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Sample records for pleural fluid procalcitonin

  1. Pleural fluid procalcitonin to distinguish infectious from noninfectious etiologies of pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Khosla, Rahul; Khosla, Shikha G; Becker, Kenneth L; Nylen, Eric S

    2016-05-01

    In this study we investigate the diagnostic value of pleural fluid procalcitonin (PCT) in distinguishing infectious and noninfectious etiologies of pleural effusion. We reviewed the medical records of 75 hospitalized patients who underwent thoracentesis between 2011 and 2012. Data on pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein, albumin, cell count and differential, pH, Gram stain and culture, cytology, triglyceride, cholesterol, amylase, and PCT were collected. Data on serum LDH, protein, albumin, prothrombin time, normalized, and blood culture were also collected. Pleural effusions were classified into 2 groups, infectious and noninfectious. There were 18 infectious pleural effusions (IPE) and 57 noninfectious pleural effusions (NIPE). Median pleural fluid PCT was 1.088 ng/mL (0.312-2.940 ng/mL) in IPE and 0.123 ng/mL (0.05-0.263 ng/mL) in NIPE, with a P value < 0.0001. Pleural fluid PCT > 0.25 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 77.78% and specificity of 74.14% for diagnosing an IPE. A subgroup analysis of PCT in exudative infectious effusions versus exudative noninfectious malignant/paramalignant effusions showed higher levels in the former. PCT is a novel biomarker for diagnosing infectious pleural effusion, and it would be worthwhile to investigate the role of pleural PCT in assessing severity of illness, risk stratification, and antibiotic stewardship in hospitalized patients with pleural effusions. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:363-365. 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:26821368

  2. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  3. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  4. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  5. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  6. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  7. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleans the skin around the insertion site. Numbing medicine (anesthetic) is injected into the skin. A needle is placed through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you ...

  8. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    A procedure called thoracentesis is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and examined under ... For thoracentesis, you sit on the edge of a chair or bed with your head and arms resting on ...

  9. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  10. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleans the skin around the insertion site. Numbing medicine (anesthetic) is injected into the skin. A needle is placed through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As ...

  11. Pleural Fluid Cholesterol in Differentiating Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamal, A. B.; Yogi, K. N.; Bam, N.; Das, S. K.; Karn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P < 0.0001). It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion. PMID:23365740

  12. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin on your back is cleaned. Numbing medicine (local anesthetic) is injected in this area. The doctor inserts a needle through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the pleural space. Fluid is collected. The needle is removed. A ...

  13. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    PubMed

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  14. Pleural fluid infection caused by Dietzia cinnamea.

    PubMed

    Cawcutt, Kelly A; Bhatti, Micah M; Nelson, Darlene R

    2016-08-01

    Dietzia cinnamea was recovered from pleural fluid in an immunocompromised patient by inoculating blood culture bottles and was identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The case shows the expanding ability of microbiology laboratories to identify rare organisms through newer techniques and technology. PMID:27312689

  15. Massive Pleural Fluid Collection in Adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are no available literatures on massive pleural effusions (MPE) in our country. Aim. To determine the aetiology of MPE and compare the mortality rate between malignant and nonmalignant MPE in adult Nigerians. Methods. A prospective study of all the patients diagnosed with nontraumatic pleural fluid collections for one year in two tertiary federal hospitals in Southern Nigeria. A total of 101 consecutive patients with pleural fluid collections were studied. Diagnoses were made by clinical features and laboratory and radiological investigations. Results. Forty-eight patients (47.5%) had MPE with a mean age of 43 years ± 14.04 and 35 were females. Thirty patients (62.5%) were diagnosed with nonmalignant conditions (21 from pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 9 from other causes). Haemorrhagic pleural collections were from malignancy in 12 (30.8%) and from PTB in 6 (15.4%). Straw-coloured collections were from malignancy in 9 (23.1%), from PTB in 8 (20.1%), and from posttraumatic exudative effusion in 3 (7.7%). Compared with nonmalignant MPE, patients with malignant collections had higher mortality within 6 months (8/18 versus 0/30 with a P value of 0.000). Conclusion. The presentation of patients with nontraumatic haemorrhagic or straw-coloured MPE narrows the diagnosis to PTB and malignancy with MPE cases being a marker for short survival rate. PMID:27437443

  16. Identifying Thoracic Malignancies Through Pleural Fluid Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Porcel, José M.; Esquerda, Aureli; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Bielsa, Silvia; Salud, Antonieta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions may be challenging when cytological examination of aspirated pleural fluid is equivocal or noncontributory. The purpose of this study was to identify protein candidate biomarkers differentially expressed in the pleural fluid of patients with mesothelioma, lung adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, and tuberculosis (TB). A multiplex protein biochip comprising 120 biomarkers was used to determine the pleural fluid protein profile of 29 mesotheliomas, 29 lung adenocarcinomas, 12 lymphomas, and 35 tuberculosis. The relative abundance of these predetermined biomarkers among groups served to establish the differential diagnosis of: malignant versus benign (TB) effusions, lung adenocarcinoma versus mesothelioma, and lymphoma versus TB. The selected putative markers were validated using widely available commercial techniques in an independent sample of 102 patients. Significant differences were found in the protein expressions of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-B, C-reactive protein, and chondroitin sulfate between malignant and TB effusions. When integrated into a scoring model, these proteins yielded 85% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98 for labeling malignancy in the verification sample. For lung adenocarcinoma–mesothelioma discrimination, combining CA19-9, CA15-3, and kallikrein-12 had maximal discriminatory capacity (65% sensitivity, 100% specificity, AUC 0.94); figures which also refer to the validation set. Last, cathepsin-B in isolation was only moderately useful (sensitivity 89%, specificity 62%, AUC 0.75) in separating lymphomatous and TB effusions. However, this last differentiation improved significantly when cathepsin-B was used with respect to the patient's age (sensitivity 72%, specificity 100%, AUC 0.94). In conclusion, panels of 4 (i.e., MMP-9, cathepsin-B, C-reactive protein, chondroitin sulfate), or 3 (i.e., CA19-9, CA15-3, kallikrein-12) different protein

  17. Pleural Fluid Analysis: Standstill or a Work in Progress?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, T.; Al-Alawi, M.; Chotirmall, S. H.; McElvaney, N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Pleural fluid analysis yields important diagnostic information in pleural effusions in combination with clinical history, examination, and radiology. For more than 30 years, the initial and most pragmatic step in this process is to determine whether the fluid is a transudate or an exudate. Light's criteria remain the most robust in separating the transudate-exudate classification which dictates further investigations or management. Recent studies have led to the evaluation and implementation of a number of additional fluid analyses that may improve the diagnostic utility of this method. This paper discusses the current practice and future direction of pleural fluid analysis in determining the aetiology of a pleural effusion. While this has been performed for a few decades, a number of other pleural characteristics are becoming available suggesting that this diagnostic tool is indeed a work in progress. PMID:22448326

  18. Different characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusion according to pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) exhibits different characteristics according to pleural fluid cellular predominance or whether the pleural fluid is free-flowing or loculated. However, its categorization based on either of these factors alone may be insufficient to properly reflect the heterogeneous manifestation of TPE. We evaluated the characteristics of the four TPE groups classified according to cellular predominance and whether the fluid is free-flowing or loculated. Methods A cohort of 375 patients with TPE was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings were compared between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE, and between free-flowing and loculated effusion for both neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE. Results Lymphocytic TPE and neutrophilic TPE were observed in 336 (90%) and 39 (10%) patients, respectively. Pleural fluid loculation was present in 36% and 31% of the patients in the lymphocytic and neutrophilic groups, respectively. A few parameters of the laboratory findings between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE patients showed significant differences. However, these significant differences were prominently observed when comparing free-flowing and loculated subgroups of the respective neutrophilic and lymphocytic groups. Pleural fluid pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and adenosine deaminase levels were significantly different among the four subgroups. The neutrophilic loculated subgroup exhibited the most intense pleural inflammation and the highest mycobacterial yields when compared to the other subgroups. However, the percentage of neutrophils in the pleural fluid was not positively associated with the probability of culture-positive effusion. Conclusions The heterogeneous manifestation of TPE would be better characterized by using a classification system based on combined pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation, with the neutrophilic loculated subgroup contributing to most of the clinically significant

  19. Potential diagnostic value of serum/pleural fluid IL-31 levels for tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Ou, Qinfang; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Bingyan; Shen, Lei; Chen, Shaolong; Weng, Xinhua; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wenhong; Shao, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of IL-31 levels in the pleural fluid and plasma to differentially diagnose tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion. We enrolled 91 cases, including tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE, n = 50), malignant pleural effusion (MPE, n = 41), other cases including pneumonia with pleural fluid, pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy people as controls. Whole blood was stimulated with the M. tuberculosis–specific antigens and plasma was collected. The multiplex bead-based cytokine immunoassay was employed to measure the levels of various cytokines. IL-31 was found to be the most prominent cytokine (P < 0.0001), and with an optimal cut-off value of 67.5 pg/mL, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of TPE were 86% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, the tuberculosis-specific IL-31 levels in the plasma of TPE patients were higher than that of MPE patients (P = 0.0002). At an optimal cut-off value of 23.9 pg/mL, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of TPE were 92.9% and 85.7%, respectively. Ultimately, the combination of pleural fluid with the plasma tuberculosis-specific IL-31 levels improved the sensitivity and specificity to 94.0% and 95.1%, respectively. Thus, we identified a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of TPE for clinical application. PMID:26864868

  20. Ascitic Fluid Calprotectin and Serum Procalcitonin as Accurate Diagnostic Markers for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Razik, Ahmed; Mousa, Nasser; Elhammady, Dina; Elhelaly, Rania; Elzehery, Rasha; Elbaz, Sherif; Eissa, Mohamed; El-Wakeel, Niveen; Eldars, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is based on a polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) exceeding 250/μL in ascitic fluid. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin and ascitic fluid calprotectin as accurate diagnostic markers for detecting SBP. Methods Seventy-nine patients with cirrhotic ascites were included. They were divided into a SBP group, including 52 patients, and a non-SBP group of 27 patients. Serum procalcitonin, ascitic calprotectin, and serum and ascitic levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum procalcitonin and ascitic calprotectin were significantly higher in SBP patients than in non-SBP patients. Significant increases in both serum and ascitic levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were observed in SBP patients versus non-SBP patients. At a cutoff value of 0.94 ng/mL, serum procalcitonin had 94.3% sensitivity and 91.8% specificity for detecting SBP. In addition, at a cutoff value of 445 ng/mL, ascitic calprotectin had 95.4% sensitivity and 85.2% specificity for detecting SBP. Both were positively correlated with ascitic fluid proteins, PMN count, TNF-α, and IL-6. Conclusions According to our findings, determination of serum procalcitonin levels and ascitic calprotectin appears to provide satisfactory diagnostic markers for the diagnosis of SBP. PMID:26601826

  1. Atypical Pleural Fluid Profiles in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion: Sequential Changes Compared with Parapneumonic and Malignant Pleural Effusions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Ho; Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Yong Dae; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Jaehee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is commonly characterized by lymphocytic predominance and high adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, it may present with neutrophilic predominance or low ADA levels, which are more commonly found in parapneumonic effusion (PPE) or malignant pleural effusion (MPE), respectively. A few studies have observed that the atypical pleural fluid profiles of these cases of TPE may resolve at follow-up thoracentesis. However, these observations were incompletely analyzed and lacked comparison with proper control groups. Thus, limited data are available comparing the sequential pleural fluid changes between TPE and PPE or MPE with similar pleural fluid profiles. Methods TPE, PPE, and MPE patients who underwent sequential thoracentesis were retrospectively reviewed. The sequential changes in the pleural fluid profiles were compared between neutrophilic TPE and PPE, and lymphocytic TPE and MPE with low ADA levels. Results Twenty-three TPE patients (16 with neutrophilic exudates, seven with lymphocytic exudates), 72 cases of PPE with neutrophilic exudates, and 18 cases of MPE with lymphocytic exudates were included in the analysis. A sequential shift to lymphocytic exudates occurred significantly more often in TPE than in PPE cases. The initial and follow-up ADA levels in TPE cases with a lymphocytic shift were significantly higher than those in PPE cases with a lymphocytic shift. The ADA levels in the TPE cases with initial lymphocytic exudates and low ADA levels significantly increased at follow-up thoracentesis. For the TPE and MPE cases with initial lymphocytic exudates and ADA levels <40 U/L, the frequency of effusion with ADA levels ≥40 U/L at the second thoracentesis was significantly higher in the TPE cases. Conclusion Follow-up thoracentesis may provide useful information for clinical decision-making in suspected atypical TPE cases with neutrophilic exudates or low ADA levels. PMID:27374670

  2. Sonographic estimation of pleural fluid volume in dogs.

    PubMed

    Newitt, Anna L M; Cripps, Peter J; Shimali, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find an ultrasonographic method to estimate pleural fluid volume in dogs. Nine canine cadavers of mixed breed were studied. Using a transsternal view, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the center of the heart to the furthest ventrolateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 1000 ml total volume was reached. No relationship was identified between mean distance and injected volume up to 100 ml. Thereafter, the mean distance increased in an approximately linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume. There was a high correlation (r > or = 0.899) between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual dogs, but it was not possible to produce a useful equation to calculate absolute pleural fluid volume for new subjects. Nevertheless, ultrasonography may be used to semiquantitatively monitor pleural fluid volume, so that a decrease in the mean linear measurement obtained reflects a decrease in the total fluid volume. PMID:19241761

  3. Pleural fluid tumour markers in malignant pleural effusion with inconclusive cytologic results

    PubMed Central

    Antonangelo, L.; Sales, R.K.; Corá, A.P.; Acencio, M.M.P.; Teixeira, L.R.; Vargas, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of tumour cells in pleural fluid or tissue defines an effusion as malignant. Cytology analysis of the pleural fluid has about 60% diagnostic sensitivity. Several tests have been proposed to improve diagnosis—among them, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid. We evaluated whether the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid could improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (mpe) when cytology is doubtful. Methods Lymphocytic pleural fluids secondary to tuberculosis or malignancy from 156 outpatients were submitted for cytology and tumour marker quantification [carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), cancer antigen 15-3 (ca15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ca19-9), cancer antigen 72-4 (ca72-4), cancer antigen 125 (ca125), and cyfra 21-1). Oneway analysis of variance, the Student t-test or Mann–Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used in the statistical analysis. Results Concentrations of the tumour markers cea, ca15-3, ca125, and cyfra 21-1 were higher in mpes than they were in the benign effusions (p < 0.001), regardless of cytology results. The markers ca19-9 and ca72-4 did not discriminate malignant from benign effusions. When comparing the concentrations of tumour markers in mpes having positive, suspicious, or negative cytology with concentrations in benign effusions, we observed higher levels of cea, ca15-3, cyfra 21-1, and ca125 in malignant effusions with positive cytology (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001 respectively). In pleural fluid, only ca125 was higher in mpes with suspicious or negative cytology (p = 0.001) than in benign effusions. Conclusions Given high specificity and a sensitivity of about 60%, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural effusions could be evaluated in cases of inconclusive cytology in patients with a high pre-test chance of malignancy or a history of cancer. PMID:26628873

  4. [Contribution of pleural fluid analysis to the diagnosis of pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Lucía; Toubes, María Elena; Valdés, Luis

    2015-08-21

    Analysis of pleural fluid can have, on its own, a high diagnostic value. In addition to thoracocentesis, a diagnostic hypothesis based on medical history, physical examination, blood analysis and imaging tests, the diagnostic effectiveness will significantly increase in order to establish a definite or high probable diagnosis in a substantial number of patients. Differentiating transudates from exudates by the classical Light's criteria helps knowing the pathogenic mechanism resulting in pleural effusion, and it is also useful for differential diagnosis purposes. An increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, both in the fluid and in blood, in a due clinical context, is highly suggestive of heart failure. The presence of an increased inflammatory marker, such as C-reactive protein, together with the presence of over 50% of neutrophils is highly suggestive of parapneumonic pleural effusion. If, in these cases, the pH is<7.20, then the likelihood of complicated pleural effusion is high. There remains to be demonstrated the usefulness of other markers to differentiate complicated from uncomplicated effusions. An adenosine deaminase > 45 U/L and>50% lymphocytes is suggestive of tuberculosis. If a malignant effusion is suspected but the cytological result is negative, increased concentrations of some markers in the pleural fluid can yield high specificity values. Increased levels of mesothelin and fibruline-3 are suggestive of mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical studies can be useful to differentiate reactive mesothelial cells, mesothelioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. An inadequate use of the information provided by the analysis of pleural fluid would results in a high rate of undiagnosed effusions, which is unacceptable in current clinical practice. PMID:25433793

  5. Radiographically guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pleural fluid collections.

    PubMed

    Merriam, M A; Cronan, J J; Dorfman, G S; Lambiase, R E; Haas, R A

    1988-12-01

    We reviewed the outcome of guided percutaneous catheter drainage of pleural fluid collections in 18 patients over a 5-year period. Catheter positioning was guided by fluoroscopy in 10 (56%) cases, CT in seven (39%), and sonography in one (6%). Included were 16 patients with empyemas and one each with a sterile hematoma and transudate. In nine of the patients, previous surgical chest tube drainage had been unsuccessful. The majority of collections were treated with a 12- or 14-French catheter and closed underwater seal drainage. Twelve (80%) of the 15 patients who had an adequate trial of guided drainage were cured. Propyliodone oil suspension contrast sinography after catheter placement showed two clinically unsuspected bronchopleural fistulas. Although an extensive multilocular pleural collection was a contraindication to percutaneous catheter drainage, the thick fibrous peel of a chronic empyema was not. Drainage of pleural fluid collections with radiographic guidance ensures proper catheter placement and is successful in a high percentage of cases. PMID:3055887

  6. Defect in recruiting effector memory CD8+ T-cells in malignant pleural effusions compared to normal pleural fluid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common and fatal complication in cancers including lung or breast cancers, or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPE animal models and immunotherapy trials in MPM patients previously suggested defects of the cellular immunity in MPE. However only few observational studies of the immune response were done in MPM patients, using questionable control groups (transudate…). Methods We compared T cell populations evaluated by flow cytometry from blood and pleural effusion of untreated patients with MPM (n = 58), pleural metastasis of adenocarcinoma (n = 30) or with benign pleural lesions associated with asbestos exposure (n = 23). Blood and pleural fluid were also obtained from healthy subjects, providing normal values for T cell populations. Results Blood CD4+ or CD8+ T cells percentages were similar in all groups of patients or healthy subjects. Whereas pleural fluid from healthy controls contained mainly CD8+ T cells, benign or malignant pleural effusions included mainly CD4+ T cells. Effector memory T cells were the main T cell subpopulation in pleural fluid from healthy subjects. In contrast, there was a striking and selective recruitment of central memory CD4+ T cells in MPE, but not of effector cells CD8+ T cells or NK cells in the pleural fluid as one would expect in order to obtain an efficient immune response. Conclusions Comparing for the first time MPE to pleural fluid from healthy subjects, we found a local defect in recruiting effector CD8+ T cells, which may be involved in the escape of tumor cells from immune response. Further studies are needed to characterize which subtypes of effector CD8+ T cells are involved, opening prospects for cell therapy in MPE and MPM. PMID:23816056

  7. Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pleural effusion - excess fluid in the pleural space Pneumothorax - buildup of air or gas in the pleural ... like COPD, tuberculosis, and acute lung injury, cause pneumothorax. Injury to the chest is the most common ...

  8. Detection of EpCAM-positive microparticles in pleural fluid: A new approach to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Elisa; Lacroix, Romaric; Judicone, Coralie; Laroumagne, Sophie; Robert, Stéphane; Cointe, Sylvie; Muller, Alexandre; Kaspi, Elise; Roll, Patrice; Brisson, Alain R.; Tantucci, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Pleural biomarkers allowing to mini-invasively discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusions are needed. Among potential candidates, microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles that vectorize antigen derived from the parent cell. We hypothesized that tumor-derived MPs could be present in the pleural liquid and help to identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. Using highly sensitive flow cytometry and cryo-electron microscopy, we showed that large amounts of MPs from hematopoïetic and vascular origin could be detectable in pleural fluids. Their level did not differ between benign (n = 14) and malignant (n = 71) pleural effusions. Analysis of selected tumoral associated antigens (podoplanin, mucin 1 and EpCAM, epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule) evidenced for the first time the presence of tumor-derived MPs expressing EpCAM in malignant pleural fluids only (Specificity = 93%, Sensitivity = 49% and 45% for flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively). The detection of EpCAM-positive-MPs (EpCAM + MPs) by flow cytometry showed a better specificity and sensitivity than ELISA to distinguish between pleural carcinoma and the others malignant pleural effusions (MPE; Sp: 96% vs 89%; Se: 79% vs 66%). Combining EpCAM+ MPs and cytology improved the diagnosis of MPE compared to cytology alone. This study establishes the basis for using EpCAM+ MPs as a promising new biomarker that could be added to the armamentarium to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. PMID:26689993

  9. Detection of EpCAM-positive microparticles in pleural fluid: A new approach to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Roca, Elisa; Lacroix, Romaric; Judicone, Coralie; Laroumagne, Sophie; Robert, Stéphane; Cointe, Sylvie; Muller, Alexandre; Kaspi, Elise; Roll, Patrice; Brisson, Alain R; Tantucci, Claudio; Astoul, Philippe; Dignat-George, Françoise

    2016-01-19

    Pleural biomarkers allowing to mini-invasively discriminate benign from malignant pleural effusions are needed. Among potential candidates, microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles that vectorize antigen derived from the parent cell. We hypothesized that tumor-derived MPs could be present in the pleural liquid and help to identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. Using highly sensitive flow cytometry and cryo-electron microscopy, we showed that large amounts of MPs from hematopoïetic and vascular origin could be detectable in pleural fluids. Their level did not differ between benign (n = 14) and malignant (n = 71) pleural effusions. Analysis of selected tumoral associated antigens (podoplanin, mucin 1 and EpCAM, epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule) evidenced for the first time the presence of tumor-derived MPs expressing EpCAM in malignant pleural fluids only (Specificity = 93%, Sensitivity = 49% and 45% for flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively). The detection of EpCAM-positive-MPs (EpCAM + MPs) by flow cytometry showed a better specificity and sensitivity than ELISA to distinguish between pleural carcinoma and the others malignant pleural effusions (MPE; Sp: 96% vs 89%; Se: 79% vs 66%). Combining EpCAM+ MPs and cytology improved the diagnosis of MPE compared to cytology alone. This study establishes the basis for using EpCAM+ MPs as a promising new biomarker that could be added to the armamentarium to mini-invasively identify patients with malignant pleural effusions. PMID:26689993

  10. Pleural effusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluid on the lung; Pleural fluid Images Lungs Respiratory system Pleural cavity References Broaddus C, Light RW. Pleural effusion. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus CV, Martin TR, et al, eds. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010: ...

  11. Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... layers of the pleura is a very thin space. Normally it's filled with a small amount of ... breathing Pleural effusion - excess fluid in the pleural space Pneumothorax - buildup of air or gas in the ...

  12. Concentrations of cefpodoxime in plasma and pleural fluid after a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil.

    PubMed

    Dumont, R; Guetat, F; Andrews, J M; Sultan, E; Lenfant, B

    1990-12-01

    Eighteen patients of either sex with pleural effusions underwent aspiration 3, 6 or 12 h after receiving a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil equivalent to 200 mg cefpodoxime. The mean concentrations of cefpodoxime in pleural fluid were, respectively, 0.62, 1.84 and 0.78 mg/l for these three time intervals, the corresponding ratios between pleural fluid and plasma concentrations being 0.24, 0.67 and 1.07. The findings indicate that there is good penetration of cefpodoxime into pleural fluid. Concentrations between 3 and 12 h after dosing were equal to or above the MIC90 for most of the organisms commonly found in lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:2292529

  13. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the chest Open pleural biopsy Pleural fluid analysis Pleural needle biopsy Removal of fluid from around ... Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  14. Dynamic and Volumetric Variables Reliably Predict Fluid Responsiveness in a Porcine Model with Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Broch, Ole; Gruenewald, Matthias; Renner, Jochen; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Heß, Katharina; Steinfath, Markus; Bein, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability of stroke volume variation (SVV), pulse pressure variation (PPV) and global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) for prediction of fluid responsiveness in presence of pleural effusion is unknown. The aim of the present study was to challenge the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness in a porcine model with pleural effusions. Methods Pigs were studied at baseline and after fluid loading with 8 ml kg−1 6% hydroxyethyl starch. After withdrawal of 8 ml kg−1 blood and induction of pleural effusion up to 50 ml kg−1 on either side, measurements at baseline and after fluid loading were repeated. Cardiac output, stroke volume, central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary occlusion pressure (PAOP) were obtained by pulmonary thermodilution, whereas GEDV was determined by transpulmonary thermodilution. SVV and PPV were monitored continuously by pulse contour analysis. Results Pleural effusion was associated with significant changes in lung compliance, peak airway pressure and stroke volume in both responders and non-responders. At baseline, SVV, PPV and GEDV reliably predicted fluid responsiveness (area under the curve 0.85 (p<0.001), 0.88 (p<0.001), 0.77 (p = 0.007). After induction of pleural effusion the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness was well preserved and also PAOP was predictive. Threshold values for SVV and PPV increased in presence of pleural effusion. Conclusions In this porcine model, bilateral pleural effusion did not affect the ability of SVV, PPV and GEDV to predict fluid responsiveness. PMID:23418546

  15. What is your diagnosis? Pleural fluid from a neonatal Thoroughbred filly with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Stokol, Tracy; Gold, Jenifer; Johnson, Amy; Ainsworth, Dorothy

    2008-06-01

    A 3-day-old filly was presented to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals with an umbilical hematoma and mild aspiration pneumonia. The foal underwent abdominal surgery for resection of the hematoma. Recovery was uneventful, but 3 days after surgery, the foal became progressively tachypneic. Imaging studies revealed bilateral pleural effusion and pleuropneumonia. Cytologic evaluation and bacterial culture of the pleural fluid from both sides of the chest revealed sterile exudates, consisting mostly of neutrophils, with fewer macrophages and lymphocytes. Pleural fluid macrophages contained variable amounts of purple-magenta globular material in their cytoplasm. A lighter colored granular precipitate was also seen throughout the background of the smears. Similar material was identified in a macrophage in a peripheral blood smear prepared 2 days after abdominal surgery. Large amounts of extracellular pink precipitate were also seen in the blood smear and persisted in the blood for 7 days after surgery. A protective lubricant, carboxymethylcellulose, had been instilled into the abdominal cavity during surgery to prevent intra-abdominal adhesions. The intracytoplasmic pigment within pleural fluid and blood macrophages and the extracellular precipitate in peripheral blood and pleural fluid smears was compatible with carboxymethylcellulose. The material was probably derived hematogenously and was considered an incidental finding. The pleuritis was attributed to exacerbation of the original aspiration pneumonia by the general anesthesia. PMID:18533926

  16. Revisiting tuberculous pleurisy: pleural fluid characteristics and diagnostic yield of mycobacterial culture in an endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chien, Jung-Yien; Huang, Chun-Ta; Kuo, Yao-Wen; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen J

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleurisy is traditionally indicated by extreme lymphocytosis in pleural fluid and low yield of effusion culture. However, there is considerable inconsistency among previous study results. In addition, these data should be updated due to early effusion studies and advances in culture methods. Methods From January 2004 to June 2009, patients with tuberculous pleurisy were retrospectively identified from the mycobacteriology laboratories and the pathology and tuberculosis registration databases of two hospitals in Taiwan where tuberculosis is endemic. Pleural fluid characteristics and yields of mycobacterial cultures using liquid media were evaluated. Results A total of 382 patients with tuberculous pleurisy were identified. The median lymphocyte percentage of total cells in pleural fluids was 84% (IQR 64–95%) and 17% of cases had a lymphocyte percentage of <50%. The lymphocyte percentage was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99). The diagnostic yields were 63% for effusion culture, 48% for sputum culture, 79% for the combination of effusion and sputum cultures, and 74% for histological examination of pleural biopsy specimens. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte predominance in tuberculous pleurisy was lower than was previously thought. The lymphocyte percentage in pleural fluid was negatively associated with the probability of a positive effusion culture. With the implementation of a liquid culture method, the sensitivity of effusion culture was much higher than has been previously reported, and the combination of effusion and sputum cultures provided a good diagnostic yield. PMID:22436167

  17. Multiple chromosome abnormalities in the pleural fluid of a patient with recurrent Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yuregir, Ozge Ozalp; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Avci, Zekai; Yilmaz, Zerrin; Celasun, Bulent; Sarialioglu, Faik

    2009-06-01

    The authors report a 5.5-year-old male patient with a right paraspinal tumor, diagnosed as metastatic Ewing sarcoma. The pleural fluid along with the bone marrow was sent to the authors' laboratory for karyotyping. Bone marrow cultures revealed a normal karyotype, whereas 48, XY, i(1)(q11), +10, t(11;22)(q24;q12) karyotype was found in the cells obtained from the pleural fluid cultures. Trisomy 1q is quite frequently observed in Ewing sarcoma patients, mostly as part of unbalanced translocations, along with the common t(11;22) translocation. This patient's findings were significant, as the complex karyotype in the pleural effusion cells was observed. PMID:19437329

  18. New method of thoracocentesis using CT guidance in patients with a small amount of pleural fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitomo, Shinohara; Kenichi, Sugizaki; Kanae, Yamaoto; Tatsuo, Kumazaki

    1999-05-15

    A new technique of CT-guided diagnostic thoracocentesis (CT-TC) for patients with a small amount of pleural fluid was performed in 52 patients. More than 10 ml of pleural fluid was obtained successfully without any complications in all cases; 14 patients were found to have malignant cells in the pleural fluid. The main points of the CT-TC procedure are as follows: (1) The patient is placed supine with two radiolucent blocks underneath the shoulders and hips in order to make space for inserting the needle from the back (below). (2) Serial CT images are obtained to determine the insertion route and to measure the depth of the fluid level below the skin. (3) The needle is bent at the appropriate angle and length and is advanced upward slowly from the skin entry point on the back. CT-TC can also be used therapeutically in debilitated patients who can not maintain a sitting position or when the pleural fluid needs to be drained completely.

