cycle. However, they are absent from the Late Pleistocene ice-age record over the past 1.5 million years. Here we present a simulation of global ice volume over the past 5 million years with a coupled system of four three-dimensional ice-sheet models. Our simulation shows that the 400,000-year long eccentricity cycles of Antarctica vary coherently with ?(13)C data during the Pleistocene, suggesting that they drove the long-term carbon cycle changes throughout the past 35 million years. The 400,000-year response of Antarctica was eventually suppressed by the dominant 100,000-year glacial cycles of the large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:24385005

de Boer, B; Lourens, Lucas J; van de Wal, Roderik S W

2014-01-01

196

Ice-Sheet Dynamics and Millennial-Scale Climate Variability in the North Atlantic across the Middle Pleistocene Transition (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT), the climate system evolved from a more linear response to insolation forcing in the '41-kyr world' to one that was decidedly non-linear in the '100-kyr world'. Smaller ice sheets in the early Pleistocene gave way to larger ice sheets in the late Pleistocene with an accompanying change in ice sheet dynamics. We studied Sites U1308 (49° 52.7'N, 24° 14.3'W; 3871 m) and U1304 (53° 3.4'N, 33° 31.8'W; 3024 m) in the North Atlantic to determine how ice sheet dynamics and millennial-scale climate variability evolved as glacial boundary conditions changed across the MPT. The frequency of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) in the North Atlantic was greater during glacial stages prior to 650 ka (MIS 16), reflecting more frequent crossing of an ice volume threshold when the climate system spent more time in the 'intermediate ice volume' window, resulting in persistent millennial scale variability. The rarity of Heinrich Events containing detrital carbonate and more frequent occurrence of IRD events prior to 650 ka may indicate the presence of 'low-slung, slippery ice sheets' that flowed more readily than their post-MPT counterparts (Bailey et al., 2010). Ice volume surpassed a critical threshold across the MPT that permitted ice sheets to survive boreal summer insolation maxima, thereby increasing ice volume and thickness, lengthening glacial cycles, and activating the dynamical processes responsible for Laurentide Ice Sheet instability in the region of Hudson Strait (i.e., Heinrich events). The excess ice volume during post-MPT glacial maxima provided a large, unstable reservoir of freshwater to be released to the North Atlantic during glacial terminations with the potential to perturb Atlantic Meridional Overtunring Circulation. We speculate that orbital- and millennial-scale variability co-evolved across the MPT and the interaction of processes on orbital and suborbital time scales gave rise to the changing patterns of glacial-interglacial cycles through the Quaternary. Bailey, I., Bolton, C.T., DeConto, R.M., Pollard, D., Schiebel, R. and Wilson, P.A. (2010) A low threshold for North Atlantic ice rafting from "low-slung slippery" late Pliocene ice sheets. Paleoceanography, 25, PA1212-[14pp]. (doi:10.1029/2009PA001736).

Hodell, D. A.; Nicholl, J.

2013-12-01

197

Periglacial fires and trees in a continental setting of Central Canada, Upper Pleistocene.  

PubMed

Fire is a key factor controlling global vegetation patterns and carbon cycling. It mostly occurs under warm periods during which fuel builds up with sufficient moisture, whereas such conditions stimulate fire ignition and spread. Biomass burning increased globally with warming periods since the last glacial era. Data confirming periglacial fires during glacial periods are very sparse because such climates are likely too cold to favour fires. Here, tree occurrence and fires during the Upper Pleistocene glacial periods in Central Canada are inferred from botanical identification and calibrated radiocarbon dates of charcoal fragments. Charcoal fragments were archived in sandy dunes of central Saskatchewan and were dated >50000-26600 cal BP. Fragments were mostly gymnosperms. Parallels between radiocarbon dates and GISP2-?¹?O records deciphered relationships between fire and climate. Fires occurred either hundreds to thousands of years after Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) interstadial warming events (i.e., the time needed to build enough fuel for fire ignition and spread) or at the onset of the DO event. The chronological uncertainties result from the dated material not precisely matching the fires and from the low residual ¹?C associated with old sample material. Dominance of high-pressure systems and low effective moisture during post-DO coolings likely triggered flammable periglacial ecosystems, while lower moisture and the relative abundance of fuel overshadowed lower temperatures for fire spread. Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) limits during DO events are difficult to assess in Central Canada due to sparse radiocarbon dates. Our radiocarbon data set constrains the extent of LIS. Central Saskatchewan was not covered by LIS throughout the Upper Pleistocene and was not a continental desert. Instead, our results suggest long-lasting periods where fluctuations of the northern tree limits and fires after interstadials occurred persistently. PMID:24405713

Bélanger, N; Carcaillet, C; Padbury, G A; Harvey-Schafer, A N; Van Rees, K J C

2014-03-01

198

A phylogeographic, demographic and historical analysis of the short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus): evidence for early divergence and late expansion during the Pleistocene.  

PubMed

The impact of quaternary glaciation in eastern China on local fanua and flora has been a topic of considerable interest. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and coalescent simulations to test two general biogeographic hypothesis related to the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations for a widespread ophidian species (Gloydius brevicaudus) in eastern China and Korean Peninsula. The phylogenetic analysis revealed three major lineages, the southeast Coastal, Yangtze and North Lineages. The latter two are closely related and jointly form a continental lineage. Divergence dating and coalescent simulations indicate a Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene divergence between lineages from the southeast coast and continental interior, followed by a mid-to-late Pleistocene divergence between lineages from the north and the middle-lower Yangtze Valley across East China, suggesting that all these lineages predated the last glacial maximum. An overlapping range between the two lineages within the continental lineage and a secondary contact associated with ecological transition zones on the margins of the North China Plain were also observed. These results show that vicariance patterns dominated the history of G. brevicaudus. Though the climatic events of the Pleistocene have had a marked effect on the historical distribution and intra-specific divergence of reptiles in China, coalescent and non-coalescent demographic analyses indicate that all lineages of G. brevicaudus seem not to have been adversely affected by glacial cycles during the Late Pleistocene, presumably because of an increase in the amount of climatically mild habitat in East Asia due to a decline in elevation and the development of monsoons since the Mid-End Pleistocene. PMID:21438932

Ding, Li; Gan, Xiao-Ni; He, Shun-Ping; Zhao, Er-Mi

2011-05-01

199

Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Iowa pleistocene snail.  

PubMed

The Iowa Pleistocene snail, Discus macclintocki, is an endangered species that survives only in relictual populations on algific (cold-air) talus slopes in northeast Iowa and northwest Illinois in the central region of the USA. These populations are believed to have been isolated since the temperatures began to warm at the end of the last glacial period around 16 500 years ago. DNA sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene of the mitochondria was used to determine the genetic relationship among 10 populations and the genetic diversity within these populations. Genetic diversity is extremely high within this species with 40 haplotypes spread across the 10 populations sampled within a 4000 km2 region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that haplotypes formed monophyletic groups by the watershed on which they were found, suggesting that watersheds were important historical avenues of gene flow. Genetic distances were strongly related to the geographical distance among all populations, but this relationship was dependent on the scale being considered. PMID:10564443

Ross, T K

1999-09-01

200

Across the southern Andes on fin: glacial refugia, drainage reversals and a secondary contact zone revealed by the phylogeographical signal of Galaxias platei in Patagonia.  

PubMed

We employed DNA sequence variation at two mitochondrial (control region, COI) regions from 212 individuals of Galaxias platei (Pisces, Galaxiidae) collected throughout Patagonia (25 lakes/rivers) to examine how Andean orogeny and the climatic cycles throughout the Quaternary affected the genetic diversity and phylogeography of this species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed four deep genealogical lineages which likely represent the initial division of G. platei into eastern and western lineages by Andean uplift, followed by further subdivision of each lineage into separate glacial refugia by repeated Pleistocene glacial cycles. West of the Andes, refugia were likely restricted to the northern region of Patagonia with small relicts in the south, whereas eastern refugia appear to have been much larger and widespread, consisting of separate northern and southern regions that collectively spanned most of Argentinean Patagonia. The retreat of glacial ice following the last glacial maximum allowed re-colonization of central Chile from nonlocal refugia from the north and east, representing a region of secondary contact between all four glacial lineages. Northwestern glacial relicts likely followed pro-glacial lakes into central Chilean Patagonia, whereas catastrophic changes in drainage direction (Atlantic --> Pacific) for several eastern palaeolakes were the likely avenues for invasions from the east. These mechanisms, combined with evidence for recent, rapid and widespread population growth could explain the extensive contemporary distribution of G. platei throughout Patagonia. PMID:19017262

Zemlak, Tyler S; Habit, Evelyn M; Walde, Sandra J; Battini, Miguel A; Adams, Emily D M; Ruzzante, Daniel E

2008-12-01

201

Architecture of Late Ordovician glacial valleys in the Tassili N'Ajjer area (Algeria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architecture of three Late Ordovician glacial valleys was studied in detail in the Tassili N'Ajjer (SE Algeria) outcrops. The valleys are oriented south-north, 2 to 5 km wide, and up to 250 m deep. The valley-fills revealed a very complex sedimentary architecture with significant lateral facies changes. Several glacial cycles induced the formation of Glacial Erosion Surfaces (GES) at the base and within the glacial valleys. The first type of GES shows a sharp and steep-angled contact without striations or associated syn-sedimentary deformation, suggesting that subglacial meltwater was the dominant erosive agent. A second type associated with the deformation of pre-glacial and syn-glacial sediment, suggests that ice was in contact with the valley floor. Four facies associations are proposed: FA1: subglacial tillite; FA2: Sub-to pro-glacial ice contact fans; FA3: Proglacial sub-aqueous gravity flows; and FA4: outwash fans. The stratigraphic architecture of three of the main valleys reveals a complex polyphase infill. At least two main cycles of ice-sheet advance and retreat can be interpreted from the sedimentary succession of each valley. Minor glacial cycles by ice oscillations also occur locally. GES morphology and the facies sequence suggest that the Iherir valleys were initiated by meltwater erosion in subglacial channels, whereas the Dider and Ouarsissen valleys were part of a large ice stream pathway. Above the valley-fill and the interfluves, a sand-rich unit of stacked lobes and channels is interpreted as submarine outwash fans deposited during final ice retreat. A glacial sequence found between two GES comprises fluvio-glacial or ice-contact fan deposits, fluvio-glacial eskers and tills. These sediments were deposited subglacially or at the glacier front during the ice maximum phase and/or the early ice retreat phase. During the ice retreat, interbedded subaqueous gravity flow deposits and diamictites filled the glacially cut topography as the sea invaded the valleys. Maximum ice retreat was associated with high water fluxes and sediment discharge, causing a sand-dominated outwash fan to prograde out over the valleys and interfluves. This outwash fan was supplied mainly by flood activity at the ice front, involving high-density sustained flows. The dominant facies consists of giant aggrading climbing dunes filling channels or constructing sandy lobes downstream.

Deschamps, Rémy; Eschard, Rémi; Roussé, Stéphane

2013-05-01

202

An interhemispheric mechanism for glacial abrupt climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last glacial period was punctuated by abrupt climate changes that are widely considered to result from millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, the origin of these AMOC reorganizations remains poorly understood. The climatic connection between both hemispheres indicated by proxies suggests that the Southern Ocean (SO) could regulate this variability through changes in winds and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here, we investigate this hypothesis using a coupled climate model forced by prescribed CO2 and SO wind-stress variations. We find that the AMOC exhibits an oscillatory behavior between weak and strong circulation regimes which is ultimately caused by changes in the meridional density gradient of the Atlantic Ocean. The evolution of the simulated climatic patterns matches the amplitude and timing of the largest events that occurred during the last glacial period and their widespread climatic impacts. Our results suggest the existence of an internal interhemispheric oscillation mediated by the bipolar seesaw that could promote glacial abrupt climate changes through variations in atmospheric CO2 levels, the strength of the SO winds and AMOC reorganizations, and provide an explanation for the pervasive Antarctic-like climate signal found in proxy records worldwide.

Banderas, Rubén; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa

2014-06-01

203

Holocene glacial discharge fluctuations and recent instability in East Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctica holds the largest ice sheet in the world, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), and plays a significant role in both local and global climate through the interactions between ice sheets, ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere. Our understanding of East Antarctica Holocene climate variability relies mainly on ice cores that however do not document glacial discharge history. Here, we present the first high resolution ?18Odiatom record derived from two marine sediment cores retrieved on the East Antarctic continental shelf to reconstruct glacial discharge off Adélie Land and George V Land (AL-GVL) over the last 11,000 years from decadal to centennial resolution. Our results suggest multi-centennial glacier advances and retreats until 2000 cal yr BP, followed by a period of relative instability marked by two major glacial retreats centered at ˜1700 cal yr BP and ˜1980 CE. We suggest that the multi-centennial oscillations during the Early/Mid-Holocene reflect glacier fluctuations in response to long-term local seasonal insolation and short-term solar variability. We also propose that ?18Odiatom variability over the last 2000 years was the result of a recent change in the AL-GVL region to increasing atmospheric influence, linked to ENSO intensification and teleconnections strengthening between low and high latitudes.

Crespin, Julien; Yam, Ruth; Crosta, Xavier; Massé, Guillaume; Schmidt, Sabine; Campagne, Philippine; Shemesh, Aldo

2014-05-01

204

People of the ancient rainforest: late Pleistocene foragers at the Batadomba-lena rockshelter, Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Batadomba-lena, a rockshelter in the rainforest of southwestern Sri Lanka, has yielded some of the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in South Asia. H. sapiens foragers were present at Batadomba-lena from ca. 36,000 cal BP to the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene. Human occupation was sporadic before the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Batadomba-lena's Late Pleistocene inhabitants foraged for a broad spectrum of plant and mainly arboreal animal resources (monkeys, squirrels and abundant rainforest snails), derived from a landscape that retained equatorial rainforest cover through periods of pronounced regional aridity during the LGM. Juxtaposed hearths, palaeofloors with habitation debris, postholes, excavated pits, and animal and plant remains, including abundant Canarium nutshells, reflect intensive habitation of the rockshelter in times of monsoon intensification and biome reorganisation after ca. 16,000 cal BP. This period corresponds with further broadening of the economic spectrum, evidenced though increased contribution of squirrels, freshwater snails and Canarium nuts in the diet of the rockshelter occupants. Microliths are more abundant and morphologically diverse in the earliest, pre-LGM layer and decline markedly during intensified rockshelter use on the wane of the LGM. We propose that changing toolkits and subsistence base reflect changing foraging practices, from shorter-lived visits of highly mobile foraging bands in the period before the LGM, to intensified use of Batadomba-lena and intense foraging for diverse resources around the site during and, especially, following the LGM. Traces of ochre, marine shell beads and other objects from an 80 km-distant shore, and, possibly burials reflect symbolic practices from the outset of human presence at the rockshelter. Evidence for differentiated use of space (individual hearths, possible habitation structures) is present in LGM and terminal Pleistocene layers. The record of Batadomba-lena demonstrates that Late Pleistocene pathways to (aspects of) behavioural 'modernity' (composite tools, practice of symbolism and ritual, broad spectrum economy) were diverse and ecologically contingent. PMID:21777951

Perera, Nimal; Kourampas, Nikos; Simpson, Ian A; Deraniyagala, Siran U; Bulbeck, David; Kamminga, Johan; Perera, Jude; Fuller, Dorian Q; Szabó, Katherine; Oliveira, Nuno V

2011-09-01

205

A multi-locus species phylogeny of African forest duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae: evidence for a recent radiation in the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Background Duikers in the subfamily Cephalophinae are a group of tropical forest mammals believed to have first originated during the late Miocene. However, knowledge of phylogenetic relationships, pattern and timing of their subsequent radiation is poorly understood. Here we present the first multi-locus phylogeny of this threatened group of tropical artiodactyls and use a Bayesian uncorrelated molecular clock to estimate divergence times. Results A total of 4152 bp of sequence data was obtained from two mitochondrial genes and four nuclear introns. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis of concatenated mitochondrial, nuclear and combined datasets. A relaxed molecular clock with two fossil calibration points was used to estimate divergence times. The first was based on the age of the split between the two oldest subfamilies within the Bovidae whereas the second was based on the earliest known fossil appearance of the Cephalophinae and molecular divergence time estimates for the oldest lineages within this group. Findings indicate strong support for four major lineages within the subfamily, all of which date to the late Miocene/early Pliocene. The first of these to diverge was the dwarf duiker genus Philantomba, followed by the giant, eastern and western red duiker lineages, all within the genus Cephalophus. While these results uphold the recognition of Philantomba, they do not support the monotypic savanna-specialist genus Sylvicapra, which as sister to the giant duikers leaves Cephalophus paraphyletic. BEAST analyses indicate that most sister species pairs originated during the Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glacial cycling may have played an important role in the recent diversification of this group. Furthermore, several red duiker sister species pairs appear to be either paraphyletic (C.callipygus/C. ogilbyi and C. harveyi/C. natalensis) or exhibit evidence of mitochondrial admixture (C. nigrifrons and C. rufilatus), consistent with their recent divergence and/or possible hybridization with each other. Conclusions Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that Pleistocene-era climatic oscillations have played an important role in the speciation of this largely forest-dwelling group. Our results also reveal the most well supported species phylogeny for the subfamily to date, but also highlight several areas of inconsistency between our current understanding of duiker taxonomy and the evolutionary relationships depicted here. These findings may therefore prove particularly relevant to future conservation efforts, given that many species are presently regulated under the Convention for Trade in Endangered Species. PMID:22823504

2012-01-01

206

Last Glacial mammals in South America: a new scenario from the Tarija Basin (Bolivia).  

PubMed

The chronology, sedimentary history, and paleoecology of the Tarija Basin (Bolivia), one of the richest Pleistocene mammalian sites in South America, are revised here based on a multidisciplinary study, including stratigraphy, sedimentology, geomorphology, paleontology, isotope geochemistry, and (14)C geochronology. Previous studies have indicated a Middle Pleistocene age for this classic locality. We have been able to obtain a series of (14)C dates encompassing all the fossil-bearing sequences previously studied in the Tarija Basin. The dated layers range in age from about 44,000 to 21,000 radiocarbon years before present (BP), indicating that the Tarija fauna is much younger than previously thought. Glacial advances correlated to marine isotopic stages (MIS) 4 and 2 (ca. 62 and 20 ka BP, respectively) are also documented at the base and at the very top of the Tarija-Padcaya succession, respectively, indicating that the Bolivian Altiplano was not dry but sustained an ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum. The results of this multidisciplinary study enable us to redefine the chronological limits of the Tarija sequence and of its faunal assemblage and to shift this paleontological, paleoclimatological, and paleoecological framework to the time interval from MIS 4 to MIS 2. PMID:17180614

Coltorti, M; Abbazzi, L; Ferretti, M P; Iacumin, P; Rios, F Paredes; Pellegrini, M; Pieruccini, P; Rustioni, M; Tito, G; Rook, L

2007-04-01

207

Climate change and evolving human diversity in Europe during the last glacial.  

PubMed Central

A link between climate change and human evolution during the Pleistocene has often been assumed but rarely tested. At the macro-evolutionary level Foley showed for hominids that extinction, rather than speciation, correlates with environmental change as recorded in the deep sea record. Our aim is to examine this finding at a smaller scale and with high-resolution environmental and archaeological archives. Our interest is in changing patterns of human dispersal under shifting Pleistocene climates during the last glacial period in Europe. Selecting this time frame and region allows us to observe how two hominid taxa, Neanderthals and Crô-Magnons, adapted to climatic conditions during oxygen isotope stage 3. These taxa are representative of two hominid adaptive radiations, termed terrestrial and aquatic, which exhibited different habitat preferences but similar tolerances to climatic factors. Their response to changing ecological conditions was predicated upon their ability to extend their societies in space and time. We examine this difference further using a database of all available radiocarbon determinations from western Europe in the late glacial. These data act as proxies for population history, and in particular the expansion and contraction of regional populations as climate changed rapidly. Independent assessment of these processes is obtained from the genetic history of Europeans. The results indicate that climate affects population contraction rather than expansion. We discuss the consequences for genetic and cultural diversity which led to the legacy of the Ice Age: a single hominid species, globally distributed. PMID:15101580

Gamble, Clive; Davies, William; Pettitt, Paul; Richards, Martin

2004-01-01

208

Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)  

PubMed Central

Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ?1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

Klutsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

2012-01-01

209

Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou).  

PubMed

Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J

2012-01-01

210

First ancient DNA sequences from the Late Pleistocene red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Crimea, Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Pleistocene has been a period of significant population and species turnover and extinctions among the large mammal fauna. Massive climatic and environmental changes during Pleistocene significantly influenced the distribution and also genetic diversity of plants and animals. The model of glacial refugia and habitat contraction to southern peninsulas in Europe as areas for the survival of temperate animal species during unfavourable Pleistocene glaciations is at present widely accepted. However, both molecular data and the fossil record indicate the presence of northern and perhaps north-eastern refugia in Europe. In recent years, much new palaeontological data have been obtained in the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine, following extensive investigations. The red deer (Cervus elaphus) samples for aDNA studies were collected in Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave, situated on the north edge of Lower Plateau of the Chatyrdag Massif (Crimean Mountains). The cave is a vertical shaft, which functioned as a huge mega-trap over a long period of time (probably most of the Pleistocene). The bone assemblages provided about 5000 bones belonging to more than 40 species. The C. elaphus bones were collected from three different stratigraphical levels, radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method. The bone fragments of four specimens of red deer were used for the DNA isolation and analysis. The mtDNA (Cytochome b) was successfully isolated from three bone fragments and the cytochrome b sequences were amplified by multiplex PCR. The sequences obtained so far allowed for the reconstruction of only preliminary phylogenetic trees. A fragment of metatarsus from level dated to ca. 48,500±2,000 years BP, yielded a sequence of 513 bp, allowing to locate the specimen on the phylogenetic tree within modern C. elaphus specimens from southern and middle Europe. The second bone fragment, a fragment of mandible, collected from level dated approximately to ca. 33,500±400 years BP, yielded a sequence (696 bp) locating this specimen much closer to the modern C. elaphus specimens from China and Far East. From the third bone fragment (metatarsus), dated between ca. 12,000 years BP and 30,000 years BP, the sequence of only 346 bp has been obtained. It locates this specimen between European and Asiatic haplogroups. The preliminary results of analysis of the DNA from Crimean C. elaphus fossils reveal the great genetic heterogeneity and a complex phylogeographical pattern of the material studied. The obtained results support the opinion that Crimean Peninsula was the most north-eastern refugium in Europe during Late Pleistocene playing a major role in recolonization and dispersal processes of temperate species during and after the Late Pleistocene in this part of the Euro-Asian continent.

Stankovi?, Ana; Nadachowski, Adam; Doan, Karolina; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Baca, Mateusz; Socha, Pawe?; Wegle?ski, Piotr; Ridush, Bogdan

2010-05-01

211

Modeling the Global Monsoon System During Glacial Climate Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the comprehensive NCAR Community Climate System Model (version 3) to assess the state of the global monsoon system during specific time intervals of the last glacial period. In contrast to previous studies, we take into account changes in ice-sheet distribution, greenhouse-gas concentrations and orbital parameters for marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3, centered on 35 ka BP) and the last glacial maximum (LGM, centered on 21 ka BP). Both simulations result in a significant reduction of the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation as compared to modern conditions. Perturbing deep-water formation in the North Atlantic Ocean in these glacial baseline simulations results in explicit representations of Dansgaard-Oeschger-type stadials and interstadials as well as Heinrich-type events. LGM boundary conditions induce a large-scale drying in the West African monsoon region associated with a strengthening and southward shift of the African easterly jet. Through atmospheric dynamics, the effect of ice-sheets is rapidly communicated into a response of the Indian and South East Asian summer monsoon systems and the South American monsoon. Dansgaard-Oeschger-type stadial boundary conditions lead to a pronounced intensification of the African, Indian and South East Asian summer monsoon compared to the LGM. In the Dansgaard-Oeschger-type interstadial simulation, the response of all tropical monsoon systems is similar to the stadial simulation but exhibits a stronger amplitude. This suggests a predominance of the orbital and ice sheet forcing over the imposed Dansgaard-Oeschger climate variability. Furthermore, the hydrological response to the different glacial boundary conditions exhibits a strong seasonality and even suggests phase shifts in the annual cycle on a regional scale. Tropical inter-ocean basin teleconnections appear to be weakened during MIS3 stadials compared to the LGM as illustrated by a less pronounced covariation between tropical Atlantic hydrological conditions and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation in the eastern tropical Pacific.

Merkel, U.; Prange, M.; Schulz, M.