  19. The Diagnostic Value of the Pleural Fluid C-Reactive Protein in Parapneumonic Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Izhakian, Shimon; Wasser, Walter G.; Fox, Benjamin D.; Vainshelboim, Baruch; Kramer, Mordechai R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of pleural C-reactive protein (CRP) biomarker levels in identifying parapneumonic effusions. Methods. A single-center, retrospective review of 244 patients diagnosed with pleural effusions was initiated among patients at the Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel, between January 2011 and December 2013. The patients were categorized into 4 groups according to their type of pleural effusion as follows: heart failure, malignant, post-lung transplantation, and parapneumonic effusion. Results. The pleural CRP levels significantly differentiated the four groups (p < 0.001) with the following means: parapneumonic effusion, 5.38 ± 4.85 mg/dL; lung transplant, 2.77 ± 2.66 mg/dL; malignancy, 1.19 ± 1.51 mg/dL; and heart failure, 0.57 ± 0.81 mg/dL. The pleural fluid CRP cut-off value for differentiating among parapneumonic effusions and the other 3 groups was 1.38 mg/dL. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 84.2%, 71.5%, 37%, and 95%, respectively. A backward logistic regression model selected CRP as the single predictor of parapneumonic effusion (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.37–1.89). Conclusions. Pleural fluid CRP levels can be used to distinguish between parapneumonic effusions and other types of exudative effusions. CRP levels < 0.64 mg/dL are likely to indicate a pleural effusion from congestive heart failure, whereas levels ≥ 1.38 mg/dL are suggestive of an infectious etiology. PMID:27194820

  20. Pleural fluid metastases of myoepithelial carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhambra, Alicia Calderon; Zhang, Yanhong; Huang, Eric C.; Bishop, John; Matin, Mahan; Afify, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma (MECA) is one of the rarest salivary gland neoplasms, which may either arise de novo or develop within a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma or benign myoepithelioma. The tumor occurs mainly in the parotid gland followed by minor salivary glands and other body sites. As a result of their morphologic heterogeneity, they can be confused easily with many tumors. Awareness of their unique cytoarchitectural patterns and immunohistochemical profile is crucial for accurate identification. Herein, we report a rare case of a 51-year-old female patient with MECA of the maxillary sinus that metastasized to the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural fluid involvement by MECA reported in the literature. PMID:27382407

  1. Pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, B; Davies, P D O

    2006-03-01

    Pleural effusions in tuberculosis are commonly seen in young adults as an immunological phenomenon occurring soon after primary infection. However, the epidemiology and demographics of tuberculous pleurisy are changing due to the impact of HIV co-infection and the increasing number of pleural effusions seen as part of re-activation disease. Pleural biopsy for histology and culture is the mainstay of diagnosis with closed needle biopsy adequate in the majority of cases. Techniques such as PCR of biopsy specimens and the role of pleural fluid ADA are still being evaluated as a diagnostic aid. Tuberculous empyema is less commonly seen in the western world and the diagnostic yield from pleural fluid here is greater than in "primary" effusions. Treatment with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy is generally successful though there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of corticosteroids in this condition. PMID:16700190

  2. Recovery of microorganisms from synovial and pleural fluids of animals using hyperosmolar media.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, A M; Davis, D C; Pedersen, N C; Beaman, B L

    1982-03-01

    L-phase (CWD) broth and plate media were used in parallel with conventional microbiological media during a 3-year period for culturing synovial and pleural fluids of animals. Two kinds of recoveries were obtained where parallel conventional methods were negative: (1) parent or normal bacteria, in very low numbers; and (2) Type B CWD variants in equally low numbers. Organisms in group 1 were: Streptococcus zooepidemicus from horses (2x); beta-hemolytic streptococci, Lancefield Gp. G (2x); Staphylococcus aureus; Actinobacillus, and Actinomyces viscosus. Group 2 consisted of Bacteroides sp., Propionibacterium acnes, and three "Nocardia-like" sp. Catalase + Actinomyces was not recovered equally well on CWD plates as on conventional media with fluids obtained during ampicillin treatment. This occurred in spite of the fact that the CWD media was shown to support growth and reversion of laboratory induced L-phase variants of Nocardia caviae and N. asteroides, and had facilitated recovery of a Bacteroides L-phase variant from a pleural fluid. The nature of this fault in the media is under investigation in this laboratory. PMID:7101719

  3. Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate, lactate, and glucose in pleural fluid from horses.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, G W; Benson, P A

    1990-07-01

    Samples of pleural fluid from 20 horses with effusive pleural diseases of various causes were evaluated; samples from 19 horses were used for the study. There were differences for pH (P = 0.001) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) between arterial blood and nonseptic pleural fluid (P = 0.0491), but there were no differences for pH, PO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3-), lactate, and glucose between venous blood and nonseptic pleural fluid. Paired comparisons of venous blood and nonseptic pleural fluid from the same horse indicated no differences. There were differences (P = 0.0001, each) for pH, PO2, PCO2, and concentrations of HCO3- between arterial blood and septic pleural fluid. Differences also existed for pH (P = 0.0001), PCO2 (P = 0.0003), and concentrations of HCO3- (P = 0.0001), lactate (P = 0.0051), and glucose (P = 0.0001) between venous blood and septic pleural fluid. Difference was not found for values of PO2 between venous blood and septic pleural fluid, although 4 samples of septic pleural fluid contained virtually no oxygen. Paired comparisons of venous blood and septic pleural fluid from the same horse revealed differences (P less than 0.05) for all values, except those for PO2. These alterations suggested functional and physical compartmentalization that separated septic and healthy tissue. Compartmentalization and microenvironmental factors at the site of infection should be considered when developing therapeutic strategies for horses with septic pleural disease. PMID:2389879

  4. A New Method of Thoracocentesis Using CT Guidance in Patients with a Small Amount of Pleural Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitomo, Shinohara; Kenichi, Sugizaki; Kanae, Yamamoto; Tatsuo, Kumazaki

    1999-05-15

    A new technique of CT-guided diagnostic thoracocentesis (CT-TC) for patients with a small amount of pleural fluid was performed in 52 patients. More than 10 ml of pleural fluid was obtained successfully without any complications in all cases; 14 patients were found to have malignant cells in the pleural fluid. The main points of the CT-TC procedure are as follows: (1) The patient is placed supine with two radiolucent blocks underneath the shoulders and hips in order to make space for inserting the needle from the back (below). (2) Serial CT images are obtained to determine the insertion route and to measure the depth of the fluid level below the skin. (3) The needle is bent at the appropriate angle and length and is advanced upward slowly from the skin entry point on the back. CT-TC can also be used therapeutically in debilitated patients who can not maintain a sitting position or when the pleural fluid needs to be drained completely.

  5. Lung toxicity assessment using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural lavage fluid cytology by intratracheal treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Hiroshi; Makita, Maki; Tanaka, Ryota; Tsuchiya, Mai; Naya, Masato; Hayashi, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pleural cavity lavage fluid (PLF) as an experimental material was evaluated for the assessment of pulmonary toxicity of chemicals in rats. From the viewpoint of safety, isoflurane can be used for euthanasia/anesthesia because there was no difference in biological properties of BALF between diethyl ether and isoflurane. Here, we also recognized phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and distilled water equally as a solvent/vehicle for negative control. PLF is also provided as a useful target material as well as BALF for assessing chemical lung toxicity. To evaluate the method, we used zinc chloride as a model chemical and obtained the expected and satisfied results. We may conclude that the intratracheal treatment and combination usage of BALF and PLF as a target material is a good method for assessment of chemical pulmonary (lung and plural cavity) toxicity in rats. PMID:24418718

  6. Evaluation of seven tumour markers in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of malignant effusions

    PubMed Central

    Miédougé, M; Rouzaud, P; Salama, G; Pujazon, M-C; Vincent, C; Mauduyt, M-A; Reyre, J; Carles, P; Serre, G

    1999-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens 15–3, 19–9 and 72–4 (CA 15–3, CA 19–9 and CA 72–4), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21–1), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) were evaluated in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of malignant effusions. With a specificity of 99%, determined in a series of 121 benign effusions, the best individual diagnostic sensitivities in the whole series of 215 malignant effusions or in the subgroup of adenocarcinomas were observed with CEA, CA 15–3 and CA 72–4. As expected, a high sensitivity was obtained with SCC in squamous cell carcinomas and with NSE in small-cell lung carcinomas. CYFRA and/or CA 15–3 were frequently increased in mesotheliomas. Discriminant analysis showed that the optimal combination for diagnosis of non-lymphomatous malignant effusions was CEA + CA 15–3 + CYFRA + NSE: sensitivity of 94.4% with an overall specificity of 95%. In malignant effusions with a negative cytology, 83.9% were diagnosed using this association. The association CYFRA + NSE + SCC was able to discriminate adenocarcinomas from small-cell lung cancers. Regarding their sensitivity and their complementarity, CEA, CA 15–3, CYFRA 21–1, NSE and SCC appear to be very useful to improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576665

  7. Relative abundance and patterns of correlation among six cytokines in pleural fluid measured by cytometric bead array.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Kazuo; Makihata, Kiyoshi; Takao, Kazushi; Eda, Ryosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Sugi, Kazuro; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Takeyama, Hiroyasu

    2003-08-01

    Several cytokines play significant roles in the development and pathogenesis of pleural effusion. Little is known, however, about possible interactions between individual cytokines in terms of regulation of their relative abundance in the effusion. We studied 93 patients presenting with pleural effusion to the National Sanyo Hospital (68 men and 25 women; mean age, 64 years). Twenty-two patients had tuberculous pleurisy, 40 had malignant pleuritis, and 31 had effusions due to an etiology other than tuberculosis or cancer (miscellaneous). Pleural fluid concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and INF-gamma were simultaneously measured by cytometric bead array (CBA). The ratios of IL-4/IL-5, IL-4/TNF-alpha, IL-2/TNF-alpha, and IL-10/TNF-alpha were lower in patients with tuberculosis pleurisy compared with other patients. In all three groups of patients significant correlation was seen between abundance of IL-2 vs. IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, or TNF-alpha, between IL-4 vs. IL-10, and between TNF-alpha vs. INF-gamma. In malignant pleural fluid patients, the significant correlation was between IL-2 vs. IL-4, TNF-alpha, or INF-gamma, between IL-4 vs. INF-gamma, and between TNF-alpha vs. INF-gamma. In tuberculosis pleural fluid patients, the significant correlation was between IL-2 vs. TNF-alpha, between IL-4 vs. IL-10, and between TNF-alpha vs. INF-gamma. In miscellaneous pleural fluid patients, the significant correlation was between IL-2 vs. IL-4, IL-10, or TNF-alpha, between IL-4 vs. IL-10, TNF-alpha, and between IL-10 vs. TNF-alpha. No significant correlation was observed between other pairs of cytokines. Strong correlation in abundance between particular cytokines in pleural fluids suggests cross-talk between them, in terms that an altered level of one of them provides a feedback mechanism regulating synthesis and/or secretion of another one. Such interactions may play important roles in pathogenesis and severity of the effusion. The CBA methodology provides a

  8. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  9. Reflex Testing Rules for Cell Count and Differentiation of Nucleated Elements in Pleural and Ascitic Fluids on Sysmex XE-5000.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Appassiti Esposito, Sara; Vavassori, Mauro; Mecca, Tommaso; Ottomano, Cosimo; Dominoni, Paola; Seghezzi, Michela; Candiago, Elisabetta; Farina, Claudio; Gianatti, Andrea; Crippa, Alberto; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Flow cytometry is widely used in many laboratories for automated nucleated cell counts and their differentiation in body fluids. The implementation of new reflex testing rules on these automated instruments could open new frontiers in laboratory workflow, improving characterization of body fluids and clinical diagnosis and decreasing costs. Ascitic (150) and pleural (33) fluids were collected and assessed by XE-5000 and optical microscopy. Cell counts performed with the methods showed a Pearson's correlation of 0.98 (p < 0.0001), Passing-Bablok regression y = 0.99x + 2.44, and bias of 32.3. In ascitic fluids, the best diagnostic performance was found for polymorphonuclear and neutrophil counts on XE-5000, which exhibited areas under the curve (AUCs) 0.98 (p < 0.0001) and 0.99 (p < 0.0001), respectively. In pleural fluids the best diagnostic performance was found for polymorphonuclear percent parameter, which displayed 0.97 (p < 0.0001). Specific reflex test rules based on these parameters were characterized by 92% diagnostic concordance, 1.00 sensitivity, and 0.84 specificity with optical microscopy. The application of a set of reflex testing rules may improve the diagnostic performance of XE-5000, increasing its reliability for routine automated cell count in body fluids. We acknowledge that further studies should be planned to validate our findings according to clinical data. PMID:26149816

  10. Rapid and Sensitive Identification of Bacterial Infection and Bacteria Gram Types in Pleural Fluid of Children

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Dong; Li, Wei; Gao, Hui-Hui; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Du, Li-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques have been increasingly used to detect microbial DNA in clinic for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. This study aims to developing an RT-PCR method to detect bacteria in pleural fluid (PF). We performed a method to simultaneously detect and classify the clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in hydrothorax with Gram probe RT-PCR (GRT-PCR), which targets the conserved region of the 16S rRNA gene. Our results showed this method could specifically and correctly identify 14 clinically important bacterial strains in hydrothorax including 7 gram-positive and 7 gram-negative bacteria. And the sensitivity of this GRT-PCR method in serial dilution can reach 10 CFU/mL. In clinical trial, 180 PF samples from children who were clinically suspected to suffer from bacterial pneumonia and empyema were collected. These samples were detected by GRT-PCR, standard culture, and biochemical routine analysis. The positive rate of the GRT-PCR array was 17.78% (32/180), significantly higher than that of PF culture (11.67%; 21/180; P = .003). When PF culture was used as control, the sensitivity of GRT-PCR was 95.24% (95% confidence interval = 74.13-99.75), and the specificity was 92.45% (95% confidence interval = 86.89-95.86). Our study showed that GRT-PCR is a more effective method for rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of bacterial infection in hydrothorax compared with other traditional methods. PMID:27335942

  11. Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with effusion from nonsmall cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sushil Kumar; Bhat, Sanjay; Chandel, Vikas; Sharma, Mayank; Sharma, Pulkit; Gupta, Sakul; Sharma, Sashank; Bhat, Aijaz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 (cytokeratin 19 fragments) in serum and pleural fluid in non small cell lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Settings and Design: Two subsets of patients were recruited with lymphocytic exudative effusion, one subset constituted diagnosed patients of NSCLC with malignant pleural effusion and the other subset of constituted with Tubercular pleural effusion. Materials and Methods: CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels were measured using Electrochemilumiscence Immunoassay (ECLIA). The test principle used the Sandwich method. For both the tests, results are determined via a calibration curve which is instrument specifically generated by 2 - point calibration and a master curve provided via reagent barcode. Statistical Analysis Used: All data are expressed as means ± SD and percentage. All the parametric variables were analysed by student-t test where as non parametric variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U-test Statistical significance was accepted for P values < 0.05. Software used were SPSS 11.5, and MS excel 2007. In order to compare the performance of the tumor markers, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and compared with area under the curve (AUC). The threshold for each marker was selected based on the best diagnostic efficacy having achieved equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity. Results: In cases serum CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 34.1 ± 29.9 with a range of 1.6-128.3 where as in controls serum CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 1.9 ± 1.0 with a range of 0.5–4.7. In cases serum CEA levels had mean value of 24.9 ± 47.3 with a range of 1.0, 267.9 where as in controls serum CEA levels had mean value of 1.9 ± 1.4 with a range of 0.2-6.8. The difference in the means of serum CYFRA 21-l (P = 0.000) and CEA (P = 0.046) were statistically significant. In cases pleural fluid CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 160.1 ± 177.1 with a range of 5.4–517

  12. [Proper usage of procalcitonin].

    PubMed

    Green, Y; Petignat, P-A; Perrier, A

    2007-10-17

    In the last fifteen years, procalcitonin measurement has been evaluated as a rapid diagnostic aid for suspected infection. Procalcitonin is now widely used in any febrile patient despite the lack of evidence supporting that practice. Indeed, procalcitonine has proven effective in the intensive care setting, as a diagnostic aid for septic shock, as a prognostic instrument and to tailor the duration of antibiotic treatment. Studies in non intensive care settings are more recent and scarce. Procalcitonin has been assessed in the emergency department in patients with lower respiratory tract infections and in patients admitted for an acute febrile illness. Results are encouraging but preliminary, therefore procalcitonine measurement should be restricted to patients with criteria of severe infection for the time being. PMID:18018823

  13. Tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Kan; Lu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Although it is curable, tuberculosis remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions on a global scale, especially in developing countries. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TPE usually presents as an acute illness with fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain. The pleural fluid is an exudate that usually has predominantly lymphocytes. The gold standard for the diagnosis of TPE remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli, Although adenosine deaminase and interferon-γ in pleural fluid have been documented to be useful tests for the diagnosis of TPE. It can be accepted that in areas with high tuberculosis prevalence, the easiest way to establish the diagnosis of TPE in a patient with a lymphocytic pleural effusion is to generally demonstrate a adenosine deaminase level above 40 U/L. The recommended treatment for TPE is a regimen with isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide for two months followed by four months of two drugs, isoniazid and rifampin. PMID:27499981

  14. Tuberculous pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Kan; Lu, Yong; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Although it is curable, tuberculosis remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions on a global scale, especially in developing countries. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TPE usually presents as an acute illness with fever, cough and pleuritic chest pain. The pleural fluid is an exudate that usually has predominantly lymphocytes. The gold standard for the diagnosis of TPE remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli, Although adenosine deaminase and interferon-γ in pleural fluid have been documented to be useful tests for the diagnosis of TPE. It can be accepted that in areas with high tuberculosis prevalence, the easiest way to establish the diagnosis of TPE in a patient with a lymphocytic pleural effusion is to generally demonstrate a adenosine deaminase level above 40 U/L. The recommended treatment for TPE is a regimen with isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide for two months followed by four months of two drugs, isoniazid and rifampin. PMID:27499981

  15. How Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pleural effusion, fluid buildup in the pleural space will prevent a friction rub. But if you ... buildup of air or gas in the pleural space). Diagnostic Tests Depending on the results of your ...

  16. Processing Technology in Microscopic Images of Cancer Cells in Pleural Fluid Based on Fuzzy Edge Detection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Q. G.; Qi, J. P.

    2006-10-01

    The traditional manual method of cancer cell recognizing requests a long period of diagnoses. In order to improve the efficiency and veracity of diagnoses, this article applies technology of image processing to analysis and recognition of cancer cell image. This article uses the fuzzy edge extraction, which is based on the OTSU threshold to process the original image of the cancer cells in pleural fluid, and then extracts the feature of the cancer cells according to the morphology automatically. The experiment shows that features such as area rate of karyon and cytoplasm, karyon division, shape of karyon and so on will provide evidences for diagnoses and will improve the efficiency and veracity of diagnoses.

  17. Diagnostic value of mesothelin in pleural fluids: comparison with CYFRA 21-1 and CEA.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, Rosa; Parodi, Stefano; Libener, Roberta; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Ugolini, Donatella; Bobbio, Barbara; Marroni, Paola

    2013-06-01

    CYFRA 21-1 and CEA have been applied for the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) has been proposed as a specific marker for distinguishing MPM from benign diseases and other malignancies in pleural effusions (PEs). In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of SMRP in PEs in the detection of mesotheliomas by comparing it with that of CYFRA 21-1, CEA, and with cytological examination. One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive patients (57 MPM, 64 metastatic tumors, and 56 benign diseases) were evaluated using commercial tests. The performance of the markers was analyzed by standard ROC analysis methods, using the area under a ROC curve (AUC) as a measure of accuracy. CYFRA 21-1 better differentiated malignant from benign effusions. The corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.87, while it was 0.74 for SMRP and 0.64 for CEA (p < 0.001). Conversely, SMRP differentiated MPM from all other PEs better than both CYFRA 21-1 and CEA (AUC = 0.84, 0.76, and 0.32, respectively, p = 0.003). Low levels of CEA were associated with a MPM diagnosis. The AUC for differentiating MPM from metastases was 0.81 for SMRP, 0.61 for CYFRA 21-1, and 0.20 for CEA (p < 0.001). In cases with negative or suspicious cytology, SMRP and CYFRA 21-1 identified 36/71 and 46/66 malignant PEs (29 and 31 MPM, respectively). Only 1 MPM showed a high CEA concentration. No single marker showed the best performance in any comparison. Results suggest that SMRP could improve CYFRA 21-1 and CEA accuracy in the differential diagnosis of MPM. PMID:23532816

  18. Differences Between Radiologically Confirmed Pneumonia With and Without Pleural Fluid in Hospitalized Children Younger Than 5 Years in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chiya; Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Greenberg, David

    2016-09-01

    We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of pneumonia with and without pleural fluid (PF and Pn, respectively) in hospitalized children younger than 5 years in southern Israel, between 2002 and 2011. Overall, 108 PF and 5811 Pn episodes were recorded. Children with PF were older. Prematurity (6.6% vs 14.0%) and asthma (9.9% vs 23.5%) were less common in PF. Mean temperature and saturation were higher in PF while hemoglobin and sodium levels were lower in PF compared with Pn. Nasal washes were obtained in 30.6% and 39.9% of PF and Pn episodes, respectively, with respiratory syncytial virus identified more commonly in Pn (24.2% vs 42.3%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 5.2% and 0.9% of blood cultures in PF and Pn, respectively. In conclusion, PF differed from Pn in demographic and clinical characteristics, possibly due to differences in etiology. Although both diseases are considered bacterial, a high proportion of viral etiology was found in both, especially in Pn. PMID:26578358

  19. [Unilateral to bilateral pleurisy: Pleural tuberculosis?].

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, S; Smaoui, S; Kamoun, F; Chabchoub, I; Kamoun, T; Messaadi, F; Aloulou, H; Hachicha, M

    2016-04-01

    Pleural tuberculosis is the first or second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as well as the main cause of pleural effusion in many countries. It is rare in young infants and is more common in children over 10 years of age. We report the case of a 19-month-old girl admitted for prolonged fever with unilateral pleural effusion. The mother reported a history of lymph node tuberculosis 6 years previously. Intravenous antibiotics with cefotaxime and vancomycin were started. Thoracocentesis yielded a serosanguinous exudate fluid with a lymphocyte predominance. The tuberculin skin test and PCR GeneXpert(©) on pleural fluid were negative. The initial outcome was favorable, but the chest X-rays 10 days after discharge showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy was proposed but the culture of pleural fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The child was put under standard treatment for tuberculosis. The outcome was favorable. PMID:26922570

  20. Canine procalcitonin messenger RNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kuzi, Sharon; Aroch, Itamar; Peleg, Keren; Karnieli, Ohad; Klement, Eyal; Dank, Gillian

    2008-09-01

    Procalcitonin is considered an acute phase protein used as both a marker of infection and prognosis in human medicine. Canine procalcitonin has been previously sequenced; however, its use as a diagnostic or prognostic tool in dogs has never been assessed. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for canine procalcitonin messenger RNA (mRNA) was developed. Whole blood samples were collected from ill and healthy dogs. RNA was extracted and the real-time PCR was assessed. The patients' diagnoses, complete blood cell count, and differential leukocyte count results were recorded. Based on the diagnosis, dogs were divided into 5 groups: inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, other diseases, and healthy controls. Procalcitonin mRNA expression and the hematological measures were compared between groups, and their correlations were assessed. Procalcitonin mRNA expression was assessed in 70 dogs, including infectious (17), noninfectious inflammatory (17), neoplastic (18), other diseases (7), and healthy controls (11), and was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in all ill dogs versus controls. Procalcitonin may therefore be considered an acutephase protein in dogs. However, there were no significant differences in procalcitonin mRNA expression between ill dog groups and no correlations between its expression levels and hematological measures. In 5 dogs of all disease categories, procalcitonin mRNA expression was measured twice during the course of disease. The changes in its levels were in agreement with the clinical evaluation of improvement or deterioration, suggesting a possible prognostic value. PMID:18776098

  1. Pleural effusion in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Formenti, P; Umbrello, M

    2014-02-01

    Pleural effusion is a fluid collection within the pleural space and is a common finding in mechanically ventilated patients. It is frequently related to fluid overload, hyponcotic states, heart failure, and altered pleural pressure due to atelectasis or pneumonia. Recent literature has shown that its incidence within ARDS is increasing, even if, in most of cases, at least in the early phases, it seems of limited clinical relevance. Most of the knowledge of Pleural Effusion and of its interaction with lung/chest wall mechanics derives from a small number of experimental studies and from some clinical studies, in most of the cases performed with normal lung parenchyma. In ARDS, however, Pleural Effusion seems to have a little effect "per se" on tidal mechanics and oxygenation (increasing elastance and reducing PO2), that are already profoundly affected by the lung injury itself. To sum up all the observations, we can assume that Pleural Effusion alters regional transmural pressure, restricting more the inspiration phase, and creating an opening/closure effect that can be reverted by PEEP application in recruitable lungs. This restores volume and compliance only if the abdomen is normally expansible. Drainage of Pleural Effusion is frequently performed in ICU but the benefits and risks are not well established. Lung ultrasound is an effective technique with high sensitivity and specificity for both bedside diagnosis and drainage guidance. It may help to quantify and qualify the effusion and at the same time the grade of aeration of underling parenchyma. Aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence and opinions about the interaction between Pleural Effusion and positive pressure ventilation in the presence of ARDS, its impact on gas exchange and tidal mechanics, trying to figure out the best bedside management that is not available yet. The estimation of both lung and chest wall elastance may help in the clinical decision making whether to drain or not in

  2. Recurrent hydropneumothorax: An unusual presentation for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, David; Chan, Christopher; Nystrom, Perry

    2016-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a rare pulmonary malignancy commonly associated with asbestos exposure. Its presentation is insidious and non-specific, with complaints of chest pain, dyspnea and cough. Chest X-ray may demonstrate unilateral pleural effusion. CT and PET scans may highlight nodular pleural plaques. Diagnosis often times is difficult with negative imaging and negative pleural fluid studies. In rare cases, hydropneumothoraces may be seen. We report a case of malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting as recurrent hydropneumothorax with negative CT scan of the chest for pleural abnormalities and negative pleural fluid studies. PMID:27489758

  3. Clinical Importance of Echogenic Swirling Pleural Effusions.

    PubMed

    Lane, Alison B; Petteys, Sarah; Ginn, Meghan; Nations, Joel A

    2016-04-01

    Thoracic sonography is an important tool in diagnosis and assessment of pleural effusions and can provide valuable information about the characteristics of accumulated pleural fluid, in addition to improving the safety of thoracentesis. In addition to the 4 classic sonographic pleural effusion patterns (anechoic, complex nonseptate, complex septate, and homogeneously echogenic), an echogenic swirling pattern has been previously described, which was originally thought to be associated with malignant effusion. Two cases of pleural effusion with an echogenic swirling pattern are described below, illustrating that this sonographic finding can be seen in both exudative and transudative effusions. PMID:26931787

  4. How Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor may use a chest tube to deliver medicines called fibrinolytics to the pleural space. If the fluid still won't drain, you ... build up again after it's drained. Sometimes antitumor medicines will ... the pleural space. Sealing the pleural space is called pleurodesis (plur- ...

  5. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the pleural membrane. Pleural biopsy can diagnose tuberculosis , cancer, and other diseases. If this type of ... lung cancer , malignant mesothelioma , and metastatic pleural tumor ), tuberculosis, other infections, or collagen vascular disease. Risks There ...

  6. Disseminated Pleural Siliconoma Mimicking Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiki; Tao, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Kumiko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a 3-month history of back pain was admitted for further examination of multiple left pleural nodules. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 10 years previously. Nine years after the operation, both ruptured implants were removed, and autologous fat was injected. Computed tomography revealed multiple pleural nodules suggestive of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thoracoscopic exploration revealed multiple pleural nodules with massive pleural adhesions. The nodules were filled with viscous liquid and were histologically determined to be siliconomas. Disseminated pleural siliconoma should be recognized as a late adverse event of silicone breast implantation. PMID:26652527

  7. Activation of calpain by renin-angiotensin system in pleural mesothelial cells mediates tuberculous pleural fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xiang, Fei; Cai, Peng-Cheng; Lu, Yu-Zhi; Xu, Xiao-Xiao; Yu, Fan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Greer, Peter A; Shi, Huan-Zhong; Zhou, Qiong; Xin, Jian-Bao; Ye, Hong; Su, Yunchao; Ma, Wan-Li

    2016-07-01

    Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture. It can result from diverse inflammatory conditions, especially tuberculous pleurisy. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a pivotal role in pleural fibrosis. Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which plays an important role in ECM remodeling. However, the role of calpain in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) induced calpain activation in PMCs and that inhibition of calpain prevented TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and cell proliferation of PMCs. Moreover, our data revealed that the levels of angiotensin (ANG)-converting enzyme (ACE) were significantly higher in pleural fluid of patients with TPE than those with malignant pleural effusion, and ACE-ANG II in TPE resulted in activation of calpain and subsequent triggering of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in PMCs. Finally, calpain activation in PMCs and collagen depositions were confirmed in pleural biopsy specimens from patients with tuberculous pleurisy. Together, these studies demonstrated that calpain is activated by renin-angiotensin system in pleural fibrosis and mediates TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and proliferation of PMCs via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Calpain in PMCs might be a novel target for intervention in tuberculous pleural fibrosis. PMID:27261452

  8. Activation of calpain by renin-angiotensin system in pleural mesothelial cells mediates tuberculous pleural fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Xiang, Fei; Cai, Peng-Cheng; Lu, Yu-Zhi; Xu, Xiao-Xiao; Yu, Fan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Greer, Peter A.; Shi, Huan-Zhong; Zhou, Qiong; Xin, Jian-Bao; Ye, Hong; Su, Yunchao

    2016-01-01

    Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture. It can result from diverse inflammatory conditions, especially tuberculous pleurisy. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a pivotal role in pleural fibrosis. Calpain is a family of calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which plays an important role in ECM remodeling. However, the role of calpain in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) induced calpain activation in PMCs and that inhibition of calpain prevented TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and cell proliferation of PMCs. Moreover, our data revealed that the levels of angiotensin (ANG)-converting enzyme (ACE) were significantly higher in pleural fluid of patients with TPE than those with malignant pleural effusion, and ACE-ANG II in TPE resulted in activation of calpain and subsequent triggering of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in PMCs. Finally, calpain activation in PMCs and collagen depositions were confirmed in pleural biopsy specimens from patients with tuberculous pleurisy. Together, these studies demonstrated that calpain is activated by renin-angiotensin system in pleural fibrosis and mediates TPE-induced collagen-I synthesis and proliferation of PMCs via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Calpain in PMCs might be a novel target for intervention in tuberculous pleural fibrosis. PMID:27261452

  9. Serotype Distribution and Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Pleural Fluid in Spain from 1997 to 2008 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fenoll, A.; Aguilar, L.; Vicioso, M. D.; Gimenez, M. J.; Robledo, O.; Granizo, J. J.; Mendez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Trends in serotype incidence and susceptibility (1997 to 2008) of Spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae pleural isolates (n = 831) were explored. Penicillin (oral) nonsusceptibility rates and the incidence of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) serotypes showed decreasing trends (R2 ≥ 0.600; P ≤ 0.002). The incidence of serotypes 1 and 19A showed increasing trends (R2 ≥ 0.759; P < 0.001), with no trends for serotype 3. Serotypes 19A, 1, and 3 represented 85% of pediatric isolates in 2008. In serotype 19A, the penicillin nonsusceptibility rate was 82.4% in 2008, associated with amoxicillin and cefotaxime nonsusceptibility in 21.4% of isolates. Inclusion of these serotypes in new vaccines offers the broadest coverage. PMID:20921314

  10. Tuberculous pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; Valdés, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Spain, and is one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusion. Although the incidence has steadily declined (4.8 cases/100,000population in 2009), the percentage of TBPE remains steady with respect to the total number of TB cases (14.3%-19.3%). Almost two thirds are men, more than 60% are aged between 15-44years, and it is more common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The pathogenesis is usually a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Symptoms vary depending on the population (more acute in young people and more prolonged in the elderly). The effusion is almost invariably a unilateral exudate (according to Light's criteria), more often on the right side, and the tuberculin test is negative in one third of cases. There are limitations in making a definitive diagnosis, so various pleural fluid biomarkers have been used for this. The combination of adenosine deaminase and lymphocyte percentage may be useful in this respect. Treatment is the same as for any TB. The addition of corticosteroids is not advisable, and chest drainage could help to improve symptoms more rapidly in large effusions. PMID:24721286

  11. Pleural effusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for bacteria, cancer cells, and protein level) Thoracentesis (a sample of fluid is removed with a ... cause of the fluid buildup Removing the fluid (thoracentesis) may be done if there is a lot ...

  12. Malignant pleural effusions in lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Shahid, Rabia K; Rimawi, Rola; Siddiqui, Anita K; Rossoff, Leonard; Sison, Cristina P; Steinberg, Harry; Rai, Kanti R

    2005-07-01

    In order to determine variables that correlate with malignant pleural effusion and mortality in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and pleural effusion, a retrospective study was performed. Clinical data of hospitalized patients with a lymphoid malignancy and pleural effusion who underwent thoracentesis from January 1993 to December 2002 were collected. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine prognostic variables that predict malignant pleural effusion and hospital mortality. There were 86 patients who were admitted on 91 occasions. The median age was 70 years (range 4 - 92) and the male:female ratio was 44:42. Sixty-four patients (74%) had advanced disease, 43 (50%) had received prior chemotherapy and 9 (10%) were in remission. Of 91 cases of pleural effusions, 44 (48%) were bilateral, 80 (88%) were exudates and 48 (53%) were due to malignant involvement of pleura. In multivariate analysis, symptomatic pleural effusion (odds ratio 10.3, 95% confidence interval 1.7 - 98.3), pleural fluid mesothelial cell count < 5% (odds ratio 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4 - 58.2), pleural fluid:serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > or =1 (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 - 45.6) and pleural fluid lymphocyte percentage > or =50 (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2 - 50) were significantly correlated with malignant effusion. A secondary cancer (odds ratio 11.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3 - 88.8), pleural fluid:serum LDH > or =1 (odds ratio 10.9, 95% confidence interval 2.6 - 64.9), and pneumonia (odds ratio 6.4, 95% confidence interval 1.7 - 28.6) were significantly correlated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, malignant pleural effusion is the common etiology of pleural effusion in patients with lymphoid malignancy. Many clinical and cytochemical markers have discriminatory values in identifying malignant effusion. A high pleural fluid to serum LDH level correlates with malignant pleural involvement and hospital mortality. PMID

  13. Pleural controversies: indwelling pleural catheter vs. pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are frequent consequences of malignant disease and significantly impair the quality of life (QoL) of patients. There are two main options for the palliation of MPE-related symptoms: obliterating the pleural space by pleurodesis to prevent further fluid reaccumulation, or chronically draining the pleural fluid with an indwelling pleural catheter (IPC). There is controversy as to which approach is superior each having advantages and drawbacks. Pleurodesis offers a higher chance of rapid resolution of the pleural effusion with an intervention that is time limited but at the expense of a more invasive procedure, the need for a hospital stay and a higher need for repeat procedures. IPC offers an outpatient solution which is less invasive but at the cost of prolonged catheter drainages and care in a significant portion of patients who will not achieve pleurodesis. Impact on QoL, symptom relief and costs do not appear to be significantly different between the two options. Treatment of MPE should be tailored to the patient’s functional status, comorbidities, prognosis and personal preferences as well as local expertise. Hybrid approaches using pleurodesis techniques and IPC concomitantly may come into play in the near future to further improve patient care. PMID:26150918

  14. Pleural effusion: diagnosis, treatment, and management

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Vinaya S; Joshi, Jyotsna M

    2012-01-01

    A pleural effusion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. It can pose a diagnostic dilemma to the treating physician because it may be related to disorders of the lung or pleura, or to a systemic disorder. Patients most commonly present with dyspnea, initially on exertion, predominantly dry cough, and pleuritic chest pain. To treat pleural effusion appropriately, it is important to determine its etiology. However, the etiology of pleural effusion remains unclear in nearly 20% of cases. Thoracocentesis should be performed for new and unexplained pleural effusions. Laboratory testing helps to distinguish pleural fluid transudate from an exudate. The diagnostic evaluation of pleural effusion includes chemical and microbiological studies, as well as cytological analysis, which can provide further information about the etiology of the disease process. Immunohistochemistry provides increased diagnostic accuracy. Transudative effusions are usually managed by treating the underlying medical disorder. However, a large, refractory pleural effusion, whether a transudate or exudate, must be drained to provide symptomatic relief. Management of exudative effusion depends on the underlying etiology of the effusion. Malignant effusions are usually drained to palliate symptoms and may require pleurodesis to prevent recurrence. Pleural biopsy is recommended for evaluation and exclusion of various etiologies, such as tuberculosis or malignant disease. Percutaneous closed pleural biopsy is easiest to perform, the least expensive, with minimal complications, and should be used routinely. Empyemas need to be treated with appropriate antibiotics and intercostal drainage. Surgery may be needed in selected cases where drainage procedure fails to produce improvement or to restore lung function and for closure of bronchopleural fistula. PMID:27147861

  15. Scintigraphic diagnosis of peritoneo-pleural communication in the absence of ascites.

    PubMed

    Daly, J J; Potts, J M; Gordon, L; Buse, M G

    1994-10-01

    Pleural effusion in the presence of cirrhosis and ascites is well recognized. Peritoneal fluid is thought to enter the pleural cavity either because of overloaded lymphatics or a structural defect between the peritoneal and chest cavities. Pleural effusion rarely occurs in the absence of demonstrable ascites. This report describes the scintigraphic diagnosis of peritoneo-pleural communication in a patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis and pleural effusion without ascites. PMID:7805325

  16. PLEURAL EFFECTS OF INDIUM PHOSPHIDE IN B6C3F1 MICE: NONFIBROUS PARTICULATE INDUCED PLEURAL FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Patrick J.; Shines, Cassandra J.; Taylor, Genie J.; Bousquet, Ronald W.; Price, Herman C.; Everitt, Jeffrey I.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which chronic inhalation of indium phosphide (InP) particles causes pleural fibrosis is not known. Few studies of InP pleural toxicity have been conducted because of the challenges in conducting particulate inhalation exposures, and because the pleural lesions developed slowly over the 2-year inhalation study. The authors investigated whether InP (1 mg/kg) administered by a single oropharyngeal aspiration would cause pleural fibrosis in male B6C3F1 mice. By 28 days after treatment, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but were unchanged in pleural lavage fluid (PLF). A pronounced pleural effusion characterized by significant increases in cytokines and a 3.7-fold increase in cell number was detected 28 days after InP treatment. Aspiration of soluble InCl3 caused a similar delayed pleural effusion; however, other soluble metals, insoluble particles, and fibers did not. The effusion caused by InP was accompanied by areas of pleural thickening and inflammation at day 28, and by pleural fibrosis at day 98. Aspiration of InP produced pleural fibrosis that was histologically similar to lesions caused by chronic inhalation exposure, and in a shorter time period. This oropharyngeal aspiration model was used to provide an initial characterization of the progression of pleural lesions caused by InP. PMID:19995279

  17. Open pleural biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to a virus, fungus, or parasite Mesothelioma Tuberculosis Risks There is a slight chance of: Air ... More Metastatic pleural tumor Pleural needle biopsy Pulmonary tuberculosis Tumor Update Date 11/4/2014 Updated by: ...

  18. Pleural LDH as a prognostic marker in adenocarcinoma lung with malignant pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Phua, Chee Kiang; Sim, Wen Yuan; Algoso, Reyes Elmer; Tee, Kuan Sen; Lew, Sennen J. W.; Lim, Albert Y. H.; Goh, Soon Keng; Tai, Dessmon Y. H.; Kor, Ai Ching; Ho, Benjamin; Abisheganaden, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To study the performance of serum and pleural lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in predicting survival in patients with adenocarcinoma lung presenting with malignant pleural effusions (MPE) at initial diagnosis. Retrospective cohort study of the patient hospitalized for adenocarcinoma lung with MPE in year 2012. Univariate analyses showed lower pleural fluid LDH 667 (313–967) versus 971 (214–3800), P = 0.04, female gender 9 (100%) versus 27 (41.5%), P = 0.009, never smoking status 9 (100%) versus 36 (55.3%), P = 0.009, and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy 8 (89%) versus 26 (40%), P = 0.009 to correlate with survival of more than 1.7 year versus less than 1.7 year. In multivariate analysis, low pleural fluid LDH and female gender maintained significance. The pleural LDH level of ≤1500 and >1500 U/L discriminated significantly (P = 0.009) between survival. High pleural LDH (>1500 IU/L) predicts shorter survival (less than a year) in patients with adenocarcinoma lung presenting with MPE at the time of initial diagnosis. This marker may be clinically applied for selecting therapeutic modality directed at prevention of reaccumulation of MPE. Patients with low pleural LDH may be considered suitable for measures that provide more sustained effect on prevention of reaccumulation such as chemical pleurodesis or tunneled pleural catheter. PMID:27368006

  19. Large unilateral pleural effusion secondary to Moraxella catarrhalis infection.

    PubMed

    Naha, Kushal; Prabhu, Ravindra

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old male with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis presented with breathlessness, cough and right-sided abdominal pain. Examination revealed a large right-sided pleural effusion and subsequent thoracocentesis yielded an exudate. Although the fluid culture was sterile, sputum culture produced Moraxella catarrhalis. Tuberculosis was ruled out by pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy. Antibiotics were administered and subsequent radiograms indicated resolution of the effusion. This is a rare case of a large unilateral pleural effusion secondary to M. catarrhalis infection in a nonsmoker with no pre-existing pulmonary pathology. PMID:23393539

  20. Memory-Like Antigen-Specific Human NK Cells from TB Pleural Fluids Produced IL-22 in Response to IL-15 or Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoying; Yu, Sifei; Yang, Binyan; Lao, Suihua; Li, Baiqing; Wu, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous result indicated that memory-like human natural killer (NK) cells from TB pleural fluid cells (PFCs) produced large amounts of IFN-γ in response to Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). Furthermore, recent studies have shown that human lymphoid tissues harbored a unique NK cell subset that specialized in production of interleukin (IL)-22, a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates host defense against pathogens. Yet little information was available with regard to the properties of IL-22 production by memory-like human NK cells. In the present study, we found that cytokines IL-15 induced and IL-12 enhanced the levels of IL-22 by NK cells from TB PFCs. In addition, IL-22 but not IL-17 was produced by NK cells from PFCs in response to BCG and M.tb-related Ags. More importantly, the subset of specific IL-22-producing NK cells were distinct from IFN-γ-producing NK cells in PFCs. CD45RO+ or CD45RO- NK cells were sorted, co-cultured with autologous monocytes and stimulated with BCG for the production of IL-22. The result demonstrated that CD45RO+ but not CD45RO- NK cells produced significantly higher level of IL-22. Anti-IL-12Rβ1 mAbs (2B10) partially inhibit the expression of IL-22 by NK cells under the culture with BCG. Consistently, BCG specific IL-22-producing NK cells from PFCs expressed CD45ROhighNKG2Dhighgranzyme Bhigh. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that memory-like antigen-specific CD45RO+ NK cells might participate in the recall immune response for M. tb infection via producing IL-22, which display a critical role to fight against M. tb. PMID:27031950

  1. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I.; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M.; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E.; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A.; Patmanidi, Alexandra L.; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell–induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. PMID:25915587

  2. Pleural effusion segmentation in thin-slice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Rory; Shearer, Andrew; Bruzzi, John; Khosa, Huma

    2009-02-01

    A pleural effusion is excess fluid that collects in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Surplus amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during inhalation. Measuring the fluid volume is indicative of the effectiveness of any treatment but, due to the similarity to surround regions, fragments of collapsed lung present and topological changes; accurate quantification of the effusion volume is a difficult imaging problem. A novel code is presented which performs conditional region growth to accurately segment the effusion shape across a dataset. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique in the segmentation of pleural effusion and pulmonary masses.

  3. Pleural effusion as a result of chronic renal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Akopov, Andrey; Semenov, Dmitry; Karev, Andrey; Filippov, Denis; Lukina, Olga

    2011-01-01

    We would like to present a case of patient with a transudative pleural effusion as a result of atherosclerotic occlusion of renal arteries. About 50 liters of fluid were drained from the right pleural cavity during 10 months period of observation. Successful revascularization of kidneys improved left ventricular function, stabilized hemodynamic of the pulmonary circulation and thus led to elimination of pleural effusion. PMID:22263089

  4. Pleural effusion as a result of chronic renal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Akopov, Andrey; Semenov, Dmitry; Karev, Andrey; Filippov, Denis; Lukina, Olga

    2011-09-01

    We would like to present a case of patient with a transudative pleural effusion as a result of atherosclerotic occlusion of renal arteries. About 50 liters of fluid were drained from the right pleural cavity during 10 months period of observation. Successful revascularization of kidneys improved left ventricular function, stabilized hemodynamic of the pulmonary circulation and thus led to elimination of pleural effusion. PMID:22263089

  5. Pleural controversies: image guided biopsy vs. thoracoscopy for undiagnosed pleural effusions?

    PubMed

    Dixon, Giles; de Fonseka, Duneesha; Maskell, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Undiagnosed pleural effusions present an increasing diagnostic burden upon healthcare providers internationally. The investigation of pleural effusions often requires the acquisition of tissue for histological analysis and diagnosis. Historically there were two options for tissue biopsy: a 'gold standard' surgical biopsy or a "blind" closed pleural biopsy. Over the last decade however, image-guided Tru-cut biopsies and local anaesthetic thoracoscopic (local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) biopsies have become more widespread. Image-guided techniques acquire samples under ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) guidance whereas LAT involves the direct visualisation and biopsy of the pleura with pleuroscopy. Both techniques have been shown to be superior to 'blind' closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of pleural or metastatic malignancy. However, closed biopsy remains a viable method of investigation in areas of high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Beyond this, each investigative technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Image-guided biopsy is less invasive, usually carried out as an outpatient procedure, and enables tissue biopsy in frail patients and those with pleural thickening but no pleural fluid. Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) provides diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in one procedure. Large volume thoracentesis, multiple pleural biopsies and talc poudrage can be carried out in a single procedure. The overall diagnostic yield is similar for both techniques, although there are no large-scale direct comparisons. Both techniques share low complication rates. PMID:26150917

  6. Pleural controversies: image guided biopsy vs. thoracoscopy for undiagnosed pleural effusions?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Giles; de Fonseka, Duneesha

    2015-01-01

    Undiagnosed pleural effusions present an increasing diagnostic burden upon healthcare providers internationally. The investigation of pleural effusions often requires the acquisition of tissue for histological analysis and diagnosis. Historically there were two options for tissue biopsy: a ‘gold standard’ surgical biopsy or a “blind” closed pleural biopsy. Over the last decade however, image-guided Tru-cut biopsies and local anaesthetic thoracoscopic (local anaesthetic thoracoscopy) biopsies have become more widespread. Image-guided techniques acquire samples under ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) guidance whereas LAT involves the direct visualisation and biopsy of the pleura with pleuroscopy. Both techniques have been shown to be superior to ‘blind’ closed pleural biopsy for the diagnosis of pleural or metastatic malignancy. However, closed biopsy remains a viable method of investigation in areas of high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Beyond this, each investigative technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Image-guided biopsy is less invasive, usually carried out as an outpatient procedure, and enables tissue biopsy in frail patients and those with pleural thickening but no pleural fluid. Local anaesthetic thoracoscopy (LAT) provides diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in one procedure. Large volume thoracentesis, multiple pleural biopsies and talc poudrage can be carried out in a single procedure. The overall diagnostic yield is similar for both techniques, although there are no large-scale direct comparisons. Both techniques share low complication rates. PMID:26150917

  7. The Differential Diagnostic Values of Cytokine Levels in Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu, Saadet; Kurt, A. Nese Citak; Dogan, Yasar; Yilmaz, Erdal; Godekmerdan, Ahmet; Aygun, A. Denizmen

    2005-01-01

    The aim is to examine whether the changes in pleural fluid interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were significant in differential diagnosis of childhood pleural effusions. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in pleural fluids of all 36 patients were measured. The levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 in pleural fluids were statistically significantly higher in the transudate group compared with those of the exudate group. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were also found to be statistically significantly higher in the empyema group compared with both the parapneumonic and the tuberculous pleural effusion groups. The levels of IL-2 and IL-6 were detected to be statistically significantly higher in the tuberculous pleural effusion group in comparison with those of the parapneumonic effusion group. The results showed that pleural fluids IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 could be used in pleural fluids exudate and transudate distinction. PMID:15770060

  8. Pleural effusion and sarcoidosis: an unusual combination.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; Toubes, M Elena; Valdés, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon and appears in several forms. To document the incidence and characteristics of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis patients, a review of the cases diagnosed in our centre between January 2001 and December 2012 was carried out. One hundred and ninety-five patients with sarcoidosis were identified; three (two men and one woman) presented with unilateral pleural effusion (1.5%): one in the right side and two in the left. Two were in stageii and one was in stageiv. The pleural fluid of the two patients who underwent thoracocentesis was predominantly lymphocytic. One of these patients presented chylothorax and the other had high CA-125levels. In general, these effusions are lymphocyte-rich, paucicellular, serous exudates (sometimes chylothorax) and contain proportionally higher levels of protein than LDH. Most cases are treated with corticosteroids, although it may resolve spontaneously. PMID:24565689

  9. Ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Soni, Nilam J; Franco, Ricardo; Velez, Maria I; Schnobrich, Daniel; Dancel, Ria; Restrepo, Marcos I; Mayo, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    We review the literature on the use of point-of-care ultrasound to evaluate and manage pleural effusions. Point-of-care ultrasound is more sensitive than physical exam and chest radiography to detect pleural effusions, and avoids many negative aspects of computerized tomography. Additionally, point-of-care ultrasound can assess pleural fluid volume and character, revealing possible underlying pathologies and guiding management. Thoracentesis performed with ultrasound guidance has lower risk of pneumothorax and bleeding complications. Future research should focus on the clinical effectiveness of point-of-care ultrasound in the routine management of pleural effusions and how new technologies may expand its clinical utility. PMID:26218493

  10. Pleural Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: An Unusual Culprit in Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Adejorin, Oluwaseyi D.; Sodhi, Amik; Hare, Felicia A.; Headley, Arthur S.; Murillo, Luis C.; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 77 Final Diagnosis: Pleural small cell carcinoma Symptoms: Chest pain • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Thoracocentesis Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Rare disease Background: Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) usually presents as lung or mediastinal lesions. It is very rare for SCLC to present primarily as an isolated pleural effusion with no lung or mediastinal lesions. Case Report: We report the case of a 77-year-old white male with a 60-pack year history of smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stage IV), and asbestos exposure who presented with shortness of breath and left lateral chest pain for 7 days. On physical examination, he was very short of breath, with a prolonged expiratory phase on chest auscultation. Laboratory results were normal except for leukocytosis and chest radiograph revealing left-sided pleural effusion. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning of the chest with IV contrast showed left-sided pleural effusion without any lung or mediastinal lesions. Thoracentesis was performed and fluid was sent for analysis. Repeat CT chest/abdomen/pelvis, done immediately following thoracocentesis, did not show any masses or lymphadenopathy. Fluid analysis, including cytology and immunostain pattern, was consistent with small cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Small cell lung cancer presenting as an isolated pleural effusion is extremely rare. It requires close attention to cytology and immunohistochemistry of pleural fluid samples. It also has implications for management and should be managed as limited-stage SCLC. PMID:26714576

  11. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Gemba, Kenichi; Aoe, Keisuke; Kato, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Takako; Usami, Ikuji; Onishi, Kazuo; Mizuhashi, Keiichi; Yusa, Toshikazu; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. PMID:26689234

  12. IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

  13. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... persons. Alternative Names Tumor - metastatic pleural Images Pleural space References Arenberg D, Pickens A. Metastatic malignant tumors. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  14. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  15. Pleural malignancies including mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, G

    1995-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is caused almost exclusively by occupational exposure to asbestos. During the past few years, however, increasing evidence has mounted that background exposure to asbestos could be sufficient to cause mesothelioma. Treatment of malignant mesothelioma remains a big problem. Some new approaches are on their way, and the most exciting ones are local immunotherapy in very early cases. Some success has been reported with local interferon treatment. As for treatment of metastatic pleural disease, the main purpose is symptomatic relief of dyspnea caused by fluid accumulation. The best way to achieve a lasting palliation is pleurodesis, and the most common way to do this, is by chemical means. The drug of choice in the United States has for many years been tetracycline, but since injectable tetracycline is no longer available, some substitute must be found. The substance that will "win" is not yet clear, but the two leading contestants are talc and doxycycline. Bleomycin also has its supporters, and a dark horse is quinacrine, which although not easily available in the United States, has been used in many European centers for decades. PMID:9363074

  16. Pleural effusion in a peritoneal dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Hui; Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Soo Wan

    2011-04-01

    A 34-year-old female presented with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated by peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) complained of a dry cough. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed massive right hydrothorax. Because the glucose concentration of pleural fluid was markedly high compared with that of serum, we performed isotope and contrast peritoneography. We used CT for localizing it. MRI was also trying to show transdiaphragmatic leakage in peritoneoflural fistula. Temporary discontinuation of CAPD, tetracycline instillation into the pleural space and surgical patch grafting of the diaphragmatic leak have all been described. A novel method may be video-assisted talc pleurodesis. PMID:22111056

  17. [Sonography in pleural effusion of horses].