2009-04-01

212

Dynamics of the late Plio-Pleistocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet documented in subglacial diamictites, AND-1B drill core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic studies of sediment deposited by glaciers can provide crucial insights into the subglacial environment. We studied muddy diamictites in the ANtarctic geological DRILLing (ANDRILL) AND-1B drill core, acquired from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf in McMurdo Sound, with the aim of identifying paleo-ice stream activity in the Plio-Pleistocene. Glacial advances were identified from glacial surfaces of erosion (GSEs) and subglacial diamictites within three complete sequences were investigated using lithofacies associations, micromorphology, and quartz sand grain microtextures. Whereas conditions in the Late Pliocene resemble the modern Greenland Ice Sheet where fast flowing glaciers lubricated by surface meltwater terminate directly in the sea (interval 201-212 mbsl) conditions in the Late Pleistocene are similar to modern West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) ice streams (38-49 mbsl). We identify the latter from ductile deformation and high pore-water pressure, which resulted in pervasive rotation and formation of till pellets and low relief, rounded sand grains dominated by abrasion. In the transitional period during the Mid-Pleistocene (55-68 mbsf), a slow moving inland ice sheet deposited tills with brittle deformation, producing lineations and bi-masepic and unistrial plasma fabric, along with high relief, conchoidally fractured quartz grains. Changes in the provenance of gravel to cobble-size clasts support a distant source area of Byrd Glacier for fast-flowing paleo-ice streams and a proximal area between Darwin and Skelton Glaciers for the slow-moving inland ice sheet. This difference in till provenance documents a shift in direction of glacial flow at the core site, which indirectly reflects changes in the size and thickness of the WAIS. Hence, we found that fast ice streaming motion is a consequence of a thicker WAIS pushing flow lines to the west and introducing clasts from the Byrd Glacier source area to the drill site. The detailed analysis of diamictites in AND-1B demonstrates that Pliocene glacial intervals were warmer than in the Pleistocene when polar ice sheets grew from local inland ice to regional ice streams.

Cowan, Ellen A.; Christoffersen, Poul; Powell, Ross D.; Talarico, Franco M.

2014-08-01

213

Glacial-interglacial variations of microbial communities in permafrost and lake deposits in the Siberian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Artic regions are expected to be very sensitive to the currently observed climate change. When permafrost is thawing, the stored carbon becomes available again for microbial degradation, forming a potential source for the generation of carbon dioxide and methane with their positive feedback effect on the climate warming. For the prediction of future climate evolution it is, therefore, important to improve our knowledge about the microbial-driven greenhouse gas dynamics in the Siberian Arctic and their response to glacial-interglacial changes in the past. Sample material was drilled on Kurungnahk Island (Russian-German LENA expedition) located in the southern part of the Lena delta and in lake El'gygytgyn (ICDP-project) in the eastern part of Siberia. The Kurungnahk samples comprise Late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits, whereas the lake El'gygytgyn samples cover Middle to Late Pleistocene sediments. Samples were investigated applying a combined biogeochemical and microbiological approach. The methane profile of the Kurungnahk core reveals highest methane contents in the warm and wet Holocene and Late Pleistocene (LP) deposits and correlates largly to the organic carbon (TOC) contents. Archaeol concentrations, being a biomarker for past methanogenic archaea, are also high during the warm and wet Holocene and LP intervals and low during the cold and dry LP periods. This indicates that part of the methane might be produced and trapped in the past. However, biomarkers for living microorganisms (bacteria and archaea) and microbial activity measurements of methanogens point, especially, for the Holocene to a viable archaeal community, indicating a possible in-situ methane production. Furthermore, warm/wet-cold/dry climate cycles are recorded in the archaeal diversity as revealed by genetic fingerprint analysis. Although the overlying lake water buffers the temperature effect on the lake sediments, which never became permafrost, the bacterial and archaeal biomarker profiles from lake El'gygytgyn deposits reveal also a glacial-interglacial variability. A reason for this seems to be higher TOC contents during the interglacials forming the carbon and energy source for the indigenous microbial communities. Algae blooms during the interglacials are indicated by the biogenic silica profile. The variety of methanogenic archaea is higher during the interglacials and methane production experiments reveal a high potential for methane production during these periods. Thus, overall the data indicate production and subsequent release of methane from the lake during interglacial periods. However, occasionally higher biomarker contents for methanogens accompanied by significant methane production potentials during glacial periods suggest that lakes might also produce and release methane during glacial periods.

Mangelsdorf, Kai; Bischoff, Juliane; Gattinger, Andreas; Wagner, Dirk

2013-04-01

214

Comparison of glacial periods reveals systematic cold climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a global scale, major variations in Pleistocene temperatures correlate well with glacial-interglacial changes of northern hemisphere ice sheet sizes. While a discharge of icebergs from the ice sheets surrounding the polar North Atlantic region directly reflects the rates of growth and decay of the ice sheet margins at sea level, it is also the result of a rapidly changing climate which affected both the meridional overturning in the ocean and the pattern in ocean-atmosphere circulation. Ice cores and many deep-sea sediment records from this region have demonstrated such complex interrelations between these main environmental processes for the last glaciation (Weichselian). In ice cores, the millennial-scale climate variabilities of the Weichselian are recognized in both hemispheres, albeit with apparently a significant time lag between the southern and northern pole regions. Comparing records of iceberg discharge from the polar and subpolar North Atlantic now reveals a very similar millennial-scale variability between the Weichselian and the penultimate glaciation (Saalian) during which warmer, interstadial times alternated with rather cold polar conditions. Because cold conditions in the polar North were also time-coeval with enhanced aridity and atmospheric dust content (e.g. at least over northern Africa due to changes in the monsoon system), the glacial dust records of Antarctica, which extend back in time much farther than Greenland ice records, could be used to also make an interhemispheric climate comparison. For the last two glaciations such a comparison would indeed indicate a strong linkage between iceberg discharge events in the polar North and increased dust content in the atmosphere.

Bauch, Henning

2013-04-01

215

Overdeepenings in glacial systems: Processes and uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Glacial Overdeepening; Zurich, Switzerland, 20-21 April 2012 Glacially overdeepened valleys and basins are common features in high mountain belts and their forelands. These overdeepenings are of practical and scientific interest, representing sites of potential lake formation; influencing the dynamics and hydrology of ice masses; presenting opportunities for glacial and climate reconstruction; and raising management issues related to aggregate, groundwater, and hydrocarbon resources and radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories. Although the basic principles of glacial erosion are generally known, the formation of overdeepened valleys beneath glaciers and ice sheets remains incompletely understood.

Fischer, Urs H.; Haeberli, Wilfried

2012-08-01

216

Glacitectonic rafting and associated deformation of mid-Pleistocene glacigenic sediments, near Central Graben, central North Sea; results of a 2D High-Resolution Geophysical Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacitectonic rafts are defined as dislocated slabs of bedrock or unconsolidated sediments, transported from their original position by glacial action. These relatively thin, slab-like bodies feature transport distances ranging from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers. They occur as either single rafts, or multiple stacked bodies associated with a variety of ice-pushed landforms. Internally, rafts frequently appear undeformed although at a larger scale, they may be folded or cut by shear zones and brittle faults. However, the processes leading to the detachment, transport and subsequent emplacement of the rafts remain uncertain. This work describes the results of a geophysical 2D seismic survey of thrust-bound glacitectonic rafts and associated deformation structures, occurring within mid-Pleistocene glacigenic sediments of the Central Graben, central North Sea. The total shortened length of the rafted section is 2.4km, comprising a series of nine discrete rafts which individually range from 235m to 1018m in length. The principle basal detachment occurs at the erosive contact between Aberdeen Ground Formation and overlying Ling Bank Formation. The ice-proximal (northern) limit of rafting is defined by the presence of a large-scale palaeo-channel oriented perpendicular to the direction of rafting, composed of sediments of the Ling Bank Formation and the Forth Formation. The observed deformation structures infer a mean tectonic direction of 178°, indicating that they are associated with an active glacial advance from the north. The resulting deformation creates a minimum lateral shortening throughout the observed sequence of 35%, typifying a strongly compressional regieme associated with rafting. Throughout the surveyed area, structurally younger rafts are found to be emplaced towards the south, compared to the structurally older rafts which are emplaced towards the south-east. This distinction is suggested to be caused by early rafts creating an obstacle to transport for later stages of deformation, resulting in strike-slip basal detachment being associated with the later rafts. Localised distributions of high amplitude surfaces located adjacent to the primary detachment surface are identified through amplitude extraction techniques. These are indicative of migration and collection of gas along the inclined lower surfaces of rafted blocks. They represent a gas risk for drilling operations and demonstrate the significance and possible hazards of glacitectonic deformation to the exploration industry. A model for raft detachment and emplacement is proposed whereby; i) saturated sediments within the palaeo-channel are subject to pressurisation associated with overburden caused by over-riding ice, ii) elevated pore-water pressure develops along the principle detachment surface of the rafts, iii) early stages of deformation consist of ice-distal (southern) blocks becoming emplaced at relatively low angles of inclination, iv) with more proximal blocks accumulating as an imbricate thrust-stack sequence at relatively high angles of elevation. This interpretation suggests a significant subglacial hydrological control upon raft detachment and transport, with fluctuations between an extensional and compressive deformation regime caused by a switch from actively advancing glacial conditions to an oscillating ice-margin at this location. Tectono-stratigraphic evidence indicates that rafting occurring throughout the site is likely to be associated with a glacial advance of the Anglian (MIS 12).

Vaughan-Hirsch, David

2013-04-01

217

Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations on Mount Baker, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers on stratovolcanoes of the Pacific Northwest of North America offer opportunities for dating late Pleistocene and Holocene glacier advances because tephra and fossil wood are common in lateral moraines and in glacier forefields. We capitalize on this opportunity by examining the Holocene glacial record at Mount Baker, an active stratovolcano in northwest Washington. Earlier workers concluded that glaciers on Mount Baker during the early Holocene were more extensive than during the Little Ice Age and hypothesized that the explanation lay in unusual climatic or hypsometric effects peculiar to large volcanoes. We show that the main argument for an early Holocene glacier advance on Mount Baker, namely the absence of ca 10,000-year-old tephra on part of the south flank of the mountain, is incorrect. Moreover, a lake-sediment core indicates that a small cirque moraine previously thought be of early Holocene age is also likely older than the tephra and consequently of late Pleistocene age. Lateral and end moraines and wood mats ca 2 km downvalley of the present snout of Deming Glacier indicate that an advance during the Younger Dryas interval was little more extensive than the climactic Little Ice Age advance. Tephra and wood between tills in the left lateral moraine of Easton Glacier suggest that ice on Mount Baker was restricted in the early Holocene and that Neoglaciation began ca 6 ka. A series of progressively more extensive Neoglacial advances, dated to about 2.2, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.4 ka, are recorded by stacked tills in the right lateral moraine of Deming Glacier. Intervening retreats were long enough to allow establishment of forests on the moraine. Wood mats in moraines of Coleman and Easton glaciers indicate that Little Ice Age expansion began before 0.7 ka and was followed by retreat and a readvance ca 0.5 ka. Tree-ring and lichen data indicate glaciers on the south side of the mountain reached their maximum extents in the mid-1800s. The similarity between glacier fluctuations at Mount Baker and those elsewhere in the Cascades and in British Columbia suggests a coherent history of Holocene climate change over a broad area of the western Cordillera. We found no evidence that glaciers on stratovolcanoes behave differently than glaciers elsewhere.

Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Ryane, Chanone; Riedel, Jon; Clague, John J.; Koch, Johannes; Clark, Douglas; Scott, Kevin; Davis, P. Thompson

2012-08-01

218

Record of late Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation in the southern Cascade Range. I. Petrological evidence from lacustrine sediment in Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petrological and textural properties of lacustrine sediments from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, reflect changing input volumes of glacial flour and thus reveal a detailed glacial history for the southern Cascade Range between about 37 and 15 ka. Magnetic properties vary as a result of mixing different amounts of the highly magnetic, glacially generated detritus with less magnetic, more weathered detritus derived from unglaciated parts of the large catchment. Evidence that the magnetic properties record glacial flour input is based mainly on the strong correlation between bulk sediment particle size and parameters that measure the magnetite content and magnetic mineral freshness. High magnetization corresponds to relatively fine particle size and lower magnetization to coarser particle size. This relation is not found in the Buck Lake core in a nearby, unglaciated catchment. Angular silt-sized volcanic rock fragments containing unaltered magnetite dominate the magnetic fraction in the late Pleistocene sediments but are absent in younger, low magnetization sediments. The finer grained, highly magnetic sediments contain high proportions of planktic diatoms indicative of cold, oligotrophic limnic conditions. Sediment with lower magnetite content contains populations of diatoms indicative of warmer, eutrophic limnic conditions. During the latter part of oxygen isotope stage 3 (about 37-25 ka), the magnetic properties record millennial-scale variations in glacial-flour content. The input of glacial flour was uniformly high during the Last Glacial Maximum, between about 21 and 16 ka. At about 16 ka, magnetite input, both absolute and relative to hematite, decreased abruptly, reflecting a rapid decline in glacially derived detritus. The decrease in magnetite transport into the lake preceded declines in pollen from both grass and sagebrush. A more gradual decrease in heavy mineral content over this interval records sediment starvation with the growth of marshes at the margins of the lake and dilution of detrital material by biogenic silica and other organic matter.

Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Rapp, J.; Kerwin, M.W.; Bradbury, J.P.; Colman, S.; Adam, D.

2004-01-01

219

Towards understanding the role of the Bering Strait in the Plio-Pleistocene climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bering Strait is the gateway between Pacific and Arctic, plays an important role in global freshwater cycle and eventually influences on climate change. The glacial Pacific Ocean had well-ventilated and nutrient-depleted glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water (GNPIW) above ~2000 m. GNPIW is a thicker and more deeply penetrating water mass than today's North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). The source of GNPIW was likely in the Bering Sea based on neodymium isotope evidence. During Heinrich Event 1 in the early deglacial period, deep water extending to a depth of ~2500 m formed in the North Pacific. Modeling simulations suggest that a closed Bering Strait is essentially required for salinity built-up in the North Pacific to form the deep water. First opening of the Bering Strait was suggested to be in the latest Miocene and have repeated opening and closure by eustatic sea-level change associated with climate changes. However, our knowledge on the history about the opening/closure is limited due to lack of appropriate samples. During the IODP Expedition 323, Pliocene to Pleistocene marine sediment was continuously recovered from the Bering Sea. At the northern Bering continental slope sites (U1343 and U1344), the period with high abundance of diatom species Neodenticula seminae is terminated around 0.8-0.9 Ma, which appears to coincide with the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT). While Neodenticula seminae is an endemic and predominant diatom in the modern subarctic Pacific and the Aleutian basin of the Bering Sea, the occurrence of this species is reported from the sediments between 0.84 and 1.25 Ma in the northern North Atlantic. This suggests a significantly intensified Arctic Throughflow and adaptive environment for N. seminae production from the Bering Strait to the Greenland Sea during the MPT. The observations of hydrography and the modern re-appearance of this taxon since 1999 in the Labrador Sea due to the melting of the Arctic Sea ice also suggests the specific requirements by this species: low salinity and high dissolved silicon concentrations. During the glacial cycles of the last 800 kyr, a limited input of Pacific water into the Arctic Ocean or disconnection was suggested by decreased abundances of N. seminae. Furthermore, repeated abundance peaks of radiolarian species Cycladophora davisiana, indicating cold and well ventilated intermediate water, suggest enhancement of intermediate to deep water formation in the Bering Sea during glacial periods, when the Bering Strait was closed. This research used samples and data provided by the IODP. We acknowledge the IODP Expedition 323 Shipboard Scientists.

Okazaki, Y.; Onodera, J.; Teraishi, A.; Suto, I.

2011-12-01

220

Development of a glacially dominated shelf-slope-fan system in tectonically active southeast Alaska: Results of IODP Expedition 341 core-log-seismic integrated studies at glacial cycle resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision of the Yakutat microplate with North American formed the St. Elias Mountains in coastal Gulf of Alaska. While the tectonic driver for orogenesis has been ongoing since the Miocene, results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 suggests that direct climatic perturbation of active orogenesis through glacial erosion is non-linear. Geophysical studies of the glaciated continental margin, slope, and adjacent deep-sea Surveyor Fan allow examination of the glaciated orogen from source to sink. Using high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data and through comparison with other glaciated margins, we can identify key diagnostic seismic morphologies and facies indicative of glacial proximity and sediment routing. Expedition drilling results calibrated these images suggesting a timeline for initial advances of the Cordilleran ice sheet related glacial systems onto the shelf and a further timeline for the development of ice streams that reach the shelf edge. Comparisons can be made within this single margin between evolution of the tectonic-glacial system where erosion and sediment transport are occurring within a fold and thrust belt versus on a more stable shelf region. Onshore the Bering-Bagley glacial system in the west flows across the Yakataga fold and thrust belt, allowing examination of whether glacial erosion can cause tectonic feedbacks, whereas offshore the Bering-Bagley system interacts with the Pamplona Zone thrusts in a region of significant sediment accommodation. Results from Expedition 341 imply that timing of glacial advance to the shelf edge in this region may be driven by the necessity of filling up the accommodation through aggradation followed by progradation and thus is autogenic. In contrast the Malaspina-Hubbard glacial system to the east encountered significantly less accommodation and more directly responded to climatic forcing including showing outer shelf glacial occupation since the mid-Pleistocene transition-MPT to 100 kyr glacial-interglacial cycles. Examination of the sink for both of these systems, which includes the Surveyor Fan and Aleutian Trench wedge, demonstrates a clear climatic driver for sediment flux to the deep sea. The first appearance of ice-rafted debris at our distal drill site closely approximates the start of the Pleistocene and a doubling of sediment accumulation accompanies the MPT. Converting sediment volumes just within the deep-sea sinks back to erosion rates in the orogen and correlating with changes in exhumation rates from thermochronology demonstrates a lack of accelerated tectonic response to the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations at the start of the Pleistocene but increased shortening and exhumation of sediments at the MPT. The form of tectonic response differs between out-of-sequence thrusting or antiformal stacking within the fold and thrust belt to the west and a near vertical advection of material in a tectonic aneurysm in the core of the orogen to the east.

Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Mix, Alan; Swartz, John; Worthington, Lindsay; Reece, Robert

2014-05-01

221

Thermohaline Circulation Crisis and Changes Through the Mid-Pleistocene Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) marked a fundamental change in glacial-interglacial periodicity, transitioning from ~41,000 to 100,000 year cycles, accompanied by higher amplitude climate variability. It occurred without a significant change in orbital forcing, and thus its causes are poorly understood. We report major changes in the pre- and post-MPT mode of the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC), and a THC crisis during the MPT, from Nd isotopes in ODP Sites 1088 (~42S, 2082m) and 1090 (~43S, 3702m). The core locations are at the transition between the South Atlantic and the Southern oceans, a major gateway for the exchange of northern- and southern-sourced water masses. The new data show that in the ';40-kyr world' prior to the MPT, NADW export was strong during both interglacials and glacials. At ~900 ka the THC system underwent a major crisis, with an unprecedented weakening in NADW export during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 22-24. The recovery of the THC system in the post-MPT ';100-kyr world' is characterized by strong THC during interglacials, similar to pre-MPT interglacials, but much weaker THC during glacials. The ';THC crisis' interval includes MIS 23, which is unique as an interglacial where the THC operated in the same weak mode as post-MPT glacials. The MIS 22-24 interval has been recognized as a time of abrupt atmospheric pCO2 drawdown (Hoenisch et al. 2009) and significant cooling of ocean deep water, and Antarctic ice sheet expansion (Elderfield et al. Science 2012). Our data indicate that THC changes played an important role as a primary driving force, and helped to generate a series of positive feedbacks. This drastic change in deep-ocean circulation had important implications for the coeval drawdown of atmospheric pCO2, and the absence of a strong THC system through a glacial-to-interglacial-to-glacial cycle had a major impact on high latitude ice sheet growth. We suggest that the weak NADW export during MIS 24-22 resulted in reduced vertical exchange between Antarctic surface and deep waters, which helped to induce the drop in atmospheric pCO2, and in turn generated significant cooling which facilitated ice sheet expansion. These impacts were amplified by anomalously low Southern Hemisphere summer insolation during MIS 23, which resulted in suppressed ice sheet melting. Increased sea-ice coverage around the Antarctic continent during this time period may have generated increased AABW formation, which would have further drawn down CO2 from the atmosphere.

Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L.

2013-12-01

222

Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of fine-grained glacial till, northeastern Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Ground water chemistry, including environmental isotopes, indicate that significant recharge is occurring through a thick sequence of fine-grained glacial till. [delta]D and [delta] O-18 values correspond well with the current mean average annual values for precipitation at the site, and suggest that the entire glacial sequence, as well as the bedrock aquifer, has been completely recharged since the end of the Pleistocene. Bomb tritiated water is present to a depth of 20 feet, and possibly below 80 feet as well. This strongly suggests that macropore flow, perhaps via fractures, may be occurring. Nitrogen isotope analysis suggest that the nitrates at a depth of 37 feet have animal waste as their source. The age of the water in the upper 37 feet of the profile is therefore between 40 and 140 years, based on historical farming practices. In addition, major ion chemistry suggests that the upper clay rich till unit is acting as a semipermeable membrane and retarding the downward migration of most of the major ions. When compared to similar studies conducted in slightly different geologic settings, it can be concluded that recharge through fine-grained glacial materials may greatly vary.

Ferguson, V.R. (Bloomington, IN (United States). Geosciences Dept.); Fleming, A.H. (Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States)); Krothe, N.C.; Steen, W.J. (Division of Water, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1992-01-01

223

Surface exposure dating reveals MIS-3 glacial maximum in the Khangai Mountains of Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents results from geomorphological mapping and cosmogenic radionuclide dating (10Be) of moraine sequences at Otgon Tenger (3905 m), the highest peak in the Khangai Mountains (central Mongolia). Our findings indicate that glaciers reached their last maximum extent between 40 and 35 ka during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Large ice advances also occurred during MIS-2 (at ~ 23 and 17-16 ka), but these advances did not exceed the limits reached during MIS-3. The results indicate that climatic conditions during MIS-3, characterized by a cool-wet climate with a greater-than-today input from winter precipitation, generated the most favorable setting for glaciation in the study region. Yet, glacial accumulation also responded positively to the far colder and drier conditions of MIS-2, and again during the last glacial-interglacial transition when precipitation levels increased. Viewed in context of other Pleistocene glacial records from High Asia, the pattern of glaciation in central Mongolia shares some features with records from southern Central Asia and NE-Tibet (i.e. ice maxima during interstadial wet phases), while other features of the Mongolian record (i.e. major ice expansion during the MIS-2 insolation minimum) are more in tune with glacier responses known from Siberia and western Central Asia.

Rother, Henrik; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Fink, David; Nottebaum, Veit

2014-09-01

224

The Mid-Pliocene sea-level conundrum: Glacial isostasy, eustasy and dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining eustatic sea level during the Mid-Pliocene warm period (?3.3 to 2.9 Ma) has been a central but elusive goal in the study of past warm climates. Estimates of eustatic sea level based on geologic data span a broad range; variation that we now recognize is due in part to geographically varying post-depositional displacement caused by glacial isostatic adjustment and dynamic topography. In this study, we combine field observations and glacial isostatic adjustment modeling to estimate the dynamic topography signal in three areas that are important to paleo-sea level studies of the Mid-Pliocene warm period (South Africa, West Australia and southeastern United States). We show that dynamic topography played a significant role in the post-depositional displacement of Pliocene, and even younger Pleistocene, shorelines. In this regard, we provide a robust paleo-sea level elevation data set, corrected for glacial isostatic adjustment, that can be used to evaluate predictions from mantle flow models of dynamic topography.

Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M. J.; Inglis, J. D.

2014-02-01

225

Oscillating Sprinkler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oscillating Sprinkler: If you've thought about it for more than five seconds, you've probably wondered about the "oscillating" part of an oscillating sprinkler: What makes the arm go back and forth? In this edition of HowStuffWorks, you'll learn exactly how it happens!

Brain, Marshall.

2008-10-13

226

2, 711743, 2006 Glacial CO2  

E-print Network

CPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title Page Abstract Introduction CO2 change: a simple "hypsometric effect" on deep-ocean carbon sequestration? L. C. Skinner Godwin Scientist Award win- ners 2006 711 #12;CPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

JGR -Atmospheres Apr 2001 (in press) Effects of Glacial Meltwater in the GISS Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean  

E-print Network

-Ocean Model: Part I: North Atlantic Deep Water Response David Rind, 1 P. Demenocal, 2 Gary L. Russell, 1-ocean model. The results show a generally linear response in percentage North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW evidence exists that North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production has oscil- lated during the glacial age

228

Seismic characterization of glacial sediments in central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of compressional wave velocity (Vp) and shear wave velocity (Vs) acquired from fifteen boreholes in central Illinois using the standard surface-source downhole-receiver method was studied. The velocity logs were compared with lithologic logs and gamma-ray logs acquired from the same boreholes to: 1) better understand the Vp and Vs ranges and variations within glacial sediments, 2) determine whether characteristic seismic velocities could be resolved to distinguish among the three major Pleistocene glaciations of Wisconsin (WI), Illinois (IL), and pre-Illinois (PIL), and 3) examine velocity variations corresponding to heterogeneities in the sediments composing these three major units. Results showed that deposits composing these units had highly variable Vp and Vs values. Only the contact between deposits of the WI and IL episodes could be delineated by a corresponding slight decrease in Vp. Other than that, neither Vp nor Vs logs showed significant contrasts at the contacts between these units. Some individual sediment packages, or intraunits, exhibited distinctive velocity patterns in the study area and were identified more clearly from Vs than from Vp logs. These intraunits are Wisconsin tills (T), Vandalia till (GV) and Mahomet sand (BM).

Ismail, Ahmed; Stumpf, Andrew; Bauer, Robert

2014-02-01

229

Sea-level variability over five glacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on global ice-volume changes during Pleistocene glacial cycles is hindered by a lack of detailed sea-level records for time intervals older than the last interglacial. Here we present the first robustly dated, continuous and highly resolved records of Red Sea sea level and rates of sea-level change over the last 500,000 years, based on tight synchronization to an Asian monsoon record. We observe maximum ‘natural’ (pre-anthropogenic forcing) sea-level rise rates below 2?m per century following periods with up to twice present-day ice volumes, and substantially higher rise rates for greater ice volumes. We also find that maximum sea-level rise rates were attained within 2?kyr of the onset of deglaciations, for 85% of such events. Finally, multivariate regressions of orbital parameters, sea-level and monsoon records suggest that major meltwater pulses account for millennial-scale variability and insolation-lagged responses in Asian monsoon records.

Grant, K. M.; Rohling, E. J.; Ramsey, C. Bronk; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Florindo, F.; Heslop, D.; Marra, F.; Roberts, A. P.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Williams, F.

2014-09-01

230

Sea-level variability over five glacial cycles.  

PubMed

Research on global ice-volume changes during Pleistocene glacial cycles is hindered by a lack of detailed sea-level records for time intervals older than the last interglacial. Here we present the first robustly dated, continuous and highly resolved records of Red Sea sea level and rates of sea-level change over the last 500,000 years, based on tight synchronization to an Asian monsoon record. We observe maximum 'natural' (pre-anthropogenic forcing) sea-level rise rates below 2?m per century following periods with up to twice present-day ice volumes, and substantially higher rise rates for greater ice volumes. We also find that maximum sea-level rise rates were attained within 2?kyr of the onset of deglaciations, for 85% of such events. Finally, multivariate regressions of orbital parameters, sea-level and monsoon records suggest that major meltwater pulses account for millennial-scale variability and insolation-lagged responses in Asian monsoon records. PMID:25254503

Grant, K M; Rohling, E J; Ramsey, C Bronk; Cheng, H; Edwards, R L; Florindo, F; Heslop, D; Marra, F; Roberts, A P; Tamisiea, M E; Williams, F

2014-01-01

231

Episodic glacially derived thrusts: a case study from the central North Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive survey of 2D seismic in the central North Sea has revealed a series of thrusts within glacial sediments on the western flank of the Dogger Bank. The tectonic movement is evidenced by both imbricated thrust faults and 'pop-up' structures suggesting lateral compression of the sediment sequence. The closely spaced (100m) sparker profiles provide an opportunity to examine a glacial process whose geometry is normally difficult to assess from surface exposures. Initial studies suggest the thrusts extending to near seabed indicate eastward movement from one of two decollement surfaces located up to 200m below seabed. The structures affect sediments deposited since the Last Glacial Maximum (e.g. Bolders Bank Formation). However, the lower decollement surface is located with pre-glacial deltaic deposits and it is considered that hydrogeological controls have determined the surfaces upon which the movement occurs. The thrust structures are mapped over 100km2 with thrust planes 200-500m apart. Individual thrust planes have a width of up to 6km and may extend 2km upwards from the decollement surface to the seabed. They can be mapped in groups with slightly different alignments suggesting that the process causing these features to form was repeated several times, possibly at an oscillating ice-margin. The direction of movement is from the west, with ice belonging to the British and Irish Ice Sheet. The thrusting may have been caused by sub-glacial, ice marginal or pro-glacial processes, or a combination of these at a fluctuating ice-margin. Although the thrusts extend upwards to near seabed there is no apparent seabed morphological expression, suggesting that the expected topography of broad ridges aligned along the thrust surfaces has been eroded by later glacial or periglacial erosion or the subsequent Holocene marine transgression.

Cotterill, C.; Ruiter, A.; Dove, D.; Long, D.; James, L.; Forsberg, C.

2013-12-01

232

Evolution of ocean temperature and ice volume through the mid-Pleistocene climate transition.  

PubMed

Earth's climate underwent a fundamental change between 1250 and 700 thousand years ago, the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT), when the dominant periodicity of climate cycles changed from 41 thousand to 100 thousand years in the absence of substantial change in orbital forcing. Over this time, an increase occurred in the amplitude of change of deep-ocean foraminiferal oxygen isotopic ratios, traditionally interpreted as defining the main rhythm of ice ages although containing large effects of changes in deep-ocean temperature. We have separated the effects of decreasing temperature and increasing global ice volume on oxygen isotope ratios. Our results suggest that the MPT was initiated by an abrupt increase in Antarctic ice volume 900 thousand years ago. We see no evidence of a pattern of gradual cooling, but near-freezing temperatures occur at every glacial maximum. PMID:22879512

Elderfield, H; Ferretti, P; Greaves, M; Crowhurst, S; McCave, I N; Hodell, D; Piotrowski, A M

2012-08-10

233

Glacial and Postglacial Geologic History of Isle Royale National Park, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isle Royale was overridden by glacial ice during each of the four major glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch, and each successive glaciation essentially obliterated all direct evidence of preceding glaciations on the island. In the waning phase of the last major glaciation, the Wisconsin Glaciation, the frontal ice margin retreated northward from at least the greater part of the Lake Superior basin, then readvanced into the basin during Valders time, about 11,000 years ago. We can attribute to the Valders ice the final aspect of glaciation on Isle Royale, including both erosional and depositional features. It is impossible to estimate the quantity of glacial debris or other surficial materials that might have been present on Isle Royale prior to the Valders readvance, but the readvancing ice appears to have removed most of what might have been present, as judged by the thin surficial cover on the eastern two-thirds of the island today. During the Valders retreat, a series of lakes formed in the Lake Superior basin in front of the retreating ice margin. The retreating ice opened successively lower outlets, and thus the general trend of lake elevations is downward. Distinct lake stages reflect periods of relative stability during which well- defined shoreline features developed. The ice front forming the north margin of the earlier lakes probably remained south of Isle Royale until about the time of glacial Lake Beaver Bay, when it retreated to a position straddling Isle Royale west of Lake Desor. Abundant deposits of glacial debris were left upon the newly deglaciated west end of the island, and the ice front remained stable long enough to build a complex of ice-margin deposits across the island. Shorelines formed by the glacial lake associated with this ice front are found on the western part of the island about 200 feet above present Lake Superior. Subsequent renewed and complete retreat of the ice margin from Isle Royale was rapid enough that only a minor amount of glacial debris was deposited on the central and eastern parts of the island. When the ice margin reached the north edge of the Lake Superior basin, Lake Minong was formed, and the entire basin was filled for the first time since the Valders advance. Lake Minong marked a relatively stable episode in the history of the basin, and its beaches are among the best developed of the abandoned shoreline features on Isle Royale. Lake Minong beaches and later lower beaches are best developed on the southwest end of Isle Royale, where abundant glacial debris provided easily worked materials for beach construction.

Huber, N. King

1973-01-01

234

Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans.  

PubMed

One of the morphological features that has been identified as uniquely derived for the western Eurasian Neandertals concerns the relative sizes and positions of their semicircular canals. In particular, they exhibit a relatively small anterior canal, a relatively larger lateral one, and a more inferior position of the posterior one relative to the lateral one. These discussions have not included full paleontological data on eastern Eurasian Pleistocene human temporal labyrinths, which have the potential to provide a broader context for assessing Pleistocene Homo trait polarities. We present the temporal labyrinths of four eastern Eurasian Pleistocene Homo, one each of Early (Lantian 1), Middle (Hexian 1), and Late (Xujiayao 15) Pleistocene archaic humans and one early modern human (Liujiang 1). The labyrinths of the two earlier specimens and the most recent one conform to the proportions seen among western early and recent modern humans, reinforcing the modern human pattern as generally ancestral for the genus Homo. The labyrinth of Xujiayao 15 is in the middle of the Neandertal variation and separate from the other samples. This eastern Eurasian labyrinthine dichotomy occurs in the context of none of the distinctive Neandertal external temporal or other cranial features. As such, it raises questions regarding possible cranial and postcranial morphological correlates of Homo labyrinthine variation, the use of individual "Neandertal" features for documenting population affinities, and the nature of late archaic human variation across Eurasia. PMID:25002467

Wu, Xiu-Jie; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Liu, Wu; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

2014-07-22

235

Aeolian dust in East Antarctica (EPICA-Dome C and Vostok): Provenance during glacial ages over the last 800 kyr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian mineral dust archived in Antarctic ice cores represents a key proxy for Quaternary climate evolution. The longest and most detailed dust and climate sequences from polar ice are provided today by the Vostok and by the EPICA-Dome C (EDC) ice cores. Here we investigate the geographic provenance of dust windborne to East Antarctica during Early and Middle Pleistocene glacial ages using strontium and neodymium isotopes as tracers. The isotopic signature of Antarctic dust points towards a dominant South American origin during Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 8, 10, 12, and back to MIS 16 and 20 as deduced from EDC core. Data provide evidence for a persistent overall westerly circulation pattern allowing efficient transfer of dust from South America to the interior of Antarctica over the last 800 kyr. Some small but significant dissimilarity between old and recent glacial ages suggests a slightly reduced Patagonian contribution during ancient glaciations.

Delmonte, B.; Andersson, P. S.; Hansson, M.; Schöberg, H.; Petit, J. R.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Maggi, V.

2008-04-01

236

Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

Bogi?evi?, Katarina; Nenadi?, Draženko; Mihailovi?, Dušan

2012-02-01

237

Late Pleistocene marine transgression of North Slope coastal plain  

SciTech Connect

Two late Pleistocene marine transgressions of contrasting character are recorded by deposits of the Arctic coastal plain. Deposits of the oldest trangression extend from Harrison Bay west to near Barrow and contain a fauna that documents interglacial conditions. Five thermoluminescence (TL) dates on the marine deposits average 127 Ka and indicate a correlation with oxygen isotope stage 5e. Sedimentary structures characteristic of the swash zone occur at altitudes within the commonly accepted range (6 not equal 4m) for eustatic high sea level at that time, showing that this part of the coastal plain has been tectonically stable for the past 125,000 years. Deposits of the youngest transgression are glaciomarine sediments that contain ice-rafted erratics of Canadian provenance. They compose the flaxman member of the Gubik Formation and occur locally along the Beaufort Sea coast and inland to altitudes of about 7 m. TL dates on these sediments suggest that the Flaxman transgression occurred between 70 and 80 ka and is correlative with deposits dated to this interval that are exposed near sea level on the North Carolina coastal plain. However, the deep-sea oxygen-isotope record is commonly interpreted to indicate that sea level was below its modern position at that time. The present altitude of the Flaxman deposits cannot be attributed to tectonism because their distribution includes the part of the coastal plain determined to be tectonically stable for the past 125 ka. Isostatic depression and subsequent elevation are unlikely considering the correlative deposits of North Carolina. This paradox could be explained if enormous volumes of floating glacial ice were produced by the rapid breakup of a large part of the Laurentide ice sheet, and recent work indeed suggests that the Hudson Bay lowlands were ice free at this time.

Carter, L.D.

1985-04-01

238

The influence of Pleistocene refugia on the evolutionary history of the Japanese hare, Lepus brachyurus.  

PubMed

We performed a phylogeographic analysis of the Japanese hare, Lepus brachyurus, using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). In total, 119 haplotypes were recovered from 197 samples isolated from 82 localities on three main islands of the Japanese archipelago: Honshu, Sikoku, Kyushu, Sado Island and the Oki Islands. Results showed two distinct clades at a genetic distance of 3.5%, equivalent to an estimated 1.2 million years. The two clades, encompassing seven subclades, showed an apparent geographic affinity to Kyushu, Shikoku and the nearby area of Honshu (southern group) by one clade, whereas the other clade covered the remaining area of Honshu (northern group). The landscape shape interpolation analysis exhibited a higher genetic diversity in the southern parts of central Honshu (northern group) and Shikoku and Kyushu regions (southern group), suggesting the existence of multiple geographical origins of population expansion in each clade. The Bayesian skyline plot analysis showed that lineage diversifications occurred about 0.35, 0.20 and 0.05 million years ago (Mya), which coincide closely with the glacial-interglacial cycles during the Pleistocene. Therefore, we suggest that the Japanese hare population once inhabited northern and southern refugia, and subsequently developed several populations through local demographic fluctuations. The present day demarcation in the northern and southern geographic groups is considered to be a temporal remnant of Pleistocene population dynamics and the geographic boundary between them could move or fade away in time. PMID:20822403

Nunome, Mitsuo; Torii, Harumi; Matsuki, Rikyu; Kinoshita, Gohta; Suzuki, Hitoshi

2010-09-01

239

Timing and dynamics of Late Pleistocene mammal extinctions in southwestern Australia  

PubMed Central

Explaining the Late Pleistocene demise of many of the world's larger terrestrial vertebrates is arguably the most enduring and debated topic in Quaternary science. Australia lost >90% of its larger species by around 40 thousand years (ka) ago, but the relative importance of human impacts and increased aridity remains unclear. Resolving the debate has been hampered by a lack of sites spanning the last glacial cycle. Here we report on an exceptional faunal succession from Tight Entrance Cave, southwestern Australia, which shows persistence of a diverse mammal community for at least 100 ka leading up to the earliest regional evidence of humans at 49 ka. Within 10 millennia, all larger mammals except the gray kangaroo and thylacine are lost from the regional record. Stable-isotope, charcoal, and small-mammal records reveal evidence of environmental change from 70 ka, but the extinctions occurred well in advance of the most extreme climatic phase. We conclude that the arrival of humans was probably decisive in the southwestern Australian extinctions, but that changes in climate and fire activity may have played facilitating roles. One-factor explanations for the Pleistocene extinctions in Australia are likely oversimplistic. PMID:21127262

Prideaux, Gavin J.; Gully, Grant A.; Couzens, Aidan M. C.; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Jankowski, Nathan R.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G.; Hellstrom, John C.; Gagan, Michael K.; Hatcher, Lindsay M.

2010-01-01

240

The role of Pleistocene refugia and rivers in shaping gorilla genetic diversity in central Africa  

PubMed Central

The role of Pleistocene forest refugia and rivers in the evolutionary diversification of tropical biota has been the subject of considerable debate. A range-wide analysis of gorilla mitochondrial and nuclear variation was used to test the potential role of both refugia and rivers in shaping genetic diversity in current populations. Results reveal strong patterns of regional differentiation that are consistent with refugial hypotheses for central Africa. Four major mitochondrial haplogroups are evident with the greatest divergence between eastern (A, B) and western (C, D) gorillas. Coalescent simulations reject a model of recent east–west separation during the last glacial maximum but are consistent with a divergence time within the Pleistocene. Microsatellite data also support a similar regional pattern of population genetic structure. Signatures of demographic expansion were detected in eastern lowland (B) and Gabon/Congo (D3) mitochondrial haplogroups and are consistent with a history of postglacial expansion from formerly isolated refugia. Although most mitochondrial haplogroups are regionally defined, limited admixture is evident between neighboring haplogroups. Mantel tests reveal a significant isolation-by-distance effect among western lowland gorilla populations. However, mitochondrial genetic distances also correlate with the distance required to circumnavigate intervening rivers, indicating a possible role for rivers in partitioning gorilla genetic diversity. Comparative data are needed to evaluate the importance of both mechanisms of vicariance in other African rainforest taxa. PMID:18077351

Anthony, Nicola M.; Johnson-Bawe, Mireille; Jeffery, Kathryn; Clifford, Stephen L.; Abernethy, Kate A.; Tutin, Caroline E.; Lahm, Sally A.; White, Lee J. T.; Utley, John F.; Wickings, E. Jean; Bruford, Michael W.

2007-01-01

241

Pleistocene glaciations and polyphyletic origins of polyploidy in an arctic cladoceran  

PubMed Central

RFLP analysis of the ND4-ND5 genes of the mtDNA genome in Daphnia middendorffiana and three closely allied species was used to investigate its origin and age. Populations of D. middendorffiana from arctic Canada were found to possess three distinct mtDNA lineages, only one of which appears unique to this species. The other two mtDNA lineages are either closely allied or identical to haplotypes in D. pulicaria, suggesting that it is the maternal parent of many clones of D. middendorffiana. Within D. pulicaria, mtDNA lineages have largely disjunct distributions, suggesting that populations of this species persisted in three glacial refugia (arctic, western, eastern) during the Pleistocene. Hybridizations between these refugial stocks and other species such as D. melanica and D. pulex likely generated many of the polyploid lineages of D. middendorffiana following the Wisconsinan glaciation. The presence of one unique mtDNA lineage in D. middendorffiana suggests that at least some of its clones are more ancient, but further studies are needed to rule out the possibility of their recent derivation from an as yet undetected sexual species. As a general result, this study suggests that polyploid cladocerans are unlikely to predate the Pleistocene.

Dufresne, F.; Hebert, P. D. N.

1997-01-01

242

Millennial-scale climate variability during the mid-Pleistocene transition period in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes of foraminiferal multispecies (surface dwelling Globigerinoides ruber, thermocline dwelling Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and benthic Uvigerina peregrina) and Mg/Ca ratios of G. ruber shells were analyzed with an average time resolution of ˜370 yr for reconstructing the orbital- and millennial-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon and associated upper water structure during the mid-Pleistocene period of 800-1060 ka at ODP Site 1144 in the northern South China Sea (SCS). It has been found that generally the sea surface temperature (SST) were lower and the depth of thermocline (DOT) was deeper during glacial stages and vice versa during interglacial stages, indicating a strengthened winter monsoon and weakened summer monsoon during glacial stages. The sea surface salinity (SSS) was relatively lower during glacials, induced by the greatly reduced distance of this site to the shore during times of low sea level. Further, spectral analyses have revealed significant semi-precessional and/or precessional cycles in the planktic ?18O, SST and the proxies of SSS and DOT, showing the typical characteristics of tropical climate change. This means that during the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT) period the East Asian monsoon evolution and associated changes of upper water column structure in the northern SCS were probably driven partly by tropical forcing, like in the southern SCS, and should not be related only to the high latitude ice sheet changes. Particularly, millennial-scale climate fluctuations (mainly ˜1.4 kyr cycle) were found to exist throughout the glacial and interglacial stages during the MPT period in the northern SCS, but slightly different from the sawtooth-like D/O events recorded in late Quaternary Greenland ice cores. During the mid-Pleistocene terminations, the SST warming was synchronous with the northern ice sheet retreat, indicated by benthic ?18O, in the northern SCS, which is consistent to the previous findings in the late Quaternary SCS and apparently different from that in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, providing new insights into the studies of East Asian monsoon evolution and rapid climate change.

Jin, Haiyan; Jian, Zhimin

2013-06-01

243

Southeast Asian primate communities: the effects of ecology and Pleistocene refuges on species richness.  

PubMed

We examined historical and ecological factors affecting current primate biodiversity in Southeast Asia. In Africa, Madagascar and South America, but not Southeast Asia, primate species richness is positively associated with average rainfall and distance from the equator (latitude). We predicted that Southeast Asia's non-conformance may be due to the effect of dispersed Pleistocene refuges (locations of constricted tropical forests during glacial maxima which today are at least 305 m in altitude). Based on 45 forested sites (13 on large islands; 32 on the mainland) of at least 100 km(2) to minimize recent human impact, we determined correlations between extant primate species richness and rainfall, latitude and supplementary ecological variables, while controlling for refuges and islands. We found that refuge sites had significantly higher primate species richness than non-refuges (t = -2.76, P < 0.05), and distance from the nearest Pleistocene refuge was negatively correlated with species richness for non-refuge sites (r = -0.51, P < 0.05). There was no difference in species richness between sites on large islands and the mainland (t = -1.4, P = 0.16). The expected positive relationship between rainfall and species richness was not found (r = 0.17, P = 0.28). As predicted, primate species richness was negatively correlated with latitude (r = -0.39, P < 0.05) and positively correlated with mean temperature (r = 0.45, P < 0.05). General linear models indicated that a site's latitude (F1,38 = 6.18, P < 0.05) and Pleistocene refuge classification (F1,42 = 5.96, P < 0.05) were the best predictors of species richness. Both ecological and historical factors contribute to present day primate species richness in Southeast Asia, making its biodiversity less of an outlier than previously believed. PMID:24344966

Hassel-Finnegan, Heather; Borries, Carola; Zhao, Qing; Phiapalath, Phaivanh; Koenig, Andreas

2013-12-01

244

Stratigraphic framework of a late pleistocene shelf-edge delta, northeast Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Lithologic, biostratrigraphic, and chronostratigraphic data from a 92-m continuous surface boring, in the Main Pass area of the outer Mississippi-Alabama shelf, were used to calibrate high-resolution seismic profiles in a study of a late Pleistocene shelf-edge delta. The boring is the first of its kind through a shelf-edge clinoform wedge and the first [open quotes]ground-truth[close quotes] confirmation that the clinoforms in the study area are deltaic in origin. Chronologic control for the late Pleistocene outer shelf stratigraphy is based on the identification of Ericson Zones X, Y, and Z (alternating warm and cold water planktonic foraminifera zones) in the boring, representing at least the last 130 k.y. During sea level lowering related to the previous glacial maximum, the delta system prograded onto a carbonate-rich outer shelf and upper slope starved of terrigenous sediments. The ancestral Mobile River, possibly joined by the Pascagoula River, was the fluvial feeder of the shelf-edge delta. The upper portion of the delta wedge is extensively eroded, primarily by a broad swath of significant fluvial scour centered along the northeast- to southwest-oriented dip axis of the delta, and to a lesser extent by subsequent transgressive truncation. Fluvial scour resulted in a broad erosional trough filled with fluvial and estuarine facies. Thin estuarine and overlying marine units reflect transgression of the Lagniappe delta during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transgression. According to standard sequence stratigraphic definitions, the extent of the sequence boundary, identified as the erosional base of the fluvial facies, places the majority of the outer shelf delta in the highstand systems tract. The portion of the delta thus categorized as highstand was built during the falling to lowstand minimum part of the relative sea level curve. 64 refs., 18 figs.

Sydow, J.; Roberts, H.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-08-01

245

Geographic and temporal trends in proboscidean and human radiocarbon histories during the late Pleistocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The causes of large animal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene remain a hotly debated topic focused primarily on the effects of human over hunting and climate change. Here we examine multiple, large radiocarbon data sets for humans and extinct proboscideans and explore how variation in their temporal and geographic distributions were related prior to proboscidean extinction. These data include 4532 archaeological determinations from Europe and Siberia and 1177 mammoth and mastodont determinations from Europe, Siberia, and North America. All span the period from 45,000 to 12,000 calendar years BP. We show that while the geographic ranges of dated human occupations and proboscidean remains overlap across the terminal Pleistocene of the Old World, the two groups remain largely segregated and increases in the frequency of human occupations do not coincide with declines in proboscidean remains. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ca 21,000 years BP), archaeological 14C determinations increase slightly in frequency worldwide while the frequency of dated proboscidean remains varies depending on taxon and location. After the LGM, both sympatric and allopatric groups of humans and proboscideans increase sharply as climatic conditions ameliorate. Post-LGM radiocarbon frequencies among proboscideans peak at different times, also depending upon taxon and location. Woolly mammoths in Beringia reach a maximum and then decline beginning between 16,000 and 15,500 years BP, woolly mammoths in Europe and Siberia ca 14,500 and 13,500 BP, and Columbian mammoth and American mastodont only after 13,000 BP. Declines among woolly mammoths appear to coincide with the restructuring of biotic communities following the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

Ugan, Andrew; Byers, David

2007-12-01

246

Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate and geomorphic histories as interpreted from a 23,000 14C yr B.P. paleosol and floodplain soils, southeastern West Virginia, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field, micromorphological, pollen, whole soil (XRF), and stable isotope geochemical methods were used to evaluate the latest Pleistocene to Holocene climate record from a floodplain-terrace system in southeastern West Virginia. A late Pleistocene (22,940 ± 150 14C yr B.P.) silt paleosol with low-chroma colors formed from fluviolacustrine sediment deposited during the last glacial maximum (Wisconsinan) and records a cooler full-glacial paleoclimate. Fluvial gravel deposited between the latest Pleistocene and earliest Holocene (prior to 6360 ± 40 14C yr B.P.) was weathered in the middle Holocene under warmer, drier climate conditions, possibly correlated with the Hypsithermal and Altithermal Events of the eastern and southwestern United States, respectively. The glacial to interglacial climate shift is recorded by: (1) changes from a poorly drained landscape with fine-textured soil, characterized by high organic C and redoximorphic features related to Fe removal and concentration, to a well-drained, coarse-textured setting without gley and with significant argillic (Bt) horizon development; (2) changes from a high Zr and Ti silt-dominated parent material to locally derived, coarse fluvial gravels lower in Zr and Ti; (3) a shift from dominantly conifer and sedge pollen in the paleosol to a modern oak/hickory hardwood assemblage; and (4) a shift in ? 13C values of soil organic matter from -28‰ to -24‰ PDB, suggesting an ecosystem shift from cooler, C3-dominated flora to one that was mixed C3 and C4, but still predominantly composed of C3 plants. A root-restrictive placic horizon developed between the late Pleistocene silt paleosol and the overlying fluvial gravel because of the high permeability contrast between the two textures of soil materials. This layer formed a barrier that effectively isolated the Pleistocene paleosol from later Holocene pedogenic processes.

Driese, Steven G.; Li, Zheng-Hua; Horn, Sally P.

2005-03-01

247

Neurodynamic oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.

Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz

1995-01-01

248

Molluscs and ostracods of the Pleistocene loess deposits in the Halych site (Western Ukraine) and their significance for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle and Late Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequence (MIS 12-MIS 2) from the Halych site has been divided into four loess beds, which represent different glacial periods and contain four interglacial pedocomplexes, as well as numerous interstadial and interphase palaeosols. Long-term interdisciplinary research, which has been conducted in this site, enables the detailed description of deposit lithology and precise determination of stratigraphic position of individual layers. Rich and diverse malacofauna occurs in loess deposits representing cold stages - MIS 12, MIS 8 and MIS 4-2. Seven molluscan assemblages of diverse composition and structure have been distinguished. Additionally ostracod fauna from the deposits representing MIS 8 is described. Faunal investigations enable the reconstruction of environmental changes during deposition of the studied sequence. The obtained results indicate that the Halych site may be considered as very important not only for the reconstruction of the Pleistocene geological history in western Ukraine but also for the studies of environmental conditions during the Middle and Late Pleistocene in the whole of Central and Eastern Europe.