    PubMed

    Stadtbäumer, G

    1989-01-01

    Pleural effusion in the horse can be caused by diseases such as pneumonia, trauma, pulmonary abscesses and thoracic neoplasms. Besides clinical (auscultation, percussion) and radiographic diagnostic procedures, the ultrasonic examination represents a method that supplies detailed information on quantity and location of fluid in the pleural space. By means of ultrasonic examination the most favourable position for a thoracentesis can be determined. Control of thoracentesis' efficiency as well as exact supervision of the disease's course are made feasible by repeated sonographic examinations. PMID:2694447

  18. Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids masking the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculous pleural effusions are not always easy to diagnose but the presence of a lymphocyte-rich exudate associated with an increased adenosine deaminase level and a positive skin test result are highly sensitive diagnostic signs. Case presentation We report a case of pleural tuberculosis in a 31-year-old white male patient from Caracas, Venezuela who was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and presented 2 weeks after injecting the anabolic-androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate, in whom all the tests for tuberculosis were initially negative; an eosinophilic pleural effusion with a low adenosine deaminase level, a negative tuberculin skin test and negative for acid-fast bacilli staining and culture of the pleural fluid. After excluding other causes of eosinophilic pleural effusion malignant pleural effusion was suspected. The patient did not return until 4 months later. The second thoracentesis obtained a pleural fluid suggestive for tuberculosis, with a predominance of lymphocytes, an elevated adenosine deaminase level (51 U/l) and a positive tuberculin skin test. Culture of pleural fragments confirmed pleural tuberculosis. Conclusion This case suggests that the use of an anabolic-androgenic steroid masks the definitive diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis by changing the key diagnostic parameters of the pleural fluid, a finding not previously reported. Available evidence of the effects of anabolic steroids on the immune system also suggests that patients using anabolic-androgenic steroids might be susceptible to developing tuberculosis in either reactivating a latent infection or facilitating development of the disease after a recent infection. PMID:19175931

  19. Concurrent pericardial and pleural effusions: a double jeopardy.

    PubMed

    Furst, Branko; Liu, Chyong-Jy J; Hansen, Philip; Musuku, Sridhar R

    2016-09-01

    A 19-year-old man with large malignant pleural and pericardial effusions with tamponade physiology and signs of congestive heart failure presented for emergent subxiphoid pericardial window. Surgical drainage of the pericardium was complicated by a paradoxical cardiovascular collapse that failed to respond to pressors and intravenous fluids. Suspecting a pericardial perforation, a median sternotomy was performed and revealed an intact heart. The arterial pressure was promptly restored after drainage of the pleural effusion. It is proposed that, in patients presenting with tamponading pericardial and pleural effusions, drainage of the pleural effusion be given priority. The pathophysiology of low cardiac output states resulting from pericardial and large pleural effusion is discussed and the literature reviewed. PMID:27555190

  20. Silicone Breast Implants: A Rare Cause of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Imam H.; Gandrapu, Bindu; Flores, David; Matta, Jyoti; Syed, Amer K.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural effusions are one of the rarest complications reported in patients with silicone gel filled breast implants. The silicone implants have potential to provoke chronic inflammation of pleura and subsequent pulmonary complications such as pleural effusion. Herein, we report a 44-year-old female who presented with left sided pleural effusion, six weeks after a silicone breast implantation surgery. The most common infectious, inflammatory, and malignant causes of pleural effusion were excluded with pleural fluid cytology and cultures. With recurrent effusion in the setting of recent surgery, the chemical reaction to silicone breast implants was sought and exploration was performed which revealed foreign body reaction (FBR) to silicone material. The symptoms dramatically improved after the explantation. PMID:26693375

  1. Cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusion in a very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Haass, Cristina; Sorrentino, Elena; Tempera, Alessia; Consigli, Chiara; De Paola, Domenico; Calcagni, Giulio; Piastra, Marco; Finocchi, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    A very low birth weight premature newborn developed a sudden cardiac tamponade due to parenteral fluid extravasation 1 month after central line insertion. Besides tensive pericardial effusion a bilateral pleural effusion also developed. An emergency pericardiocentesis was really life-saving and after pleural fluid removal a complete cardiorespiratory recovery was obtained. Pericardial and bilateral pleural effusions very rarely coexist as a complication of central line extravasation. PMID:19253161

  2. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. PMID:26693840

  3. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  4. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Sorabjee, Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT) as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml), only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid. PMID:26321807

  5. [Parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in adults:current practice].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Light, R W

    2009-11-01

    About 20% of hospitalized patients with bacterial pneumonia have an accompanying pleural effusion. Parapneumonic effusions (PPE) are associated with a considerable morbidity and mortality. The main decision in managing a patient with a PPE is whether to insert a chest tube (complicated PPE). Imaging (i.e., chest radiograph, ultrasound and computed tomography) and pleural fluid analysis (i.e., pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, bacterial cults) provide essential information for patient management. Therefore, all PPEs should be aspirated for diagnostic purposes. This may require image-guidance if the effusion is small or heavily loculated. According to the current guidelines, any PPE that fulfills at least one of the following criteria should be drained: size > or = 1/2 of the hemithorax, loculations, pleural fluid pH < 7.20 (or alternatively pleural fluid glucose < 60 mg/dl), positive pleural fluid Gram stain or culture, or purulent appearance. The key components of the treatment of complicated PPE and empyema are the use of appropriate antibiotics, provision of nutritional support, and drainage of the pleural space by one of the following methods: therapeutic thoracentesis, tube thoracostomy, intrapleural fibrinolytics, thoracoscopy with breakdown of adhesions or thoracotomy with decortication. The routine use of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy remains controversial. (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. PMID:19889319

  6. Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid and Ertapenem in experimental parapneumonic pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of linezolid and ertapenem penetration into the empyemic fluid using a rabbit model of empyema. Methods An empyema was created via the intrapleural injection of Escherichia coli bacteria (ATCC 35218) into the pleural space of New Zealand white rabbits. After an empyema was verified by thoracocentesis, 24 hours post inoculation, linezolid (10 mg/kg) and ertapenem (60 mg/kg) were administered intravenously into 10 and 8 infected empyemic rabbits, respectively. Antibiotic levels were determined in samples of pleural fluid and blood serum, collected serially at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours, after administration each of the two antibiotics. Results Linezolid as well as ertapenem penetrate well into the empyemic pleural fluid, exhibiting a slower onset and decline compared to the corresponding blood serum levels. Equilibration between blood serum and pleural fluid compartments seems to occur at 1.5 hours for both linezolid and ertapenem, with peak pleural fluid levels (Cmaxpf of 2.02 ± 0.73 «mu»g/ml and Cmaxpf of 3.74 ± 1.39 «mu»g/ml, correspondingly) occurring 2 hours post antibiotics administration and decreasing very slowly thereafter. The serum concentrations for both antibiotics were significantly lower from the corresponding pleural fluid ones during the 8 hours collecting data, with the exception of samples collected at the 1st hour (Cmaxserum of 2.1 ± 1.2 «mu»g/ml for linezolid and Cmaxserum of 6.26 ± 2.98 «mu»g/ml for ertapenem). Conclusion Pleural fluid levels of both antibiotics are inhibitory for common specified pathogens causing empyema. PMID:20482752

  7. Analysis of Lymphocyte Immunological Reactivity in Patients with Pleural Effusions of Different Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Goseva, Zlatica; Kaeva, Biserka Jovkovska; Gjorcev, Angelko; Janeva, Elena Jovanovska; Arsovski, Zoran; Pejkovska, Sava; Tatabitovska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of T and B lymphocytes in pleural fluids and blood may point to the presence of local immunological phenomena in pleural disorders. AIM: Aim of study was to evaluate the lymphocyte phenotype and the ratio between helper (CD4+) and cytotoxic/suppressor (CD8+) lymphocytes in malignant and non-malignant effusions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 48 patients with pleural effusions. First group had 18 patients with tuberculosis pleural effusions; second group had 20 patients with malignant pleural fluids, third group had 10 patients with transudates and 30 healthy controls. We investigated the distribution of T and B lymphocytes, T cells with helper/inducer CD4 or suppresser/cytotoxic CD8 phenotypes and the CD16 subset. RESULTS: Results showed decreases levels of CD3, CD4, and CD16 T cells in blood of patients versus healthy controls. There were increases in the percentage of the CD3 and CD4 T cells in the pleural fluid compared with values in the blood with statistical significance in tuberculous pleurisy. The values of CD8 were similar in the pleural fluid and in blood. Levels of CD16 were non-significantly higher in pleural fluid in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the hypothesis that pleural cavity is compartment with immunological reactivity and results could be used in differential diagnosis together with other examinations. PMID:27275329

  8. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Brian W.; Diacon, Andreas H.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.

    2015-01-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  9. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Morné J; Allwood, Brian W; Diacon, Andreas H; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N

    2015-06-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  10. [Sarcoid pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Rábade, Carlos; Valdés, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pleural effusion (PE) is a very uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. It is equally observed in men and women, can appear at any age and in all radiologic stages, though it is more common in stages i and ii. Effusions have usually a mild or medium size and mainly involve the right side. Various mechanisms can be implicated. PE will be a serous exudate if there is an increase in the capillary permeability due to direct involvement of the pleural membrane, a chylothorax if mediastinum lymph nodes compress the thoracic duct and/or the lymphatic drainage from the pleural cavity, an hemothorax if granuloma compress or invade pleural small vessels or capillaries, and even a transudate if there is compression of the inferior vena cava, atelectasis due to complete bronchial obstruction or when the resolution of the PE is incomplete with chronic thickening of visceral pleura (trapped lung). It manifests biochemically as a pauci-cellular exudate with a predominance of lymphocytes, though there can be a preponderance of eosinophils or neutrophils. Protein concentrations are usually proportionately higher than lactate dehidrogenase, adenosine deaminase is normally low and it is possible to find increased levels of CA-125 in women. The tuberculin test is negative and pleural or lung biopsies yield the diagnosis by confirming the presence of non-caseating granulomata. These PE can have a favorable self-limited outcome, even though in most cases treatment with corticosteroids is needed, while surgery is required in a few cases. PMID:24486113

  11. Pleural haemangioma: A rare cause of recurrent pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Sindhwani, G.; Khanduri, R.; Nadia, S.; Jethani, V.

    2015-01-01

    A middle aged female presented with recurrent unilateral pleural effusion. Thoracoscopy revealed a vascular tumor in the apical region of pleural cavity arising from the chest wall. Biopsy from the tumor showed features of pleural hemangioma. She was successfully managed by surgical excision of the tumor. The case is being presented because of its rarity. PMID:27222779

  12. Broncho-Pleural Fistula with Hydropneumothorax at CT: Diagnostic Implications in Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease with Pleural Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings. Materials and Methods We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Results The 5 patients were all male with a median age of 77 and all had underlying comorbid conditions. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a wide range of white blood cell counts (410–100690/µL). The causative microorganisms were determined as Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiologically, the peripheral portion of the involved lung demonstrated fibro-bullous changes or cavitary lesions causing lung destruction, reflecting the chronic, insidious nature of MAC lung disease. All patients had broncho-pleural fistulas (BPFs) and pneumothorax was accompanied with pleural effusion. Conclusion In patients with underlying MAC lung disease who present with pleural effusion, the presence of BPFs and pleural air on CT imaging are indicative that spread of MAC infection is the cause of the effusion. PMID:26957917

  13. Aetiology of pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Rous, V.; Studeny, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pleural plaques were found in 644 (6·6%) of 9,760 photofluorograms taken in 1965 in a region of Pelhřimov district; the incidence was highest in the age group 66-70 years. The advanced age of those affected may be explained by the greater frequency of the causative agent in the past. The disorder was known in Pelhřimov district as early as 1930; it was then thought to be posttuberculous. The past history of the cases was uninformative; as a rule, the only common previous disease was pleurisy with effusion, occurring in 9·7%. The general condition of those affected was excellent; only 8% were aware of the fact that pleural lesions were present. The disorder was found mainly in farmers, familial incidence was common, and if two generations of one family suffered from the condition, the older generation was affected in 100%. Pleural plaques consist morphologically of limited areas of hyalinized collagenous connective tissue with calcium salt deposits. Tubercle bacilli could not be cultivated from the lesions. Mineralological analysis showed no evidence of silicates in the pleural plaques and a normal content in the lungs. The aetiological factor responsible for the development of pleural plaques in Pelhřimov district is not known, but asbestos cannot be implicated. The unknown noxious agent is carried to the pleura by the lymph and blood stream. Pleural plaques are an endemic disorder. The traditional view that lesions are post-tuberculous appears, in the region submitted to this study, to be a possible explanation. Images PMID:5465601

  14. Primary extraskeletal pleural osteosarcoma: a rare pleural identity

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Hannah; Makdisi, Peter B.; Duncan, Michael; Wozniak, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of a heart transplant 16 years prior, presented with a large left chest mass identified on fluoroscopy in the cardiac catheterization lab. The patient noted a 40 pound weight loss in one year. A chest X-ray (CXR) and chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a large complex cystic mass in the left chest. A CT guided aspiration was performed, and the cytology for the cyst fluid was negative for malignancy. The patient continued to have worsening shortness of breath, a repeat chest CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) three months later, demonstrated a recurrence of the left pleural mass. Further, work-up was negative for tumor. A left video assisted thoracotomy exploration was performed and left thoracotomy was needed for the mass resection. The final pathology demonstrated a high grade osteosarcoma. The post-operative course was unremarkable. PMID:27386494

  15. Primary extraskeletal pleural osteosarcoma: a rare pleural identity.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Hannah; Makdisi, Peter B; Duncan, Michael; Wozniak, Thomas C; Makdisi, George

    2016-06-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of a heart transplant 16 years prior, presented with a large left chest mass identified on fluoroscopy in the cardiac catheterization lab. The patient noted a 40 pound weight loss in one year. A chest X-ray (CXR) and chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a large complex cystic mass in the left chest. A CT guided aspiration was performed, and the cytology for the cyst fluid was negative for malignancy. The patient continued to have worsening shortness of breath, a repeat chest CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) three months later, demonstrated a recurrence of the left pleural mass. Further, work-up was negative for tumor. A left video assisted thoracotomy exploration was performed and left thoracotomy was needed for the mass resection. The final pathology demonstrated a high grade osteosarcoma. The post-operative course was unremarkable. PMID:27386494

  16. Switching off malignant pleural effusion formation—fantasy or future?

    PubMed Central

    Giannou, Anastasios D.; Stathopoulos, Georgios T.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common and difficult to treat. In the vast majority of patients the presence of MPE heralds incurable disease, associated with poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic approaches are inefficient and merely offer palliation of associated symptoms. Recent scientific progress has shed light in the biologic processes governing the mechanisms behind the pathobiology of MPE. Pleural based tumors interfere with pleural fluid drainage, as well as the host vasculature and immune system, resulting in decreased fluid absorption and increased pleural fluid production via enhanced plasma extravasation into the pleural space. In order to achieve this feat, pleural based tumors must elicit critical vasoactive events in the pleura, thus forming a favorable microenvironment for tumor dissemination and MPE development. Such properties involve specific transcriptional signaling cascades in addition to secretion of important mediators which attract and activate host cell populations which, in turn, impact tumor cell functions. The dissection of the biologic steps leading to MPE formation provides novel therapeutic targets and recent research findings provide encouraging results towards future therapeutic innovations in MPE management. PMID:26150914

  17. A potential role for VEGF in the diagnostic approach of pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Psatha, Aggeliki; Makris, Demosthenes; Daniil, Zoe; Kiropoulos, Theodoros; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may play a role in pleural fluid formation, as it represents a potent inducer of capillary permeability. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of VEGF levels in pleural fluid and serum in patients with pleural effusions with initially negative diagnostic work up. Methods Seventy-one patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusions undiagnosed after initial diagnostic work up were enrolled in this prospective study and their clinical course was followed up to 24 months. VEGF levels were measured in serum and pleural fluid by using immunoenzymometric assay. Results During the follow up period, in 43 patients the pleural effusion was eventually attributed to malignancy while in the rest 28 patients it was due to non-malignant causes (benign and unknown origin). Patients with malignancy had significantly higher VEGF levels in pleural fluid compared to patients with non-malignant effusions (1,506 vs. 588 pg/dL, P=0.0001), while no statistically significant difference was found in the VEGF serum levels between the two groups. Conclusions Pleural VEGF levels may be helpful in identifying malignant pleural effusion (MPE) in patients with negative diagnostic work up at the initial assessment and help in selecting patients for more invasive procedures. PMID:27499957

  18. Novel tests for diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion: what works and what does not?

    PubMed

    Trajman, A; Pai, M; Dheda, K; van Zyl Smit, R; Zwerling, A A; Joshi, R; Kalantri, S; Daley, P; Menzies, D

    2008-05-01

    Tuberculous pleuritis is a common manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and is the most common cause of pleural effusion in many countries. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as microscopic examination of the pleural fluid, biochemical tests, culture of pleural fluid, sputum or pleural tissue, and histopathological examination of pleural tissue, have known limitations. Due to these limitations, newer and more rapid diagnostic tests have been evaluated. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the performance of new diagnostic tests, including markers of specific and nonspecific immune response, nucleic acid amplification and detection, and predictive models based on combinations of markers. Directions for future development and evaluation of novel assays and biomarkers for pleural tuberculosis are also suggested. PMID:18448504

  19. Pleuroperitoneal shunt for recurrent malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, V; Fernando, H C; Goldstraw, P

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic options available for the management of malignant pleural effusions associated with a restricting malignant cortex remain unsatisfactory. The efficacy of pleuroperitoneal shunts was evaluated in 16 patients with recurrent malignant effusions. There were no operative deaths; one patient died on the third postoperative day as a result of lymphangitis carcinomatosa. The median hospital stay was five (range 3-21) days. Palliation was obtained in all but one of the other 15 patients. There was no appreciable reaccumulation of pleural fluid as judged by radiography. Two patients developed occlusion of the shunt. In one case this was due to blood clots in the pleural catheter and necessitated insertion of a new shunt. The other shunt was removed because of obstructing infected fibrin debris, and a rib resection was performed. There were eight deaths related to the underlying malignancy after a mean interval of 7.3 (range 1.5-23) months. The other six patients are still alive, with a mean survival of 11.0 (range 5-20) months, and have achieved good symptomatic relief. The insertion of a pleuroperitoneal shunt can offer effective palliation for patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusions. Images PMID:1696401

  20. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor, a “Floating Island” Pattern in Pleural Fluid Cytology: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; McMeekin, Emily Marie; Sturgis, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive sarcoma with characteristic clinical and pathologic features. It typically involves pelvic and abdominal organs of young male patients, and patients usually present at advanced stage with poor prognosis. A few reports are available describing the cytopathologic features of DSRCT in serous effusions, with the majority of published cases depicting undifferentiated small blue cells that need to be distinguished from other small blue cell tumors. We report an interesting case of DSRCT involving a pleural effusion with a “floating island” pattern that has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma. In our case, the epithelioid tumor cells form cohesive aggregates surrounded by a single layer of spindle cells, mimicking the “endothelial wrapping” in other tumors with “floating island” patterns. We demonstrate, by ancillary testing, that these peripheral spindle cells are tapered/flattened DSRCT cells, in contrast to endothelial wrapping cells, as seen in other tumors with this unique cytomorphology. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DSRCT showing a “floating island” pattern that needs to be differentiated from metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma in effusion cytology. PMID:26413364

  1. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor, a "Floating Island" Pattern in Pleural Fluid Cytology: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; McMeekin, Emily Marie; Sturgis, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive sarcoma with characteristic clinical and pathologic features. It typically involves pelvic and abdominal organs of young male patients, and patients usually present at advanced stage with poor prognosis. A few reports are available describing the cytopathologic features of DSRCT in serous effusions, with the majority of published cases depicting undifferentiated small blue cells that need to be distinguished from other small blue cell tumors. We report an interesting case of DSRCT involving a pleural effusion with a "floating island" pattern that has been described in hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma. In our case, the epithelioid tumor cells form cohesive aggregates surrounded by a single layer of spindle cells, mimicking the "endothelial wrapping" in other tumors with "floating island" patterns. We demonstrate, by ancillary testing, that these peripheral spindle cells are tapered/flattened DSRCT cells, in contrast to endothelial wrapping cells, as seen in other tumors with this unique cytomorphology. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DSRCT showing a "floating island" pattern that needs to be differentiated from metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma in effusion cytology. PMID:26413364

  2. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi-Moghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rezvani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran). The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6%) males and 155 (47.4%) females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%), 48 (14.7%), and 45 (13.8%) cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4%) of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2%) patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years) and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years) cases (P=0.16). The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE) occurring in young people. PMID:27365554

  3. A 22-year-old man with pleural tuberculosis associated hydropneumothorax: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Lauren A; Price, Thea P; Hehn, Boyd; Manoff, David; Cowan, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old Asian male presented with fever, non-productive cough, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have a large right hydropneumothorax. A chest tube was placed. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic predominant exudate and he was subsequently started on four-drug daily anti-tuberculosis therapy (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, pyrazinamide). Pleural biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli. Given his persistent pleural effusion, he was given four doses of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and dornase alpha (DNase) via his chest tube over a period of 6 days resulting in clinical and radiologic improvement. Pleural biopsy and pleural fluid culture specimens later revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Intrapleural tPA-DNase therapy has demonstrated improved resolution of infections and shortened hospitalizations for parapneumonic infectious effusions. However, there is little literature on the use of intrapleural fibrinolytics specifically for pleural tuberculosis associated effusions. Furthermore, the American Thoracic Society does not comment on therapeutic thoracentesis or intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in their recommendations for treatment of pleural tuberculosis. In our case of pleural TB-associated hydropneumothorax, the use of intrapleural tPA-DNase therapy facilitated pleural fluid drainage and resulted in near-complete resolution of the effusion. PMID:27144114

  4. A 22-year-old man with pleural tuberculosis associated hydropneumothorax: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Lauren A.; Price, Thea P.; Hehn, Boyd; Manoff, David; Cowan, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old Asian male presented with fever, non-productive cough, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have a large right hydropneumothorax. A chest tube was placed. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic predominant exudate and he was subsequently started on four-drug daily anti-tuberculosis therapy (isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, pyrazinamide). Pleural biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli. Given his persistent pleural effusion, he was given four doses of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and dornase alpha (DNase) via his chest tube over a period of 6 days resulting in clinical and radiologic improvement. Pleural biopsy and pleural fluid culture specimens later revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Intrapleural tPA-DNase therapy has demonstrated improved resolution of infections and shortened hospitalizations for parapneumonic infectious effusions. However, there is little literature on the use of intrapleural fibrinolytics specifically for pleural tuberculosis associated effusions. Furthermore, the American Thoracic Society does not comment on therapeutic thoracentesis or intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy in their recommendations for treatment of pleural tuberculosis. In our case of pleural TB-associated hydropneumothorax, the use of intrapleural tPA-DNase therapy facilitated pleural fluid drainage and resulted in near-complete resolution of the effusion. PMID:27144114

  5. Intra-Pleural Colistin Methanesulfonate Therapy for Pleural Infection caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii: A Successful Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Muhammad Asim; Rahman, Basheer Abd El; Mady, Ahmed Fouad; Odat, Mohammed Al; AlHarthy, Abdurehman; Ramadan, Omar El Sayed; Mumtaz, Shahzad Ahmed; Omrani, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria are an increasing clinical challenge, since the antimicrobial treatment options are often limited to colistin methanesulfonate. No data are available regarding the pharmacokinetics of colistin in pleural fluid. We report the case of a 92-year old man with ventilator-associated pneumonia and pleurisy caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, which were both multidrug-resistant. After an unsuccessful treatment with intravenous colistin methanesulfonate and imipen-em-cilastatin, the addition of intra-pleural colistin methanesulfonate to the intravenous treatment led to a prompt clinical, radiological and microbiological resolution. This is the first report of a successful use of intra-pleural colistin in the literature. The intra-pleural colistin therapy should be considered in selected cases of pleurisy caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25276329

  6. Management of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion in Adults.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, María Esther; Valdés, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Pleural infections have high morbidity and mortality, and their incidence in all age groups is growing worldwide. Not all infectious effusions are parapneumonic and, in such cases, the organisms found in the pleural space are not the same as those observed in lung parenchyma infections. The diagnostic difficulty lies in knowing whether an infectious effusion will evolve into a complicated effusion/empyema, as the diagnostic methods used for this purpose provide poor results. The mainstays of treatment are to establish an early diagnosis and to commence an antibiotic regimen and chest drain as soon as possible. This should preferably be carried out with fine tubes, due to certain morphological, bacteriological and biochemical characteristics of the pleural fluid. Fluid analysis, particularly pH, is the most reliable method for assessing evolution. In a subgroup of patients, fibrinolytics may help to improve recovery, and their combination with DNase has been found to obtain better results. If medical treatment fails and surgery is required, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is, at least, comparable to decortication by thoracotomy, so should only undertaken if previous techniques have failed. Further clinical trials are needed to analyze factors that could affect the results obtained, in order to define new evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that provide more effective, standardized management of this disease. PMID:25820035

  7. Abomasal ulceration and abomaso-pleural fistula in an 11-month-old beefmaster bull

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lais R. R.; Gill, Marjorie S.; Williams, Jamie; Johnson, Anthony J.; Angel, Kenneth L.; Mirza, Mustajab H.

    2002-01-01

    An 11-month-old, beefmaster bull presented with anorexia and signs of respiratory disease. Physical examination, thoracic ultrasonography and radiography, and pleural fluid analysis indicated pericarditis and septic neutrophilic pleuropneumonia. Postmortem findings were abomasal adherence to the diaphragm, a fibrotic fistulous tract connecting the abomasum and pleural cavity, granulomatous abomasitis, granulomatous pericarditis, and fibrinonecrotic pleuritis. PMID:11901596

  8. Reexpansion pulmonary oedema as a complication of pleural drainage.

    PubMed

    Adegboye, V O; Falade, A; Osinusi, K; Obajimi, M O

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and one (6%) of 1,678 patient studied had bilateral reexpansion pulmonary oedema(RPO). On the whole, one thousand, seven hundred and seventy nine (1,779) pleural spaces were studied, fifteen pleural spaces (0.8%), with mean age of 23 +/- 4.5 years had RPO. Among these 15 patients with RPO, the mean period of lung collapse before pneumothorax (PThx) was evacuated was 31.8 +/- 21.8 days and for hydrothorax (HThx) was 31.3 +/- 30.1 days; for 15 patients without RPO (controls), matched for age and sex, the mean period of lung collapse before CTTD was 7.5 +/- 4.1 days and 5.4 +/- 1.3 days respectively for PThx and HThx. The differences in the period of lung collapse among patients with RPO and those without, for each pleural disease was statistically significant (P < 0.03). Volume of pleural fluid drained before RPO was noticed was 2196 +/- 1103 mls, for the 15 matched patients without RPO (controls), it was 1060 +/- 115 mls (p < 0.05). Volume of pleural fluid drained among the patients with SR (Severe response), MR (mild to moderate response) and RD (radiological diagnosis) did not correlate with severity of response. We conclude that prevention of RPO is the desired goal in the management of pleural effusion or Pneumothorax. RPO is commonest among young patients who have had lung collapse for 7 or more days. In these circumstances RPO is prevented, its incidence and severity reduced by methods of gradual evacuation of PThx or pleural fluid drainage. PMID:12690682

  9. Black Pleural Effusion: A Unique Presentation of Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Akansha; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Chowdhary, Mudit; Danckers, Mauricio; Fridman, David

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer, but one that comes with a high mortality rate. Pulmonary involvement is frequently seen in metastatic melanoma with only 2% of malignant melanoma patients with thorax metastasis presenting with pleural effusions. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of black pleural effusion from thoracic metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. A 74-year-old man with known metastatic melanoma presented with a 1-month history of worsening lower back and hip pain and was found to have extensive osseous metastatic disease and multiple compression fractures. The patient underwent an uneventful kyphoplasty; however, the following day, he became acutely hypoxic and tachypneic with increased oxygen requirements. Radiographic evaluation revealed new bilateral pleural effusions. Bedside thoracentesis revealed a densely exudative, lymphocyte-predominant black effusion. Cytological examination showed numerous neoplastic cells with melanin deposition. A diagnosis of thoracic metastasis of malignant melanoma was established based on the gross and microscopic appearance of the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of black pleural effusions secondary to metastatic melanoma in the United States. Despite the rarity of this presentation, it is important to determine the etiology of the black pleural effusion and to keep metastatic melanoma as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26078741

  10. Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor for Tuberculosis Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseung; Kim, Si Eun; Park, Bong Soo; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the potential role of serum procalcitonin in differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial and viral meningitis, and in predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. Methods This was a retrospective study of 26 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. In addition, 70 patients with bacterial meningitis and 49 patients with viral meningitis were included as the disease control groups for comparison. The serum procalcitonin level was measured in all patients at admission. Differences in demographic and laboratory data, including the procalcitonin level, were analyzed among the three groups. In addition, we analyzed the predictive factors for a prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) at discharge, and the correlation between the level of procalcitonin and the GCS score at discharge. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a low level of procalcitonin (≤1.27 ng/mL) independently distinguished tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis were 96.2% and 62.9%, respectively. However, the level of procalcitonin in patients with tuberculosis meningitis did not differ significantly from that in patients with viral meningitis. In patients with tuberculosis meningitis, a high level of procalcitonin (>0.4 ng/mL) was a predictor of a poor prognosis, and the level of procalcitonin was negatively correlated with the GCS score at discharge (r=-0.437, p=0.026). Conclusions We found that serum procalcitonin is a useful marker for differentiating tuberculosis meningitis from bacterial meningitis and is also valuable for predicting the prognosis of tuberculosis meningitis. PMID:27165424

  11. Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the layers of tissue is a very thin space called the pleural space. Normally this space is filled with a small amount of fluid— ... or gas can build up in the pleural space. When this happens, it's called a pneumothorax (noo- ...