Alexandrowicz, Witold Pawe?; ?anczont, Maria; Boguckyj, Andriy B.; Kulesza, Piotr; Dmytruk, Roman

2014-12-01

249

Pliocene-Pleistocene diatom biostratigraphy of nearshore Antarctica from the AND-1B drillcore, McMurdo Sound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-shore open-marine diatom record recovered in the ANtarctic geological DRILLing (ANDRILL) McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (MIS) AND-1B drillcore, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, advances our understanding of the marine conditions present in the southern Ross Sea during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene. This diatom history is recorded within alternating diamictite and diatomite that reflect alternating glacial activity and high marine primary productivity. The diatomite units were deposited in a continental shelf open-marine setting during periods of reduced ice cover in West Antarctica. A new diatom biostratigraphic scheme spanning the last ca. 5 Ma is proposed for the Antarctic near-shore area, based on prior work from high latitude drillcores. Four new zones are proposed for the Pliocene/Pleistocene, with eight in total for the new zonal scheme, utilizing Actinocylus fasciculatus, Actinocyclus maccollumii, Fragilariopsis bohatyii, Rouxia antarctica, and Thalassiosira fasciculata as new zonal markers. The early Pliocene shares the most assemblage commonality with that of the Southern Ocean with greater numbers of endemic species observed in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene; a group of related Fragilaripsis species characterizes much of this later part of the time column. Two new species are proposed, Fragilariopsis tigris sp. nov. Riesselman and Thalassiosira teres sp. nov. Winter; a formal name is also proposed for another species, Rhizosolenia harwoodii sp. nov. Winter. The new zonation is tied to a robust chronology utilizing diatom biostratigraphy, volcanic 40Ar/39Ar ages and magnetostratigraphy.

Winter, D.; Sjunneskog, C.; Scherer, R.; Maffioli, P.; Riesselman, C.; Harwood, D.

2012-10-01

250

Sensitivity simulations with direct shortwave radiative forcing by aeolian dust during glacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible feedback effects between aeolian dust, climate and ice sheets are studied for the first time with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity over the late Pleistocene period. Correlations between climate and dust deposition records suggest that aeolian dust potentially plays an important role for the evolution of glacial cycles. Here climatic effects from the dust direct radiative forcing (DRF) caused by absorption and scattering of solar radiation are investigated. Key elements controlling the dust DRF are the atmospheric dust distribution and the absorption-scattering efficiency of dust aerosols. Effective physical parameters in the description of these elements are varied within uncertainty ranges known from available data and detailed model studies. Although the parameters can be reasonably constrained, the simulated dust DRF spans a~wide uncertainty range related to the strong nonlinearity of the Earth system. In our simulations, the dust DRF is highly localized. Medium-range parameters result in negative DRF of several watts per square metre in regions close to major dust sources and negligible values elsewhere. In the case of high absorption efficiency, the local dust DRF can reach positive values and the global mean DRF can be insignificantly small. In the case of low absorption efficiency, the dust DRF can produce a significant global cooling in glacial periods, which leads to a doubling of the maximum glacial ice volume relative to the case with small dust DRF. DRF-induced temperature and precipitation changes can either be attenuated or amplified through a feedback loop involving the dust cycle. The sensitivity experiments suggest that depending on dust optical parameters, dust DRF has the potential to either damp or reinforce glacial-interglacial climate changes.

Bauer, E.; Ganopolski, A.

2014-07-01

251

Pleistocene effects on North American songbird evolution  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have used comparisons of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence divergence among populations and species to test existing hypotheses about avian evolution during the Pleistocene epoch. In 1998, Avise and Walker concluded that the Pleistocene was an important time for avian evolution, including the initiation of phylogeographic separations and the completion of speciation events that began in the Pliocene. The study implied that these conclusions conflicted with the study, in 1997, by Klicka and Zink, which concluded that most species pairs previously thought to have originated in the past 250 000 years were much older. The two studies are complementary in the sense that Avise and Walker dealt primarily with phylogeographic (intraspecific) separations. Furthermore, Klicka and Zink concentrated on the inception of divergences whereas the Avise and Walker focused on the timing of the completion of speciation. To accomplish this, Avise and Walker analysed 'phylogroups', geographically coherent subsets of biological species in which mtDNA haplotypes exhibit reciprocal monophyly. The study used the average interphylogroup mtDNA distance (0.027), calibrated at 2% per million years, to conclude that speciation required on average one million years to complete. Hence, speciation events begun in the Late Pliocene would have been completed in the mid- to late Pleistocene. Although we appreciate the extended nature of the speciation process and Avise and Walker's insightful attempt to estimate its duration, we conclude that their value was an overestimate by a factor of two. In particular we question whether phylogroups can be used in the novel evolutionary role that Avise and Walker envisioned, because of the vagaries of taxonomic practices and lack of consensus regarding species concepts. To extend their analysis of intraspecific, phylogeographic separations, we compiled previously analysed and newly available data for divergence times for North American songbird (order Passeriformes) phylogroups. More than 80% were initiated at least one million years ago, which is inconsistent with the late Pleistocene origins model previously rejected by Klicka and Zink mentioned above. Although some divergence events can be traced to the late Pleistocene, the significance of the distribution must be judged with reference to a null model. Whether the Pleistocene was a profound time for avian phylogeographic differentiation is at present unknown.

Klicka, J.; Zink, R. M.

1999-01-01

252

Glacial Evidence in the Andes Mountains, Peru  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise brings the students to a landscape in the Peruvian Andes in Google Earth, where some alpine and niche glaciers still exist. Their task is to determine glacial extent in the past, and infer the kind of glacier(s) that had existed in the area. In order to answer the question, students need to identify the current ice extent, approximate the equilibrium line altitude based on dirty vs white ice (or the firn line, if visible) in summer time imagery, and document glacial landforms. They also need to recognize the correspondence between elevation and ice extent. Key words: glaciers, glacial landforms, Google Earth

Hasbargen, Les

253

Isotopic composition of old ground water from Lake Agassiz: Implications for late Pleistocene climate  

SciTech Connect

A uniform oxygen isotope value of -25 per mil was obtained from old ground water at depths of 20 to 30 meters in a thick deposit of clay in the southern part of the glacial Lake Agassiz basin. The lake occupied parts of North Dakota and southern Manitoba at the end of the last glacial maximum and received water from the ice margin and the interior plains region of Canada. Ground water from thick late Pleistocene-age clay deposits elsewhere, a till in southern Saskatchewan, and a glaciolacustrine deposit in northern Ontario show the same value at similar depths. These sites are at about 50[degrees]N latitude, span a distance of 2000 kilometers, and like the Lake Agassiz sites, have a ground-water velocity of less than a few millimeters per year. The value of -25 per mil is characteristic of meltwater impounded in the southern basin of Lake Agassiz. This value corresponds to an estimated air temperature of -16[degrees]C, compared with the modern temperature of 0[degrees]C for this area. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Remenda, V.H.; Cherry, J.A.; Edwards, T.W.D. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1994-12-23

254

The Pleistocene archaeology and environments of the Wasiriya Beds, Rusinga Island, Kenya.  

PubMed

Western Kenya is well known for abundant early Miocene hominoid fossils. However, the Wasiriya Beds of Rusinga Island, Kenya, preserve a Pleistocene sedimentary archive with radiocarbon age estimates of >33-45 ka that contains Middle Stone Age artifacts and abundant, well-preserved fossil fauna: a co-occurrence rare in eastern Africa, particularly in the region bounding Lake Victoria. Artifacts and fossils are associated with distal volcanic ash deposits that occur at multiple localities in the Wasiriya Beds, correlated on the basis of geochemical composition as determined by electron probe microanalysis. Sediment lithology and the fossil ungulates suggest a local fluvial system and associated riparian wooded habitat within a predominantly arid grassland setting that differs substantially from the modern environment, where local climate is strongly affected by moisture availability from Lake Victoria. In particular, the presence of oryx (Oryx gazella) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) suggest a pre-Last Glacial Maximum expansion of arid grasslands, an environmental reconstruction further supported by the presence of several extinct specialized grazers (Pelorovis antiquus, Megalotragus sp., and a small alcelaphine) that are unknown from Holocene deposits in eastern Africa. The combination of artifacts, a rich fossil fauna, and volcaniclastic sediments makes the Wasiriya Beds a key site for examining the Lake Victoria basin, a biogeographically important area for understanding the diversification and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa, whose pre-Last Glacial Maximum history remains poorly understood. PMID:20880570

Tryon, Christian A; Tyler Faith, J; Peppe, Daniel J; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Jenkins, Kirsten; Dunsworth, Holly; Harcourt-Smith, Will

2010-12-01

255

Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

2007-09-01

256

Rapid thinning of the late Pleistocene Patagonian Ice Sheet followed migration of the Southern Westerlies  

PubMed Central

Here we present the first reconstruction of vertical ice-sheet profile changes from any of the Southern Hemisphere's mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. We use cosmogenic radio-nuclide (CRN) exposure analysis to record the decay of the former Patagonian Ice Sheet (PIS) from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and into the late glacial. Our samples, from mountains along an east-west transect to the east of the present North Patagonian Icefield (NPI), serve as ‘dipsticks' that allow us to reconstruct past changes in ice-sheet thickness, and demonstrates that the former PIS remained extensive and close to its LGM extent in this region until ~19.0?ka. After this time rapid ice-sheet thinning, initiated at ~18.1?ka, saw ice at or near its present dimension by 15.5?ka. We argue this rapid thinning was triggered by a combination of the rapid southward migration of the precipitation bearing Southern Hemisphere (SH) westerlies and regional warming. PMID:23817136

Boex, J.; Fogwill, C.; Harrison, S.; Glasser, N. F.; Hein, A.; Schnabel, C.; Xu, S.

2013-01-01

257

Vegetation and climate changes in western Amazonia during a previous Interglacial- Glacial transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonia is one of the most biodiverse areas of the world and its vegetation plays a crucial role in controlling the global climate through the regulation of the levels of atmospheric CO2. However, Amazonian ecosystems and their role in the climate system are threatened by ongoing the human impact (already estimated loss of 60% of the species in western Amazonia) and predicted climate change (+1.1-6.4oC by 2100). Unfortunately, there is absence of data relating to the ecological baseline function and response to global climate change of western Amazonian ecosystems in the absence of humans. To help anticipate the impact of future climate change predictions an improved understanding of the natural responses of tropical vegetation to known past climate change is required. Here we present the first study that shows the response of pristine tropical ecosystems in western Amazonia biodiversity hotspot to a major global climate change event (a Quaternary Interglacial-Glacial transition). Pleistocene lake/swamp sediments preserved at the Erazo study site (Lat. 00o 33’S, Long. 077o 52’W, 1927m alt.) today within tropical cloud forest vegetation provide a unique opportunity to examine the impact of past climate shifts. The sediment are >40,000 years old (radiocarbon infinite) and younger than 1 million years (presence of Alder biomarker) and consist of organic layers interbedded with volcanic ash (tephra). This study presents data from multiple proxies (fossil pollen, wood macrofossils and charcoal) to establish a comprehensive picture of regional and local vegetation change prior to human arrival. Our data show a change of vegetation from palm-dominated forest indicative of warm and wet conditions similar to the present at the base of this record, to a forest dominated by Podocarpus sp. suggesting cold and wet conditions at the top of the record. The transition between these two vegetation communities appears to be progressive with small sharp changes along the ecological succession. Fire activity appears to be minor through the record associated only with volcanic events (tephra layers). We conclude that western Amazonian vegetation was effected by Pleistocene global climate change. The Erazo record shows the progression of the vegetation from warm/wet Interglacial-like period similar to the present, to a colder and wetter Glacial-like period. This magnitude of change agrees with similar magnitude changes inferred for the last glacial-interglacial transition at 14,700-9,000 calendar years BP. We also establish for the first time that no natural fire occurred in western Amazonia in the absence of humans, under interglacial or glacial conditions, without volcanic eruptions acting as a source of ignition.

Cardenas, M. L.; Gosling, W. D.; Sherlock, S. C.; Poole, I.; Pennington, R. T.

2009-12-01

258

Paleoecology of central Kentucky since the last glacial maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen grains and spores, plant macrofossils, and sponge spicules from a 7.2-m sediment core from Jackson Pond dating back to 20,000 yr B.P. are the basis for new interpretations of vegetational, limnological, and climatic changes in central Kentucky. During the full-glacial interval (20,400 to 16,800 yr B.P.) upland vegetation was closed spruce forest with jack pine as a subdominant. Aquatic macrophyte and sponge assemblages indicate that the site was a relatively deep, open pond with low organic productivity. During late-glacial time (16,800 to 11,300 yr B.P.) spruce populations continued to dominate while jack pine declined and sedge increased as the vegetation became a more open, taiga-like boreal woodland. Between 11,300 and 10,000 yr B.P., abundances of spruce and oak pollen oscillated reciprocally, possibly reflecting the Younger Dryas oscillation as boreal taxa underwent a series of declines and increases at the southern limit of their ranges before becoming extirpated and replaced by deciduous forest. In the early Holocene (10,000 to 7300 yr B.P.) a mesic deciduous woodland developed; it was replaced by xeric oak-hickory forest during the middle Holocene between 7300 and 3900 yr B.P. Grass increased after 3900 yr B.P., indicating that the presettlement vegetation mosaic of mixed deciduous forest and prairie (the "Kentucky Barrens") became established in central Kentucky after the Hypsithermal interval. Sponge spicules increased in number during the Holocene, reflecting reduced water depths in the pond. Sediment infilling, as well as climatic warming and the expansion of fringing shrub thickets, increased nutrient and habitat availability for freshwater sponges.

Wilkins, Gary R.; Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.; Harrison, Frederick W.; Turner, Manson R.

1991-09-01

259

The Idea of Marine Exogenic Processes in Glacial and Contemporary Periods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ideas of exogenic processes on continental margin and in the open ocean of polar and moderate latitudes are based on the leading role of quaternary glaciation. Vast primary bottom relief and quaternary sediments' data, accumulated by the Russian marine research institutes, provided a possibility to have a new view on geomorphology formation of the North Atlantic, Norwegian - Greenland basins, West Arctic shelves and inland seas [Matishov, 1980, 1984; Matishov and Pavlova, 1990]. Analysis of bottom morphosculpture, including cartographic, geomorphologic, morpholithologic, seismoacoustic, and other methods, grounds our researches. As a result, previously held views on the forms' sculpturing and types have been reconsidered, as well as new theoretic principles of exogenic morphogenesis and vast continental glacial covers, spread onto the shelves and conditioning oceanic periglacial in deepwater parts of the ocean, have been developed. Glaciers of continental type repeatedly covered the continental shelves of Europe and North America in the period of quaternary glaciations [Markov et al., 1965; Matishov, 1980, 1986]. Reconstructing the genetic picture of bottom pre-glacier landscapes, large thawing waters' runoff valleys, sandr plains have been indicated, thus letting propose the idea of «periglacial shelves». There are no structures of analogous dimensions on land. Glacial morphogenesis, in many aspects, was determined by pre-quaternary structure-geomorphologic plan. Various glacial troughs, moraine ranges, water-glacier formations, now located at the depths from 50-200 to 400 m, are mapped on the glacial shelves in details [Matishov, 1984, 1987]. Capacities, substance composition, texture of moraine, fluvioglacial and glacial-marine sediments, composing the forms of glacial morphosculpture, have been ascertained. Most discussable is the problem of the Barents-Kara Sea shelf glaciation. Complex, but rather orderly Barents Sea shelf glacier morphosculpture, probably, was formed in the process of active spread of periphery parts of Scandinavian, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen glacier covers from mainland to shelf. The fact is proved by detailed bathymetric maps, bottom relief regularities, lithology of subsurface moraines. Especially convincing are the newest radiocarbon dating of ancient coastlines of the Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Kola Peninsula [Forman et al., 2004]. Cognition of marine and terrestrial ecosystems' evolution in contemporary and former periglacial zones requires quaternary geology and biology basic researches, reconstruction of Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic and paleoecological situations. Reconstruction of paleoclimate and paleobiogeocenoses (for instance, ancient soils) will let forecast dynamics of contemporary marine and terrestrial ecosystems in periglacial regions.

Matishov, G. G.

2009-04-01

260

Late pleistocene passerine birds from Sonora, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Songbirds (Passeriformes) have a very limited fossil record in spite of making up more than one-half of the world's 10,000 living species of birds. From the late Pleistocene fossil site of Térapa in east-central Sonora, Mexico, the identifiable fossils of songbirds consist exclusively of species of Icteridae. The seven extant species (Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Brewer's

Jessica A. Oswald; David W. Steadman

2011-01-01

261

Genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for the tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) in Beringia.  

PubMed

Repeated glacial events during the Pleistocene fragmented and displaced populations throughout the northern continents. Different models of the effects of these climate-driven events predict distinct phylogeographic and population genetic outcomes for high-latitude faunas. The role of glaciations in (i) promoting intraspecific genetic differentiation and (ii) influencing genetic diversity was tested within a phylogeographic framework using the rodent Microtus oeconomus. The spatial focus for the study was Beringia, which spans eastern Siberia and northwestern North America, and was a continental crossroads and potential high arctic refugium during glaciations. Variation in mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b and control region; 214 individuals) and nuclear DNA (ALDH1 intron; 63 individuals) was investigated across the Beringian region. Close genetic relationships among populations on either side of the Bering Strait are consistent with a history of periodic land connections between North America and Asia. A genetic discontinuity observed in western Beringia between members of a Central Asian clade and a Beringian clade is geographically congruent with glacial advances and with phylogeographic discontinuities identified in other organisms. Divergent island populations in southern Alaska were probably initially isolated by glacial vicariance, but subsequent differentiation has resulted from insularity. Tests of the genetic effects of postglacial colonization were largely consistent with expansion accompanied by founder effect bottlenecking, which yields reduced diversity in populations from recently deglaciated areas. Evidence that populations in the Beringian clade share a history of expansion from a low-diversity ancestral population suggests that Beringia was colonized by a small founder population from central Asia, which subsequently expanded in isolation. PMID:14653795

Galbreath, Kurt E; Cook, Joseph A

2004-01-01

262

Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

Harington, C. R.

2011-08-01

263

A multilocus evaluation of ermine (Mustela erminea) across the Holarctic, testing hypotheses of Pleistocene diversification in response to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: We examined data for ermine (Mustela erminea) to test two sets of diversification hypotheses concerning the number and location of late Pleistocene refugia, the timing and mode of diversification, and the evolutionary influence of insularization. Location: Temperate and sub-Arctic Northern Hemisphere. Methods: We used up to two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci from 237 specimens for statistical phylogeographical and demographic analyses. Coalescent species-tree estimation used a Bayesian approach for clade divergence based on external mutation rate calibrations. Approximate Bayesian methods were used to assess population size, timing of divergence and gene flow. Results: Limited structure coupled with evidence of population growth across broad regions, including previously ice-covered areas, indicated expansion from multiple centres of differentiation, but high endemism along the North Pacific coast (NPC). A bifurcating model of diversification with recent growth spanning three glacial cycles best explained the empirical data. Main conclusions: A newly identified clade in North America indicated a fourth refugial area for ermine. The shallow coalescence of all extant ermine reflects a recent history of diversification overlying a deeper fossil record. Post-glacial colonization has led to potential contact zones for multiple lineages in north-western North America. A model of diversification of ermine accompanied by recent gene flow was marginally less well supported than a model of divergence of major clades in response to the most recent glacial cycles.

Dawson, Natalie G.; Hope, Andrew G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

264

Post-glacial recolonization of the Great Lakes region by the common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) inferred from mtDNA sequences.  

PubMed

Pleistocene events played an important role in the differentiation of North American vertebrate populations. Michigan, in particular, and the Great Lakes region, in general, were greatly influenced by the last glaciation. While several hypotheses regarding the recolonization of this region have been advanced, none have been strongly supported. We generated 148 complete ND2 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) populations throughout the Great Lakes region to evaluate phylogeographic patterns and population structure and to determine whether the distribution of haplotypic variants is related to the post-Pleistocene retreat of the Wisconsinan glacier. The common gartersnake was utilized, as it is believed to have been one of the primary vertebrate invaders of the Great Lakes region following the most recent period of glacial retreat and because it has been a model species for a variety of evolutionary, ecological, behavioral, and physiological studies. Several genetically distinct evolutionary lineages were supported by both genealogical and molecular population genetic analyses, although to different degrees. The geographic distribution of the majority of these lineages is interpreted as reflecting post-glacial recolonization dynamics during the late Pleistocene. These findings generally support previous hypotheses of range expansion in this region. PMID:17174111

Placyk, John S; Burghardt, Gordon M; Small, Randall L; King, Richard B; Casper, Gary S; Robinson, Jace W

2007-05-01

265

Genetic signals of demographic expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the last North American glacial maximum.  

PubMed

The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species' range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene. PMID:22792306

Pulgarín-R, Paulo C; Burg, Theresa M

2012-01-01

266

Cryptic lineages in a small frog: the post-glacial history of the spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer (Anura: Hylidae).  

PubMed

The spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) is believed to have been a primary herpetological invader of eastern North America following the most recent period of glacial retreat. We examined the phylogeographic pattern and population structure of P. crucifer to determine whether the distribution of haplotypic variants reflect post-Pleistocene recolonization dynamics. A number of geographically isolated evolutionary lineages were supported by both maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses, and by coalescence approaches applied to mtDNA. South-western Ontario represents a high level of genotypic diversity (pi) due to the presence of two divergent lineages. The geographic distribution of these lineages are interpreted as reflecting post-glacial recolonization dynamics from separate, isolated refugia during the late Pleistocene that have come into secondary contact in SW Ontario. The phylogenetic placement of haplotypes from the range of P. crucifer bartramiana (Florida and South Carolina) does not allow for monophyly of P. crucifer crucifer, and therefore the bartramiana subspecies designation does not reflect a separate evolutionary lineage. PMID:12414313

Austin, James D; Lougheed, Stephen C; Neidrauer, Lindsay; Chek, Andrew A; Boag, Peter T

2002-11-01

267

Genetic Signals of Demographic Expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the Last North American Glacial Maximum  

PubMed Central

The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species’ range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene. PMID:22792306

Pulgarin-R, Paulo C.; Burg, Theresa M.

2012-01-01

268

3D seismic interpretations of the Pliocene-Pleistocene stratigraphy and tunnel valleys of the North Sea Plateau-Fladen area, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing coverage of 3D seismic data across the North Sea has allowed the detailed investigation of depositional environments extending beyond the most recent glacial advance into the basin. There are several generations of channels and incisions interpreted as tunnel valleys of varying size at varying stratigraphic depths throughout the Pliocene-Pleistocene units in the North Sea. Many of these features appear to have been reactivated on more than one occasion. The acoustic character of sediments infilling these features is also variable even within the same channel and their significance in relation to palaeo-ice sheet dynamics is still debated. We suggest that some of the observed incisions/valleys, particularly those formed around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, may in fact be fluvial features rather than subglacially formed (based on size and flow path). Many of the smaller, straighter more recent generations of channels probably formed subglacially. If some of the older channels are fluvial, this has significant implications for the marine limit during this late Pliocene early Pleistocene period in the northern North Sea. Palaeo-iceberg scours are also found at certain stratigraphic horizons and these can be compared to those horizons with valleys/channels. Interpretations of the acoustic units/features will also be based on information from well and shallow core data allowing their depositional history and chronology to be investigated. Several physical properties have been measured on a number of cores from the investigated area. To be able to refine the chronology of the Pleistocene sediments for this part of the North Sea we plan to carry out new analyses and dating (strontium, radiocarbon and amino acid) on shallow cores/well material from the region. This will allow us to better constrain the times at which channels were being formed in this area and relate this to known glacial cycles in the North Sea.

Reinardy, Benedict; Hjelstuen, Berit; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

269

Pleistocene evolutionary history of the Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne): genetic signatures of climate cycles and a 'time-dependent' mitochondrial substitution rate.  

PubMed

Genetic data are currently providing a large amount of new information on past distribution of species and are contributing to a new vision of Pleistocene ice ages. Nonetheless, an increasing number of studies on the 'time dependency' of mutation rates suggest that date assessments for evolutionary events of the Pleistocene might be overestimated. We analysed mitochondrial (mt) DNA (COI) sequence variation in 225 Parnassius mnemosyne individuals sampled across central and eastern Europe in order to assess (i) the existence of genetic signatures of Pleistocene climate shifts; and (ii) the timescale of demographic and evolutionary events. Our analyses reveal a phylogeographical pattern markedly influenced by the Pleistocene/Holocene climate shifts. Eastern Alpine and Balkan populations display comparatively high mtDNA diversity, suggesting multiple glacial refugia. On the other hand, three widely distributed and spatially segregated lineages occupy most of northern and eastern Europe, indicating postglacial recolonization from different refugial areas. We show that a conventional 'phylogenetic' substitution rate cannot account for the present distribution of genetic variation in this species, and we combine phylogeographical pattern and palaeoecological information in order to determine a suitable intraspecific rate through a Bayesian coalescent approach. We argue that our calibrated 'time-dependent' rate (0.096 substitutions/ million years), offers the most convincing time frame for the evolutionary events inferred from sequence data. When scaled by the new rate, estimates of divergence between Balkan and Alpine lineages point to c. 19 000 years before present (last glacial maximum), and parameters of demographic expansion for northern lineages are consistent with postglacial warming (5-11 000 years before present). PMID:18986502

Gratton, P; Konopi?ski, M K; Sbordoni, V

2008-10-01

270

Nearly synchronous climate change in the Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial termination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The climate of the North Atlantic region underwent a series of abrupt cold/warm oscillations when the ice sheets of the Northern Hemisphere retreated during the last glacial termination (17.711.5 kyr ago). Evidence for these oscillations, which are recorded in European terrestrial sediments as the Oldest Dryas/Bolling/Older Dryas/Allerod/Younger Dryas vegetational sequence, has been found in Greenland ice cores. The geographical extent of many of these oscillations is not well known, but the last major cold event (the Younger Dryas) seems to have been global in extent. Here we present evidence of four major oscillations in the hydrological balance of the Owens basin, California, that occurred during the last glacial termination. Dry events in western North America occurred at approximately the same time as cold events recorded in Greenland ice, with transitions between climate regimes in the two regions taking place within a few hundred years of each other. Our observations thus support recent climate simulations which indicate that cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean results in cooling of the North Pacific Ocean which, in turn, leads to a drier climate in western North America.

Benson, L.; Burdett, J.; Lund, S.; Kashgarian, M.; Mensing, S.

1997-01-01

271

Pleistocene glaciations of Central Asia: results from 10Be surface exposure ages of erratic boulders from the Pamir (Tajikistan), and the Alay–Turkestan range (Kyrgyzstan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the timing of glaciations in the Pamir (Tajikistan) and the Alay–Turkestan Range (Kyrgyzstan) using 10Be surface exposure dating. Glacial advances in the area have occurred >93–136, ?60–80, (40–55), ?27–25, ?22–20, ?19–17, ?16–15, ?15–13, and 11–9calka BP. All Late Pleistocene glaciers in the Pamir, and the Alay–Turkestan Ranges have been valley glaciers except for the most extended glaciers

U. Abramowski; A. Bergau; D. Seebach; R. Zech; B. Glaser; P. Sosin; P. W. Kubik; W. Zech

2006-01-01

272

Climatic inferences from glacial and palaeoecological evidence at the last glacial termination, southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is uncertainty about the interhemispheric timing of climatic changes during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Different hypotheses, relying on different lines of evidence, point variously to the Northern Hemisphere leading the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa, or to synchrony between the hemispheres. Southern South America is well placed to test the various alternatives using both glacial and palaeoecological evidence. We

R. D. McCulloch; M. J. Bentley; R. S. Purves; N. R. J. Hulton; D. E. Sugden; C. M. Clapperton

2000-01-01

273

Relative timing of last glacial maximum and late-glacial events in the central tropical Andes  

E-print Network

al., 1995, 1998; lake-core data: Baker et al., 2001a, b; glacial-geologic data: Smith et al., 2005a glacial-chronologic research in the Andes of central Peru and northern Bolivia (Smith et al., 2005a, b

Winckler, Gisela

274

Glacial to Holocene dynamics of Indonesian precipitation - New insights from plant-wax dD off Northwest Sumatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the stable hydrogen and stable carbon isotopic composition (dD and d13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes as a proxy for past rainfall variations over northwestern Indonesia. Our study site lies within the western boundary of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key evaporative site for the global hydrologic cycle. At present, rainfall intensity in tropical Indonesia is influenced by the Pacific Ocean El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (see Kirono et al., 1999), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode (Saji et al., 1999), and to some extend by the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2005). Paleoclimate studies show that these systems have varied in the past, however, the impact of these changes on regional paelo-hydrology of Indonesia is yet unknown. We worked on marine sediment core SO189-144KL (1°09,300 N; 98°03,960 E) retrieved at 480 m water depth off Northwest Sumatra from the eastern Indian Ocean. Sediments consist of material from marine and terrestrial sources, and radiocarbon dating indicates an age of ~300 years at the core top and of ~24,000 years at the base. We used d13C and dD values of the n-C30 alkanoic acid as proxies for changes in vegetation composition (C3 vs. C4 plants) and rainfall variability on land, respectively. Values of d13C show only little variation and suggest persistent dominance of tropical trees throughout the past 24,000 years. Values of dD display distinct variability throughout the record, however, mean rainfall intensities during the late Last Glacial compare to those during the Holocene. This is in agreement with rather consistent vegetation at the study site but in sharp contrast with reconstructions of contemporaneous rainfall patterns at the nearby islands Borneo (Partin et al., 2007) and Flores (Griffiths et al., 2009), indicating multiple controls on regional hydrology of Indonesia. In combination with previous studies of late Pleistocene to Holocene ENSO and IOD variability, we further address the complex controls on Indonesian climate with emphasis of Holocene rainfall variability. References Griffiths, M.L., Drysdale, R.N., Gagan, M.K., Zhao, J.x., Ayliffe, L.K., Hellstrom, J.C., Hantoro, W.S., Frisia, S., Feng, Y.x., Cartwright, I., Pierre, E.S., Fischer, M.J., Suwargadi, B.W., 2009. Increasing Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall linked to early Holocene sea-level rise. Nature Geoscience 2, 636-639. Kirono, D.G.C., Tapper, N.J., McBride, J.L., 1999. Documenting Indonesian rainfall in the 1997/1998 El Nino event. Physical Geography 20, 422-435. Koutavas, A., Lynch-Stieglitz, J., 2005. Variability of the marine ITCZ over the eastern Pacific during the past 30,000 years: Regional perspective and global context. In: Bradley, R.S., Diaz, H.F. (Eds.), The Hadley Circulation: Present Past and Future. Springer, pp. 347-369. Partin, J.W., Cobb, K.M., Adkins, J.F., Clark, B., Fernandez, D.P., 2007. Millennial-scale trends in west Pacific warm pool hydrology since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature 449, 452-455. Saji, N.H., Goswami, B.N., Vinayachandran, P.N., Yamagata, T., 1999. A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401, 360-363.

Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mohtadi, M.; Sessions, A. L.; Feakins, S. J.

2012-12-01

275

High latitude regulation of low latitude thermocline ventilation and planktic foraminifer populations across glacial-interglacial cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the earliest discoveries in palaeoceanography was the observation in 1935 that the (sub)tropical planktic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii became absent or extremely rare in the Atlantic Ocean during glacials of the late Pleistocene. Yet a mechanistic explanation for G. menardii's extraordinary biogeographic behaviour has eluded palaeoceanographers for 75 years. Here we show that modern G. menardii, along with two other species that also suffer Atlantic population collapses during glacials, track poorly ventilated waters globally in their thermocline habitats. The ventilation states of low latitude thermoclines are 'set', to a first order, by intermediate water masses originating at high latitudes. In the modern Atlantic this control on low latitude thermocline ventilation is exerted by relatively poorly ventilated, southern-sourced Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and sub-Antarctic Mode Water (SAMW). We suggest that the glacial Atlantic foraminifer population collapses were a consequence of a low latitude thermocline that was better ventilated during glacials than it is today, in line with geochemical evidence, and driven primarily by a well-ventilated, northern-sourced intermediate water mass. A ventilation mechanism driving the glacial population collapses is further supported by our new constraints on the precise timing of these species' Atlantic proliferation during the last deglaciation — occurring in parallel with a wholesale, bipolar reorganisation of the Atlantic's thermocline-to-abyssal overturning circulation. Our findings demonstrate that a bipolar seesaw in the formation of high latitude intermediate waters has played an important role in regulating the population dynamics of thermocline-dwelling plankton at lower latitudes.

Sexton, Philip F.; Norris, Richard D.

2011-11-01

276

History of glacial terminations from the Tiber River, Rome: Insights into glacial forcing mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We document the aggradational history of the Tiber River delta through the last 17,000 years by means of 17 new 14C ages from peat or wood collected from the delta sediment. An abrupt change in sediment clast size, grading from gravel to clay, occurred between 13.63 (±0.20) and 12.80 (±0.15) ka, indicating that it was synchronous with the last glacial termination, with no appreciable phase lag. Knowing this phase relationship enables us to reduce the magnitudes of age uncertainties for aggradational sections corresponding to glacial terminations IX through III, which we had dated previously by 40Ar/39Ar methods. Glacial terminations VIII, VI, and IV precede beyond 95% confidence the ages predicted by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maxima. Additionally, we find that each of these seven glacial terminations follows particularly mild insolation minima, which we suggest may be regarded as the preconditioning factor to trigger a glacial termination.

Marra, Fabrizio; Florindo, Fabio; Boschi, Enzo

2008-06-01

277

QUANTIFICATION OF GLACIAL EROSION IN THE ALPS USING VERY LOW-TEMPERATURE THERMOCHRONOLOGY (OSL & AHe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of glaciations on the topography of the Alps is still unclear: Long-term denudation rate determined by low-T thermochronology are in the range of 0.2 to 1 mm/yr, and increased during the Plio-Quaternary by 3 fold (Vernon et al., 2008). Such an increase is also documented by peri-alpine sediment budget (Kuhleman, 2000), with a similar increase in sediment yields since 5-3 Ma. This increase was considered as evidence of a climatically-driven surface process change, attributed to increased precipitation (Cederbom et al., 2004) and erosion by glacial processes (Champagnac et al., 2007). The timing of the onset of intense glacial erosion as well as its rates are still ambiguous. The glacial erosion seems to have accelerated around 0.9 Ma as suggested by the ten fold increase of incision rates of a valley in the Central Alps (Häuselmann et al., 2007), and by information about vegetation and sedimentologic changes (Muttoni et al., 2003). There is however no direct quantification of topographic change during the Plio-Quaternary. We present here how we use OSL-thermochronology, a new thermochronometer of exceptionally low closure temperature (about 30°-40°C) (Herman et al subm.), new {U-Th}/He on apatites data, and a glacial erosion model (Herman and Braun 2008) to estimate topographic changes in the Alps in response to glaciations. Because of their low closure temperature, OSL and AHe thermochronology enables quantification of events of less than 1 Ma at very small wavelength of the topography. We collected two vertical profiles, one in the Zermatt Valley (Valais) and one in Maurienne Valley (Savoy). We infer from these results changes in topography, date and quantify relief creation under glacial-interglacial cycles. Cederbom, C.E, et al., Climate induced rebound and exhumation of the European Alps. Geology 32, 709-712 (2000). Champagnac, J.-D., et al., Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps. Geology 35, 195-198 (2007). Haüselmann P., et al.,et al. Abrupt glacial valley incision at 0.8 Ma dated from cave deposits in Switzerland. Geology 35, 33-42 (2007). Herman F. and Braun J. Evolution of the glacial landscape of the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Insights from a glacial erosion model, J. Geophys. Res., 113, F02009, doi:10.1029/2007JF000807 (2008). Herman F., Rhodes E.J. and Braun J. A new thermochronometer reveals steady state relief and exhumation in a small active orogen during the last glacial cycle, submitted. Kuhlemann J., et al., Quantifying tectonic versus erosive denudation by the sediment budget: the Miocene core complexes of the Alps, Tectonophysics 330, 1-23 (2000). Muttoni G., et al., Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps. Geology 31, 989-992 (2003). Vernon, A.J., et al., Increase in late Neogene denudation of the European Alps confirmed by analysis of a fission-track thermochronology database. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 270 (3-4), pp. 316-329 (2008).

Champagnac, J.; Herman, F.; Rhodes, E. J.; Fellin, M.; Jaiswal, M.; Schwenninger, J.; Reverman, R. L.

2009-12-01

278

Power oscillator  

DOEpatents

An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD)

2001-01-01

279

Glacially generated overpressure on the New England continental shelf: Integration of full-waveform inversion and overpressure modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

zones of high-amplitude, discontinuous seismic reflections 100 km off the coast of Massachusetts, USA, have P wave velocities up to 190 m/s lower than those of adjacent sediments of equal depth (250 m below the sea floor). To investigate the origin of these low-velocity zones, we compare the detailed velocity structure across high-amplitude regions to adjacent, undisturbed regions through full-waveform inversion. We relate the full-waveform inversion velocities to effective stress and overpressure with a power law model. This model predicts localized overpressures up to 2.2 MPa associated with the high-amplitude reflections. To help understand the overpressure source, we model overpressure due to erosion, glacial loading, and sedimentation in one dimension. The modeling results show that ice loading from a late Pleistocene glaciation, ice loading from the Last Glacial Maximum, and rapid sedimentation contributed to the overpressure. Localized overpressure, however, is likely the result of focused fluid flow through a high-permeability layer below the region characterized by the high-amplitude reflections. These high overpressures may have also caused localized sediment deformation. Our forward models predict maximum overpressure during the Last Glacial Maximum due to loading by glaciers and rapid sedimentation, but these overpressures are dissipating in the modern, low sedimentation rate environment. This has important implications for our understanding continental shelf morphology, fluid flow, and submarine groundwater discharge off Massachusetts, as we show a mechanism related to Pleistocene ice sheets that may have created regions of anomalously high overpressure.

Siegel, Jacob; Lizarralde, Daniel; Dugan, Brandon; Person, Mark

2014-04-01

280

Late Cenozoic oscillations of Antarctic ice sheets revealed by provenance of basement clasts and grain detrital modes in ANDRILL core AND-1B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrological investigations of the sand fraction and of granule- to cobble-sized clasts in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary cycles of the AND-1B drill core at the NW edge of the Ross Ice Shelf (McMurdo Sound) highlight significant down-core modal and compositional variations. These variations provide: (i) direct information about potential source regions during both glacial maxima and minima; and (ii) evidence of an evolving provenance, documented by long-term shifts in compositional patterns that can be interpreted as reflecting variations in ice volume and ice sheet thermal regimes and changes in paleogeography related to the emergence of several volcanic centres during the deposition of the drill core over the past ca. 3.5 Ma. The most significant change in diamictite provenance (identified at 82.7 metre below the sea floor, mbsf), coincides with a change in sedimentary cycle architecture from sequences that are dominated by diamictites (Mid-Late Pleistocene, above 82.7 mbsf) to sequences characterised by cycles of diamictite (subglacial) and diatomite (open-marine) deposition (Pliocene, below 82.7 mbsf). In the Mid-Late Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles diamictites show high amounts of Skelton-Mulock sourced clasts, supplied from both basement and overlying Beacon and Ferrar supergroups, and they also include a variable contribution from reworking of glacial sediments that were deposited during earlier glacial activity. In the Pliocene to early Pleistocene diatomite-diamictite cycles basement clast compositions indicate the same provenance (Mulock-Skelton) but the main debris load was picked up from volcanic centres in the McMurdo Sound area. Similarly, associated glacial minima sediments (i.e., diatomite intervals) are dominated by volcanic clasts suggesting calving of glaciers from Ross Island or the Koettlitz Glacier region during interglacials. In agreement with previous glaciological reconstructions and numerical ice sheet models, the provenance of glacially transported material is firmly identified in the region between Ross Island and the Skelton-Mulock glacier area (South Victoria Land). The reconstructed ice directions and ice dynamic model are comparable to the configurations proposed for the grounded ice expansion within the McMurdo Sound during the Last Glacial Maximum, and they are also consistent with ice-flow patterns previously reconstructed for Pliocene and Pleistocene glacial settings in the region.

Talarico, F. M.; McKay, R. M.; Powell, R. D.; Sandroni, S.; Naish, T.

2012-10-01

281

Preliminary Results from a Late Pleistocene to Holocene Paleoclimate Study of the Lake Sediment Cores, Northern New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results from an integrated, paleoclimatic study of sediment cores collected from the Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge (LVNWR) and surrounding region that bear on the late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoclimatic variations in northeastern NM. We collected sedimentologic, midge fossil, and rock magnetic data from sediment cores to characterize the materials, identify stratigraphic changes, document shifting lake levels, assess temperature changes, and infer paleoclimate conditions. Data from McAllister and Wallace Lake are encouraging and reveal depth dependent changes in fossil assemblages, grain size, and rock magnetic properties that we interpret to reflect climatic driven variations impacting the depositional system. We recognize three different types of chironomid subfamilies (Chironomini, Tanypodinae, and Orthocladiinae). Based on the fossil results, the water has been warm in the most recent years. Grain size distribution from the lower to upper core levels reveal that the amount of fine sand-sized sediment (0.125 mm diameter) increases while the amount of medium (0.25) to coarse (0.50) sand-sized sediment decreases implying that there may have been a reduction in stream energy and hence precipitation over the time period represented by the core. Bulk low-field magnetic susceptibility decreases by an order of magnitude from the surface to the base of the measured core suggesting a change in detrital magnetic influx into the lacustrian system. Curie point estimates indicate that the dominant magnetic mineral in all samples is cubic, low-Ti titanomagnetite phase. We postulate that concurrent with alpine glacial activity during the Pleistocene, the LVNWR and the transitional Great Plains region to the northeast was an expansive single lake or interconnected lake system, analogous to the Pleistocene lakes of the Estancia Basin (Lake Estancia) and the Tularosa Basin (Lake Otero) of central and southern NM. Following the end of glacial activity, these lacustrian systems shrank to their current condition of minor low-volume isolated lakes and numerous playas and pluvial bodies. We hypothesize that sediments from the LVNWR and surrounding playas contain an invaluable and untapped record of late Pleistocene to Holocene climatic change.

Cedillo, D. N.; Brister, A. R.; LoPresti, C. A.; Maldonado, M.; Pitrucha, R. M.; West, C.; Martinez, E.; Lineline, J.; Petronis, M. S.

2011-12-01

282

Last Glacial loess in the conterminous USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conterminous United States contains an extensive and generally well-studied record of Last Glacial loess. The loess occurs in diverse physiographic provinces, and under a wide range of climatic and ecological conditions. Both glacial and non-glacia lloess sources are present, and many properties of the loess vary systematically with distance from loess sources. United States' mid-continent Last Glacial loess is probably the thickest in the world, and our calculated mass accumulation rates (MARs) are as high as 17,500 g/m2/yr at the Bignell Hill locality in Nebraska, and many near-source localities have MARs greater than 1500 g/m2/yr. These MARs are high relative to rates calculated in other loess provinces around the world. Recent models of LastGlacial dust sources fail to predict the extent and magnitude of dust flux from the mid-continent of the United States. A better understanding of linkages between climate, ice sheet behaviour, routing of glacial meltwater, land surface processes beyond the ice margin, and vegetation is needed to improve the predictive capabilities of models simulating dust flux from this region.

Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Muhs, Daniel R.; Roberts, Helen M.; Wintle, Ann G.

2003-01-01

283

The impact of Pleistocene climate change on an ancient arctic-alpine plant: multiple lineages of disparate history in Oxyria digyna  

PubMed Central

The ranges of arctic–alpine species have shifted extensively with Pleistocene climate changes and glaciations. Using sequence data from the trnH-psbA and trnT-trnL chloroplast DNA spacer regions, we investigated the phylogeography of the widespread, ancient (>3 million years) arctic–alpine plant Oxyria digyna (Polygonaceae). We identified 45 haplotypes and six highly divergent major lineages; estimated ages of these lineages (time to most recent common ancestor, TMRCA) ranged from ?0.5 to 2.5 million years. One lineage is widespread in the arctic, a second is restricted to the southern Rocky Mountains of the western United States, and a third was found only in the Himalayan and Altai regions of Asia. Three other lineages are widespread in western North America, where they overlap extensively. The high genetic diversity and the presence of divergent major cpDNA lineages within Oxyria digyna reflect its age and suggest that it was widespread during much of its history. The distributions of individual lineages indicate repeated spread of Oxyria digyna through North America over multiple glacial cycles. During the Last Glacial Maximum it persisted in multiple refugia in western North America, including Beringia, south of the continental ice, and within the northern limits of the Cordilleran ice sheet. Our data contribute to a growing body of evidence that arctic–alpine species have migrated from different source regions over multiple glacial cycles and that cryptic refugia contributed to persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:22822441

Allen, Geraldine A; Marr, Kendrick L; McCormick, Laurie J; Hebda, Richard J

2012-01-01

284

Mite dispersal among the Southern Ocean Islands and Antarctica before the last glacial maximum  

PubMed Central

It has long been maintained that the majority of terrestrial Antarctic species are relatively recent, post last glacial maximum, arrivals with perhaps a few microbial or protozoan taxa being substantially older. Recent studies have questioned this ‘recolonization hypothesis’, though the range of taxa examined has been limited. Here, we present the first large-scale study for mites, one of two dominant terrestrial arthropod groups in the region. Specifically, we provide a broad-scale molecular phylogeny of a biologically significant group of ameronothroid mites from across the maritime and sub-Antarctic regions. Applying different dating approaches, we show that divergences among the ameronothroid mite genera Podacarus, Alaskozetes and Halozetes significantly predate the Pleistocene and provide evidence of independent dispersals across the Antarctic Polar Front. Our data add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that many taxa have survived glaciation of the Antarctic continent and the sub-Antarctic islands. Moreover, they also provide evidence of a relatively uncommon trend of dispersals from islands to continental mainlands. Within the ameronothroid mites, two distinct clades with specific habitat preferences (marine intertidal versus terrestrial/supralittoral) exist, supporting a model of within-habitat speciation rather than colonization from marine refugia to terrestrial habitats. The present results provide additional impetus for a search for terrestrial refugia in an area previously thought to have lacked ice-free ground during glacial maxima. PMID:20943685

Mortimer, E.; Jansen van Vuuren, B.; Lee, J. E.; Marshall, D. J.; Convey, P.; Chown, S. L.

2011-01-01

285

Mite dispersal among the Southern Ocean Islands and Antarctica before the last glacial maximum.  

PubMed

It has long been maintained that the majority of terrestrial Antarctic species are relatively recent, post last glacial maximum, arrivals with perhaps a few microbial or protozoan taxa being substantially older. Recent studies have questioned this 'recolonization hypothesis', though the range of taxa examined has been limited. Here, we present the first large-scale study for mites, one of two dominant terrestrial arthropod groups in the region. Specifically, we provide a broad-scale molecular phylogeny of a biologically significant group of ameronothroid mites from across the maritime and sub-Antarctic regions. Applying different dating approaches, we show that divergences among the ameronothroid mite genera Podacarus, Alaskozetes and Halozetes significantly predate the Pleistocene and provide evidence of independent dispersals across the Antarctic Polar Front. Our data add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that many taxa have survived glaciation of the Antarctic continent and the sub-Antarctic islands. Moreover, they also provide evidence of a relatively uncommon trend of dispersals from islands to continental mainlands. Within the ameronothroid mites, two distinct clades with specific habitat preferences (marine intertidal versus terrestrial/supralittoral) exist, supporting a model of within-habitat speciation rather than colonization from marine refugia to terrestrial habitats. The present results provide additional impetus for a search for terrestrial refugia in an area previously thought to have lacked ice-free ground during glacial maxima. PMID:20943685

Mortimer, E; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Lee, J E; Marshall, D J; Convey, P; Chown, S L

2011-04-22

286

Ancient DNA supports southern survival of Richardson's collared lemming (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) during the last glacial maximum.  

PubMed

Collared lemmings (genus Dicrostonyx) are circumpolar Arctic arvicoline rodents associated with tundra. However, during the last glacial maximum (LGM), Dicrostonyx lived along the southern ice margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in communities comprising both temperate and boreal species. To better understand these communities and the fate of these southern individuals, we compare mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data from three LGM-age Dicrostonyx fossils from south of the Laurentide ice sheet to sequences from modern Dicrostonyx sampled from across their present-day range. We test whether the Dicrostonyx populations from LGM-age continental USA became extinct at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition ~11000 years ago or, alternatively, if they belong to an extant species whose habitat preferences can be used to infer the palaeoclimate along the glacial margin. Our results indicate that LGM-age Dicrostonyx from Iowa and South Dakota belong to Dicrostonyx richardsoni, which currently lives in a temperate tundra environment west of Hudson Bay, Canada. This suggests a palaeoclimate south of the Laurentide ice sheet that contains elements similar to the more temperate shrub tundra characteristic of extant D. richardsoni habitat, rather than the very cold, dry tundra of the Northern Arctic. While more data are required to determine whether or not the LGM southern population is ancestral to extant D. richardsoni, it seems most probable that the species survived the LGM in a southern refugium. PMID:23495672

Fulton, Tara L; Norris, Ryan W; Graham, Russell W; Semken, Holmes A; Shapiro, Beth

2013-05-01

287

Continuity of brown bear maternal lineages in northern England through the Last-glacial period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brown bears recolonised Europe rapidly after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but there has been debate about whether bear populations were confined to separate glacial refugia in southern Europe, or if there was continuous gene flow among groups. To look in more detail at recolonisation routes into the British Isles after the LGM, 16 brown bear (Ursus arctos) samples from Lateglacial Yorkshire were analysed for mitochondrial DNA survival. The resulting data were compared with earlier work on Late Pleistocene and Holocene bears from Ireland (Edwards et al., 2011), as well as with both modern and ancient bears from across continental Europe. The results highlight the temporal and spatial continuity of brown bear maternal lineages through the Lateglacial period in northern England. While this region was not a refugial area in the LGM for the Irish Clade 2 brown bears, our data suggest that populations of brown bear in England did act as refugial sources for the later colonisation of Ireland, by Clade 1-i bears, during the Holocene. Our results contribute to a wider understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of brown bears through the Late Quaternary, and lend a valuable perspective on bear migration into peripheral Europe.

Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Barnett, Ross; Coxon, Peter; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lord, Tom C.; O'Connor, Terry

2014-07-01

288

Authigenic carbonate mineral formation in a latest Pleistocene palaeolake, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pagassitikos Gulf in Greece, is a semi-enclosed bay with maximum depth 102 m. According to the present-day bathymetric configuration and the sea level during the latest Pleistocene, the gulf would have been isolated from the open sea, forming a palaeolake since ~32 cal. ka B.P.. Initial visual inspection of sediment core B-4 (length, 258 cm), recovered from the deepest sector of the Pagassitikos Gulf, revealed evidence of a totally different depositional environment in the lowest part of the core: this contained light grey-coloured sediments, contrasting strongly with the overlain olive grey muds of the upper part. Multi-proxy analyses (mineralogy, geochemistry and scanning electron microscopy) showed the predominance of carbonate minerals (aragonite, dolomite and calcite) together with gypsum in the lowest part of the core. Additional evidence (?18O and ?13C isotopes, and AMS 14C datings) suggest that carbonate mineral deposition can be attributed to autochthonous precipitation that took place in a saline palaeolake during the last glacial-early deglacial period. High ?18O values recorded in the lowest part of the core were associated with hypersaline and evaporative depositional environment. The most plausible explanation for the formation of the observed carbonate minerals directs to dolomite precipitation from hypersaline evaporating water bodies at low precipitation rates. Under varying weather conditions the precipitation of aragonite is favoured. Alternatively, high evaporation rates and gypsum formation, favouring an increase in Mg/Ca ratio, is proposed as a possible mechanism supporting authigenic dolomite precipitation. The lowest core sample to be AMS 14C dated provided an age of 19.53 cal. ka B.P. The palaeolake was presumably reconnected to the open sea at ~13.2 cal. ka B.P. during the last sea-level rise, marking the commencement of marine sedimentation characterised by the predominance of terrigenous aluminosilicates and fairly homogeneous depositional conditions lasting up to the present day. Fig. 1 Core B-4 (0-258 cm): a lithological log showing the sedimentological units defined in this study; b age model based on six AMS 14C ages (triangles); c-d down-core profiles in c aragonite, calcite and dolomite, d ?13C and ?18O.; Figure. 1 Core B-4 (0-258 cm): a lithological log; b age model based on six AMS 14C ages (triangles); c down-core profiles of aragonite, calcite and dolomite; and d down-core profiles of ?13C and ?18O.

Karageorgis, A. P.; Kanellopoulos, T. D.; Mavromatis, V.; Anagnostou, C. L.; Koutsopoulou, E.; Schmidt, M.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Tripsanas, E. K.; Hallberg, R. O.

2012-12-01

289

Ephemeral Pleistocene woodlands connect the dots for highland  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ephemeral Pleistocene woodlands connect the dots for highland rattlesnakes and David Lazcano4 INTRODUCTION The Mexican highlands, which encompass a complex assem- blage of montane and Central Mexican Plateau. Although few data detail climatic shifts in Mexico during the Pleistocene (see

Murphy, Bob

290

Comparative context of Plio-Pleistocene hominin brain evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the distinguishing features of Homo sapiens is its absolutely and relatively large brain. This feature is also seen in less extreme form in some fossil Homo species. However, are increases in brain size during the Plio-Pleistocene only seen in Homo, and is brain enlargement among Plio-Pleistocene primates confined to hominins? This study examines evidence for changes in brain

Sarah Elton; Laura C. Bishop; Bernard Wood

2001-01-01

291

Multiple glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene in central and southern Peru (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations in small tropical mountain glaciers serve as sensitive indicators of variations in past and present-day climate. Most of the world's modern tropical glaciers reside in the Peruvian Andes, where a growing number of well-dated glacial records have recently been developed. As additional records are documented, regional patterns of late Pleistocene to Holocene glacial activity have begun to emerge. Here we present a compilation of new and previously obtained 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on well-preserved moraine successions in two glaciated Andean ranges: the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S, 72°32'W) and the Huaguruncho massif (10°32'S, 75°56'W), located in central Peru ~450 km northwest of the Vilcabamba. A high-resolution composite chronology that merges >100 10Be measurements on moraine sequences in five glaciated drainages of the Cordillera Vilcabamba reveals the occurrence of at least five discrete glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene. At the Huaguruncho massif, >20 10Be exposure ages obtained from moraine sequences in a south-facing cirque indicate at least three major glacial stages spanning the Lateglacial to the Little Ice Age. The moraine ages at Huaguruncho are broadly correlative with the Vilcabamba moraine chronologies, with some dated moraine belts exhibiting geomorphic expressions that closely resemble those of their coeval counterparts in the Vilcabamba. A recurring finding in both field areas is a mismatch between basal radiocarbon ages from bog and lake sediments and 10Be exposure ages on outboard moraines, which enclose the depositional basins. These age discrepancies suggest that cosmogenic 10Be production rates scaled to high altitudes in the tropics are substantially lower than previous estimates. While we anticipate that future refinements to scaled isotope production rates may significantly affect correlation of 10Be exposure ages in the high Andes with ages derived from other dating methods, the revised production rates should have a negligible impact on 10Be age comparisons between the Vilcabamba and Huaguruncho moraines, which lie at similar elevations. The correspondence in age between moraine sequences in these two widely separated ranges suggests regional-scale coherency of multiple glacial fluctuations across the central to southern Peruvian Andes from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene, implying spatially uniform climate drivers along this transect.

Licciardi, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Schweinsberg, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Zimmerman, S. R.

2013-12-01

292

An Analysis of Glacial Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, Ekström et al. reported on the detection and location of a new class of earthquakes that occur in glaciated regions. The events are characterized by their lack of high-frequency radiation and surface-wave radiation patterns incompatible with standard double-couple or moment-tensor mechanisms. Ekström et al. proposed that the events correspond to large and sudden sliding motion of glaciers. The vast majority of these "glacial earthquakes" occur in Greenland, with a few events occurring in Antarctica and Alaska. We have examined 153 events on Greenland that occurred from 1993 to 2004. All events are much better fit by a landslide (CSF) model than by the typical double-couple earthquake (CMT) model. Surface-wave waveform fits to the CSF model result in much more accurate locations than are possible using the original detection algorithm. After relocation, the events strongly cluster into seven distinct regions, all of which correspond to regions of very high ice flow and most of which are named ice streams. The seven regions are: Daugaard Jensen Glacier, Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, Helheim Glacier, the southeast Greenland glaciers, Jakobshavn Isbrae, Rinks Isbrae, and the northwest Greenland glaciers. As an example of the degree of clustering, in the Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier region, 61 events cluster within a 60 by 60 km area. Given the remaining uncertainties in the locations, this suggests that all of these events are associated with the Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. For each event, the landslide modeling yields a force direction and the twice-integrated force couple, which can be interpreted as the landslide mass multiplied by the distance traveled. All events have a force direction roughly parallel to the local ice-flow direction inferred from remote sensing (laser altimeter, InSAR, and radar) data by other authors. Some events, however, are better fit either with a force couple in the direction opposite to the expected one, or with two force couples. These apparently reversed or double sliding mechanisms may be a result of using a symmetric force couple to model events that have a more complex source time function. All events have twice-integrated force couples between 0.12 - 2.04 *1014 kg*m, corresponding to earthquakes of surface-wave magnitude between 4.6 and 5.1.

Tsai, V. C.; Ekstrom, G.

2005-12-01

293

A late-glacial transition from Picea glauca to Picea mariana in southern New England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Picea is an important taxon in late-glacial pollen records from eastern North America, but little is known about which species of Picea were present. We apply a recently developed palynological method for discriminating the three Picea species in eastern North America to three records from New England. Picea glauca was dominant at ˜ 14,500-14,000 cal yr BP, followed by a transition to Picea mariana between ˜ 14,000 and 13,500 cal yr BP. Comparison of the pollen data with hydrogen isotope data shows clearly that this transition began before the beginning of the Younger Dryas Chronozone. The ecological changes of the late-glacial interval were not a simple oscillation in the position of a single species' range, but rather major changes in vegetation structure and composition occurring during an interval of variations in several environmental factors, including climate, edaphic conditions, and atmospheric CO 2 levels.

Lindbladh, Matts; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Foster, David R.; Faison, Edward K.; Hou, Juzhi; Huang, Yongsong

2007-05-01

294

Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes.  

PubMed

Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age. PMID:24062437

Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

2013-10-01

295

Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes  

PubMed Central

Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet–ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age. PMID:24062437

Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

2013-01-01

296

Freshwater control of ice-rafted debris in the last glacial period at Mono Lake, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The type section silts of the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation at Mono Lake contain outsized clasts, dominantly well-rounded pebbles and cobbles of Sierran lithologies. Lithic grains > 425 ?m show a similar pattern of variability as the > 10 mm clasts visible in the type section, with decreasing absolute abundance in southern and eastern outcrops. The largest concentrations of ice-rafted debris (IRD) occur at 67-57 ka and 46-32 ka, with strong millennial-scale variability, while little IRD is found during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation. Stratigraphic evidence for high lake level during high IRD intervals, and a lack of geomorphic evidence for coincidence of lake and glaciers, strongly suggests that rafting was by shore ice rather than icebergs. Correspondence of carbonate flux and IRD implies that both were mainly controlled by freshwater input, rather than disparate non-climatic controls. Conversely, the lack of IRD during the last glacial maximum and deglacial highstands may relate to secondary controls such as perennial ice cover or sediment supply. High IRD at Mono Lake corresponds to low glacial flour flux in Owens Lake, both correlative to high warm-season insolation. High-resolution, extra-basinal correlation of the millennial peaks awaits greatly improved age models for both records.

Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Pearl, Crystal; Hemming, Sidney R.; Tamulonis, Kathryn; Hemming, N. Gary; Searle, Stephanie Y.

2011-09-01

297

Climate-induced changes to the ancestral population size of two Patagonian galaxiids: the influence of glacial cycling.  

PubMed

Patagonia is one of the few areas in the Southern Hemisphere to have been directly influenced by Quaternary glaciers. In this study, we evaluate the influence that Quaternary glacial ice had on the genetic diversity of two congeneric fish species, the diadromous Galaxias maculatus and the nondiadromous Galaxias platei, using multilocus estimates of effective population size through time. Mid-Quaternary glaciations had far-reaching consequences for both species. Galaxias maculatus and G. platei each experienced severe genetic bottlenecks during the period when Patagonia ice sheet advance reached its maximum positions c. 1.1-0.6 Ma. Concordant drops in effective size during this time suggest that range sizes were under similar constraints. It is therefore unlikely that coastal (brackish/marine) environments served as a significant refuge for G. maculatus during glacial periods. An earlier onset of population declines for G. platei suggests that this species was vulnerable to modest glacial advances. Declines in effective sizes were continuous for both species and lasted into the late-Pleistocene. However, G. maculatus exhibited a strong population recovery during the late-Quaternary (c. 400,000 bp). Unusually long and warm interglacials associated with the late-Quaternary may have helped to facilitate a strong population rebound in this primarily coastal species. PMID:22077139

Zemlak, Tyler S; Walde, Sandra J; Habit, Evelyn M; Ruzzante, Daniel E

2011-12-01

298

The last interglacial-glacial transition as recorded in sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea and its Pleistocene precursors act as amplifier lakes of climate change affecting the eastern Mediterranean region. The ~460 m long sediment core 5017-1, retrieved from the deepest part of the lake, ideally mirrors the climate variability of the last approximately 200-250 ka. In the current study, we focus on the upper part of the last interglacial Samra Formation (~135-70 ka BP; Waldmann et al., 2009) and the transition into the last glacial Lisan Formation (~70-14ka BP; e.g. Bartov et al., 2002). Overlying the ca 45 m thick main salt layered sequence deposited during the last interglacial, the analyzed ca 30 m thick interval in core 5017-1 is characterized by a lower ~20 m thick interval of predominant alternating aragonite and detrital marl (aad) with occasional intercalations of mass movement deposits, accumulated during temporary humid climatic conditions. The entire sequence is topped by an upper ~10 m thick interval of predominantly layered massive halite, reflecting a dryer climate. Micro-facies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections, XRF element scanning, grain size and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been carried out on this interval for detailed and high-resolution characterization of the sediments and interpretation in terms of depositional processes and their value as paleoclimate proxies. The finding of a most likely millennial-scale dry interval just before the beginning of the stratigraphically defined humid Lisan interval falls in agreement with a previously identified depositional hiatus and associated erosional unconformity in the shallower areas outcropping at the margins of the lake (Stein, 2001). However, the deposition of glacial-like aad sediments prior to this pronounced dry period stands in contrast to previous analyses on outcrops (Waldmann et al. 2009). Investigating sediments from the deep Dead Sea basin will hence allow understanding and better deciphering the depositional processes in relation with climatic change during the last interglacial-glacial transition on centennial and millennial time-scales. References: Bartov, Y., Stein, M., Enzel, Y., Agnon, A., and Reches, Z., 2002. Lake Levels and Sequence Stratigraphy of Lake Lisan, the Late Pleistocene Precursor of the Dead Sea: Quaternary Research, v. 57, p. 9-21. Stein, M., 2001. The sedimentary and geochemical record of Neogene-Quaternary water bodies in the Dead Sea Basin - inferences for the regional paleoclimatic history: Journal of Paleolimnology, v. 26, p. 271-282. Waldmann, N., Stein, M., Ariztegui, D., and Starinsky, A., 2009. Stratigraphy, depositional environments and level reconstruction of the last interglacial Lake Samra in the Dead Sea basin: Quaternary Research, v. 72, p. 1-15.

Neugebauer, I.; Brauer, A.; Schwab, M. J.; Waldmann, N.; Hadzhiivanova, E.; Frank, U.; Dulski, P.

2013-12-01

299

Tracing glacial refugia of Triturus newts based on mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and species distribution modeling  

PubMed Central

Introduction The major climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Age heavily influenced the distribution of species and left their mark on intraspecific genetic diversity. Past range shifts can be reconstructed with the aid of species distribution modeling and phylogeographical analyses. We test the responses of the different members of the genus Triturus (i.e. the marbled and crested newts) as the climate shifted from the previous glacial period (the Last Glacial Maximum, ~21 Ka) to the current interglacial. Results We present the results of a dense mitochondrial DNA phylogeography (visualizing genetic diversity within and divergence among populations) and species distribution modeling (using two different climate simulations) for the nine Triturus species on composite maps. Conclusions The combined use of species distribution modeling and mitochondrial phylogeography provides insight in the glacial contraction and postglacial expansion of Triturus. The combined use of the two independent techniques yields a more complete understanding of the historical biogeography of Triturus than both approaches would on their own. Triturus newts generally conform to the ‘southern richness and northern purity’ paradigm, but we also find more intricate patterns, such as the absence of genetic variation and suitable area at the Last Glacial Maximum (T. dobrogicus), an ‘extra-Mediterranean’ refugium in the Carpathian Basin (T. cristatus), and areas where species displaced one another postglacially (e.g. T. macedonicus and western T. karelinii). We provide a biogeographical scenario for Triturus, showing the positions of glacial refugia, the regions that were postglacially colonized and the areas where species displaced one another as they shifted their ranges. PMID:23514662

2013-01-01

300

Glacial Ordovician new evidence in the Pakhuis Formation, South Africa : sedimentological investigation and palaeo-environnemental reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) an ice sheet covered a great part of the Gondwana. In Africa, several studies present the stratigraphy and the complexity of these glacial records. The different glacial landsystems correspond to several glacial cycles, related to rapid ice front oscillations and are grouped into two major ice-sheet advances, separated by a major ice sheet recession. The study was performed on three well outcropping Late Ordovician sections in South Africa. The Ordovician IV is described as the Pakhuis Rm, and is divided into three different lithological members (known as Sneekop, Oskop and Sternbras Mb) that could be related to two major glacial cycles. In the first cycle (pool the two first Mb), facies association indicate continental environment, with : massive sandy tillites with facetted and striated erratics, subaerial outwash plain to glaciolacustrine cross bedded sands and laminated silts. Near Clanwilliam, the outcrops exhibit a high lateral variability in facies and thickness, ranging from a few meters to several tens of meters. The second cycle is dominated by clear marine sedimentation and may be interpreted as a transgressive sequence, quite different from what occurred in North Gondwana. Typical facies define shoreface environment, and periglacial evidence such as dropstones at base are encountered, passing progressively to a clear offshore environment at top of the series, likely Silurian aged, and known as Cederberg fm. Two glacial pavements were also described. The most spectacular one was firstly described by Visser et al. 1974 and should be interpreted as an intra-formational glacial pavement, with striae indicating a flow from East to West. This pavement is overlying a newly discovered glacial floor which exhibits grooves, crescents marks, en echelon fractures, with the same E-W general orientation, and shaped as ‘roches moutonnées', which are typical evidences of glacial erosion on indurated substratum. Reconstructing paleoenvironment suggests a clear structural paleo-topography controlling the erosion and distribution of paelo-valleys, lakes and glacial lobes. The glaciogenic Ordovician deposits constitute a proven oil and gas bearing reservoir on the North Gondwana margin, also known for their sharp and rapid facies changes. Also, such a study provides an excellent opportunity to understand and appraise the complex architecture and geometries of the sands bodies, the structural control of the glacial erosion and infill of this promising play. Visser, 1974 J.N.J. Visser, The Table Mountain Group: a study in the deposition of quartz arenites on a stable shelf, Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 77 (1974), pp. 229-237.

Portier, E.; Buoncristiani, Jf.; Deronzier, Jf.

2009-04-01

301

Programmable Oscillator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

2011-01-01

302

Oscillating Universes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some properties of cyclic closed universes are investigated under the assumption that the total entropy of the universe increases from cycle to cycle. Exact solutions are given for the increase in maximum size of a cyclic universe filled with matter and radiation. Asymptotically, a cyclic closed universe approaches `flatness'. If a positive cosmological constant exists then these oscillations will eventually cease and be replaced by an era of expansion which will continue unless the cosmological constant is associated with a form of vacuum energy that ultimately decays away. If that occurs, then universal oscillations will be resumed. Oscillations will also be ended by the indefinite presence of any non-zero stress that violates the strong energy condition. A stable stress of this sort will always dictate the ultimate evolution of a cyclic closed universe. We also consider what occurs when the Hawking entropy associated with the cosmological constant is included in the entropy budget, and describe situations in which the sequence of universal oscillations can decrease in amplitude. Eventually, they will become too small for the cosmological constant to affect the dynamics, and then small oscillations will approach this marginally stable state. We examine some particular closed anisotropic universes, and investigate how the evolution of the anisotropy is affected by the universal oscillations. In the most general known homogeneous closed universes it appears that the asymptotic behaviour is for the cycles to increase in size, as entropy increases, for any dust-dominated era to occupy an increasingly longer period of the total evolution, and hence for the anisotropy to decrease in influence at late times with increasing cycle number when the cosmological constant and other stresses violating the strong energy condition are absent.

Barrow, J. D.; Dabrowski, M. P.

1995-08-01

303

Central Michigan University's Glacial Park: Instruction through Landscaping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation of a glacial park on a university campus. Suggests that the park is a useful instructional resource that helps students relate classroom material to outdoor phenomena by visualizing and identifying glacial landforms, recognizing their spatial relationships, and understanding how glacial features originated. Offers advice for…

Pape, Bruce; Francek, Mark A.

1992-01-01

304

Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental history of the Iguala Valley, Central Balsas Watershed of Mexico  

PubMed Central

The origin of agriculture was a signal development in human affairs and as such has occupied the attention of scholars from the natural and social sciences for well over a century. Historical studies of climate and vegetation are closely associated with crop plant evolution because they can reveal the ecological contexts of plant domestication together with the antiquity and effects of agricultural practices on the environment. In this article, we present paleoecological evidence from three lakes and a swamp located in the Central Balsas watershed of tropical southwestern Mexico that date from 14,000 B.P. to the modern era. [Dates expressed in B.P. years are radiocarbon ages. Calibrated (calendar) ages, expressed as cal B.P., are provided for dates in the text.] Previous molecular studies suggest that maize (Zea mays L.) and other important crops such as squashes (Cucurbita spp.) were domesticated in the region. Our combined pollen, phytolith, charcoal, and sedimentary studies indicate that during the late glacial period (14,000–10,000 B.P.), lake beds were dry, the climate was cooler and drier, and open vegetational communities were more widespread than after the Pleistocene ended. Zea was a continuous part of the vegetation since at least the terminal Pleistocene. During the Holocene, lakes became important foci of human activity, and cultural interference with a species-diverse tropical forest is indicated. Maize and squash were grown at lake edges starting between 10,000 and 5,000 B.P., most likely sometime during the first half of that period. Significant episodes of climatic drying evidenced between 1,800 B.P. and 900 B.P. appear to be coeval with those documented in the Classic Maya region and elsewhere, showing widespread instability in the late Holocene climate. PMID:17537917

Piperno, D. R.; Moreno, J. E.; Iriarte, J.; Holst, I.; Lachniet, M.; Jones, J. G.; Ranere, A. J.; Castanzo, R.

2007-01-01

305

Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. Results We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Conclusions Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types. PMID:22873814

2012-01-01

306

Impact of external forcing on the timing of MIS 7 glacial inception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIS 7 glacial inception is characterised by particularly low GHG values (up to 224 ppm) and low sea-level (-10 to -20 mSLE). On the contrary, MIS 5 glacial inception has larger GHGs values (260 ppm) and a high sea-level (+1-5 m SLE). To understand what are the climate implication of MIS 7 low GHGs on inception processes, we use a coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM) to simulate the mean climate state of four time-slices at 115 kyrs BP, 125 kyrs BP, 229 kyrs BP and 236 kyrs BP, indicative of MIS 5 and MIS 7 pre-inceptions (K236 and K125, perihelion occurring during late summer) and glacial inceptions (K229 and K115, perihelion occurring during late winter). Our results show that in both Northern high and low latitudes, the structure of large scale circulation features is determined by the orbital configuration of the simulated time period while GHGs influence their intensity but only in the high latitudes. The simulated perennial snow cover, classical indicator of glacial inception, is more extended in K115 than in K125, which is in agreement with the orbital forcing of both experiments. However, for MIS 7, the perennial snow cover appears to be more extended in K236 than in K229 as a result of the particularly low GHGs values of this period, which is not what is expected from the orbital forcing. The climate teleconnections, ie. Arctic Oscillation, the ITCZ, the Hadley cell and the Walker circulation, reflecting the orbital configuration of each time slice, indicate K115 and K229 as glacial inception climates and K125 and K236 as pre-inception climates in both high and low latitudes. However, the large perennial snow cover accumulating in K236 contradicts these facts. We conclude that in our experiments, the impact of external forcing, and especially low GHGs values, on MIS 7 glacial inception is to anticipate the real glacial inception time to 236 kyrs BP instead of 229 kyrs BP.

Colleoni, Florence; Masina, Simona; Cherchi, Annalisa; Iovino, Dorotea

2014-05-01

307

Glacial Ventilation of the North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on sediment cores from the North Pacific showed that above ~2 km d13C on the benthic foram Cibicidoides was higher during glacial time than it is today, after correcting for secular change of ~0.3 permil. This led to the suggestion that the ocean was better ventilated either through greater transport of a paleo North Pacific Intermediate Water, or

L. D. Keigwin; O. Marchal

2004-01-01

308

Illustrated Glossary of Alpine Glacial Landforms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although there are not a lot of images here, the ones included are succinctly described and have accompanying topographic map examples, allowing students to see the correlation between photo and map. Images are divided into three sections: divided into "Erosional Landforms," "Depositional Landforms," and "Ice Features." Nine short exercises test student knowledge of both glacial landform images and the topographic expression of the landforms.

Lemke, Karen A.; Point, University O.

309

Climate Change Affects Glacial Water Source  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses how the populous areas west of the Andes are largely desert and rely on glacial meltwater as an important source of fresh water. Because the Peruvian glaciers high in the Andes are in rapid retreat, scientists are monitoring the steadily shrinking glaciers and the impact of their reduction on local populations.

Thinktv; Domain, Teachers'

310

Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the risk of such flooding, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes flooded. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA), on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV); i.e. the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability because it requires no particular expertise to carry out. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using the ASTER data. The distribution follows a power-law function, and we identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3 that require further detailed field investigations.

Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Takenaka, S.; Nuimura, T.; Surazakov, A. B.; Sawagaki, T.; Yamanokuchi, T.