  12. Cholelithoptysis and pleural empyema.

    PubMed

    Chopra, P; Killorn, P; Mehran, R J

    1999-07-01

    We report a case of delayed cholelithoptysis and pleural empyema caused by gallstone spillage at the time of laparoscopic cholecystecomy. An occult subphrenic abscess developed, and the patient became symptomatic only after trans-diaphragmatic penetration occurred. This resulted in expectoration of bile, gallstones, and pus. Spontaneous decompression of the empyema occurred because of a peritoneo-pleuro-bronchial fistula. This is the first case of such managed nonoperatively and provides support for the importance of intraoperative retrieval of spilled gallstones at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:10421159

  13. Protocol of the PLeural Effusion And Symptom Evaluation (PLEASE) study on the pathophysiology of breathlessness in patients with symptomatic pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Rajesh; Azzopardi, Maree; Muruganandan, Sanjeevan; Read, Catherine; Murray, Kevin; Eastwood, Peter; Jenkins, Sue; Singh, Bhajan; Lee, Y C Gary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pleural effusion is a common clinical problem that can complicate many medical conditions. Breathlessness is the most common symptom of pleural effusion of any cause and the most common reason for pleural drainage. However, improvement in breathlessness following drainage of an effusion is variable; some patients experience either no benefit or a worsening of their breathlessness. The physiological mechanisms underlying breathlessness in patients with a pleural effusion are unclear and likely to be multifactorial with patient-related and effusion-related factors contributing. A comprehensive study of the physiological and symptom responses to drainage of pleural effusions may provide a clearer understanding of these mechanisms, and may identify predictors of benefit from drainage. The ability to identify those patients whose breathlessness will (or will not) improve after pleural fluid drainage can help avoid unnecessary pleural drainage procedures, their associated morbidities and costs. The PLeural Effusion And Symptom Evaluation (PLEASE) study is a prospective study to comprehensively evaluate factors contributing to pleural effusion-related breathlessness. Methods and analysis The PLEASE study is a single-centre prospective study of 150 patients with symptomatic pleural effusions that require therapeutic drainage. The study aims to identify key factors that underlie breathlessness in patients with pleural effusions and develop predictors of improvement in breathlessness following effusion drainage. Participants will undergo evaluation pre-effusion and post-effusion drainage to assess their level of breathlessness at rest and during exercise, respiratory and other physiological responses as well as respiratory muscle mechanics. Pre-drainage and post-drainage parameters will be collected and compared to identify the key factors and mechanisms that correlate with improvement in breathlessness. Ethics and dissemination Approved by the Sir Charles

  14. [Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas].

    PubMed

    Biancosino, C; Redwan, B; Krüger, M; Eberlein, M; Bölükbas, S

    2016-09-01

    Malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) are very aggressive tumors, which originate from the mesothelial cells of the pleural surface. The main risk factor associated with MPM is exposure to asbestos. The latency period between asbestos exposure and MPM can be 30-60 years. Clinical symptoms and signs are often nonspecifc. The diagnosis of MPM requires an adequate tissue specimen for pathological examination, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgey (VATS) is associated with the highest diagnostic yield. MPM are histologically classified into epitheloid, sacromatoid and biphasic (mixed) sub-types. Accurate staging with invasive tests, if needed, is an important step before an interdisciplinary team can decide on an optimal (multi-modal) treatment approach. A multi-modal treatment approach (surgery, radiation oncology and chemotherapy) is superior to all approaches relying only on a single modality, if the patient qualifies for it from an oncological and functional standpoint. The goal of the surgical therapy is to achieve macroscopic complete resection. There are two competing surgical approaches and philosophies: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and radical pleurectomy (RP). Over the last years a paradigm shift from EPP to RP occurred and RP is now often the preferred surgical option. PMID:27612329

  15. Collection and evaluation of equine peritoneal and pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Cowell, R L; Tyler, R D; Clinkenbeard, K D; MacAllister, C G

    1987-12-01

    This article discusses collection, slide preparation, culture technique, fluid analysis and evaluation, and cytologic evaluation of peritoneal and pleural effusions. The morphologic characteristics of various effusions are described, and the physical characteristics (volume, color, turbidity) of effusions are discussed. An algorithm for classifying effusions as transudates, modified transudates, or exudates is included, and each category is discussed. PMID:3322526

  16. What cardiologists do need to know about procalcitonin.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Müller, Beat

    2005-01-01

    This review will highlight the potential application of procalcitonin, a novel marker of systemic bacterial infection, in two clinical settings relevant to cardiologists: infective endocarditis (IE) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI): The variability in the clinical presentation of infective endocarditis (IE) makes the diagnosis a clinical challenge. However, rapid diagnosis and initiation of effective treatment are essential to good patient outcome. Serum calcitonin precursor levels, including procalcitonin, are elevated in systemic bacterial infections and seem to be helpful in the diagnosis of IE. The utility of procalcitonin in clinical practice was examined in a prospective cohort of patients with the suspicion of IE. Procalcitonin was significantly higher in patients with IE (median 6.56 microg/L) as compared with patients with other final diagnoses (median 0.44 microg/L, p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve using procalcitonin to predict infective endocarditis was 0.856, as compared to 0.657 for C-reactive protein. The optimum concentration of procalcitonin for the calculation of positive and negative predictive accuracy as obtained from the ROC curve was 2.3 microg/L. Using this cut-off, the test characteristics of procalcitonin were as follows: sensitivity 81%, specificity 85%, negative predictive value 92%, positive predictive value 72%. Although most LRTIs are due to viral infections, they are very often treated with antibiotics. This excessive use of antibiotics is believed to be the main cause of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A procalcitonin-based therapeutic strategy has shown to reduce antibiotic usage in LRTI. Based upon serum procalcitonin levels, the use of antibiotics was more or less discouraged (<0.1 or <0.25 microg/L) or encouraged (> or =0.5 or > or =0.25 microg/L), respectively. Final diagnoses included pneumonia (36%), acute exacerbation of COPD (25%), and acute bronchitis (24%). Clinical and laboratory outcome

  17. Dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyong Shil; Choi, Min Kyung; Jeon, Yong Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with the tuberculous pleural effusion. An 82-year-old woman underwent emergency stent graft under a diagnosis of dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm. Preoperative computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion supposed to the hemothorax caused by the dissecting aneurysm. But, the effusion was sanguineous color fluid and it was determined to result from pulmonary tuberculosis. The medical team was exposed to the pulmonary tuberculosis; fortunately no one became infected. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of an infected aortic aneurysm and prepare for pathogen transmission. PMID:27499987

  18. Update on pleural diseases - 2007

    PubMed Central

    Bishay, Ayman; Raoof, Suhail; Esan, Adebayo; Sung, Arthur; Wali, Siraj; Lee, Leonard Y.; George, Liziamma; Saleh, Anthony; Baumann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New information is available on pleural diseases. The authors selected articles to make recommendations on diagnostic and treatment aspects of pleural diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven articles published in the English language between 2004 and 2007 were chosen. The basis of selection of the articles was the impact on daily practice, change in prior thinking of a disease process or specific treatment modality, as well as proper design and execution of the study. 5-amino-laevulinic acid with fluorescent light combined with white light may allow further diagnostic yield in undiagnosed pleural disease. FDG-PET may allow prognostication of patients with pleural tumors. Utilizing ultrasound by trained Emergency Department physicians is a rapid and effective technique to evaluate non-traumatic pleural effusions in symptomatic patients. Serum osteopontin levels may distinguish patients exposed to asbestos with benign disease from those with pleural mesothelioma. Administration of streptokinase in patients with empyema does not need for surgical drainage, length of hospital stay, or mortality as compared to conventional treatment with chest tube drainage and intravenous antibiotics. Silver nitrate may be an alternative agent to talc for producing pleurodesis. Routine use of graded talc (50% particles greater than 25 microns) is recommended to reduce the morbidity associated with talc pleurodesis. Study design does not permit us to conclude that aspiration of spontaneous pneumothorax is as effective as chest tube drainage. Pleural catheter may prove to be an important palliative modality in treating debilitated patients or patients with trapped lung who show symptomatic improvement with drainage; however, at the present time, these catheters cannot be considered a first line treatment option for patients with malignant pleural effusion. One of the studies reviewed showed no significant difference in tract metastasis in patients with malignant mesothelioma

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Versus Nonbacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting-Ting; Hu, Zhi-De; Qin, Bao-Dong; Ma, Ning; Tang, Qing-Qin; Wang, Li-Li; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bacterial meningitis (BM), but the results were heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as a marker for BM detection. A systematic search of the EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases was performed to identify studies published before December 7, 2015 investigating the diagnostic accuracy of PCT for BM. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy method. The overall diagnostic accuracy of PCT detection in CSF or blood was pooled using the bivariate model. Twenty-two studies involving 2058 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall specificities and sensitivities were 0.86 and 0.80 for CSF PCT, and 0.97 and 0.95 for blood PCT, respectively. Areas under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.90 and 0.98 for CSF PCT and blood PCT, respectively. The major limitation of this systematic review and meta-analysis was the small number of studies included and the heterogeneous diagnostic thresholds adopted by eligible studies. Our meta-analysis shows that PCT is a useful biomarker for BM diagnosis. PMID:26986140

  20. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Roth, Jack A.; Kindler, Hedy Lee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease that occurs in 2,000 to 3,000 people each year in the United States. Although MPM is an extremely difficult disease to treat, with the median overall survival ranging between 9 and 17 months regardless of stage, there has been significant progress over the last few years that has reshaped the clinical landscape. This article will provide a comprehensive discussion of the latest developments in the treatment of MPM. We will provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment in the resectable and unresectable settings, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. In addition, there are controversial issues, such as the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus hemithoracic therapy that will also be addressed in this manuscript. PMID:19255316

  1. Pleural mesothelial cells in pleural and lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    During development, the mesoderm maintains a complex relationship with the developing endoderm giving rise to the mature lung. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) derived from the mesoderm play a key role during the development of the lung. The pleural mesothelium differentiates to give rise to the endothelium and smooth muscle cells via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An aberrant recapitulation of such developmental pathways can play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease processes such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The PMC is the central component of the immune responses of the pleura. When exposed to noxious stimuli, it demonstrates innate immune responses such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns as well as causes the release of several cytokines to activate adaptive immune responses. Development of pleural effusions occurs due to an imbalance in the dynamic interaction between junctional proteins, n-cadherin and β-catenin, and phosphorylation of adherens junctions between PMCs, which is caused in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released by PMCs. PMCs play an important role in defense mechanisms against bacterial and mycobacterial pleural infections, and in pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion, asbestos related pleural disease and malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMCs also play a key role in the resolution of inflammation, which can occur with or without fibrosis. Fibrosis occurs as a result of disordered fibrin turnover and due to the effects of cytokines such as transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor; which are released by PMCs. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for PMCs in the pathogenesis of IPF suggesting their potential as a cellular biomarker of disease activity and as a possible therapeutic target. Pleural-based therapies targeting PMCs for treatment of IPF and other lung diseases need

  2. [Pleural lymphatics and pleural diseases related to fibres].

    PubMed

    Fleury Feith, J; Jaurand, M-C

    2013-12-01

    It is now well established that some pleural diseases, pleural plaques and malignant mesothelioma are related to asbestos fibre exposure although the mechanism of action of asbestos fibres is not fully understood. The development of artificial mineral fibres and carbon nanotubes, which share some morphological characteristics similar to asbestos fibres, is a present concern in the context of pleural diseases. Pleural plaques develop only in the parietal pleura, and in the 1990s, clinical observations have shown that the early development of mesothelioma also occurred on the parietal pleura. The peculiarity of the parietal pleura in contrast to the visceral pleura is the presence of "stomas" which are communication holes between the pleural cavity and the parietal pleura lymphatics. Morphological observations by thoracoscopy and experimental studies have shown that inhaled fibres translocate to the pleural space and, in human, are present in the parietal pleura at specific anthracotic areas (blackspots). Fibres accumulate on the stomas, up to block and locally induce an inflammatory reaction with cytokines release, that can be the bed of mesothelioma. However, despite the experimental data and observations in human pathology, the mechanisms of fibre translocation into the pleura is not yet clearly established. PMID:24210155

  3. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The

  4. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 17-year old boy: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guzmán, C.; Barrera-Rodríguez, R.; Portilla-Segura, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare, invasive and often fatal neoplasm that develops in the thin layer of tissue surrounding the lungs known as the pleura. Although rare, mesotheliomas do occur in the young; their characteristics are distinct from those of older patients. Case presentation This is a case report of a 17-year-old boy who had moderate dyspnea, cough, right-sided pleuritic chest pain, fever, headache and no weight loss. Physical examination showed a right pleural effusion and chest roentgenograms revealed a homogenous opacity on lower right hemithorax. Biochemical analysis of pleural fluid showed hemorrhagic/turbid effusion compatible with exudate. It was initially treated as an empyema. The pleural fluid culture was negative. Adenosine deaminase level was 34.3 U/L (admission) and 19.02 U/L (two weeks after). Pleural fluid smear and culture for Mtb were negative. During the open pleural biopsy, thickened pleura and multiple pale yellow nodules in the lung were observed. The histopathological report was compatible with malignant pleural mesothelioma. With this diagnosis, a chemotherapy regimen with cisplatin was initiated. After two cycles, the patient had no clinical and radiological improvement. The patient is currently under regular follow up. Conclusion MPM is rare in young adults and its clinical presentation makes it different from mesothelioma in elderly patients, so it will be necessary to identify the new risk factors that can identify these patients. PMID:27222787

  5. Intrapleural administration of DNase alone for pleural empyema

    PubMed Central

    Bobek, Vladimir; Majewski, Andrzej; Kolostova, Katarina; Rzechonek, Adam; Lischke, Robert; Schutzner, Jan; Kacprzak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pleural empyema is a severe complication of various diseases. The essential is the inserting a drain into the pleural cavity and evacuation of the pus. Sometimes the pus is very thick and its evacuation and re-expansion of the lung is very difficult. Methods: We report a group of 10 patients with intrapleural administration of Pulmozyme (dornase alpha) in dosages of either 2.5 mg once or on two separate occasions. All of the patients had a chest tube inserted into the pleural cavity. Measurement of viscosity was done before and after the instillation of the dornase alpha. Results: In six patients dornase alfa was introduced into the pleural cavity once. Three of them received this on the 4th whilst the rest were treated with the agent on the 6th day. Four patients received the dornase alpha twice because of the small amount of drainage fluid after the previous instillation. Five patients were discharged from hospital with complete re-expansion of their lungs. Two patients were qualified for a surgical operation since the lung was trapped and did not re-expand. Three patients had to be discharged with a drain as a result of incomplete re-expansion of the lung. In all the patients the density of the pus after administering the dornase alpha decreased and the amount of the pus drainage increased. Conclusions: Dornase alpha may be used in some patients with pleural empyema with good results. PMID:26885174

  6. Staging algorithm for diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Marcin; Hauer, Jolanta; Hauer, Lukasz; Pankowski, Juliusz; Nabialek, Tomasz; Szlubowski, Artur

    2010-02-01

    An algorithm of preoperative mediastinal nodal staging with endobronchial/endoesophageal ultrasonography (EBUS/EUS) and transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA) combined with laparoscopy/peritoneal lavage and cytology was analyzed to establish the realistic criteria for radical multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The algorithm included computed tomography (CT), thoracoscopy with multiple pleural biopsies and talc pleurodesis, EBUS/EUS and one-stage TEMLA and laparoscopy/peritoneal lavage and cytology of the fluid. Forty-two patients were diagnosed from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008. There were 16 women and 26 men in ages ranging from 43 to 77 years (mean 57.8); 31 epithelioid, 2 sarcomatoid and 9 biphasic type MPM. 21/42 patients were considered possible candidates for multimodality treatment. Three patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded from this study. EBUS/EUS was performed to stage the mediastinal nodes. In 3/18 patients metastatic nodes were discovered. In the rest of the 15 patients simultaneous TEMLA and laparoscopy/peritoneal lavage and cytology of the fluid were performed. In three patients TEMLA was positive, in six patients laparoscopy was positive and in two patients both TEMLA and laparoscopy were positive. Finally, 4/42 (9.5%) patients underwent thoracotomy with one exploration (chest wall infiltration) and three pleuropneumonectomies with the subsequent chemo- and radiotherapy. The proposed algorithm of preoperative staging spared the majority of MPM patients from futile surgery. PMID:19843550

  7. CT features of pleural masses and nodules.

    PubMed

    Reetz, Jennifer A; Buza, Elizabeth L; Krick, Erika L

    2012-01-01

    Pleural space masses and nodules are rarely described on computed tomography (CT) in veterinary medicine and have only been described in patients with neoplasia. Our purpose was to describe the CT findings and diagnoses in seven patients with pleural masses and nodules. Two patients had broad-based, plaque-like pleural masses, both of which were due to neoplasia (primary pleural carcinoma, metastatic thymoma). Two patients had well-defined pleural nodules and nodular pleural thickening, one of which had mesothelial hypertrophy, and another of which had metastatic hemangiosarcoma. Three patients had ill-defined pleural nodules to nodular pleural thickening, one of which had metastatic pulmonary carcinoma, while the other two had bacterial infection with mesothelial proliferation (n = 2), fibrinous pleuritis (n = 1), and severe mediastinal pleuritis/mediastinitis (n = 2). Five of the seven patients had focal, multifocal or diffuse smooth, and/or irregular pleural thickening. Five of seven patients had pleural effusion, and postcontrast CT was useful in several patients for delineating the pleural lesions from the effusion. All patients except one had additional lesions identified on CT besides those in the pleural space. CT is useful in identifying and characterizing pleural space lesions and could be used to guide further diagnostic procedures such as thoracoscopy or exploratory thoracotomy. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases should be considered in the differential diagnoses for pleural space masses and nodules found on CT. PMID:22092656

  8. Hydrothorax: pleural effusion associated with peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lew, Susie Q

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothorax in a patient treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) poses a diagnostic dilemma. Hydrothorax due to migration of dialysis fluid across the diaphragm and into the pleural space creates a serious complication of PD but generally does not threaten life. Shortness of breath causes the patient to seek medical attention. A sudden diminution in dialysis adequacy or poor ultrafiltration rate constitutes a unique marker for patients treated with PD compared to the general population. This article reviews the etiology for hydrothorax specifically in the PD population. Thoracentesis with chemical analysis of the fluid, imaging studies with and without contrast or markers, and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery play important roles in the evaluation of hydrothorax. A conservative PD regimen, surgical intervention, and pleurodesis provide treatment options to those receiving PD. PMID:20056973

  9. Yield of closed pleural biopsy and cytology in exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Zuberi, Faisal Faiyaz; Zuberi, Bader Faiyaz; Ali, Syed Khalid; Hussain, Sagheer; Mumtaz, Farhana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine diagnostic yield of Closed Pleural Biopsy (CPB) and Cytology in Exudative Pleural Effusion (PE). Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at Chest Unit-II & Medical Unit-IV of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi Pakistan from January 2011 till December 2014. Results: Ninety-four patients with exudative PE were finally included. The mean age (SD) was 44.0 (13.8) years. Overall Specific Diagnosis was reached in 76/94 patients; 46 Tuberculosis PE (TPE) & 30 Malignant PE (MPE). CPB diagnosed all TPE patients alone and 28/30 of MPE. Cytology diagnosed only 10/30 patients of MPE with 8 patients having both CPB & Cytology positive for malignancy whereas in the remaining two cases only Cytology positive. The sensitivity of CPB in detecting TPE and MPE was 93.9% and 82.4% respectively whereas specificity for both was 100%. The diagnostic yield of cytology in detecting MPE is only (33.3%). The diagnostic yield of CPB for TPE and MPE is 100% and 93.3% respectively. The overall specific diagnostic yield of CPB is 78.7%. Conclusion: CPB is better than pleural fluid cytology alone with the later adding little to diagnostic yield when both combined in distinguishing TPE from MPE, the two main differential of exudative PE in a TB-Endemic country. PMID:27182239

  10. Two cases of paragonimiasis westermani diagnosed after eosinophilic pleural effusion-induced hydropneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Daizo; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Inoue, Noriko; Shizu, Masato; Imai, Naoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Our hospital is located in the Tono region in the southeastern district of Gifu Prefecture in which there are forests and inhabitants who still hunt and eat game meat. Therefore, boar meat increases the risk of contracting paragonimiasis. We treated two patients who were infected by Paragonimus westermani after eating boar meat. They developed hydropneumothorax in association with eosinophilic pleural effusion. For patients who have pneumothorax with concomitant pleural effusion and eosinophilia in the pleural fluid analysis, it is necessary to take a detailed history, which includes flesh food consumption and travel to an endemic area, and to make a careful examination while taking into consideration parasitic infections such as paragonimiasis. PMID:27516883

  11. Pleuritis and pleural effusion in the horse: a study of 37 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, B P

    1977-01-15

    Pleural effusion in 37 horses, including 15 acutely affected and 22 chronically affected, was found to be due to a variety of causes, including lymphocarcoma, pulmonary granulomas, coccidioidomycosis, equine infectious anemia, pulmonary abscesses, chronic pneumonia, and primary septic pleural effusion. Age, breed, or sex predilection was not found. Horses with chronic disease had weight loss, increased respiratory rate, dull respiratory sounds in the ventral portion of the thorax, and varying degrees of anorexia. Many horses were anemic. Those acutely affected had respiratory distress or signs of colic and many were anorectic. Most horses with acute primary disease had small volumes of pleural fluid. Culture and cytologic examination of pleural fluid and tracheal washings revealed the causative organism in some instances, but in a number of "primary" cases there were negative results on bacterial culture. The latter cases must be differentiated from other causes of chronic weight loss in the horse. PMID:576221

  12. Pleural effusion presenting as mediastinal widening

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Garg, Kranti; Prashanth, Chikkahonnaiah; Lahoria, Rupali

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of middle-aged female presenting with mediastinal widening on chest radiograph owing to pleural effusion. The pleural effusion presenting as mediastinal widening on chest radiograph is rarely reported. PMID:24339499

  13. Asymptomatic localized pleural amyloidosis mimicking malignant pleural mesothelioma: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tetsuka, Kenji; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report an asymptomatic 65-year-old male with localized pleural amyloidosis mimicking malignant pleural mesothelioma. He had a history of exposure to asbestos and was admitted for investigation of an abnormal pleural thickness detected by chest radiography. Positron emission tomography showed elevation of standardized uptake value corresponding to the pleural thickness. Partial pleurectomy including the tumor was performed for the purpose of diagnosis and local disease control. The pathological examination showed that the tumor was pleural amyloidosis. The tumor was diagnosed as localized primary amyloidosis, because serum monoclonal protein concentration did not increase. Pleural amyloidosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis from pleural mesothelioma. PMID:26904248

  14. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case.

  15. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case. PMID:27625449

  16. Pleural effusion: what lies underneath?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L Vaz; Raposo, J; Mendonça, C; Figueiredo, A; Barata, F; Meruje, M; Pires, J

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a tumour of serous surfaces mainly arising at the pleura or the peritoneum. The diagnosis encompasses multiple problems as there is no pathognomonic hallmark for the disease, there are multiple histological types and the differentiation from other tumours, such as adenocarcinoma or metastatic pleural disease, can represent quite a challenge. Usually a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma carries a dismal prognosis with scarce therapeutical options.The present report concerns a patient with a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma with endobronchial extension. Biopsy specimens were obtained through fibreoptic bronchoscopy and blind needle pleural biopsy. The final diagnosis was only possible after careful histological evaluation with a combination of immunohistochemical markers. PMID:21686530

  17. A review of a pleural service.

    PubMed

    Aujayeb, A; Parker, S; Bourke, S; Miller, J; Cooper, D

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews the organisation and outcomes of a pleural service, specifically geared towards the management of malignant pleural effusions, in a district general hospital in the north east of England. We summarise the evidence behind local anaesthetic thoracoscopy and indwelling pleural catheters. We then summarise the review of our service, including a discussion around complications. PMID:27092367

  18. Primary malignant myelomatous pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Mangla, Ankit; Agarwal, Nikki; Kim, George J; Catchatourian, Rosalind

    2016-08-01

    Primary malignant myelomatous pleural effusion (PMMPE) occurs in less than 1% of patients with multiple myeloma and is diagnosed either by visualization of plasma cells on cytology or by positive flow cytometry. The presence of immature plasma cells characterized by high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, visible nucleolus and presence of Mott cells and Russell bodies are independent poor prognostic factors. The clinician should differentiate PMMPE from secondary pleural effusion as it is associated with a significantly worse prognosis and poor overall survival. PMID:27525090

  19. Pleural Effusion in Meigs' Syndrome-Transudate or Exudate?: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Krenke, Rafal; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Korczynski, Piotr; Zielinska-Krawczyk, Monika; Klimiuk, Joanna; Chazan, Ryszarda; Light, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Although Meigs' syndrome is regarded as a well-defined entity, contradictory data on pleural fluid characteristics have been presented, with some papers classifying it as a transudate, whereas others stating that it is an exudate.The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate pleural fluid characteristics in patients with Meigs' syndrome and (2) to analyze the prevalence of transudative and exudative pleural effusion in relation to the applied definition of the syndrome.We performed a search through medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR) to identify papers on Meigs' syndrome published between 1940 and 2013. Two authors independently reviewed each paper searching for prespecified data: (1) signs and symptoms, (2) tumor characteristics, (3) clinical and laboratory data on ascites, (4) clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on pleural fluid, (5) clinical course after tumor removal. All case reports were reclassified according to a new unequivocal classification of Meigs' syndrome-related entities.A total of 653 papers were initially identified, and 454 articles reporting 541 patients were included in the final analysis. After reclassification according to our case definitions, there were 196, 113, and 108 patients defined as classic Meigs' syndrome, nonclassic Meigs' syndrome, and pseudo-Meigs' syndrome, respectively. Significantly more patients presented with right-sided than left-sided and bilateral pleural effusions (P < 0.001). Median volume of withdrawn pleural fluid was 2950 (1500-6000) mL. The classification of pleural effusion with the use of Light's criteria was possible in only 7 patients. In 6 of these patients pleural effusion met the criteria for an exudate. When the protein concentration > 3.0 g/dL was applied as a criterion of pleural exudate, 88.8% (80/90) of effusions were classified as exudates. Increasing the cut-off level to 3.5 g/dL resulted in only a modest decrease in the percentage of exudative effusions (81

  20. [Serum procalcitonin and respiratory tract infections].

    PubMed

    Zarka, V; Valat, C; Lemarié, E; Boissinot, E; Carré, P; Besnard, J C; Diot, P

    1999-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonine (PCT) assay in adult respiratory infections. Forty-nine patients admitted with pleurisy, community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infection were included in this prospective study. PCT was assayed on admission and discharge. Biological and clinical parameters of gravity were also evaluated. Twenty patients had elevated PCT of more than 0.50 ng/ml. In 29 patients, PCT was undetectable. The serum PCT level was normal in the patients with tuberculosis, infection, pneumocytosis. PCT did not correlate with the biological and clinical markers of the disease severity but the evolution of PCT correlated with the evolution of C-reactive-protein (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). PCT seems to be an early marker of the evolution of respiratory infections, but it does not help to establish prognosis. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential value of PCT in more severe respiratory infections requiring assisted ventilation. PMID:10685471

  1. Adenosine deaminase is a useful biomarker to diagnose pleural tuberculosis in low to medium prevalence settings.

    PubMed

    Michot, Jean-Marie; Madec, Yoann; Bulifon, Sophie; Thorette-Tcherniak, Cécile; Fortineau, Nicolas; Noël, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; El Jahiri, Younes; Delacour, Hervé; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Blanc, François-Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity measurement in pleural fluid is a relevant test to diagnose pleural tuberculosis (pTB) in high tuberculosis prevalence settings. We investigated the diagnostic utility of pleural ADA using a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with newly diagnosed pleural effusion without identified etiology between 2001 and 2008 in Paris suburb, a low to medium tuberculosis prevalence area. 104 adults (mean age 55 years; 34 with pTB, 70 with other diagnoses) were analyzed. Median follow-up was 15.6 months. Mean [interquartile range] pleural ADA was 119 U/L [IQR: 83-143] in pTB and 24 U/L [IQR: 15-31] in non-tuberculous effusions (P<0.001). With an optimal pleural ADA cut-off value of 41.5 U/L for pTB diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity were 97.1% and 92.9%, while positive and negative predictive values were 86.8% and 98.5%, respectively. We conclude that pleural ADA activity could be integrated in the diagnostic procedures of pTB in low to medium tuberculosis prevalence settings. PMID:26707067

  2. Life threatening chylous pleural and pericardial effusion in a patient with Behçet's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Cöplü, L; Emrí, S; Selçuk, Z T; Kalyoncu, F; Balkanci, F; Sahín, A A; Bariş, Y I

    1992-01-01

    Chylothorax and chylopericardium secondary to thrombosis of the superior vena cava and the innominate and subclavian veins were diagnosed in a patient with Behçet's syndrome. Immunosuppressive treatment, diet, and underwater seal drainage led to a diminished volume of pleural fluid and pericardial fluid and to a diminished concentration of triglyceride in them; pleurodesis with tetracycline was then performed. Images PMID:1539151

  3. Evaluation of pleural CYFRA 21-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, G.; Miédougé, M.; Rouzaud, P.; Mauduyt, M. A.; Pujazon, M. C.; Vincent, C.; Carles, P.; Serre, G.

    1998-01-01

    CYFRA 21-1 assay, measuring cytokeratin 19 fragments, was compared with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay, as an addition to cytological analysis for the diagnosis of malignant effusions. Both markers were determined with commercial enzyme immunoassays in pleural fluid from 196 patients. Cytological analysis and/or pleural biopsy confirmed the malignant origin of the effusion in 99 patients (76 carcinomas, nine pleural mesotheliomas and 14 non-epithelial malignancies). Effusions were confirmed as benign in 97 patients (33 cardiac failures, 39 infectious diseases--including 12 tuberculosis-- and 25 miscellaneous effusions). Both markers were significantly higher in malignant than in benign effusions. All the patients with non-epithelial malignancies presented CYFRA and CEA values lower than the 95% diagnostic specificity thresholds (100 and 6 ng ml(-1) respectively). The diagnostic sensitivity in the group of carcinomas and mesotheliomas was similar for CYFRA (58.8%) and CEA (64.7%). However, CEA had a significantly higher sensitivity in carcinomas (72.4% vs 55.3%), while CYFRA had a clearly higher sensitivity in mesotheliomas (89.9% vs 0%). Interestingly, 12 out of the 16 malignant effusions with a negative cytology were CEA and/or CYFRA positive. Regarding their high diagnostic sensitivity and their complementarity, CEA and CYFRA appear to be very useful for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions when cytology is negative. Images Figure 1 PMID:9472646

  4. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin in acutely hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Steichen, O; Bouvard, E; Grateau, G; Bailleul, S; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin as an adjunct to diagnose bacterial infections in older patients. One hundred seventy-two patients admitted to an acute-care geriatric unit during a 6-month period were prospectively included, 39 of them with an invasive bacterial infection. The best cut-off value to rule in a bacterial infection was 0.51 microg/l with sensitivity 64% and specificity 94%. The best cut-off value to rule out a bacterial infection was 0.08 microg/l with sensitivity 97% and specificity 20%. Procalcitonin was inconclusive (between 0.08 and 0.51 microg/l) for 112 admissions. Procalcitonin over 0.51 microg/l was useless 22 times out of 33 (infection already ruled in on clinical grounds) and misleading in eight of the 11 remaining cases (no infection). Procalcitonin below 0.08 microg/l was useless 23 times out of 27 (infection already ruled out on clinical grounds) and misleading in one of the four remaining cases (infection). Despite a good overall diagnostic accuracy, the clinical usefulness of PCT to diagnose invasive bacterial infections in elderly patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric ward appears to be very limited. PMID:19727867

  5. Ergotamine-induced pleural and pericardial effusion successfully treated with colchicine.

    PubMed

    Helsen, V; Decoutere, L; Spriet, I; Fagard, K; Boonen, S; Tournoy, J

    2013-01-01

    A 83-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with chest pain, fever, dry cough and palpitations. Chest X-ray revealed a pleural effusion, assumed to be caused by cardiac failure and respiratory infection. Despite treatment with antibiotics and diuretics, the pleural effusion increased on chest X-ray and there were signs of pleural and pericardial effusion on computed tomography (CT) scan. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was not successful. Meanwhile patients' long-term use of ergotamine for migraine was revealed, which is associated with pleuropulmonary and cardiac fibrotic reactions. Tentative treatment with colchicine was successful, with complete resolution of pleural fluid, fever, cough and inflammatory parameters. This case highlights the importance of establishing an ergot alkaloid use registry in unexplained pleuropericardial effusions and supports the use of colchicine as a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:23967719

  6. [Ultrastructural diagnostic problems of pleural tumors. A study of 125 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stoebner, P; Bernaudin, J F; Adnet, J J; Basset, F

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies may improve the diagnosis of pleural tumors. A comparative study of 125 primary and secondary pleural cancers provided the major structural features needed for differential diagnosis. Two cell types were always present in malignant mesothelioma: differentiated mesothelial, and fibroblastoid cells. The former had some features of metastatic epitheliomas (microvilli, microfilaments, junctional complexes, basement membranes). The later were specific. They were sometimes isolated, had the general aspect of fibroblasts but possessed typical microvilli. It was difficult to assess the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma on isolated differentiated mesothelial cells in pleural fluids or biopsies. Cilia or secretory granules were found only in metastatic cells. The finding of fibroblastoid cells in a pleural tumor proves its mesothelial origin. PMID:573917

  7. Icmt inhibition exerts anti-angiogenic and anti-hyperpermeability activities impeding malignant pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Magkouta, Sophia; Pappas, Apostolos; Moschos, Charalampos; Vazakidou, Maria-Eleni; Psarra, Katherina; Kalomenidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Small GTPases are pivotal regulators of several aspects of tumor progression. Their implication in angiogenesis, vascular permeability and tumor-associated inflammatory responses is relevant to the pathobiology of Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE). Inhibition of isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (Icmt) abrogates small GTPase activation. We therefore hypothesized that cysmethynil, an Icmt inhibitor would limit pleural fluid accumulation in two models, a lung-adenocarcinoma and a mesothelioma-induced MPE. Cysmethynil significantly reduced MPE volume in both models and tumor burden in the adenocarcinoma model. It inhibited pleural vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis in vivo and reduced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro. Cysmethynil also promoted M1 anti-tumor macrophage homing in the pleural space in vivo, and inhibited tumor-induced polarization of macrophages towards a M2 phenotype in vitro. In addition, the inhibitor promoted adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis in vivo. Inhibition of small GTPase might thus represent a valuable strategy for pharmacotherapy of MPE. PMID:26959120

  8. Procalcitonin Strip Test as an Independent Predictor in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Rozario, Anthony Prakash; Olakkengil, Santosh Antony; V, Anirudh

    2015-12-01

    Plasma procalcitonin (PCT) is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection and sepsis. Studies have demonstrated its role in the setting of sepsis and acute pancreatitis. This study aims to analyze and compare the prognostic efficacy of plasma procalcitonin strip test in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma procalcitonin was estimated by the semiquantitative strip test. The study included a total of 50 patients diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17. Thirty-nine out of the 50 patients (78 %) were males with a mean age of 46.8 years (range, 25-78 years) and 25 patients (50 %) had ethanol-induced pancreatitis, while 13 patients (26 %) had gall stone pancreatitis. Plasma PCT values were found to correlate better than CRP levels and total leukocyte count with the total duration of hospitalization, ITU, and ICU stay, as well as with the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. A cut off for plasma PCT of >2 ng/mL was found to be 100 % sensitive and 100 % specific and a cut off for CRP of >19 mg/dL was 70 % sensitive and 65 % specific for predicting the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. Plasma PCT also correlated well with antibiotic requirement. A cut off value of >0.5 ng/mL for plasma PCT was 100 % sensitive and 80 % specific and a cut off value of >18 mg/dL for CRP was 86 % sensitive and 63 % specific for predicting antibiotic requirement. Plasma procalcitonin is an early and reliable prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis. The procalcitonin strip test is a rapid test which is useful in analyzing prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27011501

  9. Treatment of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and pleural parapneumonic empyema

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Pedro Rodríguez; Gilart, Jorge Freixinet; Pérez, José María Hernández; Serhal, Mohamed Hussein; Artalejo, Antonio López

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We performed this observational prospective study to evaluate the results of the application of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion (CPPE) and pleural parapneumonic empyema (PPE). Material/Methods From 2001 to 2007, 210 patients with CPPE and PPE were confirmed through thoracocentesis and treated with pleural drainage tubes (PD), fibrinolytic treatment or surgical intervention (videothoracoscopy and posterolateral thoracotomy). Patients were divided into 3 groups: I (PD); II (PD and fibrinolytic treatment); IIIa (surgery after PD and fibrinolysis), and IIIb (direct surgery). The statistical study was done by variance analysis (ANOVA), χ 2 and Fisher exact test. Results The presence of alcohol or drug consumption, smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were strongly associated with a great necessity for surgical treatment. The IIIa group was associated with increased drainage time, length of stay and complications. No mortality was observed. The selective use of PD and intrapleural fibrinolysis makes surgery unnecessary in more than 75% of cases. Conclusions The selective use of PD and fibrinolysis avoids surgery in more than 75% of cases. However, patients who require surgery have more complications, longer hospital stay, and more days on PD and they are more likely to require admittance to the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:22739734

  10. Pleural effusion resulting from malignant hepatoblastoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Prater, P E; Patton, C S; Held, J P

    1989-02-01

    Pleural effusion, secondary to a metastasis from a malignant hepatoblastoma, was diagnosed in a 3-year-old Appaloosa gelding. Severe hemorrhagic transudate in both pleural cavities resulted in acute onset of labored breathing, tachypnea, tachycardia, and jugular vein pulsation. Results of ultrasonography and radiography of the ventral lung field and cranial portion of the abdomen initially were nondiagnostic, as were results of cytologic examination of peritoneal fluid and tracheal wash specimens. Moderately high serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, despite normal hepatocyte-specific enzyme (sorbital dehydrogenase) activity, were indicative of biliary stasis without hepatocyte destruction. The horse was euthanatized. Necropsy revealed a 47-kg hepatoblastoma, with metastases in the lungs and intestines. PMID:2537279

  11. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bazas, T.; Oakes, D.; Gilson, J.C.; Bazas, B.; McDonald, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified.

  12. Advanced medical interventions in pleural disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Rahul; Corcoran, John P; Maldonado, Fabien; Feller-Kopman, David; Janssen, Julius; Astoul, Philippe; Rahman, Najib M

    2016-06-01

    The burden of a number of pleural diseases continues to increase internationally. Although many pleural procedures have historically been the domain of interventional radiologists or thoracic surgeons, in recent years, there has been a marked expansion in the techniques available to the pulmonologist. This has been due in part to both technological advancements and a greater recognition that pleural disease is an important subspecialty of respiratory medicine. This article summarises the important literature relating to a number of advanced pleural interventions, including medical thoracoscopy, the insertion and use of indwelling pleural catheters, pleural manometry, point-of-care thoracic ultrasound, and image-guided closed pleural biopsy. We also aim to inform the reader regarding the latest updates to more established procedures such as chemical pleurodesis, thoracentesis and the management of chest drains, drawing on contemporary data from recent randomised trials. Finally, we shall look to explore the challenges faced by those practicing pleural medicine, especially relating to training, as well as possible future directions for the use and expansion of advanced medical interventions in pleural disease. PMID:27246597

  13. Interferon Gamma Release Assays for Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Gupta, Dheeraj; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar

    2015-01-01

    The role of interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs), although established for identifying latent tuberculosis, is still evolving in the diagnosis of active extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We systematically evaluated the diagnostic performance of blood- and pleural fluid-based IGRAs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies evaluating the use of commercially available IGRAs on blood and/or pleural fluid samples for diagnosing TPE. The quality of the studies included was assessed through the QUADAS-2 tool. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were generated using a bivariate random-effects model and examined using forest plots and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves. Indeterminate IGRA results were included for sensitivity calculations. Heterogeneity was explored through subgroup analysis and meta-regression based on prespecified covariates. We identified 19 studies assessing the T.SPOT.TB and/or QuantiFERON assays. There were 20 and 14 evaluations, respectively, of whole-blood and pleural fluid assays, involving 1,085 and 727 subjects, respectively. There was only one good-quality study, and five studies used nonstandard assay thresholds. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the blood assays were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.83) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.76), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the pleural fluid assays were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.84) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.87), respectively. There was considerable heterogeneity; however, multivariate meta-regression did not identify any covariate with significant influence. There was no publication bias for blood assays. We conclude that commercial IGRAs, performed either on whole-blood or pleural fluid samples, have poor diagnostic accuracy in patients suspected to have TPE. PMID:25994163

  14. Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections.

    PubMed

    Heffner, John E; Klein, Jeffrey S; Hampson, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Timely diagnosis of pleural space infections and rapid initiation of effective pleural drainage for those patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions or empyema represent keystone principles for managing patients with pneumonia. Advances in chest imaging provide opportunities to detect parapneumonic effusions with high sensitivity in patients hospitalized for pneumonia and to guide interventional therapy. Standard radiographs retain their primary role for screening patients with pneumonia for the presence of an effusion to determine the need for thoracentesis. Ultrasonography and CT scanning, however, have greater sensitivity for fluid detection and provide additional information for determining the extent and nature of pleural infection. MRI and PET scan can image pleural disease, but their role in managing parapneumonic effusions is not yet clearly defined. Effective application of chest images for patients at risk for pleural infection, however, requires a comprehensive understanding of the unique features of each modality and relative value. This review presents the diagnostic usefulness and clinical application of chest imaging studies for evaluating and managing pleural space infections in patients hospitalized for pneumonia. PMID:20133295

  15. [ANALYSIS OF MICROFLORA OF PLEURAL CAVITY IN PLEURAL EMPYEMA].

    PubMed

    Chubar, I V

    2016-04-01

    In the pleural empyema (PE) treatment, not depending on introduction of multiple operative procedures and the medicinal preparations application, some issues remain unsolved, including the infection agents verification, the most rapid bronchial fistula elimination and the lung volume restoration. The EP infection agents spectrum, their sensitivity to preparations were revealed, as well as the enhanced rate of the methicillin-resistant stamms (MRSA) and the microorganisms associations verification. A reduction of the infection agents sensitivity towards "simple" antibacterial preparations was established, so the physicians, treating PE, must prescribe "hard" antibiotics, what enhances its cost. PMID:27434955

  16. Pleural effusion of malignant aetiology: cell block technique to establish the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    García Carretero, Rafael; Manotas-Hidalgo, Manuela; Romero Brugera, Marta; El Bouayadi Mohamed, Liliam

    2016-01-01

    We describe cases of two previously healthy women presenting with progressively worsening breathlessness for 1-2 months. In both cases, physical examination was suggestive of a left-sided pleural effusion, confirmed by chest X-ray. Analysis of aspirated fluid showed a lymphocytic exudate, but cytological analysis was negative for malignancy in both patients. CT scan revealed malignancies as the underlying cause of the effusions. Both patients were managed with intercostal drainage in order to collect a sufficient amount of pleural fluid to perform a new technique in our hospital: cell block. This proved to be extremely useful in assessing the definitive diagnosis and management of both women. We briefly discuss the approach to a malignant pleural effusion and the aid of this not-so-new technique. PMID:26994057

  17. Pleural effusion secondary to thoracic metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma in a mare.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H; Weidner, J P; Parry, B W; Hargis, A

    1990-11-01

    A 17-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined nearly 3 years after excision and cryotherapy of a papillary mammary gland adenocarcinoma. The mare had been used for pleasure riding since surgery, but had recently developed progressive dyspnea. The mare had clinical evidence of pleural effusion, but died before further clinical examination and treatment were instituted. Necropsy revealed deep mammary masses with similar nodules in the deep inguinal, renal, and mediastinal lymph nodes and in the lungs, pericardium, visceral and parietal pleurae, and left ovary. The masses were identified as papillary mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Large volumes of free pleural and peritoneal fluid were detected. The pleural fluid contained similar neoplastic cells that could have been readily detected by exfoliative cytologic examination had the mare survived. PMID:2254151

  18. Myelomatous pleural effusion involvement in 23 patients with multiple myeloma: A single-center clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuping; Zhang, Jiajia; Wang, Huan

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the treatment and prognosis of pleural effusion (PE) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. From June 2005 to December 2013, 296 MM patients participated in this study. There were 23 PE patients, including 11 men and 12 women, with a median age of 56.8 years (range 37-68 years). A diagnosis of PE was based on physical examination, chest X-ray or computed tomography, and pleural fluid analysis. All patients demonstrated myeloma cells in the pleural fluid, and six patients were positive for PE M protein. PE patients received bortezomib combined with other drugs. Only one patient demonstrated a complete response; 10 patients showed partial responses, and 12 patients developed progressive disease and died. MM linked with myelomatous PE is associated with a poor prognosis. Myelomatous PE is likely a late manifestation of the natural history of MM or an expression of the aggressive behavior of the disease. PMID:26273384

  19. Prognostic value of procalcitonin in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Vandack; Borges, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are common and potentially lethal conditions and are a major cause of inadequate antibiotic prescriptions. Characterization of disease severity and prognostic prediction in affected patients can aid disease management and can increase accuracy in determining the need for and place of hospitalization. The inclusion of biomarkers, particularly procalcitonin, in the decision taken process is a promising strategy. This study aims to present a narrative review of the potential applications and limitations of procalcitonin as a prognostic marker in hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections. The studies on this topic are heterogeneous with respect to procalcitonin measurement techniques, cutoff values, clinical settings, and disease severity. The results show that procalcitonin delivers moderate performance for prognostic prediction in patients with lower respiratory tract infections; its predictive performance was not higher than that of classical methods, and knowledge of procalcitonin levels is most useful when interpreted together with other clinical and laboratory results. Overall, repeated measurement of the procalcitonin levels during the first days of treatment provides more prognostic information than a single measurement; however, information on the cost-effectiveness of this procedure in intensive care patients is lacking. The results of studies that evaluated the prognostic value of initial procalcitonin levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia are more consistent and have greater potential for practical application; in this case, low procalcitonin levels identify those patients with a low risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27305038

  20. Mechanisms of T-lymphocyte accumulation during experimental pleural infection induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mariana C; Penido, Carmen; Costa, Maria F S; Henriques, Maria Graças

    2008-12-01

    Tuberculous pleurisy is a frequent extrapulmonary manifestation characterized by accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells in the pleural space. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of T-lymphocyte accumulation in the pleural space by using a murine model of pleurisy induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of BCG (4.5 x 10(5) bacteria/cavity) induced accumulation of T lymphocytes in the pleural cavities of C57BL/6 mice. We observed the presence of CFU in pleural washes conducted 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 days after pleurisy induction. Pretreatment with fucoidan inhibited T-lymphocyte accumulation at 1 day, but not at 15 days, after BCG-induced pleurisy. Accordingly, adoptive transfer of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled blood mononuclear cells to infected mice showed that T lymphocytes migrated into the pleural cavity 1 day (but not 15 days) after BCG injection. Cell-free pleural wash fluids recovered from mice 1 day after BCG i.t. stimulation (day 1 BCG-PW), but not day 7 or day 15 BCG-PW, induced in vitro T-cell transmigration, which was dependent on L-, P-, and E-selectins. In contrast, day 7 BCG-PW (but not day 1 BCG-PW) induced in vitro T-lymphocyte proliferation via interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Accordingly, in vivo IL-2 or IFN-gamma neutralization abolished T-lymphocyte accumulation 7 days after pleurisy induction. Our results demonstrate that pleural infection induced by BCG leads to T-lymphocyte accumulation in two waves. The acute phase depends on selectin-mediated migration, while the second wave of T-lymphocyte accumulation seems to depend on a local proliferation induced by cytokines produced in situ. PMID:18809659

  1. Current controversies in the management of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Maree; Porcel, José M; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F N; Lee, Y C Gary; Fysh, Edward T H

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) can complicate most malignancies and is a common clinical problem presenting to respiratory and cancer care physicians. Despite its frequent occurrence, current knowledge of MPE remains limited and controversy surrounds almost every aspect in its diagnosis and management. A lack of robust data has led to significant practice variations worldwide, inefficiencies in healthcare provision, and threats to patient safety. Recent studies have highlighted evolving concepts in MPE care that challenge traditional beliefs. Advancing laboratory techniques have improved the diagnostic yield from pleural fluid cytology, minimizing the need for invasive tissue biopsies, even in many cases of mesothelioma. Imaging-guided biopsy is comparable to thoracoscopy in suitable patients, if cytological examination was noncontributory. Cumulating evidence for the benefits of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) has led some centers to adopt this approach as first-line definitive management for MPE over conventional talc pleurodesis. The optimal technique of talc pleurodesis is still debated despite its use for many decades. Strategies combining pleurodesis and IPC are being studied. MPE consists of a heterogenous group of diseases and careful phenotyping of malignant effusion patients can provide important clinical information that will advance the field and allow better stratification of patients and planning of therapy accordingly. This review addresses the controversies in MPE diagnosis and management and exposes the deficits in knowledge of MPE that should be the focus of future research. PMID:25463163

  2. Impact of Low Procalcitonin Results on Antibiotic Administration in Hospitalized Patients at a Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Meghan B; Osterby, Kurt; Schulz, Lucas; Lepak, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Procalcitonin is a sensitive and specific marker of bacterial infection; low results allow clinicians to safely de-escalate antibiotics. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the effect of low procalcitonin results on withholding, discontinuing, or de-escalating antibiotics in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care center. Antibiotics were initiated or continued without de-escalation in 55% of patients with low procalcitonin results. Among patients with low procalcitonin results, the primary service, but not measures of patient complexity, disease severity, or underlying disease process (lower respiratory tract infection evaluation versus systemic inflammatory response syndrome/possible sepsis) was associated with initiation or continued broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Provider-level factors may be an important variable in the initiation or continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for patients with low procalcitonin levels. PMID:27251126

  3. Safety of peritoneal and pleural drain placement in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients with severe veno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Arin L; Stetson, Alyssa; Weldon, Christopher B; Lehmann, Leslie E

    2016-08-01

    Hepatic VOD (veno-occlusive disease) is a serious complication of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and has historically been associated with high mortality. This obstruction to hepatic flow often results in fluid collections in the peritoneal and pleural cavities. Catheter placement to drain ascites or pleural fluid may reduce intra-abdominal hypertension and/or improve respiratory parameters. The safety of these interventions among critically ill, immunocompromised children is unknown. Among 32 HSCT recipients (2000-2012) with severe VOD, we assessed the primary outcome of procedural complication from peritoneal drain placement. Twenty-four (75%) patients underwent peritoneal drain placement. No patient sustained visceral perforation or hemorrhage with drain placement. Overall mortality was 47% (n = 15). The procedure was not associated with increased overall mortality (p > 0.99). Eight (25%) peritoneal drains required replacement for malfunction. Of 24 patients with peritoneal drains, one (4%) patient had a positive culture from ascitic fluid. Eight (25%) patients underwent pleural drain placement. No pleural drain-related procedural complication or infection occurred. Four (50%) of the eight patients with pleural drains had de-escalation in oxygen requirement at drain removal, compared to time of placement. In this study, peritoneal and pleural drains were safe interventions for children with severe VOD. PMID:27373552

  4. Diagnostic value of Light's criteria and albumin gradient in classifying the pathophysiology of pleural effusion formation in cats.

    PubMed

    Zoia, Andrea; Drigo, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess whether human Light's criteria with the cut-off values previously published for cats are useful and superior to the traditional veterinary classification in diagnosing pathophysiology of fluid formation in cats with pleural effusion. The secondary aim was to assess if the albumin gradient (ALBg) is a reliable criterion for differentiating exudates from transudates in patients with pleural effusion thought to be transudative by clinical criteria but identified as exudative by Light's criteria. Nineteen client-owned cats with pleural effusion were studied. The aetiology of the pleural effusion was used to establish the pathophysiology of its formation. Parameters measured or calculated undergoing statistical analysis included Light's criteria, total protein and total nucleated cell count in the pleural effusions, and the ALBg. Based on the pathophysiology of fluid formation there were seven transudates caused by increased hydrostatic pressure and 12 exudates. There was a significant difference in the accuracy of the Light's criteria in correctly classifying origin of the pleural fluid formation compared with the traditional veterinary classification (84% vs 53%). ALBg values were significantly different between transudates and exudates. One of the three transudates misclassified as exudates by Light's criteria was correctly identified as a transudate by the ALBg. In conclusion, pleural effusion should be classified as either a transudate or an exudate using Light's criteria. In cats with pleural effusion thought to be transudative by clinical criteria, but identified as exudative by Light's criteria, the ALBg may further help in correctly differentiating exudates from transudates. PMID:26116619

  5. Standing prone positioning in establishing causality between matched ventilation-perfusion defects and pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Fotos, Joseph S; Tulchinsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is routinely performed in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. Pleural effusions in such patients are common and can cause matched ventilation-perfusion defects. This is especially true of the posterior projections in the supine patient. Prone positioning has been described as a useful technique to redistribute pleural fluid anteriorly, exposing perfusion in posterior lung fields; however, some patients have a concurrent condition that renders prone positioning difficult. This report discusses a modified technique that allows patients to be imaged in a standing prone position with excellent results. PMID:25247271

  6. A New Method of an Axial Puncture Approach for Draining Loculated Pleural Effusions

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Kenji Nakajima, Yasuo Ogawa, Yukihisa Hmaguchi, Shingo Yoshimatsu, Misako Fujikawa, Atsuko Koike, Yuya Kato, Hiroshi

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The authors devised a new method of an axial puncture approach through the pulmonary apex (PA) for percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of loculated fluid collections extending to the PA. The purpose of this report is to introduce the new procedure. Methods: Percutaneous catheter drainage by the axial puncture approach was performed in two patients with limited supine position and loculated pleural fluid collection in the posteromedial part of thoracic cavity. Results: The procedures succeeded in two patients without difficulties while keeping them in a supine position, even if the loculated fluids exist in the posterior side of thoracic cavity. Conclusions: Percutaneous catheter drainage by the axial puncture approach is particularly effective in patients with limited supine positions and loculated pleural fluid collection in the posteromedial part of thoracic cavity.