2013-01-01

311

Introduction 1.1 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment  

E-print Network

solid. By the term the Earth we mean a model of the Earth, specifically the particular case of a non-rotating, self- gravitating, spherically or axially symmetric sphere, responding in time as an elastic as the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). From the physical point of view, modelling of GIA consists of two

Hanyk, Ladislav

312

Introduction 1.1 Glacial Isostatic Adjustment  

E-print Network

solid. By the term the Earth we mean a model of the Earth, specifically the particular case of a non­rotating, self­ gravitating, spherically or axially symmetric sphere, responding in time as an elastic as the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). From the physical point of view, modelling of GIA consists of two

Hanyk, Ladislav

313

Comparative phylogeography of five avian species: implications for Pleistocene evolutionary history in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

Pleistocene climate fluctuations have shaped the patterns of genetic diversity observed in extant species. In contrast to Europe and North America where the effects of recent glacial cycles on genetic diversity have been well studied, the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene for the Qinghai-Tibetan (Tibetan) plateau, a region where glaciation was not synchronous with the North Hemisphere ice sheet maxima, remains poorly understood. Here, we compared the phylogeographical patterns of five avian species on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau by three mitochondrial DNA fragments: the Tibetan snow finch (Montifringilla adamsi), the Blanford's snow finch (Pyrgilauda blanfordi), the horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), the twite (Carduelis flavirostris) and the black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros). Our results revealed the three species mostly distributed on the platform region of the plateau that experienced population expansion following the retreat of the extensive glaciation period (0.5-0.175 Ma). These results are at odds with the results from avian species of Europe and North America, where population expansions occurred after Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0.023-0.018 Ma). A single refugium was identified in a restricted semi-continuous area around the eastern margin of the plateau, instead of multiple independent refugia for European and North American species. For the other two species distributed on the edges of the plateau (the twite and black redstart), populations were maintained at stable levels. Edge areas are located on the eastern margin, which might have had little or no ice cover during the glaciation period. Thus, milder climate may have mitigated demographic stresses for edge species relative to the extremes experienced by platform counterparts, the present-day ranges of which were heavily ice covered during the glaciation period. Finally, various behavioural and ecological characteristics, including dispersal capacities, habitat preference and altitude specificity along with evolutionary history might have helped to shape different phylogeographical structures appearing in these five species. PMID:20002586

Qu, Y; Lei, F; Zhang, R; Lu, X

2010-01-01

314

Growth and erosion of a cold-water coral covered carbonate mound in the Northeast Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first detailed stratigraphic record from a deep-water carbonate mound in the Northeast Atlantic based on absolute datings (U/Th and AMS 14C) and stable oxygen isotope records reveals that its top sediment sequences are condensed by numerous hiatuses. According to stable isotope data, mainly sediments with an intermediate signal are preserved on the mound, while almost all fully glacial and interglacial sediments have either not been deposited or have been eroded later. The resulting hiatuses reduce the Late Pleistocene sediment accumulation at Propeller Mound to amounts smaller than the background sedimentation. The hiatuses most likely result due to the sweeping of the mound in turn with the re-establishment of vigour interglacial circulation patterns after sluggish current regimes during glacials. Thus, within the discussion if internal, fluid-driven or external environmentally driven processes control the evolution of such carbonate mounds, our findings for Propeller Mound clearly point to environmental forcing as the dominant mechanism shaping deep-water carbonate mounds in the NE Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

Dorschel, Boris; Hebbeln, Dierk; Rüggeberg, Andres; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Freiwald, André

2005-04-01

315

Low latitude hydro-climatic changes during the Plio-Pleistocene: evidence from high resolution alkane records in the southern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution records of long chain n-alkane biomarkers from the southern South China Sea reveal tightly response of n-alkane distribution to hydro-climate changes over the past 5 Ma, with increasing longer chain n-C31 alkanes indicating a correlation with drier conditions and increasing shorter chain n-C27 alkanes with wetter conditions. The variations of the C31/C27 ratio, or the alkane chain length index, imply humid conditions before 2.9 Ma, progressively reduced moisture since then and to bigger fluctuations between wet and dry conditions since 1.2 Ma. This long term hydro-climate trend is superimposed by glacial dry and interglacial wet patterns over the Plio-Pleistocene glacial cycles. Combined with other proxy records, our results indicate that precipitation over the tropical Asia-Pacific strengthened before the onset of the northern hemisphere glaciation and the mid-Pleistocene climate transition at about 1.2 Ma. These dramatic humidity changes over major climate transitions imply a crucial role of tropical hydrology dynamics on global climate change in the late Cenozoic.

Li, Li; Li, Qianyu; Tian, Jun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Pinxian

2013-10-01

316

Glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods in the Mount Everest region, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent climate changes have had a significant impact on the high-mountain glacial environment. Rapid melting of glaciers has resulted in the formation and expansion of moraine-dammed lakes, creating a potential danger from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Most lakes have formed during the second half of the 20th century. Glaciers in the Mount Everest (Sagamartha) region, Nepal, are retreating at

Samjwal Ratna BAJRACHARYA; Pradeep MOOL

2009-01-01

317

Cosmogenic exposure dating in arctic glacial landscapes: implications for the glacial history of northeastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmogenic exposure dating and detailed glacial-terrain mapping from the Clyde Foreland, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada, reveal new information about the extent and dynamics of the northeastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The Clyde Foreland is composed of two distinct landscape zones: (1) glacially scoured terrain proximal to the major sources of Laurentide

Jason P. Briner; Gifford H. Miller; P. Thompson Davis; Robert C. Finkel

2005-01-01

318

Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the outburst probability, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes experienced an outburst flood. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA), on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV); i.e., the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability to assess the possibility of GLOF hazards because it requires no particular expertise to carry out, though the PFV does not quantify the GLOF risk. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using visible band images and DEMs of ASTER data. The PFV distribution follows a power-law function. We found that 794 lakes did not have an SLA, and consequently had a PFV of zero, while we also identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3, which is a comparable volume to that of recorded major GLOFs. This PFV approach allows us to preliminarily identify and prioritize those Himalayan glacial lakes that require further detailed investigation on GLOF hazards and risk.

Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Takenaka, S.; Nuimura, T.; Surazakov, A. B.; Sawagaki, T.; Yamanokuchi, T.

2013-07-01

319

Plio-Pleistocene climate change in Asian: Evidence from terrestrial lipids at ODP Site 1143 in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A homologous series of n-alkanes (C24-C35) were detected at the ODP site 1143 (9°21.72'N, 113°17.11'E) in southern South China Sea and were used to reconstruct the paleoclimate change in the eastern Asian over the past 5Ma. Strong odd-carbon number predominance with a maximum at C29 or C31 in these n-alkanes indicated their origins of terrestrial higher plant waxes, which are transported to the deep sea mainly by rivers. In general, the profile of ?Alkanes (sum of C24-C35) can be subdivided into two time intervals: Before 2.7 Ma, the ?Alkanes fluctuated between 100 and 500 ng/g, averaging at 250 ng/g, which was lower than that in late Pleistocene but higher than that in early Pleistocene. Highland sea level during this period might have caused the deposition of the ?Alkanes, which reflected the riverine discharge and rainfall intensity . After 2.7Ma, ?Alkanes varied between 80-750 ng/g, with big fluctuations in the late Pleistocene. Alkane abundances depict a robust positive relationship with ?18OG. ruber but inverse relationship with temperature with maximum concentrations corresponding to heavier ?18OG. rube and lower temperature during glacial periods. This related to the changes in flux of the materials transported by the river, which, in turn, would have been influenced by sea level and/or precipitation. During glacial low stands of sea-levels, especially in the late Pleistocene, the emergence of the huge continental platforms in the south of the SCS led to the development of numerous drainage systems that significantly increased the input of terrestrial material and thus n-alkanes contents. Besides ?Alkanes, the alkane indices, i.e. the ratio of n-C31 /n-C27 and average carbon chain lengths (ACLs) of odd carbon-number, also recorded the palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate changes. Although studies show that plants tend to synthesize longer chain length n-alkanes in response to elevated temperature and/or aridity, the higher n-C31 /n-C27 and ACLs in the late Pleistocene than Pliocene (a warm periods than present), suggested the alkane indices in the studied region mainly correspond to the humidity other than temperature. Alkane indices over the past 5 Ma indicate relative humid climate during the Pliocene, especially in the early Pliocene, which is the most humid climate in the 5 Ma period of time. But since the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation, the climate became progressively arid until 1.5-1.2 Ma; after that time the climate changed to a huge alternation of dry and humid climates. The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, the closure of the Panamanian Seaway, the formation of east -west equatorial temperature gradient may exert a complex and profound effect upon atmospheric circulation and environmental changes of Eastern Asia over the Plio-Pleistocene periods.

Li, L.; Wang, H.; Wang, P.

2010-12-01

320

A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

2009-01-01

321

First Global Climate Model Simulations of the M2 Pliocene Glacial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pliocene Epoch (5.2 to 2.6 Ma) and specifically the PRISM interval (3.0 to 3.3 Ma) have frequently been targeted to investigate warm intervals in Earth history (e.g. Haywood et al., 2013). However, climate variability within the Pliocene is often overlooked. Although not as dramatic as the glacial and interglacial cycles that typified the Pleistocene, the Pliocene also exhibited climate variability and periods which were apparently cooler than modern (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). Of particular interest is the major cooling event that occurred around 3.3 Ma during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. This 'Pliocene glacial' punctuates an otherwise relatively warm background climate and has been referred to as a failed attempt of the climate to reach a full glacial state (De Schepper et al., 2009; Haug and Tiedemann, 1998). The onset of full Northern Hemisphere (NH) glaciation finally occurred at the end of the Pliocene (~ 2.75 Ma). Although numerous temperature reconstructions from around the world's oceans tend to capture the MIS M2 cooling event, the exact nature of M2 remains enigmatic. Sea level records vary but suggest a maximum sea level drop of ~65 m compared to modern, which in itself is significant enough to necessitate the growth of a NH ice sheet (Dwyer and Chandler, 2009). Previous ice sheet modelling suggests that ~8 m sea level equivalent (SLE) ice could be stored on Antarctica (Pollard and DeConto, 2009) and this larger ice sheet (compared to modern) is potentially supported by the increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD) found offshore of East Antarctica during this time (Passchier, 2011). IRD in the North Atlantic would suggest the presence of an ice sheet on Greenland (e.g. Kleiven et al., 2002), but the locations of other ice caps in the NH are not determined due to the destructive nature of subsequent Pleistocene ice sheet advances. Moreover, recent evidence questions whether the climate in the NH was favourable at all for the initiation of ice sheets over North America at the M2 glacial (Brigham-Grette et al., 2013). We present the first fully coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model simulations of the M2 glacial event in order to investigate the climate effect of potential ice sheet scenarios during this time. Our climate model, HadCM3 is run with dynamic vegetation, altered CO2 and orbital configurations. Possible ice sheet configurations are based on Quaternary analogues and represent large, medium and small (i.e. restricted to Greenland) M2 ice sheet scenarios in the NH. We compare our simulations with available terrestrial (e.g. biomes, precipitation and warm month temperatures from Brigham-Grette et al., 2013) and marine reconstructions (DeSchepper et al., 2009) to provide guidance as to which experimental set-up might offer the most compatible reconstruction of global climate during the M2 glaciation.

Dolan, A.; Haywood, A.; Hunter, S. J.; Tindall, J.; Valdes, P. J.

2013-12-01

322

Multi-proxy evidence for Late Pleistocene-Holocene climatic and environmental changes in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 10.35-m-long sediment core from the Luobei depression in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China, provides detailed information about environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene. The samples taken every 5 cm of the core were analyzed for 10 environmental proxies, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate and loss on ignition (LOI), and pH value. The chronology data are provided by the uranium/thorium disequilibrium dates. The sediments of the section were deposited during the last 32000 years. The results of analysis of 10 proxies were examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the principal components were calculated. According to the results, the Late Pleistocene sequence contains four climatic and environmental stages appearing in the cycles of cold-wet and warm-dry changes. During 10-9 ka BP, it was the earliest warm episode in the Holocene. Environmental changes in this district were restricted by global change, as suggested by the analysis of glacial-interglacial cycles. But it was different from the mutative trend of a monsoon region in East China because of its own characteristics, which was the situation of cold-wet and warm-dry climate-environment change. The candidate reason may be the uplift of the Tibet Plateau and the westerly wind circulation. ?? Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008.

Luo, C.; Yang, D.; Peng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Weiguo, L.; He, J.; Zhou, C.

2008-01-01

323

The Pleistocene glaciations and the evolutionary history of the polytypic snail species Arianta arbustorum (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae).  

PubMed

The evolutionary history of the snail Arianta arbustorum is controversial. This diverse, polytypic species has two distinct forms: one, with a globular shell and closed umbilicus, is found from lowland to high altitudes; the other, with a depressed shell and open umbilicus, is found at a few scattered, high altitude localities. What is the origin of these two forms? Some believe that the depressed shell is a recent, local, ecotypic adaptation to alpine environments. Others believe that this form is a relic of an ancestral condition that may have survived the Pleistocene glaciations on nunatak-like montane refugia, while the globular shell is a derived condition and its presence at high altitudes follows post-Pleistocene recolonisation. We analysed a portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I for 100 snails of the species A. arbustorum, three additional Arianta species, and nine outgroup taxa from five genera, in order to understand the phylogeographic history of the species. Despite some confounding artefacts that are likely due to introgression among the morphological forms, the resulting phylogeny shows that the depressed shell is plesiomorphic, while the globular shell is derived. Moreover, their disparate histories suggest that the depressed shell variety survived the glaciations in pockets of alpine refugia, while the globular shell variety recolonised the alpine environment post-glacially. PMID:15022758

Gittenberger, E; Piel, W H; Groenenberg, D S J

2004-01-01

324

Loess record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition on the northern and central Great Plains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various lines of evidence support conflicting interpretations of the timing, abruptness, and nature of climate change in the Great Plains during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Loess deposits and paleosols on both the central and northern Great Plains provide a valuable record that can help address these issues. A synthesis of new and previously reported optical and radiocarbon ages indicates that the Brady Soil, which marks the boundary between late Pleistocene Peoria Loess and Holocene Bignell Loess, began forming after a reduction in the rate of Peoria Loess accumulation that most likely occurred between 13.5 and 15 cal ka. Brady Soil formation spanned all or part of the B??lling-Aller??d episode (approximately 14.7-12.9 cal ka) and all of the Younger Dryas episode (12.9-11.5 cal ka) and extended at least 1000 years beyond the end of the Younger Dryas. The Brady Soil was buried by Bignell Loess sedimentation beginning around 10.5-9 cal ka, and continuing episodically through the Holocene. Evidence for a brief increase in loess influx during the Younger Dryas is noteworthy but very limited. Most late Quaternary loess accumulation in the central Great Plains was nonglacigenic and was under relatively direct climatic control. Thus, Brady Soil formation records climatic conditions that minimized eolian activity and allowed effective pedogenesis, probably through relatively high effective moisture. Optical dating of loess in North Dakota supports correlation of the Leonard Paleosol on the northern Great Plains with the Brady Soil. Thick loess in North Dakota was primarily derived from the Missouri River floodplain; thus, its stratigraphy may in part reflect glacial influence on the Missouri River. Nonetheless, the persistence of minimal loess accumulation and soil formation until 10 cal ka at our North Dakota study site is best explained by a prolonged interval of high effective moisture correlative with the conditions that favored Brady Soil formation. Burial of both the Brady Soil and the Leonard Paleosol by renewed loess influx probably represents eolian system response that occurred when gradual change toward a drier climate eventually crossed the threshold for eolian activity. Overall, the loess-paleosol sequences of the central and northern Great Plains record a broad peak of high effective moisture across the late Pleistocene to Holocene boundary, rather than well-defined climatic episodes corresponding to the B??lling-Aller??d and Younger Dryas episodes in the North Atlantic region. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mason, J.A.; Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Johnson, W.C.; Jacobs, P.M.; Goble, R.J.

2008-01-01

325

Anomalous South Atlantic lithologies confirm global scale of unusual mid-Pleistocene climate excursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate-rich nannofossil oozes are the typical sediments deposited under the low-productivity regime of the subtropical gyre in the South Atlantic. Surface productivity has remained virtually constant during the late Pleistocene [Schmiedl and Mackensen, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 130 (1997) 43-80], increasing slightly only during the most extreme glacial periods. Recently, the puzzling occurrence of thick monospecific diatom layers (Ethmodiscus rex) has been reported within the carbonaceous sequences of two sediment cores in the South Atlantic Gyre [Schmieder et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 179 (2000) 539-549]. The layers, dated 544-534 ka, are isochronous and record a period of increased organic carbon flux. Above them, at 530-524 ka, unusually high carbonate contents are recorded. This double feature of anomalous lithologies is unique in the sediment record of the last 1500 kyr and can be related to the terminal event of the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT). The MPT is characterized by reduced thermohaline circulation and stronger carbonate dissolution [Schmieder et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 179 (2000) 539-549]. Reduced circulation and a more stratified water column may have trapped nutrients in deep nitrate pools and may have fostered favorable conditions for the development of deep-dwelling populations of E. rex. The onset of more turbid conditions led to the rapid settling of diatom populations, subsequently introduced nutrients to the surface layer, and improved calcite preservation, thus creating a biogenic silica-carbonate double peak. The carbonate peak is synchronous with an unusual mid-Pleistocene sapropel observed in the Mediterranean, which is attributed to a 'massive odd monsoon' over Central Africa [Rossignol-Strick et al., Nature 392 (1998) 269-272]. Since summer insolation was relatively low during this time the formation of this thick sapropel cannot be explained in terms of current understanding of astronomical forcing [Rossignol-Strick et al., Nature 392 (1998) 269-272]. A non-linear response to a 400-kyr low-frequency climatic cycle as discussed for the Mediterranean sapropel is not confirmed by data from our South Atlantic core records.

Gingele, Franz X.; Schmieder, Frank

2001-03-01

326

Relations between of the Pleistocene glaciations and karstification processes on Velebit Mt. (Croatia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velebit is the Dinaric karst mountain. It is located in Croatia and extends to a length of 145 km along the northern part of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The highest peak is 1757 m high. It is mostly made of well karstified carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomite and carbonate clastic rocks). Glaciation of this region has long attracted researchers. Studies have shown that a large part of the area was affected by the Pleistocene glaciation. These results have prompted questions about the impact of glaciation on the development of karst, especially underground karst formations - caves in this area. This work explores the impact of Pleistocene glaciations on karst development in the northern and central Velebit. Special emphasis is given to the research on the impact of glaciation on the development and morphology of caves, which is analyzed in few examples. The main methods used are geomorphological mapping and speleological research. Also, some sedimentological methods were used and 14C dating of the flowstone crust was provided. Studies on some sites are already well advanced while in some localities are only just begun. In the area of Jezera (Lakes in Croatian, northern part of the mountain) we noticed that the moraine material affects the appearance of the small occasional streams with cutting small torrents and surface erosion processes. In areas where the moraine cover is thinner or missing rekarstification of bedrock is visible, and occasional short streams sinking at contact zone of the moraine material and bedrock. In glacial valley Lomska duliba is the Ledena jama (Ice cave), 536 meters deep characterized by ice accumulation thicker than 50 m. During this study we have been mapped moraine forms along the valley and found that the same material plugs parts of the pit which led to its further dynamics. Great influence on the development of glaciation surface and underground karst forms was studied in Štirova?a (middle Velebit area). Here is the 351 m long cave with lot of erosional remnants of the fluvioglacial deposits that were fully filed much of the known part of the cave. It is concluded that the Pleistocene glaciation had multiple effects on the development of karst in this area. Moraine deposits, relatively impermeable, promote local development of surface runoff and erosion. In this way, they temporarily slowing the process of karstification below, but because of the contact process they accelerated karstification along their edges. This material can also be accumulated in the caves, directly or after resedimentation as fluvioglacial material. In this way fills the underground channels and then reduce and hinder drainage function of these channels.

Bocic, Neven

2014-05-01

327

Evolutionary history of the Maltese wall lizard Podarcis filfolensis: insights on the ‘Expansion–Contraction’ model of Pleistocene biogeography.  

PubMed

The expansion–contraction (EC) model predicts demographic and range contraction of temperate species during Pleistocene glaciations as a consequence of climate-related habitat changes, and provides a paradigm for explaining the high intraspecific diversity found in refugia in terms of long-term demographic stability. However, recent evidence has revealed a weak predictive power of this model for terrestrial species in insular and coastal settings. We investigated the Pleistocene EC dynamics and their evolutionary consequences on temperate species using the Maltese archipelago and its endemic lizard Podarcis filfolensis as a model system. The evolutionary and demographic history of P. filfolensis as inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear sequences data does not conform to the EC model predictions, supporting (i) demographic and spatial stability or expansion, rather than contraction, of the northern and southern lineages during the last glacial period; and (ii) a major role for allopatric differentiation primed by sea-level dynamics, rather than prolonged demographic stability, in the formation of the observed genetic diversity. When combined with evidence from other Mediterranean refugia, this study shows how the incorporation of Pleistocene sea-level variations in the EC model accounts for a reverse demographic and range response of insular and coastal temperate biotas relative to continental ones. Furthermore, this cross-archipelago pattern in which allopatric diversity is formed and shaped by EC cycles resembles that seen between isolated populations within mainland refugia and suggests that the EC model, originally developed to explain population fluctuations into and out-of refugia, may be appropriate for describing the demographic and evolutionary dynamics driving the high genetic diversity observed in these areas. PMID:24716210

Salvi, Daniele; Schembri, Patrick J; Sciberras, Arnold; Harris, D James

2014-03-01

328

Late Pleistocene and Holocene hydrological change in central Indonesia from Lake Towuti, Sulawesi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropical Pacific plays a fundamentally important role in global climate change due to the interaction between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and the Asian monsoons. Indonesia sits at the heart of the tropical western Pacific, yet we have very few terrestrial paleoclimate records from Indonesia to evaluate hydrological changes in the tropical western Pacific during the last 21,000 years. Here we present new sediment piston core and seismic reflection data from Lake Towuti, a large tectonic lake in central Sulawesi, that document the region’s late Pleistocene to Holocene climate evolution. Lithologic and magnetic susceptibility variations in ten piston cores from the lake can be clearly correlated to acoustic reflectors in our seismic stratigraphy and document substantial, basin-wide variations in precipitation and surface runoff through time. Our provisional age model suggests wetter conditions than present in central Indonesia during the latest Pleistocene and early to mid-Holocene. This behavior is generally in phase with the northern hemisphere tropics, despite the near-equatorial (2.7 degrees South) location of our site, suggesting that early Holocene intensification of the Asian monsoon and northward migration of the tropical rain belt did not result in drier conditions at the equator. Multiproxy analyses of our new cores, including compound-specific stable isotope data, will further elucidate centennial- to millennial-scale climate variations in the region.

Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Wattrus, N. J.; Noren, A. J.; Konecky, B.; Wicaksono, S. A.

2010-12-01

329

Asthenospheric ice-load effects in a global dynamical-system model of the Pleistocene climate  

SciTech Connect

In a previous dynamical model the late Cenozoic climate variations were simulated, taking into account free and forced variations of atmospheric carbon dioxide acting in concert with changes in global ice mass and the deep ocean thermal state, all under the influence of the known earth-orbital radiative changes. This model is now extended by adding another relevant variable, bedrock/asthenosphere depression, including its associated ice-calving effects. Within the context of this extended model we (1) demonstrate the main results of previous bedrock/ice sheet models in what we believe is the simplest possible manner, (2) show how these previous models can exhibit the mid-Pleistocene transition with the inclusion of CO{sub 2} effects, (3) discuss the limitations of these previous bedrock models, and (4) illustrate the possibility of removing some of these limitations and accounting for further aspects of the paleoclimate record by using the full dynamical system that includes forced and free effects of CO{sub 2}, as well as effects of bedrock depression and Milankovitch forcing. As one example of a new possibility, with bedrock effects included in the full system we can obtain a solution characterized by irregularly spaced, intermittent episodes in which the behavior is dominated either by near-40 kyr period oscillations or by near-100 kyr periods (such as prevailed over the Pleistocene). 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Saltzman, B.; Verbitsky, M.Ya. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1992-10-01

330

Phylogenetic relationships among Palearctic and Nearctic burbot (Lota lota): Pleistocene extinctions and recolonization.  

PubMed

The burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus, 1758) is the only freshwater species from the cod family. Various taxonomic hypotheses were tested against molecular data by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome b locus of 120 burbot from 41 populations together with the related species Molva molva (ling) and Brosme brosme (tusk), which represented the other Lotinae genera. Within the genus Lota two distinct phylogroups were observed: one in North America south of the Great Slave Lakes (Lota lota maculosa) and one in Eurasia and the remainder of the Nearctic region (Lota lota lota). The burbot lineage separated 10 Myr BP from the other Lotinae, while the genetic variation within burbot appeared to be approximately 1 Myr old. However, fossil evidence suggested that burbot already existed in the Early Pliocene in Europe, from were it probably colonized North America in the Early Pleistocene. While Nearctic burbot survived climatic oscillations and diverged in several refugia, the Eurasian form became extinct or was reduced to a very small population. In the Late Pleistocene the species recolonized the Palearctic region to establish its present distribution range. PMID:14615196

Van Houdt, J K; Hellemans, B; Volckaert, F A M

2003-12-01

331

Evidence for prolonged El Nino-like conditions in the Pacific during the Late Pleistocene: a 43 ka noble gas record from California groundwaters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on the ocean/atmosphere state over the period spanning the Last Glacial Maximum - from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene - provides crucial constraints on the relationship between orbital forcing and global climate change. The Pacific Ocean is particularly important in this respect because of its dominant role in exporting heat and moisture from the tropics to higher latitudes. Through targeting groundwaters in the Mojave Desert, California, we show that noble gas derived temperatures in California averaged 4.2 ?? 1.1 ??C cooler in the Late Pleistocene (from ???43 to ???12 ka) compared to the Holocene (from ???10 to ???5 ka). Furthermore, the older groundwaters contain higher concentrations of excess air (entrained air bubbles) and have elevated oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratios (??18O) - indicators of vigorous aquifer recharge, and greater rainfall amounts and/or more intense precipitation events, respectively. Together, these paleoclimate indicators reveal that cooler and wetter conditions prevailed in the Mojave Desert from ???43 to ???12 ka. We suggest that during the Late Pleistocene, the Pacific ocean/atmosphere state was similar to present-day El Nino-like patterns, and was characterized by prolonged periods of weak trade winds, weak upwelling along the eastern Pacific margin, and increased precipitation in the southwestern U.S.

Kulongoski, J. T.; Hilton, D. R.; Izbicki, J. A.; Belitz, K.