  7. The established and future biomarkers of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Panou, V; Vyberg, M; Weinreich, U M; Meristoudis, C; Falkmer, U G; Røe, O D

    2015-06-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related cancer with a median survival of 12months. The MPM incidence is 1-6/100,000 and is increasing as a result of historic asbestos exposure in industrialized countries and continued use of asbestos in developing countries. Lack of accurate biomarkers makes diagnosis, prognostication and treatment prediction of MPM challenging. The aim of this review is to identify the front line of MPM biomarkers with current or potential clinical impact. Literature search using the PubMed and PLoS One databases, the related-articles function of PubMed and the reference lists of associated publications until April 26th 2015 revealed a plethora of candidate biomarkers. The current gold standard of MPM diagnosis is a combination of two positive and two negative immunohistochemical markers in the epithelioid and biphasic type, but sarcomatous type do not have specific markers, making diagnosis more difficult. Mesothelin in serum and pleural fluid may serve as adjuvant diagnostic with high specificity but low sensitivity. Circulating proteomic and microRNA signatures, fibulin-3, tumor cell gene-ratio test, transcriptomic, lncRNA, glycopeptides, pleural fluid FISH assay, hyaluronate/N-ERC mesothelin and deformability cytometry may be important future markers. Putative predictive markers for pemetrexed-platinum are tumor TS and TYMS, for vinorelbine the ERCC1, beta-tubuline class III and BRCA1. Mutations of the BAP1 gene are potential markers of MPM susceptibility. In conclusion, the current status of MPM biomarkers is not satisfactory but encouraging as more sensitive and specific non-invasive markers are emerging. However, prospective validation is needed before clinical application. PMID:25979846

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis induced bilateral blood stained pleural effusion in patient with recurrent Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Win, T T; Sitiasma, H; Zeehaida, M

    2011-04-01

    Infections and malignancies are common causes of pleural effusion. Among infectious causes, hyperinfection syndrome of Strongyloides stercoralis may occur in immunosuppressive patient. A 62-year-old man, known case of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was presented with recurrent NHL stage IV and had undergone salvage chemotherapy. Patient subsequently developed pneumonia with bilateral pleural effusion and ascites. We reported rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis in pleural fluid of both lungs without infiltration by lymphoma cells. Stool for microscopic examination also revealed rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis. This patient was a known case of NHL receiving chemotherapy resulting in immunosuppression state. Although S. stercoralis infection is not very common compared to other parasitic infections, it is common in immunosuppressive patients and may present with hyperinfection. Therefore, awareness of this parasite should be kept in mind in immunosuppressive patients. PMID:21602770

  9. Complication of diagnostic pleural aspiration: is it of value in hemodialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Corbett, Richard W; Ashby, Damien R

    2014-04-01

    Pleural effusions are common in hemodialysis patients and are associated with significant morbidity. Diagnostic pleural aspiration and subsequent biochemical analysis can be used to differentiate exudates and transudates. In particular, Light's criteria have been validated in the general population although their efficacy in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Furthermore, aspiration is not without risk; we report the case of a life-threatening thoracic bleed as a complication of diagnostic thoracocentesis in a hemodialysis patient, in whom a transudative effusion was misclassified according to Light's criteria. Retrospective examination of a further 22 aspirations in hemodialysis patients suggests that biochemical analysis of pleural fluid in this group is of limited value. Careful clinical and radiological assessment may be of greater value in determining individuals who may benefit from formal drainage, rather than diagnostic aspiration with its attendant risks. PMID:24393436

  10. Thoracoscopy: medical versus surgical—in the management of pleural diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the pleura continue to affect a large population of patients worldwide and in the United States. Pleural fluid analysis and accompanying imaging of the pleura including chest X-rays, chest computed tomography (CT) scan and chest ultrasonography are among the first steps in the management of pleural effusions. When further diagnostic or therapeutic work up is necessary, open thoracotomy and thoracoscopy come to mind. However, given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with open thoracotomy, and the advances in medicine and medical instruments, thoracoscopy has now become a routine procedure in the management of the disease of the chest including pleura. Debates about surgical vs. medical thoracoscopy (MT) are ongoing. In the following pages we review the literature and discuss the similarities and differences between the two procedures, as well as their indications, contraindications, complications and efficacy in the management of pleural diseases. PMID:26807282

  11. Two cases of paragonimiasis westermani diagnosed after eosinophilic pleural effusion‐induced hydropneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Inoue, Noriko; Shizu, Masato; Imai, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our hospital is located in the Tono region in the southeastern district of Gifu Prefecture in which there are forests and inhabitants who still hunt and eat game meat. Therefore, boar meat increases the risk of contracting paragonimiasis. We treated two patients who were infected by Paragonimus westermani after eating boar meat. They developed hydropneumothorax in association with eosinophilic pleural effusion. For patients who have pneumothorax with concomitant pleural effusion and eosinophilia in the pleural fluid analysis, it is necessary to take a detailed history, which includes flesh food consumption and travel to an endemic area, and to make a careful examination while taking into consideration parasitic infections such as paragonimiasis. PMID:27516883

  12. Thoracic ultrasound for pleural effusion: delays and cost associated with departmental scanning.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K; Downey, D G; Teare, T

    2010-04-01

    Pleural effusion is a common clinical condition on medical wards and the majority of cases undergo pleural aspiration or chest drain insertion as a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. The use of a thoracic ultrasound scan (USS) improves diagnostic yield for pleural fluid aspiration and reduces complications and USS is increasingly recommended prior to all pleural aspirations or drains and 'real time' scanning which, as well as potentially reducing delays, enhances the safety of the procedure. In many U.K hospitals a thoracic USS is still routinely performed in the radiology department. We reviewed radiology records and case notes from hospital in-patients to assess potential delays and associated costs with departmental thoracic USS and to identify cases where physician-led portable USS would potentially have improved the patient's journey. We demonstrated delays resulting in significant financial costs to the hospital of an estimated pound17, 880 per annum. However, the cost to the patient is also significant, both in terms of patient experience (many of whom will have an underlying diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma and with a limited life expectancy) but also patient safety. Respiratory physicians are increasingly recognising the importance of portable thoracic USS to guide pleural procedures and there has been increasing use of physician-led portable thoracic USS. Hospitals should be encouraged to fund both portable thoracic USS equipment but it is also crucial that training in this area is properly supported. PMID:20097552

  13. Pleural effusions in children undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Sachin; Agarwala, Sandeep; Mittal, Chander Mohan; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2010-01-01

    Persistent pleural effusions are a source of significant morbidity and mortality following surgery in congenital heart disease. In this review, we discuss the etiology, pathophysiology, and management of this common complication. PMID:20814477

  14. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Sala; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Kerwat, Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions. PMID:27274876

  15. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin for acute complicated appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hiromasa; Yuasa, Norihiro; Takeuchi, Eiji; Goto, Yasutomo; Miyake, Hideo; Miyata, Kanji; Kato, Hideki; Ito, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A rapid and reliable test for detection of complicated appendicitis would be useful when deciding whether emergency surgery is required. We investigated the clinical usefulness of procalcitonin for identifying acute complicated appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed 63 patients aged ≥15 years who underwent appendectomy without receiving antibiotics before admission and had preoperative data on the plasma procalcitonin level (PCT), body temperature (BT), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio), and C-reactive protein level (CRP). Patients were classified into 3 groups: group A (inflammatory cell infiltration of the appendix with intact mural architecture), group B (inflammatory cell infiltration with destruction of mural architecture, but without abscess or perforation), and group C (macroscopic abscess and/or perforation). For identifying destruction of mural architecture, the diagnostic accuracy of PCT was similar to that of BT or CRP. However, the diagnostic accuracy of PCT was highest among the five inflammatory indices for identifying abscess and/or perforation, with the positive predictive value of PCT for abscess and/or perforation being higher than that of CRP (73% vs. 48%). Univariate analysis of the predictors of abscess and/or perforation revealed that a plasma PCT level ≥0.46 ng/mL had the highest odds ratio (30.3 [95% confidence interval: 6.5–140.5] versus PCT <0.46 ng/mL). These findings indicate that procalcitonin is a useful marker of acute appendicitis with abscess and/or perforation. PMID:27019529

  16. Thoracoscopy in the diagnosis of pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, A; Blasco, E; Casillas, M; Zarza, A G; Padilla, J; Pastor, J; Tarazona, V; París, F

    1977-01-01

    The technique, indications, and complications of diagnostic thoracoscopy are described. Two hundred and eight explorations have been performed in our service in the last seven years. From 137 pleural malignancies we have obtained an unequivocal positive biopsy in 129 (94%) with a minimum number of complications and no mortality. From our experience we conclude that thoracoscopy, when porperly performed, is diagnostic in most pleural conditions. Images PMID:594934

  17. Thoracoscopy in the diagnosis of pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Cantó, A; Blasco, E; Casillas, M; Zarza, A G; Padilla, J; Pastor, J; Tarazona, V; París, F

    1977-10-01

    The technique, indications, and complications of diagnostic thoracoscopy are described. Two hundred and eight explorations have been performed in our service in the last seven years. From 137 pleural malignancies we have obtained an unequivocal positive biopsy in 129 (94%) with a minimum number of complications and no mortality. From our experience we conclude that thoracoscopy, when porperly performed, is diagnostic in most pleural conditions. PMID:594934

  18. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele; Finlay, Jarod; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Friedberg, Joseph; Cengel, Keith

    2015-03-01

    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  19. Pleural procedural complications: prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Psallidas, Ioannis; Wrightson, John M.; Hallifax, Robert J.; Rahman, Najib M.

    2015-01-01

    Pleural disease is common with a rising case frequency. Many of these patients will be symptomatic and require diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures. Patients with pleural disease present to a number of different medical specialties, and an equally broad range of clinicians are therefore required to have practical knowledge of these procedures. There is often underestimation of the morbidity and mortality associated with pleural interventions, even those regarded as being relatively straightforward, with potentially significant implications for processes relating to patient safety and informed consent. The advent of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has had a major influence on patient safety and the number of physicians with the necessary skill set to perform pleural procedures. As the variety and complexity of pleural interventions increases, there is increasing recognition that early specialist input can reduce the risk of complications and number of procedures a patient requires. This review looks at the means by which complications of pleural procedures arise, along with how they can be managed or ideally prevented. PMID:26150919

  20. A Large Pleural Effusion following Abdominal Aortic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramsaran, Vinoo K.; Seeram, Vandana K.; Cury, James; Shujaat, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Chylous ascites and coexistent chylothorax is a rare but important complication following retroperitoneal abdominal surgery. We report a 70-year-old male who developed gradual abdominal distension, chest tightness, and dyspnea five months after having an uncomplicated aortobifemoral bypass performed. Physical examination was consistent with a large right sided effusion and ascites which were confirmed by computed tomography. Thoracentesis yielded an opaque milky fluid with analysis consistent with a chylothorax with a paracentesis revealing fluid that was similar in both appearance and biochemistry. The patient failed initial conservative management so a chest tube was placed followed by chemical pleurodesis. We review the literature of the pathophysiology and treatment approach to such a pleural effusion. PMID:26635989

  1. Pleural effusion secondary to metastasis of an ovarian adenocarcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Morris, D D; Acland, H M; Hodge, T G

    1985-08-01

    An 11-year-old Quarter Horse mare was presented with ventral edema and pleural effusion, secondary to a disseminated ovarian adenocarcinoma. Bilateral thoracocentesis yielded 30 L of thin, blood-tinged fluid, which was a modified transudate. Cytologic examination of the fluid revealed large atypical cells, suggestive of carcinomatous neoplasia. Similar cells were found in the peritoneal fluid. The mare was euthanatized. Necropsy revealed a 35-cm diameter mass in the cranial mediastinum, ventral to the trachea. The left ovary was 25 cm in diameter and most of the parenchyma was replaced by red or brown friable tissue, containing numerous 1-to 3-mm cysts. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary was diagnosed, based on the appearance and arrangement of tumor cells in the ovary, sublumbar and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and mediastinal mass. Ovarian neoplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in the horse. PMID:4030465

  2. Clinical Value of Tumor Markers for Determining Cause of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan; Zhai, Kan; Shi, Huan-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is often challenging to distinguish tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) from malignant pleural effusion (MPE); thoracoscopy is among the techniques with the highest diagnostic ability in this regard. However, such invasive examinations cannot be performed on the elderly, or on those in poor physical condition. The aim of this study was to explore the differential diagnostic value of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated antigen in patients with TPE and MPE. Methods: Using electrochemiluminescence, we measured the concentration of tumor markers (TMs) in the pleural effusion and serum of patients with TPE (n = 35) and MPE (n = 95). We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the TMs and differentiate between TPE and MPE. Results: The cut-off values for each TM in serum were: CA125, 151.55 U/ml; CA199, 9.88 U/ml; CEA, 3.50 ng/ml; NSE, 13.27 ng/ml; and SCC, 0.85 ng/ml. Those in pleural fluid were: CA125, 644.30 U/ml; CA199, 12.08 U/ml; CEA, 3.35 ng/ml; NSE, 9.71 ng/ml; and SCC, 1.35 ng/ml. The cut-off values for the ratio of pleural fluid concentration to serum concentration (P/S ratio) of each TM were: CA125, 5.93; CA199, 0.80; CEA, 1.47; NSE, 0.76; and SCC, 0.90. The P/S ratio showed the highest specificity in the case of CEA (97.14%). ROC curve analysis revealed that, for all TMs, the area under the curve in pleural fluid (0.95) was significantly different from that in serum (0.85; P < 0.001). Conclusions: TMs in TPE differ significantly from those in MPE, especially when detected in pleural fluid. The combined detection of TMs can improve diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:26831224

  3. Detection of EML4-ALK in Lung Adenocarcinoma Using Pleural Effusion with FISH, IHC, and RT-PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaodie; Song, Yong; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yu, Like; Wang, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene rearrangements occur in approximately 5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC), leading to the overexpression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and predicting a response to the targeted inhibitor, crizotinib. Malignant pleural effusion occurs in most patients with advanced lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, and tissue samples are not always available from these patients. We attempted to clarify the feasibility of detecting the EML4-ALK fusion gene in pleural effusion cells using different methods. We obtained 66 samples of pleural effusion from NSCLC patients. The pleural effusion fluid was centrifuged, and the cellular components obtained were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. The EML4-ALK fusion gene status was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). EML4-ALK was detected in three of 66 patient samples (4.5%) with RT-PCR. When the RT-PCR data were used as the standard, one false positive and one false negative samples were identified with IHC; and one false negative sample was identified with FISH. These results suggest that a block of pleural effusion cells can be used to detect the EML4-ALK fusion gene. IHC had good sensitivity, but low specificity. FISH had low sensitivity, but high specificity. RT-PCR is a good candidate method for detecting EML4-ALK in blocks of pleural effusion cells from lung cancer patients. PMID:25785456

  4. Multidetector CT Findings and Differential Diagnoses of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Metastatic Pleural Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Kyung Won; Yi, Chin A; Koo, Jin Mo; Jung, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) features of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and metastatic pleural disease (MPD). Materials and Methods The authors reviewed the MDCT images of 167 patients, 103 patients with MPM and 64 patients with MPD. All 167 cases were pathologically confirmed by sonography-guided needle biopsy of pleura, thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, or open thoracotomy. CT features were evaluated with respect to pleural effusion, pleural thickening, invasion of other organs, lung abnormality, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal shifting, thoracic volume decrease, asbestosis, and the presence of pleural plaque. Results Pleural thickening was the most common CT finding in MPM (96.1%) and MPD (93.8%). Circumferential pleural thickening (31.1% vs. 10.9%, odds ratio [OR] 3.670), thickening of fissural pleura (83.5% vs. 67.2%, OR 2.471), thickening of diaphragmatic pleura (90.3% vs. 73.4%, OR 3.364), pleural mass (38.8% vs. 23.4%, OR 2.074), pericardial involvement (56.3% vs. 20.3%, OR 5.056), and pleural plaque (66.0% vs. 21.9%, OR 6.939) were more frequently seen in MPM than in MPD. On the other hand, nodular pleural thickening (59.2% vs. 76.6%, OR 0.445), hilar lymph node metastasis (5.8% vs. 20.3%, OR 0.243), mediastinal lymph node metastasis (10.7% vs. 37.5%, OR 0.199), and hematogenous lung metastasis (9.7% vs. 29.2%, OR 0.261) were less frequent in MPM than in MPD. When we analyzed MPD from extrathoracic malignancy (EMPD) separately and compared them to MPM, circumferential pleural thickening, thickening of interlobar fissure, pericardial involvement and presence of pleural plaque were significant findings indicating MPM than EMPD. MPM had significantly lower occurrence of hematogenous lung metastasis, as compared with EMPD. Conclusion Awareness of frequent and infrequent CT findings could aid in distinguishing MPM from MPD. PMID:27390546

  5. Talc pleurodesis as surgical palliation of patients with malignant pleural effusion. Analysis of factors affecting survival.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Mazza, Francesco; Ermani, Mario; Chiara, Giordano B; Basso, Stefano M M

    2012-11-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is common in most patients with advanced cancer, especially in those with lung cancer, metastatic breast carcinoma and lymphoma. This complication usually leads patients to suffer from significant dyspnea, which may impair their mobility and reduce their quality of life. In patients with MPE, several interventions have been shown to be useful for palliation of the symptoms, including talc pleurodesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for survival of patients with symptomatic MPE who underwent palliative video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) talc pleurodesis. Thirty-five patients with MPE underwent VATS, evacuation of the pleural fluid and talc pleurodesis with large-particle talc. There were 22 (62.9%) males and 13 (37.1%) females, with an overall median age of 69 years (range 42-81 years). The main causes of MPE were non-small cell lung carcinoma, breast or ovarian cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. The age did not differ (p=0.88) between men (68.6±11.6 years) and women (68.0±8.7 years). The mean quantity of pleural effusion was 2005.7±1078.9 ml, while the overall survival was 11.2±8.9 months. We did not find any relationship between survival and gender (log-rank test, p=0.53) or underlying malignancy associated with MPE (p=0.89, 0.48 and 0.36 for secondary cancer, lung cancer and mesothelioma, respectively). Similarly, no correlation was found between survival and age of the patients (Cox's regression, p=0.44) or quantity of pleural effusion (p=0.88). Our results show that the prognosis of patients after talc pleurodesis is independent of age, gender, type of malignancy and amount of pleural effusion, thus, suggesting the utility of treating all patients with symptomatic MPE early. PMID:23155281

  6. Pleural lipoma: a non-surgical lesion?

    PubMed Central

    Jayle, Christophe; Hajj-Chahine, Jamil; Allain, Geraldine; Milin, Serge; Soubiron, Laurent; Corbi, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Pleural lipomas are benign tumours that develop at the expense of adipose tissues, and they never evolve towards liposarcoma. Located usually at the mediastinal, bronchial and pulmonary levels, a pleural situation is extremely rare. Chest X-rays usually detect them and computed tomography scans confirm the diagnosis. As complications occur, a wait-and-see policy is common. We report our pleural lipoma surgical exeresis experience since 1999. We have operated on five cases of pleural lipomas among nearly 1800 cases of thoracic exeresis: three male and two female patients, without obesity (in all cases, body mass index (BMI) < 28). The mean age was 54.6 years (range 35–72 years). Four patients were electively operated and one in emergency, three with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) procedure and two with open chest surgery, without recurrent cases. Advancements in VATS have greatly reduced the morbidity rate of these benign tumours especially if exeresis is performed early on a small, uncomplicated adhesion-free tumour. On the other hand, the operation may be deleterious, complicated by the presence of a large lipoma or in a complicating situation. In our opinion, we should revise the wait-and-see policy when facing these lesions considering their evolutionary potential. We should advise VATS in pleural lipomas. PMID:22371386

  7. A large pleural effusion in a patient receiving peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tapawan, Karen; Chen, Elaine; Selk, Natalie; Hong, Edward; Virmani, Sumeet; Balk, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Hydrothorax as a complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a rare but recognized event. Proposed mechanisms for the development of a pleuro-peritoneal communication include congenital diaphragmatic defects, acquired weakening of diaphragmatic fibers caused by high intra-abdominal pressures during peritoneal dialysis, and impairments in lymphatic drainage. Pleural fluid analysis and diagnostic imaging assist in differentiation from other causes of pleural effusion. Nearly 50% of patients with this diagnosis have resolution of hydrothorax after temporary cessation of PD with interim hemodialysis for 2-6 weeks. Historically, other treatment options have included conventional pleurodesis and open thoracotomy with direct repair, producing variable results. With the advent of video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), surgical repairs and pleurodesis are now frequently performed under direct visualization with minimal invasiveness. We report a case of hydrothorax in a patient after recent introduction to peritoneal dialysis. Pleuro-peritoneal communication was documented with thoracentesis and radionuclide scanning. VATS pleurodesis with talc was performed. Repeat scintigraphy performed 1 week after the procedure revealed no residual communication, and patient was able to resume PD without further complications. PMID:21480997

  8. Primary systemic amyloidosis: A rare cause for pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    George, Sunny; Ravindran, M; Anandan, P T; Kiran, V N

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a common problem dealt by most of the practicing clinicians. Some causes for pleural effusion are less often considered as a differential diagnosis owing to its rarity. Here we report a case of renal amyloidosis on alternate day haemodialysis for about two months time presenting with left sided pleural effusion. On evaluation this turned out to be a case of amyloidosis on thoracoscopic pleural biopsy suggesting the possibility of Primary systemic amyloidosis. PMID:26029558

  9. Chemothorax: a rare cause of a transudative pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Devin; Geottman, David; Sarodia, Bipin

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a rare cause of pleural effusion, chemothorax. In this case, a patient with invasive ductal breast carcinoma was admitted for a large and symptomatic pleural effusion. The radiology report obtained prior to admission did not describe the location of the Infuse-a-Port catheter. After a bedside thoracentesis demonstrated results consistent with chemotherapy infusate in the pleural space, further review of the medical imaging demonstrated that the catheter was in the pleural space. PMID:26655229

  10. Prolonged pleural catheters in the management of pleural effusions due to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ordu, Cetin; Toker, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second most common etiologic cause in malignant pleural effusions (MPE). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of long term pleural catheters in inducing self sclerosis in pleural effusions of breast cancer patients. Methods In this study, 26 patients with breast cancer relapleural effusions that occurred between January 2011 and July 2013, who were considered not to undergo any other treatments and managed with prolonged pleural catheters (Jackson-Pratt silicone flat drain), were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty pleural catheters were inserted in 26 patients. All patients were female, mean age was 52 (range, 37-66) years old. Drainage over 1,500 mL per day was not allowed in order to avoid a lung edema. The catheters were removed in patients who had restoration of lung expansion and drainage under 50 mL/day. Results The histologic subtypes in pleural effusions were invasive ductal carcinoma in 18 patients, ductal carcinoma in situ in 4, invasive lobular carcinoma in 2, tubular carcinoma in 1, and medullary carcinoma in 1. Three of the 26 patients underwent bilateral catheter insertion, and one patient underwent a reinsertion of the catheter into the same hemithorax due to a recurrence. The catheters were retained for a mean period of 18 days (range, 11-38 days). In one patient with invasive ductal carcinoma and paramalignant pleural effusion (PMPE) (3.8%), a recurrent pleural effusion was seen 34 days after removal of the catheter. There were no complications. One patient died while the catheter was in place. Conclusions Prolonged catheters for the management of pleural effusions in selected patients have become more popular than other treatment alternatives due to a shorter length of stay and lower costs. We recommend the use of Jackson Pratt (JP) silicone flat drains which in our opinion provide effective pleurodesis in addition to easy application in recurrent effusions caused by breast cancer. PMID:24605219

  11. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed Central

    Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B.; Avery, Gerard R.; Kastelik, Jack A.; Morjaria, Jaymin B.

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  12. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed

    Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

    2013-07-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  13. Carbimazole-induced exudative pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Cardona Attard, Carol D; Gruppetta, Mark; Vassallo, Josanne; Vella, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbimazole, an antithyroid drug, is associated with a significant number of side effects, but pleuropulmonary complications are rare. We report the case of a 42-year-old Caucasian man who developed dyspnoea secondary to bilateral exudative pleural effusions while on carbimazole therapy. Extensive investigations, including a vasculitic screen, ruled out other potential causes for this patient's clinical presentation. This patient's pleural effusions gradually resolved within a few months of stopping carbimazole therapy, suggesting a role for the latter in the aetiopathogenesis of his presentation. Clinicians should consider discontinuing treatment with carbimazole and introducing alternative antithyroid therapy in this setting, once other potential causes of a pleural effusion have been systematically ruled out. PMID:27045053

  14. The pathology of parietal pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. Hefin

    1971-01-01

    The incidence, morbid anatomy, histology, and relationship of hyaline pleural plaques to exposure to asbestos has been studied. Plaques were found in 12·3% of 334 hospital necropsies (in an urban population in Glasgow, 41 cases). In 85·3% (35 cases) asbestos bodies were found in the lungs. There is evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of asbestos bodies found in the lungs and the presence of pleural plaques. The selective distribution of plaques within the pleural cavities suggests that mechanical factors play a part in their localization. Histological examination contributed little to understanding the mechanism of plaque formation; that asbestos bodies have been detected in only a few cases suggest that their presence in the parietal pleura is not essential to plaque formation. The suggested mechanisms of plaque formation are discussed. Images PMID:5556121

  15. Hemorrhagic pleural effusion due to pseudo-pancreatic cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ruchi; Sachdeva, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pleural effusion is a common clinical entity still diagnosis is often missed. An unusual and often over-looked cause of pleural effusion is an intra-abdominal process including complication arising due to pancreatitis. We report a rare case of massive left sided hemorrhagic pleural effusion in a patient due to pancreatic pathology. PMID:27099855

  16. A case of young woman with recurrent right pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Asmita A; Gupta, Amit; Venkitakrishnan, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Endomterisois is usually found in women of child-bearing age. A case is presented of massive right-sided pleural effusion caused by endometriosis. The final diagnosis was made by thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. Physicians should be aware of this potentially treatable cause of pleural effusion having excluded other possibilities such as malignancy and tuberculosis. PMID:26664182

  17. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  18. Cerebral air embolism after pleural streptokinase instillation.

    PubMed

    Janisch, Thorsten; Siekmann, Ullrich; Kopp, Rüdger

    2013-12-01

    Iatrogenic pulmonary barotrauma and cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) may complicate a variety of medical procedures, such as certain types of surgery, drug administration through thoracic drainage, pneumoperitoneum, cystoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment following the guidelines for CAGE in diving is the treatment of choice. Pleural streptokinase instillation is a common treatment for parapneumonic pleural effusion and may lead to CAGE. We present such a complication in a 79-year-old woman with a left-sided empyema. Neurological recovery was reasonable, but a left hemiparesis persisted. Prompt treatment of CAGE is necessary to avoid permanent injury and severe disability. PMID:24510333

  19. An uncommon infectious cause of pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Amitesh; Rajashekaraiah, Lokesh Champally; Misra, Kiran; Dev, Munish; Sharma, Vishal

    2011-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of the major public health problems across the globe. Clinical manifestations usually depend on the site of lymphatic involvement. A 21-year-old female resident of a non-endemic filarial region presented with axillary lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion, ascites and pedal oedema. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of axillary lymph nodes revealed microfilariae. On the administration of diethyl carbamazine, lymph nodes gradually disappeared, the patient improved symptomatically and the filarial antigen test after treatment was negative. We report this case of bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy with pleural effusion and ascites as a rare manifestation of filariasis. PMID:21914673

  20. Procalcitonin beyond the acute phase: novel biomediator properties?

    PubMed

    Panico, Carolina; Nylen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Since inflammation has been linked to carcinogenic events, discovery of relevant biomarkers may have important preventative implications. Procalcitonin (ProCT) has been shown to be an important prognostic biomarker in severe inflammatory conditions, but there is no data regarding its biomarker role, if any, beyond the acute phase. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, Cotoi et al. analyzed whether serum ProCT levels in healthy individuals are associated with mortality outcomes. The results are affirmative in that baseline ProCT was shown to be strongly and independently associated with all-cause and cancer mortality and with the incidence of colon cancer in men. By contrast, the study indicated that high sensitivity C-reactive protein was independently associated with cardiovascular mortality but not with cancer mortality in men. Thus, baseline levels of ProCT appear to have prognostic biomarker implications potentially related to its emerging biomediator action(s). PMID:23984981

  1. Procalcitonin as a prognostic marker for sepsis: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Procalcitonin is useful for the diagnosis of sepsis but its prognostic value regarding mortality is unclear. This prospective observational study was designed to study the prognostic value of procalcitonin in prediction of 28 day mortality in patients of sepsis. Fifty-four consecutive patients of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock defined using the 2001 Consensus Conference SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS criteria from medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India were enrolled from July 2011 to June 2013. Procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were recorded on day 1, day 7 and day 28 of follow up. Results Procalcitonin value was a better predictor of all-cause short-term mortality than C-reactive protein. Those patients with Procalcitonin levels <7 ng/ml showed higher cumulative survival than those with level [greater than or equal to]7 ng/ml (69.1% vs. 39.5%, p = 0.02). No such effect was observed in relation to C-reactive protein. Procalcitonin levels [greater than or equal to]7 ng/ml predicted mortality with a hazard ratio of 2.6(1.1-6.3). Conclusions A Procalcitonin value [greater than or equal to]7 ng/ml obtained at the time of admission to the ICU is a predictor of short-term mortality and thus may allow the identification of those septic patients at increased mortality risk, and help improve their treatment. PMID:25034373

  2. Usefulness of Measuring Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sook Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The relationships between serum procalcitonin, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) have not been completely determined. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum procalcitonin levels to assess disease activity and infection stage in patients with IBD and intestinal BD. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 129 patients with IBD and intestinal BD for whom serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured between January 2006 and February 2013. Results The median serum procalcitonin levels in the IBD and intestinal BD with septic shock or sepsis (n=8), with localized infection (n=76), and without infection (n=45) were 3.46 ng/mL (range, 0.17 to 63.66 ng/mL), 0.22 ng/mL (range, 0.05 to 140.18 ng/mL), and 0.07 ng/mL (range, 0.00 to 31.50 ng/mL), respectively (p=0.001). The serum CRP levels in the IBD and intestinal BD patients did not differ according to the infection stage. Variations in serum procalcitonin levels were not observed in the IBD and intestinal BD patients with different disease activities. Conclusions Serum procalcitonin levels may not be affected by IBD and intestinal BD activity itself, although they may be affected by concomitant infection. Serum procalcitonin measurements could be more useful than CRP in determining the infection stage that reflects the severity of infection in IBD and intestinal BD patients. PMID:26780089