2009-01-01

332

Pleistocene Speciation in North American Lichenized Fungi and the Impact of Alternative Species Circumscriptions and Rates of Molecular Evolution on Divergence Estimates  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene climatic fluctuations influenced patterns of genetic variation and promoted speciation across a wide range of species groups. Lichens are commonly found in habitats that were directly impacted by glacial cycles; however, the role of Pleistocene climate in driving speciation in most lichen symbionts remains unclear. This uncertainty is due in part to limitations in our ability to accurately recognize independently evolving lichen-forming fungal lineages and a lack of relevant fossil calibrations. Using a coalescent-based species tree approach, we estimated divergence times for two sister clades in the genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae) restricted to western North America. We assessed the influence of two different species circumscription scenarios and various locus-specific rates of molecular evolution on divergence estimates. Species circumscriptions were validated using the program BP&P. although speciation was generally supported in both scenarios, divergence times differed between traditional species circumscriptions and those based on genetic data, with more recent estimates resulting from the former. Similarly, rates of evolution for different loci resulted in variable divergence time estimates. However, our results unambiguously indicate that diversification in the sampled Xanthoparmelia clades occurred during the Pleistocene. Our study highlights the potential impact of ambiguous species circumscriptions and uncertain rates of molecular evolution on estimating divergence times within a multilocus species tree framework. PMID:24386465

Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Stenroos, Soili; Clair, Larry L. St.

2013-01-01

333

A Paleoclimatic and Paleohydrologic Reconstruction of Pleistocene Fossil Lake, Oregon  

E-print Network

Fossil Lake, Oregon, is a Pleistocene lacustrine basin (~ 650-13 ka) in the northwestern part of the Great Basin best known for its abundant and diverse vertebrate assemblage. Multi-proxy studies using lithostratigraphy, ...

Retrum, Julie Beth

2010-09-30

334

Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.  

PubMed

Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

2008-04-01

335

Seismic stratigraphy of the Antarctic Peninsula pacific margin: A record of Pliocene-Pleistocene ice volume and paleoclimate  

SciTech Connect

Multichannel seismic profiles across the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Peninsula show a series of oblique progradational sequences. These sequences exhibit a variety of unusual characteristics that suggest they were produced by the action of ice sheets grounded out to the shelf edge at times of glacial maximum. Reflection events from deeper stratigraphic levels, followed down the continental slope and onto the rise, overlie ocean crust of known age, showing that at least eight such glacial sequences have been deposited within the past 6 m.y. Similar groundings have probably occurred on most Antarctic margins, but the depositional record is particularly well preserved at this margin because of Pliocene-Pleistocene thermal subsidence. Neogene global sea-level fluctuations have been attributed to changes in volume of continental ice sheets. The depositional sequences on the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Peninsula are thought to record West Antarctic ice-sheet fluctuations directly. Further investigation of these sequences would assess the relation between fluctuations in ice volume and the low-latitude record of global sea-level change.

Larter, R.D.; Barker, P.F. (Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge (England))

1989-08-01

336

The disappearance of glaciers in the Tien Shan Mountains in Central Asia at the end of Pleistocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in Central Asia are among the largest ice masses in the Eurasian continent and have supplied vital water to local inhabitants for thousands of years. The glaciers in this region are generally believed to be remnants of the last deglaciation, however, glacier variability in the central Asian mountains since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has not been well documented. Here, we report an 86.87 m-deep ice core record drilled on an ice cap in the Tien Shan Mountains of Central Asia. Radiocarbon dating of organic soil from the bottom of the ice-core borehole showed that the age of the soil was 12,656 - 12,434 cal years before present, coincident with the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold period (YD). This result indicates that the ice cap did not exist in the Bølling-Allerød period (BA), which was the warm period before the YD, and that the BA climate was significantly warmer than at present. It also indicates that the ice cap has never entirely disappeared in any warm periods throughout the Holocene. We estimated that during the BA its extent was 43% or less of the present glacier coverage in the mountains. Our results suggest that this region at the end of Pleistocene was considerably warmer than at present, and that most of the present glaciers in this region are not relics of the Last Glacial period, but are composed of ice formed during the YD and Holocene.

Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Aizen, Vladimir B.; Narama, Chiyuki; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Okamoto, Sachiko; Naoki, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jumpei

2014-11-01

337

Antiperiodic oscillations  

PubMed Central

The investigation of regular and irregular patterns in nonlinear oscillators is an outstanding problem in physics and in all natural sciences. In general, regularity is understood as tantamount to periodicity. However, there is now a flurry of works proving the existence of “antiperiodicity”, an unfamiliar type of regularity. Here we report the experimental observation and numerical corroboration of antiperiodic oscillations. In contrast to the isolated solutions presently known, we report infinite hierarchies of antiperiodic waveforms that can be tuned continuously and that form wide spiral-shaped stability phases in the control parameter plane. The waveform complexity increases towards the focal point common to all spirals, a key hub interconnecting them all. PMID:23739041

Freire, Joana G.; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

2013-01-01

338

A regional geochronological study of late pleistocene permafrost  

SciTech Connect

The use of radiocarbon dating in geocryological investigations makes it possible to establish a chronology for permafrost-geological development during the Late Pleistocene. Both global and regional time scales for the formation of Late Pleistocene permafrost have been worked out over the past 15--20 years at the Permafrost Institute of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. He presents here results from study areas of northwestern Siberia and of North, Central and West Yakutia.

Kostyukevich, V.V. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk (Russian Federation). Geochemistry Lab.)

1993-01-01

339

Assessing the strength of the monsoon during the late Pleistocene in southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved predictions of drought require an understanding of natural and human-induced climate variability. Long-term records across glacial-interglacial cycles provide the natural component of variability, however few such records exist for the southwestern United States (US) and quantitative or semi-quantitative records of precipitation are absent. Here we use the hydrogen isotope (?D) value of C28n-alkanoic acid in lacustrine sediments of Pleistocene age to reconstruct ?D values of precipitation in northern New Mexico over two glacial-interglacial cycles (?550,000-360,000 years before present) and obtain a record of monsoon strength. Overall, reconstructed ?D values range from -53.8‰ to -94.4‰, with a mean value of -77.5 ± 8‰. Remarkably, this variation falls within the measured present-day summer monsoonal and winter weighted means (-50.3 ± 3‰ and -106.4 ± 20‰ respectively), suggesting that processes similar to those of present time also controlled precipitation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13 to 10. Using the ?D summer monsoonal and winter mean values as end-members, we interpret our reconstructed ?D record of precipitation as a direct, and semi-quantitative, indicator of monsoon strength during MIS 13 to 10. Interglacial periods were characterized by greater monsoon strength but also greater variability compared to glacial periods. Pronounced cycles in the strength of the monsoon occurred during interglacial periods and in general were positively correlated with maximum mean annual temperatures. Our estimates of monsoon strength are supported by independent proxies of ecosystem productivity, namely, TOC, ?13C of TOC and Si/Ti ratio and warm pollen taxa Juniperus and Quercus. Interglacial variability in the strength of the monsoon resembles a response to the land-sea surface temperature contrast (LSTC) except for the early part of MIS 11. During this period, LSTC would have remained relatively strong while monsoonal strength decreased to a minimum. This minimum occurred following the warmest interval of MIS 11, suggesting a more complex driving of monsoon strength during warm periods. In addition, this period of monsoon minimum coincided with a core section of mud-cracked sediments that suggest low monsoonal precipitation was an important factor in the onset of drought. Our estimates of monsoon strength represent a record of natural variability in the region that is relevant to present time, in particular the variability during interglacial MIS 11, which is considered an analog for the current interglacial. Our results suggest that natural variability can cause significant reductions in monsoonal precipitation with the implication of a potentially adverse effect from sustained warming.

Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M.; Huang, Yongsong; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Fawcett, Peter J.; Fessenden, Julianna; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, Philip A.; Larson, Toti; Perkins, George; Toney, Jaime; Werne, Josef P.; Goff, Fraser; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Berke, Melissa A.

2014-11-01

340

The circumboreal tundra-taiga interface: late Pleistocene and Holocene changes.  

PubMed

Creating a global perspective on past treeline changes is problematic due to the varying methods and definitions used. A general lack of a detailed description of the modern treeline position and vegetation complicates any comparative analysis of the magnitude of the most important changes. However, one seemingly common factor in most regions was an extremely rapid dispersal of trees when climate warmed drastically from full glacial conditions. Most Arctic treelines reached their northernmost positions in the early Holocene and receded to present positions starting at about 5.8 ka. The early occupation of the northernmost sites in ice-free and early deglaciated areas was possible because of the close proximity of invading trees in nearby glacial refugia, particularly in Fennoscandia and northern Russia. In Canada, the Northwest Territories and Quebec-Labrador were out of phase with this general trend due to their late deglaciation. However, even here colonization was rapid, indicating that the tree species were present adjacent to the glaciers. Following this trend and based on the present evidence, we propose a scenario of a continuous but modest occupation of eastern Beringia by spruce during the late-Pleistocene instead of an exceptionally rapid spread of conifers from the glacial refugium south of the Laurentide ice sheet (2000 to 3000 km in about 200 years), which typically has been assumed. Macrofossil evidence of scattered occurrences of "exotic species" (for instance Siberian larch in central Sweden) far from their natural range limits in the early Holocene highlight the disparity between pollen and macrofossil analyses. It questions the validity of assigned pollen percentages to indicate the presence of a species within a region as these species were not observed in the pollen record. Thus, it is likely that trees were present at any given site well before the rise in pollen abundance. There is still a large potential to improve our knowledge about the environmental history of the circumboreal treeline areas. In particular, future research should concentrate not only on patterns of species displacement, but on finding the factors, apart from climate, which cause treeline shifts. PMID:12374054

Payette, S; Eronen, M; Jasinski, J J P

2002-08-01

341

Reorganization of Ice Sheet Flow Patterns in Arctic Canada Prior to the Mid-Pleistocene Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Foxe sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) experienced a complex and dynamic interplay between cold-based, non-erosive ice on uplands, fast-moving outlet glaciers that carved deep fiords through the Arctic Cordillera, and even more erosive ice streams that occupied larger straits and sounds, transporting ice from the Foxe Dome to calving margins in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. The high topography of Baffin Island forms a broad barrier to the flow of ice to these calving margins and gradually has been dissected since the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. However, evidence for the evolution of LIS erosion and basal thermal regime patterns during successive glaciations is poorly preserved in the geologic record. We use a new approach utilizing published till geochemistry and cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) data to constrain the development of the fiorded coastline and the distribution of cold-based ice across central Baffin Island in both spatial and temporal domains over many glacial-interglacial cycles. The combination of till geochemistry data, which is used to characterize till weathering, and modeled CRN burial-exposure histories provides strong evidence for a shift in basal thermal regimes across the interior plateaux of Baffin Island between 1.9 and 1.2 Ma. While it may be coincidence that this time interval abuts the onset of the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT), it has been hypothesized that changes in subglacial conditions were potentially an important mechanism in altering LIS dynamics across the MPT. Prior to this time, ice was likely wet-based and erosive across the majority of the Baffin Island interior, but by 1.9-1.2 Ma, some parts of the landscape became perpetually covered by cold-based ice during glaciations, a pattern that persisted through the last glacial cycle. The modern fiord system also must have developed by this time, and preferential channeling of ice flow into major fiords may have been sufficient to effectively shut off ice flow across the landscape between outlet glaciers. These results imply that there was a major shift in the basal thermal regime across the northeastern LIS, and the subsequent expansion of cold-based ice and the concentration of ice flow in fewer outlet systems across this region may help explain the cause of the MPT from 41- to 100-kyr glacial cycles.

Refsnider, K. A.; Miller, G. H.

2010-12-01

342

Pleistocene phylogeographic effects on avian populations and the speciation process.  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene biogeographic events have traditionally been ascribed a major role in promoting speciations and in sculpting the present-day diversity and distributions of vertebrate taxa. However, this paradigm has recently come under challenge from a review of interspecific mtDNA genetic distances in birds: most sister-species separations dated to the Pliocene. Here we summarize the literature on intraspecific mtDNA phylogeographic patterns in birds and reinterpret the molecular evidence bearing on Pleistocene influences. At least 37 of the 63 avian species surveyed (59%) are sundered into recognizable phylogeographic units, and 28 of these separations (76%) trace to the Pleistocene. Furthermore, use of phylogroup separation times within species as minimum estimates of 'speciation durations' also indicates that many protracted speciations, considered individually, probably extended through time from Pliocene origins to Pleistocene completions. When avian speciation is viewed properly as an extended temporal process rather than as a point event, Pleistocene conditions appear to have played an active role both in initiating major phylogeographic separations within species, and in completing speciations that had been inaugurated earlier. Whether the Pleistocene was exceptional in these regards compared with other geological times remains to be determined. PMID:9569664

Avise, J C; Walker, D

1998-01-01

343

Illustrated Glossary of Alpine Glacial Landforms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illustrated Glossary of Alpine Glacial Landforms is maintained by the University of Wisconsin Stevens Point's Department of Geology and Geography. This simple but well done site lists over twenty landforms as either an erosional landform, depositional landform, or an ice feature -- each including a brief description. Clicking on the corresponding link brings up a page with a photograph, a topographical map, a more in-depth description, and links to additional examples.

1997-01-01

344

The Role of Topography in Glacial Inception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the influence of model topography on glacial inception using a coupled atmosphere-slab ocean version of NCAR’s Community Climate System Model (CCSM3). Simulations employ a modern orbital configuration and greenhouse gas concentrations representing both recent (year 1990) and hypothetically lower present-day values in accordance with Ruddiman’s Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis (240 ppm CO2 and 450 ppb CH4). The model is run at two different resolutions: a relatively coarse horizontal configuration (T42, approximately 2.8 degrees) and comparatively fine resolution (T85, approximately 1.4 degrees). Although under contemporary greenhouse forcing the extent of permanent boreal snow cover in the two model configurations is similar, imposing lower concentrations of CO2 and CH4 generates much more extensive glacial inception in the T85 experiment (150% increase) than in the T42 version (80% increase). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of glacial inception differ considerably. Only the T85 resolution produces widespread permanent snow cover over the Rocky Mountains and on Baffin Island, consistent with geologic evidence for ice sheet nucleation in northeastern Canada. Although much of the enhanced sensitivity in the higher-resolution simulations is directly attributable to the colder and wetter conditions around elevated topography, some of the response also appears to be driven dynamically and remotely as a function of the simulated elevation of Greenland. The colder conditions over and downstream of the Greenland Ice Sheet in the modern T85 simulation promote a smaller cooling locally under lowered greenhouse forcing that seems to activate a wave-1 dynamical response in the atmospheric pressure field. The resulting circulation anomalies favor stronger upslope wind flow from the Pacific Ocean over the northern Rocky Mountains, enhancing the regional development of a permanent snow pack. Although these experiments are driven by greenhouse forcing rather than historical orbital variations, we believe that our findings apply to the general mechanisms of glacial inception.

Vavrus, S. J.; Philippon-Berthier, G.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Ruddiman, W. F.

2009-12-01

345

Illustrated Glossary of Alpine Glacial Landforms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary provides definitions and examples of common alpine glacial landforms. The landforms are divided into three categories: erosional landforms, depositional landforms, and ice features. Each definition is accompanied by a photo of the feature, and many also include a topographic map showing the same feature with the camera position marked to indicate where the photo was taken from. An online exercise is also included to allow students to test their knowledge.

Lemke, Karen

346

Skeletal and isotopic composition and paleoclimatic significance of late Pleistocene carbonates, Ross Sea, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Carbonates cover an extensive area of the northwestern Ross Sea continental shelf. Radiocarbon dates yield late Pleistocene (stage 3) ages for these deposits, hence the carbonates appear to be correlative with widespread tills and glacial marine deposits in the region. Four carbonate facies are recognized on the basis of skeletal composition: a barnacle/foraminifer facies, a muddy bryozoan facies, a bryozoan/barnacle/pelecypod/foraminifer facies, and a planktonic foraminiferal facies. These deposits occur on the shelf and upper slope, while carbonate turbidities derived from them occur on the adjacent continental slope and rise. Compositional analyses of Ross Sea carbonates lend support to previously recognized criteria for identifying cold water carbonates. These include: (1) the presence of an associated ice-rafted component (including dropstones); (2) a dominance of calcite relative to other carbonate minerals (the remaining fraction consists solely of aragonite); (3) allochems that are entirely skeletal; and (4) heavy oxygen isotopic compositions (in the range of +3.0 to +5.1% PDB).

Taviani, M. (Ist. per la Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)); Reid, D.E.; Anderson, J.B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

347

Malacological and palynological evidence of the Lower Pleistocene cold phase at the Carpathian Foothills (Southern Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Pleistocene sediments bearing gastropod shells and pollen flora were found during coring at Jawornik (South Poland) at a depth interval of 54.30-39.00 m, beneath the oldest till of the Carpathians. Thirteen land-snail taxa identified in 55 samples of the core formed two molluscan assemblages. In the bottom part, typical cold-loving snails were found (e.g. Vallonia tenuilabris, Pupilla loessica, Vertigo genesii, Columella columella), whereas in the upper part only Semilimax kotulae was present. The succession of molluscan assemblages may suggest that at the site of deposition, after a phase of tundra, steppe-tundra or forest-steppe landscape with patches of wet habitats in cold climate, the climate became slightly milder but still cool, favourable to the spreading of boreal (coniferous) woodlands. Pollen analysis was performed only for the upper part of the profile. The pollen spectra, besides the Tertiary (Miocene) elements, contained sporomorphs common to the Tertiary and Quaternary floras. Among them, the highest percentages were noted for Pinus haploxylon t., P. diploxylon t., Picea, Quercus, Ericaceae, Betula, and Ulmus. The fact that the sediments with organic remains underlie the oldest Scandinavian till suggests that they are older than the oldest glacial unit of the South-Polish Complex (Narevian = Menapian, ~ 1.2 Ma).

Stworzewicz, Ewa; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Wójcik, Antoni

2012-05-01

348

The impact of climate change on the structure of Pleistocene food webs across the mammoth steppe.  

PubMed

Species interactions form food webs, impacting community structure and, potentially, ecological dynamics. It is likely that global climatic perturbations that occur over long periods of time have a significant influence on species interaction patterns. Here, we integrate stable isotope analysis and network theory to reconstruct patterns of trophic interactions for six independent mammalian communities that inhabited mammoth steppe environments spanning western Europe to eastern Alaska (Beringia) during the Late Pleistocene. We use a Bayesian mixing model to quantify the contribution of prey to the diets of local predators, and assess how the structure of trophic interactions changed across space and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a global climatic event that severely impacted mammoth steppe communities. We find that large felids had diets that were more constrained than those of co-occurring predators, and largely influenced by an increase in Rangifer abundance after the LGM. Moreover, the structural organization of Beringian and European communities strongly differed: compared with Europe, species interactions in Beringian communities before--and possibly after--the LGM were highly modular. We suggest that this difference in modularity may have been driven by the geographical insularity of Beringian communities. PMID:23658198

Yeakel, Justin D; Guimarães, Paulo R; Bocherens, Hervé; Koch, Paul L

2013-07-01

349

Late Pleistocene human occupation of the hyperarid core in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few archeological sites in South America contain uncontroversial evidence for when the first peopling of the continent occurred. Largely ignored in this debate, extreme environments are assumed either as barriers to this early wave of migration or without potential for past habitability. Here, we report on a rare 12-13 ka human occupation from Quebrada Maní (site QM12), a plantless, near rainless landscape (1240 m asl and 85 km from the Pacific Ocean) located in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert. This location harbored wetlands and riparian woodlands that were fed by increased rainfall further east in the central Andes during the latest Pleistocene. Excavations at QM12 yielded a diverse cultural assemblage of lithics, burned and cut bones, marine gastropods, pigments, plant fibers, and wooden artifacts alongside a prepared fireplace. Sixteen radiocarbon dates from site QM12 on charcoal, marine shells, animal dung, plant remains and wood reveal that the occupation took place between 12.8 and 11.7 ka. These results demonstrate that the Atacama Desert was not a barrier to early American settlement and dispersal, and provide new clues for understanding the cultural complexity and diversity of the peopling of South America during the Last Glacial-interglacial transition.

Latorre, Claudio; Santoro, Calogero M.; Ugalde, Paula C.; Gayo, Eugenia M.; Osorio, Daniela; Salas-Egaña, Carolina; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Joly, Delphine; Rech, Jason A.

2013-10-01

350

The impact of climate change on the structure of Pleistocene food webs across the mammoth steppe  

PubMed Central

Species interactions form food webs, impacting community structure and, potentially, ecological dynamics. It is likely that global climatic perturbations that occur over long periods of time have a significant influence on species interaction patterns. Here, we integrate stable isotope analysis and network theory to reconstruct patterns of trophic interactions for six independent mammalian communities that inhabited mammoth steppe environments spanning western Europe to eastern Alaska (Beringia) during the Late Pleistocene. We use a Bayesian mixing model to quantify the contribution of prey to the diets of local predators, and assess how the structure of trophic interactions changed across space and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a global climatic event that severely impacted mammoth steppe communities. We find that large felids had diets that were more constrained than those of co-occurring predators, and largely influenced by an increase in Rangifer abundance after the LGM. Moreover, the structural organization of Beringian and European communities strongly differed: compared with Europe, species interactions in Beringian communities before—and possibly after—the LGM were highly modular. We suggest that this difference in modularity may have been driven by the geographical insularity of Beringian communities. PMID:23658198

Yeakel, Justin D.; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Bocherens, Hervé; Koch, Paul L.

2013-01-01

351

A link between global climate variability in the Pleistocene and variations in the Earth's orbital parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study demonstrates that the orbital climatic diagram (OCD) built on the basis of the simplified and general concepts of mechanisms for climatic response to orbital forcing can be a reasonable alternative to Milankovitch's and his followers' discrete insolation curves, which are widely used in paleoclimate interpretations. Comparison of the OCD and the oxygen isotope record LR04 indicates a fairly good match (considering the simplicity of the OCD construction and interpretation) in 0-1240 ka. The study discusses some discrepancies in the chronology and structure of the LR04 and OCD. It was shown that climate response may differ from that predicted by orbital insolation forcing on the basis of the generally accepted mechanisms causing transformation of orbital signals. It was shown that a shift from a dominant glacial periodicity of 41 to 100 k.y. (Middle Pleistocene transition) took place at ˜1240 ka. Since then, the 100-k.y. eccentricity cycle has not been interrupted. Therefore, strictly speaking, the revised numbering of marine isotope stages (MIS) should be adopted for the interval of 1240-900 ka to reflect realistic 100-k.y. cycles instead of 41-k.y. cycles, similar to the interval of 900-100 ka.

Bol'shakov, V. A.

2014-09-01

352

Population genetic structure in migratory sandhill cranes and the role of Pleistocene glaciations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous studies of migratory sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) have made significant progress explaining evolution of this group at the species scale, but have been unsuccessful in explaining the geographically partitioned variation in morphology seen on the population scale. The objectives of this study were to assess the population structure and gene flow patterns among migratory sandhill cranes using microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of a large sample of individuals across three populations. In particular, we were interested in evaluating the roles of Pleistocene glaciation events and postglaciation gene flow in shaping the present-day population structure. Our results indicate substantial gene flow across regions of the Midcontinental population that are geographically adjacent, suggesting that gene flow for most of the region follows an isolation-by-distance model. Male-mediated gene flow and strong female philopatry may explain the differing patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial variation. Taken in context with precise geographical information on breeding locations, the morphologic and microsatellite DNA variation shows a gradation from the Arctic-nesting subspecies G. c. canadensis to the non-Arctic subspecies G. c. tabida. Analogous to other Arctic-nesting birds, it is probable that the population structure seen in Midcontinental sandhill cranes reflects the result of post-glacial secondary contact. Our data suggest that subspecies of migratory sandhills experience significant gene flow and therefore do not represent distinct and independent genetic entities. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jones, K.L.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Ashley, M.V.

2005-01-01

353

Population genetic structure in migratory sandhill cranes and the role of Pleistocene glaciations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous studies of migratory sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) have made significant progress explaining evolution of this group at the species scale, but have been unsuccessful in explaining the geographically partitioned variation in morphology seen on the population scale. The objectives of this study were to assess the population structure and gene flow patterns among migratory sandhill cranes using microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of a large sample of individuals across three populations. In particular, we were interested in evaluating the roles of Pleistocene glaciation events and postglaciation gene flow in shaping the present-day population structure. Our results indicate substantial gene flow across regions of the Midcontinental population that are geographically adjacent, suggesting that gene flow for most of the region follows an isolation-by-distance model. Male mediated gene flow and strong female philopatry may explain the differing patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial variation. Taken in context with precise geographical information on breeding locations gained from satellite telemetry, the morphologic and microsatellite DNA variation shows a gradation from the Arctic-nesting subspecies G.c. canadensis to non Arctic subspecies G. c. tabida. Analogous to other Arctic-nesting birds, it is probable that the population structure seen in the Midcontinental sandhill cranes reflects the result of post-glacial secondary contact. Our data suggest that subspecies of migratory sandhills experience significant gene flow and therefore do not represent distinct and independent genetic entities.

Jones, K.L.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Ashley, M.V.

2005-01-01

354

Hot spots of genetic diversity descended from multiple Pleistocene refugia in an alpine ungulate.  

PubMed

Species that inhabit naturally fragmented environments are expected to be spatially structured and exhibit reduced genetic diversity at the periphery of their range. Patterns of differentiation may also reflect historical processes such as recolonization from glacial refugia. We examined the relative importance of