  3. Role of medical thoracoscopy in the treatment of tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xusheng; Zhu, Huaiyang; Ding, Caihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibrous tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) represents common disease in tuberculous clinic. Medical thoracoscopy has been used to treat pleural empyema and shown promising outcomes, but data of its use in multiloculated and organized TPE remains limited to know. Methods The study was performed on 430 cases with TPE. The cases were divided into free-flowing, multiloculated effusion and organized effusion group. Each group was subdivided into two or three types of therapeutic approaches: ultrasound guided pigtail catheter, large-bore tube chest drainage and medical thoracoscopy. Patients with multiloculated or organized effusions received streptokinase, introduced into the pleural cavity via chest tubes. The successful effectiveness of the study was defined as duration of chest drainage, time from treatment to discharge days and no further managements. Results Patients with organized effusion were older than those with free-flowing effusion and incidence of organized effusion combined with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was higher than those of multiloculated effusion and free-flowing effusion respectively. Positive tuberculosis of pleural fluid culture was higher in organized effusion than that in free-flowing effusion. Sputum positive for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in organized effusion was higher than that in multiloculated effusion and free-flowing effusion. Medical thoracoscopy showed significant efficacy in the group of multiloculated effusion and organized effusion but free-flowing effusion. No chronic morbidity and mortality related to complications was observed. Conclusions Medical thoracoscopy was a safe and successful method in treating multiloculated and organized TPE. PMID:26904212

  4. Analysis of Cytokine Levers in Pleural Effusions of Tuberculous Pleurisy and Tuberculous Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan-Jie; Li, Fu-Gen; Chang, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Tian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to examine whether the interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels were different in pleural effusions of tuberculous pleurisy and tuberculous empyema. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1, and t-PA levels in pleural fluids of 40 patients with tuberculous pleurisy and 38 patients with tuberculous empyema were measured. The levels of IL-1β, PAI-1, and t-PA in the pleural effusions were different between tuberculous pleurisy and tuberculous empyema; it could be helpful to differentiate the two diseases. The levels of PAI-1, IL-1β were higher and t-PA, IL-6 were lower in pleural effusions of the patients with tuberculous empyema and who must undergo operation than the patients who could be treated with closed drainage and anti-TB chemotheraphy. These indications may be helpful to evaluate whether the patient needs the operation. PMID:27034588

  5. Recommendations of diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion. Update.

    PubMed

    Villena Garrido, Victoria; Cases Viedma, Enrique; Fernández Villar, Alberto; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Pérez Rodríguez, Esteban; Porcel Pérez, José Manuel; Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco; Ruiz Martínez, Carlos; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel; Valdés Cuadrado, Luis

    2014-06-01

    Although during the last few years there have been several important changes in the diagnostic or therapeutic methods, pleural effusion is still one of the diseases that the respiratory specialist have to evaluate frequently. The aim of this paper is to update the knowledge about pleural effusions, rather than to review the causes of pleural diseases exhaustively. These recommendations have a longer extension for the subjects with a direct clinical usefulness, but a slight update of other pleural diseases has been also included. Among the main scientific advantages are included the thoracic ultrasonography, the intrapleural fibrinolytics, the pleurodesis agents, or the new pleural drainages techniques. PMID:24698396

  6. Are the days of closed pleural biopsy over? No

    PubMed Central

    Thangakunam, Balamugesh

    2015-01-01

    Closed pleural biopsy used to be a popular method of evaluation of pleural effusion. With the advent of thoracoscopy, this valuable method is being neglected. Studies have shown that closed pleural biopsy especially done with image guidance has high yield and low complication rate as compared to thoracoscopy. Given the ease of the procedure and the less cost involved, imaged guided closed pleural biopsy should be considered as the initial diagnostic step in undiagnosed pleural biopsy especially in developing countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. PMID:26664179

  7. Sarcoidosis as unusual cause of massive pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sharad; Periwal, Pallavi; Dogra, Vikas; Talwar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Pleural involvement is relatively rare. Development of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis needs to be evaluated for other causes, especially tuberculosis in endemic countries. Sarcoid pleural effusion responds to systemic corticosteroids. We are presenting case of 42 year old male patient of sarcoidosis who developed massive pleural effusion while on treatment with steroids, which was attributed to disease per se. Sarcoidosis as a cause of massive pleural effusion has not been mentioned before in published literature. PMID:26744683

  8. A treatment planning system for pleural PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandell, Julia; Chang, Chang; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2010-02-01

    Uniform light fluence distribution for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical to ensure predictable PDT outcome. However, common practice uses a point source to deliver light to the pleural cavity. To improve the uniformity of light fluence rate distribution, we have developed a treatment planning system using an infrared camera to track the movement of the point source. This study examines the light fluence (rate) delivered to chest phantom to simulate a patient undergoing pleural PDT. Fluence rate (mW/cm2) and cumulative fluence (J/cm2) was monitored at 7 different sites during the entire light treatment delivery. Isotropic detectors were used for in-vivo light dosimetry. Light fluence rate in the pleural cavity is also calculated using the diffusion approximation with a finite-element model. We have established a correlation between the light fluence rate distribution and the light fluence rate measured on the selected points based on a spherical cavity model. Integrating sphere theory is used to aid the calculation of light fluence rate on the surface of the sphere as well as inside tissue assuming uniform optical properties. The resulting treatment planning tool can be valuable as a clinical guideline for future pleural PDT treatment.

  9. Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

  10. Detection, modeling and matching of pleural thickenings from CT data towards an early diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Pleural thickenings can be caused by asbestos exposure and may evolve into malignant pleural mesothelioma. While an early diagnosis plays the key role to an early treatment, and therefore helping to reduce morbidity, the growth rate of a pleural thickening can be in turn essential evidence to an early diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma. The detection of pleural thickenings is today done by a visual inspection of CT data, which is time-consuming and underlies the physician's subjective judgment. Computer-assisted diagnosis systems to automatically assess pleural mesothelioma have been reported worldwide. But in this paper, an image analysis pipeline to automatically detect pleural thickenings and measure their volume is described. We first delineate automatically the pleural contour in the CT images. An adaptive surface-base smoothing technique is then applied to the pleural contours to identify all potential thickenings. A following tissue-specific topology-oriented detection based on a probabilistic Hounsfield Unit model of pleural plaques specify then the genuine pleural thickenings among them. The assessment of the detected pleural thickenings is based on the volumetry of the 3D model, created by mesh construction algorithm followed by Laplace-Beltrami eigenfunction expansion surface smoothing technique. Finally, the spatiotemporal matching of pleural thickenings from consecutive CT data is carried out based on the semi-automatic lung registration towards the assessment of its growth rate. With these methods, a new computer-assisted diagnosis system is presented in order to assure a precise and reproducible assessment of pleural thickenings towards the diagnosis of the pleural mesothelioma in its early stage.

  11. Role of blind closed pleural biopsy in the management of pleural exudates

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Marco F; San-José, Esther; Ferreiro, Lucía; Golpe, Antonio; Antúnez, José; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Abdulkader, Ihab; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M; Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Valdés, Luis

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The performance of blind closed pleural biopsy (BCPB) in the study of pleural exudates is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic yield of BCPB in clinical practice and its role in the study of pleural exudates. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on all patients who underwent BCPB performed between January 1999 and December 2011. RESULTS: A total of 658 BCPBs were performed on 575 patients. Pleural tissue was obtained in 590 (89.7%) of the biopsies. A malignant pleural effusion was found in 35% of patients. The cytology and the BCPB were positive in 69.2% and 59.2% of the patients, respectively. Of the patients with negative cytology, 21 had a positive BCPB (diagnostic improvement, 15%), which would have avoided one pleuroscopy for every seven BCPBs that were performed. Of the 113 patients with a tuberculous effusion, granulomas were observed in 87 and the Lowenstein culture was positive in an additional 17 (sensitivity 92%). The overall sensitivity was 33.9%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 71%. Complications were recorded in 14.4% of patients (pneumothorax 9.4%; chest pain 5.6%; vasovagal reaction, 4.1%; biopsy of another organ 0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: BCPB still has a significant role in the study of a pleural exudate. If an image-guided technique is unavailable, it seems reasonable to perform BCPB before resorting to a pleuroscopy. These results support BCPB as a relatively safe technique. PMID:23951560

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin for Predicting Blood Culture Results in Patients With Suspected Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Ferrand, Janina; Filhine-Tresarrieu, Pierre; Aissa, Nejla; Aimone-Gastin, Isabelle; Namour, Fares; Garcia, Matthieu; Lozniewski, Alain; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested that procalcitonin is a reliable marker for predicting bacteremia. However, these studies have had relatively small sample sizes or focused on a single clinical entity. The primary endpoint of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for predicting or excluding clinically relevant pathogen categories in patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The secondary endpoint was to look for organisms significantly associated with internationally validated procalcitonin intervals. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 35,343 consecutive patients who underwent concomitant procalcitonin assays and blood cultures for suspected bloodstream infections. Biochemical and microbiological data were systematically collected in an electronic database and extracted for purposes of this study. Depending on blood culture results, patients were classified into 1 of the 5 following groups: negative blood culture, Gram-positive bacteremia, Gram-negative bacteremia, fungi, and potential contaminants found in blood cultures (PCBCs). The highest procalcitonin concentration was observed in patients with blood cultures growing Gram-negative bacteria (median 2.2 ng/mL [IQR 0.6–12.2]), and the lowest procalcitonin concentration was observed in patients with negative blood cultures (median 0.3 ng/mL [IQR 0.1–1.1]). With optimal thresholds ranging from ≤0.4 to ≤0.75 ng/mL, procalcitonin had a high diagnostic accuracy for excluding all pathogen categories with the following negative predictive values: Gram-negative bacteria (98.9%) (including enterobacteria [99.2%], nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli [99.7%], and anaerobic bacteria [99.9%]), Gram-positive bacteria (98.4%), and fungi (99.6%). A procalcitonin concentration ≥10 ng/mL was associated with a high risk of Gram-negative (odds ratio 5.98; 95% CI, 5.20–6.88) or Gram-positive (odds ratio 3.64; 95% CI, 3.11–4.26) bacteremia but

  13. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Tokman, Sofya; Schuetz, Philipp; Bent, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to review the current literature examining the use of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Procalcitonin is a serum marker that rises in response to bacterial infections, but remains low in nonbacterial infections and other proinflammatory conditions. To date, there are four randomized clinical trials which compare procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy to standard therapy in patients with COPD exacerbations. In all four trials the use of procalcitonin was associated with a reduction in antibiotic use (prescription and/or duration) without an increase in the rates of adverse patient outcomes including death, admission to the intensive care unit, re-exacerbation and readmission to the hospital. This data is clinically significant and suggests that the use of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy has the potential to decrease unnecessary antibiotic use in nonbacterial COPD exacerbations, thereby curtailing the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, reducing antibiotic-related adverse reactions, including Clostridium difficile infection, and potentially reducing healthcare costs. PMID:21692680

  14. Myeloid Sarcoma: An Unusual Case of Mediastinal Mass and Malignant Pleural Effusion with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Kamal Kant; Tyagi, Ruchita; Law, Arjun Datt; Khadwal, Alka; Prakash, Gaurav; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Varma, Subhash Chander; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2015-12-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor seen most commonly in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and less frequently in chronic myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and rarely, in an isolated form without any other underlying malignancy. Malignant pleural effusion in hematological malignancies is rare when compared with solid tumors. We present an unusual case of myeloid sarcoma in which a mediastinal mass with pleural effusion was the initial presentation. A 27 year old gentleman presented with complaints of fever, chest pain and swelling in the anterior chest wall for 6 months. Examination revealed a lump measuring 5 × 5 cm on the left side of the chest wall. Hematological evaluation showed hemoglobin-14.2 g/dL, platelet count-233 × 10(9)/L, TLC-117 × 10(6)/L with normal differential counts. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography (CECT) confirmed the presence of a soft tissue mass in the superior mediastinum abutting against the chest wall. Core biopsy was suggestive of myeloid sarcoma and immunohistochemistry was positive for myeloperoxidase and negative for CD3, CD 20 and CD 23. Pleural fluid analysis showed the presence of malignant cells. Bone marrow examination did not show an excess of blasts. A final diagnosis of extramedullary myeloid sarcoma with malignant pleural effusion was made. The patient was given induction chemotherapy (3 + 7 regimen) with daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside. Repeat CECT done on day 28 showed complete resolution of pleural effusion and significant reduction in the size of mediastinal mass. The patient has successfully completed three cycles of consolidation therapy following which there has been complete resolution of the mass. He remains asymptomatic on close follow up. PMID:26306072

  15. Detection of pleural effusions and increased lung water by Tc-99m DTPA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, E.C.; Karelitz, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a systematic observation of uptake or retention of Tc-99m DTPA in pleural effusions and other abnormal states of increased lung water. 24 patients who underwent renal imaging with 10 mCi Tc-99m DTPA were included. Imaging was performed with a large field of view camera for 0-03 minutes after injection and delayed images acquired 2-4 hours later. The images encompassed the mid and lower thorax as well as kidneys. 15 patients showed, at 0-5 minutes, cold areas at lung bases that later showed relatively increased activity at 2-4 hours (hot on delayed images). 14 of these 15 patients showed pleural effusions on chest x-ray. Small bilateral effusions were more clearly demonstrated by scan than by x-ray in 8 of 15 patients. One patient with pneumonia showed an immediate hot area in the infected lobe, and two with pulmonary edema and congestive failure showed diffuse lung retention of Tc-99m on delayed images. Among 9 patients who did not demonstrate abnormal cold or hot areas in their lungs on DTPA images, none had clinical or x-ray evidence of pleural effusion, pneumonia, or congestive failure (100% negative predictive value). Differences in rate constants for diffusion into vs. out of pleural fluid provide a plausible explanation for the observed retention of tracer in effusions, as seen on delayed images. This study indicates that imaging with Tc-99m DTPA provides information of diagnostic value in the detection of pleural effusions. Futhermore, the data suggests that DTPA imaging may also be useful as a simple, cost-effective method to detect other conditions in which regional lung water is abnormally increased.

  16. Pulmonary and pleural inflammation after intratracheal instillation of short single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Katsuhide; Fukuda, Makiko; Endoh, Shigehisa; Maru, Junko; Kato, Haruhisa; Nakamura, Ayako; Shinohara, Naohide; Uchino, Kanako; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-08-22

    Relationships between the physical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their toxicities have been studied. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the pulmonary and pleural inflammation caused by short-fiber single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). This study was performed to characterize differences in rat pulmonary and pleural inflammation caused by intratracheal instillation with doses of 0.15 or 1.5mg/kg of either short-sized SWCNTs or MWCNTs. Data from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, histopathological findings, and transcriptional profiling of rat lungs obtained over a 90-day period indicated that short SWCNTs caused persistent pulmonary inflammation. In addition, the short MWCNTs markedly impacted alveoli immediately after instillation, with the levels of pulmonary inflammation following MWCNT instillation being reduced in a time-dependent manner. MWCNT instillation induced greater levels of pleural inflammation than did short SWCNTs. SWCNTs and MWCNTs translocated in mediastinal lymph nodes were observed, suggesting that SWCNTs and MWCNTs underwent lymphatic drainage to the mediastinal lymph nodes after pleural penetration. Our results suggest that short SWCNTs and MWCNTs induced pulmonary and pleural inflammation and that they might be transported throughout the body after intratracheal instillation. The extent of changes in inflammation differed following SWCNT and MWCNT instillation in a time-dependent manner. PMID:27259835

  17. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic tool in lower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Polzin, A; Pletz, M; Erbes, R; Raffenberg, M; Mauch, H; Wagner, S; Arndt, G; Lode, H

    2003-06-01

    The diagnostic significance of procalcitonin concentrations in lower respiratory tract infections and tuberculosis is not known. A prospective analysis was, therefore, performed in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and tuberculosis and their procalcitonin levels compared with those of patients with noninfectious lung diseases (controls). In addition, standard inflammatory parameter data were collected. A prospective clinical study was performed with four different groups of patients and a control group that consisted of patients with noninfectious lung diseases. A total of 129 patients were included: 25 with HAP, 26 CAP, 26 AECB, 27 tuberculosis, and 25 controls. C-reactive protein level, blood cell counts and procalcitonin concentration were evaluated on the first day after onset of clinical and inflammatory symptoms prior to treatment. The median procalcitonin concentrations in HAP, CAP, AECB and tuberculosis were not elevated in relation to the cut-off level of 0.5 ng x mL(-1). In the HAP group, in four of five patients who subsequently died, procalcitonin concentrations of >0.5 ng x mL(-1) were found. In acute lower respiratory infections, such as HAP, CAP and AECB, significantly elevated levels were found in comparison to the control group, but below the usual cut-off level. No differences were observed between tuberculosis and the control group. Relative to the current cut-off level of 0.5 ng x mL(-1), procalcitonin concentration is not a useful parameter for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. However, compared to the control group, there were significantly elevated levels in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis below the current cut-off level, which should be further investigated. PMID:12797485

  18. Focal pleural thickening mimicking pleural plaques on chest computed tomography: tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Alfudhili, Khalid M; Lynch, David A; Laurent, Francois; Ferretti, Gilbert R; Dunet, Vincent; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of pleural plaques (PPs) is commonly straightforward, especially when a typical appearance is observed in a context of previous asbestos exposure. Nevertheless, numerous causes of focal pleural thickening may be seen in routine practice. They may be related to normal structures, functional pleural thickening, previous tuberculosis, pleural metastasis, silicosis or other rarer conditions. An application of a rigorous technical approach as well as a familiarity with loco-regional anatomy and the knowledge of typical aspects of PP are required. Indeed, false-positive or false-negative results may engender psychological and medico-legal consequences or can delay diagnosis of malignant pleural involvement. Correct recognition of PPs is crucial, as they may also be an independent risk factor for mortality from lung cancer in asbestos-exposed workers particularly in either smokers or former/ex-smokers. Finally, the presence of PP(s) may help in considering asbestosis as a cause of interstitial lung disease predominating in the subpleural area of the lower lobes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to provide a brief reminder of the normal anatomy of the pleura and its surroundings as well as the various aspects of PPs. Afterwards, the common pitfalls encountered in PP diagnosis will be emphasized and practical clues to differentiate actual plaque and pseudoplaque will be concisely described. PMID:26539633

  19. Pleural Photodynamic Therapy and Surgery in Lung Cancer and Thymoma Patients with Pleural Spread

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ying-Fan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pleural spread is difficult to treat in malignancies, especially in lung cancer and thymoma. Monotherapy with surgery fails to have a better survival benefit than palliative chemotherapy, the currently accepted treatment. Photodynamic therapy utilizes a photosensitizer to target the tumor site, and the tumor is exposed to light after performing a pleurectomy and tumor resection. However, the benefits of this procedure to lung cancer or thymoma patients are unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer or thymoma with pleural seeding who underwent pleural photodynamic therapy and surgery between 2005 and 2013. Eighteen patients enrolled in this study. The mean patient age was 52.9 ± 12.2 years. Lung cancer was the inciting cancer of pleural dissemination in 10 patients (55.6%), and thymoma in 8 (44.4%). There was no procedure-related mortality. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the 3-year survival rate and the 5-year survival rate were 68.9% and 57.4%, respectively. We compared the PDT lung cancer patients with those receiving chemotherapy or target therapy (n = 51) and found that the PDT group had better survival than non-PDT patients (mean survival time: 39.0 versus 17.6 months; P = .047). With proper patient selection, radical surgical resection combined with intrapleural photodynamic therapy for pleural spread in patients with non-small cell lung cancer or thymoma is feasible and may provide a survival benefit. PMID:26193470

  20. A study to compare the diagnostic efficacy of closed pleural biopsy with that of the thoracoscopic guided pleural biopsy in patients of pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ashwini Kumar; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Kant, Surya; Kushwaha, Ram Awadh; Garg, Rajiv; Kumar, Santosh; Prakash, Ved; Verma, Ajay; Sagar, Mala

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic approach to exudative pleural effusion remains an underappreciated aspect of modern thoracic medicine. 15-20% of the pleural effusions remain undiagnosed. The most efficient approach to pleural exudates remains uncertain and controversial particularly if acquisition of pleural tissue is required. The clinician needs to consider various factors when confronted with the choice between closed pleural biopsy (CPB) and thoracoscopy. Hence this study was planned to compare the diagnostic efficacy of CPB and Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (TPB). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective interventional study in patients of exudative pleural effusion. CPB was performed by Cope's biopsy needle. Then inspection of the pleural cavity was performed by single port rigid thoracoscope (KARL, STORZ TELECAM DX II 20 2330 20) with viewing angle of zero (0) degrees and biopsy taken from the diseased or unhealthy parietal pleura. Accordingly we compared the results of CPB and TPB. Results: 46 Patients underwent this study. In all 46 patients both CPB and TPB were performed. TPB was diagnostic in 36 cases (78.2%) while CPB was diagnostic only in 10 cases i.e. 21.7%. 10 (21,7%) cases remained undiagnosed. On thoracoscopic examination 30 patients were having nodularity, 25 (54.3%) were having adhesions and 20 (43.5%) were having hyperemia. 79.3% of the patients with nodularity turned out to be malignant and 71.4% of patients with adhesions and hyperemia tubercular. Conclusions: TPB has much greater diagnostic efficacy than CPB. PMID:27169119

  1. Pseudotumor cerebri in a child receiving peritoneal dialysis: recovery of vision after lumbo-pleural shunt

    PubMed Central

    Alrifai, Muhammad Talal; Al Naji, Foad; Alamir, Abdulrahman; Russell, Neville

    2011-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy with end-stage renal disease who was receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with acute visual loss and was found to have papilledema. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis were normal. The lumbar puncture opening pressure was 290 mm of water so the diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) was entertained. Medical treatment was not an option because of renal insufficiency; neither was lumbo-peritoneal shunting, because of the peritoneal dialysis. After a lumbo-pleural shunt was placed, there was marked improvement in symptoms. The lumbo-pleural shunt is a reasonable option for treatment for PTC in patients on CAPD who require a CSF divergence procedure. PMID:21911996

  2. Cerebral metastasis from malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    El Molla, Mohamed; Gragnaniello, Cristian; Al-Khawaja, Darweesh; Chiribao-Negri, Concepcion; Eftekhar, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon, highly invasive tumor derived from the mesothelial cells of pleura or peritoneum characterized by poor outcome. Mesothelioma was thought to metastasize locally only via direct invasion and not have distant spread. Distant metastases were discovered mostly on post-mortem examination. The authors present a case of 62-year-old man with pleural mesothelioma and brain metastasis. PMID:24963909

  3. [A case report of pleural involvement in primary macroglobulinemia].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, M; Yamaguchi, A; Tsuboi, E; Watanabe, T; Narui, K; Yoshimura, K; Chonabayashi, N; Nakata, K; Kanbayashi, H; Endo, Y

    1990-01-01

    A case of primary macroglobulinemia with pleural and gastric involvement was presented. A 48-year-old female was admitted with productive cough. On physical examination neither lymphoadenopathy nor hepatosplenomegaly were found. In addition, no bleeding tendency nor disturbance of the visual acuity were detected. Her chest roentgenogram showed a moderate amount of pleural effusion in the left pleural cavity without infiltration in the lung fields and no evidence of swollen hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes. A monoclonal M-band of to IgM-kappa type was observed in her serum and the pleural effusion. The diffuse ulcerative lesion in the gastric mucosa was detected by gastrofiberscopy. The lymphoid cells taken from the pleural effusion and the gastric mucosa stained positively with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to u or the kappa chain. Pleural effusion and gastric infiltration of lymphoid cells improved remarkably following ACOP therapy. PMID:2113145

  4. Carbimazole induced pleural effusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Stanaway, Stephen E R S; Brohan, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe a patient with unilateral exudative pleural effusion that developed after commencement of carbimazole. Methods. We describe the presentation and clinical journey of an elderly woman who presented to the chest physicians initially with pleural effusion but was followed up by the endocrinology team. Result. The patient was a 77-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with symptoms of breathlessness and a confirmed unilateral pleural effusion while being on treatment for thyrotoxicosis. Her symptoms needed recurrent hospital admission for investigations and drainage, but no potential cause was identified after extensive investigations. A drug-induced exudative effusion consequent to carbimazole intake was diagnosed as discontinuation of the drug lead to complete resolution of the effusion with no recurrence. Conclusion. Physicians and Endocrinologist must bear in mind that this potentially rare complication of carbimazole while treating patients of thyrotoxicosis as appearance of similar features in their patients while being on carbimazole should lead to the discontinuation of the drug, and alternative treatment strategy should be considered. PMID:22953074

  5. Extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Argote-Greene, Luis M; Chang, Michael Y; Sugarbaker, David J

    2005-01-01

    Extrapleural pneumonectomy was introduced in the 1940s for the treatment of extensive infections of the lung and pleural space. Over the past 20 years, the extrapleural pneumonectomy technique has been modified and applied to the treatment of locally advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma, achieving substantial reductions in mortality. The current mortality rate of 3.4% at the Brigham and Women's Hospital has permitted us to expand our use of this operation to treat locally advanced lung cancer and thymoma. The extrapleural pneumonectomy technique consists of five basic steps: (1) Incision and exposure of the parietal pleura: (2) Dissection of the tumor and parietal pleura from the chest wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum: (3) Division and control of the pulmonary vessels and bronchus followed by lymph node dissection: (4) En bloc resection of the lung, pleura, pericardium, and diaphragm; (5) Reconstruction of the diaphragm and pericardium. Extrapleural pneumonectomy is a complex and challenging operation. Accompanied by a 60% minor and major complication rate, it requires a unique management approach to achieve 3.4% mortality. Primary contributing factors to the reduction in mortality include a reduced operative time of 3 h, refinements in operative technique, and improved selection of patients. The technique discussed below is the culmination of 20 years' experience with malignant pleural mesothelioma at the Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA USA. PMID:24414726

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy. PMID:25059587

  7. The utility of ultrasound-guided thoracentesis and pleural biopsy in undiagnosed pleural exudates.

    PubMed

    Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik N; Irusen, Elvis Malcom; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Bruwer, Johannes Willem; Batubara, Enas Mansour A; Diacon, Andreas Henri

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the utility of ultrasound to guide the selection of closed pleural biopsy technique and site and to assess the respective contributions of repeat thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy in 100 consecutive patients with undiagnosed pleural exudates. Thoracentesis was more likely to be diagnostic in TB than malignancy (77.8% vs 31.0%, p<0.001). The addition of ultrasound-guided biopsy increased the combined yield for all diagnoses from 48.0% to 90.0% (p<0.001), for malignancy from 31.0% to 89.7% (p<0.001) and for TB from 77.8% to 88.9% (p=0.688). Our findings suggest that this minimally invasive approach has a high diagnostic yield. PMID:25997433

  8. Pleural Nocardiosis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mantur, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare infection that has attracted attention with its increased rate of occurrence in the recent years. In India there is a rare documentation of the pleural involvement in nocardiosis. We report here a case of pleural nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pleural lesions. PMID:26894067

  9. Use of procalcitonin in clinical oncology: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Andrea; Torchio, Martina; Comolli, Giuditta; Antonuzzo, Andrea; Danova, Marco

    2016-09-01

    The use of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker of infectious episodes in cancer patients is still controversial. We performed a MEDLINE search of peer-reviewed articles published between January 1990 and December 2015, and finally we analysed 15 articles. PCT seems to have a good diagnostic value of infectious episodes in cancer patients and its accuracy seems greater if we consider major events, such as bloodstream infections and sepsis. Serial evaluations of this protein seem to be more accurate in the diagnostic phase and useful to predict outcome and response to antibacterial treatment. On the other hand, some issues have yet to be solved, such as the use of a validated method of determination, the definition of a standard cut-off, and the heterogeneity among different settings of patients (e.g. early versus advanced-stage cancer, or haematological versus solid tumours). However, it is credible to think that PCT use in everyday clinical practice, preferably in combination with other clinical or laboratory tests, might be of help in finding and detecting early infectious complications in cancer patients. PMID:27602414

  10. Nanoimprinted nanopillar array chip for procalcitonin detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ling Ling; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is an early and highly specific biomarker in response to bacterial infection. The PCT-guided antibiotic therapy has demonstrated to be more efficient than standard therapy to reduce in antibiotic use without adverse outcome in mortality. The PCT detection in clinics is required to be highly sensitive with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml. At present, the technologies for PCT detection are limited. This paper reported a highly sensitive nanoimprinted gold nanopillar array chip for PCT detection. To achieve high sensitivity for PCT detection, the gold nanopillar array sensing chip was designed by plasmonic simulation and fabricated by high fidelity nanoimprinting technology. The gold nanopillars of 140 nm were nanoimprinted on glass substrate. A robust sandwich bioassay of capture antibody /PCT / quantum dot (QD) conjugated detection antibody was established on the gold nanopillar array chip to detect PCT. The nanopillars serve as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generators to enhance the fluorescent emission from QD. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ng/ml was achieved for PCT detection. This is the first time that PCT is detected with such high sensitivity by LSPR enhanced QD emission. By considering the low-cost, high sensitivity of the bioassay, as well as the inexpensive mass fabrication of the high quality chips, this novel nanoimprinted gold nanopillar array chip is particularly useful for developing a point-of-care system for PCT detection.